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- Calculus syllabus
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You are on page 1of 8

PART 1

1. Importance of integration

Integration or also known as Integral calculus is the important part of calculus as important

differential calculus. In the differential calculus we study the relationship between two quantities

lets say between Distance and Time, this relationship we usually use in sense of Rate of Change

between two variables.

t. k

But in Integral Calculus we take the inverse process of the relationship between two quantities, is

known as Integration or Anti-Differentiation or Anti- Derivative. The most important application of

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integral calculus is to compute the area or volume. In ancient time the informal concepts was

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developed by Greek Mathematicians Archimedes (287 BC 212 BC) and Eudoxus (410 BC 347 BC),

they developed the approximate area of different geometric shapes and these basic methods were

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also developed by Chinese Mathematician Liu Hui around 3th century as regards to find area of

c

circle. In 17th Century John Kepler further developed some important concepts regarding to

e

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astronomical investigations to find area of sector and area of an ellipse.

o

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Further the concept of integral calculus was formally developed by Isaac Newton and Gottfried

Leibniz; they developed basic concepts to find area and volume. In integral calculus we encounter

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the different concepts such as area of various geometric shapes, area under the curve by using

h

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definite integral, indefinite integral and various practical applications. We also encounter the most

important theorem of calculus called Fundamental Theorem of Calculus this theorem elaborate

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the concept that differentiation and integration are opposite operations

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2. Uses of integration in different field.

a

Integration is being widely used in different field. In engineering field, integration is used to develop

better navigation system. Apart from that, engineers use integral calculus for building skyscrapers,

and bridges. The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur experience high forces due to winds. Integration

was used to design the building for strength. The Sydney Opera House is a very unusual design based

on slices out of a ball. Many differential equations (one type of integration) were solved in the

design of this building. Integration also been used in robotic manufacturing to make sure the robotic

part will work in given command. Apart for manufacturing, electrical and computer engineers used

integration for design a computer system. In term of automotive engineering, engineers use

integrals to improve the safety of vehicles.

In biological field, integral calculus is been used to study the interaction of different species within

an ecosystem. Other than that, the concentration of drugs in a living organism can only be answered

with integral calculus. As for backbones, integration plays major roles to measure the length of the

backbones and skulls. In microbiology, integration is used for measuring growth rate of bacteria and

certain species of viruses.

Apart from science field, integration is widely used in economic. This is been used in economic

research in term of relation of income, market prediction and costing.

t. k

3. What I have learnt

Integration, Chapter 3 on first glance may look very complicated, but it was one of the challenging

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and interesting topics. In this chapter, first I have learnt the relationship between differentiation

and integration. Then I have learnt about Area under a Curve and area in between the two curves.

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Answer is by Integration. Other than that, I have also learnt the skills of finding volume of Solid of

revolution

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PART 2

1.

0.4 m

1m

t. k

1.2 m

k

Width of table (excluding curve) = 1.2 meter

Curve height = 1 meter

Curve width = 0.4 meter

Width of table (including curve) = 2 meter

Scale of drawing is 1 : 20 o r

2. Equation of the curve of the table

t w

c

Simple sketch of the parabolic shape graph based on the dimension in (1)

e

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y = -a(x b)(x c)

h s

b=0, c=1

y = -a(x 0)(x 1)

a t

To find the value of a, substitute the coordinate (0.5, 0.4) into the equation

m

0.4 = -a (0.5 0)(0.5 1)

a = 1.6

d

Thus, the equation of the curve is y = -1.6x2 + 1.6x

d

a

3. Area of the table curve is area under the graph.

b

Area y dx

a

1

Area (1.6 x 2 1.6 x) dx

0

1

1.6 x 3 1.6 x 2

Area

3 2 0

1.6(1) 3 1.6(1) 2

Area 0

3 2

Area 0.27m 2

t. k

There are 2 curve sides, thus 0.27 m2 x 2 = 0.54 m2

Area of rectangle = 1.2m2

Surface area of the table is the sum of area of 2 curve sides and rectangle

Area = 1.2 m2 + 0.54 m2

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Area = 1.74 m2

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PART 3

1.

Let say my watermelon has an ellipsoidal shape with major axis 28 cm and minor axis 25 cm.

a) Historical method

Because the melon is symmetrical, we can work out the volume of one half of the melon, and

then double our answer.

t. k

The radii for the slices for one half of a watermelon are found from measurement to be

k

0, 6.4, 8.7, 10.3, 11.3, 12.0, 12.4, 12.5

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Vhalf = x (6.4 , 8.7 , 10.3 , 11.3 , 12.0 , 12.4 , 12.5 ) x 2

= x 804.44 x 2

r

The approximate volume for one half of the melon using slices 2 cm thick would be:

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= 5054.4

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c

Thus, the volume of water melon is approximately 5054.4 x 2 half = 10108.8 cm3

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b) Formula =

x2 y2

1

o j

r

a2 b2

a = half length of the major axis

b = half length of the minor axis

s p

h

x2 y2

1

a2 b2

b 2 x 2 a 2 y 2 a 2b 2

a 2 y 2 a 2b 2 b 2 x 2 a t

b2

d m

a 2 y 2 b 2 (a 2 x 2 )

y 2 (a 2 x 2 )

d

2

a

a = 14 , b = 12.5

y2

12.5 2

2

a

Substitute in equation

(14 2 x 2 )

14

y 156.25 0.797 x 2

2

14

Vhalf y 2 dx

0

14

Vhalf (156.25 0.797 x 2 )dx

0

Vhalf 156.25 x 0.266 x 3 14

0

Vhalf 1457.60

Vhalf 4579.17cm 3

Thus the total volume of 2 sides of watermelon is 4579.17 cm3 x 2 = 9158.35 cm3

The volume calculated by using integration method is lower than the historical method which

differ by 950.45 cm3. This is because, in historical method, the shape is considered as circle not

as ellipse shape where ellipse shape is slightly smaller than circle. This proves that the historical

method gives a higher volume compared to the actual volume calculated by using integration

method.

Based on the calculation above, the weight of watermelon is approximately

1g/cm3 x 9158.35 = 9.2kg

1 kg = 500 ml

9.2 kg x 500ml = 4600ml

t. k

Thus for 500ml, the cost of watermelon juice will be RM 1.90

1 litre of watermelon juice cost RM 3.80

k

Selling price with 60 % profit

100 60

100

RM 6.08

3.80

o r

c) Price in Year 2017 = RM 1.90

t w

110

Price in Year 2018 = 100

1.90

e c

RM 2.09

110

2.09

o j

Price in Year 2018 = 100

RM 2.30

pr

110

Price in Year 2018 = 100

2.30

h s

RM 2.53

a t

In year 2020, 1 litre of watermelon juice cost RM5.06

Selling price with 60 % profit

100 60

100 m

5.06

d

RM 8.10

a d

FURTHER EXPLORATION

In mathematics, we can simulate the creation of a bowl by using a graph function and then revolving

it about the y-axis.

The height of my bowl is 5 cm and diameter is 10cm. and thickness is 0.5cm Based on this

information, a equation for the outer and inner is generated

y = 0.2x2 -5 (outer)

y = 0.22x2 -4.5 (inner)

t. k

6

5

k

4

3

2

1 o r

0

t w

c

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

-1

-2

-3

j e

-4

r o

p

-5

s

-6

5

(0.2 x 2 5) 2 dx t h

5

5

(0.04 x 4 2 x 2 25)dx a

5

0.04 x 5 2 x 3

25 x

d m 5

400

3

3

a d

5

418.88cm 3

Volume generated for inner

4.5

(0.22 x 2 4.5) 2 dx

4.5

5

(0.04 x 4 2 x 2 25)dx

5

5

0.04 x 5 2 x 3

25 x

5 3 5

97.6896

306.90cm 3

Total material needed is Outer Inner

418.88 cm3 306.90 cm3 = 111.98 cm3

REFLECTION

The answer is easy if you don't forget plus C.

I'd like to help you in your struggle to succeed.

There must be fifty ways to do an integral.

Furthermore, I hope my meaning won't be lost or misconstrued,

So I'll repeat myself At the risk of confusing you.

There must be fifty ways to do an integral.

t. k

Refrain:

Use the FTC, Lee.

k

Plug in a tan, Stan.

Do it by parts, Art,

But get the thing done.

Just plug in a u, Sue.

Use a table, Mable. o r

How about a machine, Gene,

To set yourself free?

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He said you should know this better than your name.

e c

If only there were something to make you understand.

I said, "I appreciate that!

o j

And would you please explain about the fifty ways?"

Refrain

pr

h s

He said, "Why don't you just work on it all night?"

a t

I believe by the morning you'll have the answer right."

And then it hit me... this course is such a fright.

There must be fifty ways to do an integral.

d m

a d

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