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# MICROWAVE COMMS Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some

## INDIABIX are retarded. This process is called velocity

SECTION 1 modulation.
The velocity modulation causes bunching of electrons.
1. The velocity factor of a transmission line depends on This bunching effect converts velocity modulation into
A. temperature density modulation of beam.
B. skin effect The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken
C. relative permittivity of dielectric at catcher cavity.
D.none of the above In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher
C cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more
intermediate cavities are also used.
Answer: Option C The features of a multicavity klystron are :
Explanation: 1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz
r of a dielectric changes with humidity. 2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW
3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value)
2. A loss less line of characteristic impedance Z0 is 4. Efficiency - about 40%.
terminated in pure reactance of -jZ0 value. VSWR is A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters,
A. 10 Radar transmitter and satellite communication.
B. 2
C. 1 4. In a circular waveguide the dominant mode is
D.infinity A. TE01
D B. TE11
Explanation: D.TE21
A pure reactance does not absorb any power. B
Therefore VSWR is infinite because |rv| = 1. Answer: Option B
Explanation:
3. In a klystron amplifier the input cavity is called Some applications require dual polarization capability.
A. buncher Circular waveguide has this capability.
B. catcher These analysis uses cylindrical coordinates.
C. Pierce gun In circular waveguide TE11 mode has the lowest cut off
D.collector frequency and is the dominant mode.
A If D is diameter of waveguide
Answer: Option A c = 1.706 D for TE11 mode
Explanation: c = 1.029 D for TE21 mode
A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for c = 0.82 D for TE01 mode
generation/amplification of microwaves. c = 1.306 D for TM01 mode.
An electron beam is produced by oxide coated
indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and 5. The reflection coefficient on a line is 0.2 45. The
accelerated by focussing electrode. SWR is
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The A. 0.8
input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is B. 1.1
called buncher. C. 1.2
As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating field D.1.5
for half cycle and retarding field for the other half D
Explanation:
4. Noise - about 5 dB for low power TWT 25 dB for
high power TWT
TWT is used as RF amplifier in broadband microwave
6. Microwave resonators are used in receivers, repeater amplifier in broad band
A. microwave oscillators communication systems, communication satellites etc.
B. microwave narrow band amplifier
C. microwave frequency metres 8. In a TWT the amplitude of resultant wave travelling
D.all of the above down the helix
A. increases exponentially
D
B. increases linearly
Answer: Option D C. decreases exponentially
Explanation: D.is almost constant
They are used in all the devices. A

## 7. Assertion (A): TWT uses a focussing mechanism to Answer: Option A

prevent the electron beam from spreading. Explanation:
Reason (R): In a TWT the electron beam has to travel a In a klystron the resonant structure limits the
much longer distance than in klystron. bandwidth.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation A TWT is a broadband device. Its main components are
A. electron gun (to produce the electron beam) and a
of A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct structure supporting the slow electromagnetic wave.
B. The velocity of wave propagation along the helix
explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong structure is less than velocity of light.
D.A is wrong but R is correct The beam and wave travel along the structure at the
same speed.
A
Thus interaction occurs between beam and wave and
Answer: Option A the beam delivers energy to the RF wave.
Explanation: Therefore the signal gets strengthened and amplified
In a klystron the resonant structure limits the output is delivered at the other end of tube.
bandwidth. The main features of TWT are :
A TWT is a broadband device. Its main components are 1. Frequency range - 0.5 GHz to 90 GHz
electron gun (to produce the electron beam) and a 2. Power output - 5 mW at low frequencies(less than
structure supporting the slow electromagnetic wave. 20 GHz) 250 kW (continuous wave) at 3 GHz 10 MW
The velocity of wave propagation along the helix (pulsed) at 3 GHz
structure is less than velocity of light. 3. Efficiency - about 5 to 20%
The beam and wave travel along the structure at the 4. Noise - about 5 dB for low power TWT 25 dB for
same speed. high power TWT
Thus interaction occurs between beam and wave and TWT is used as RF amplifier in broadband microwave
the beam delivers energy to the RF wave. receivers, repeater amplifier in broad band
Therefore the signal gets strengthened and amplified communication systems, communication satellites etc.
output is delivered at the other end of tube.
The main features of TWT are : 9. Which of the following is not a travelling wave?
1. Frequency range - 0.5 GHz to 90 GHz A. e = Em sin (x - t)
2. Power output - 5 mW at low frequencies(less than B. e = Em cos (x - t)
20 GHz) 250 kW (continuous wave) at 3 GHz 10 MW C. e = Em sin (t - x)
(pulsed) at 3 GHz D.e = Em sin (x)
3. Efficiency - about 5 to 20% D
Explanation: C. directivity (dB) equals isolation plus coupling
In a travelling wave both x and t increase D.isolation (dB) equals (coupling) (directivity)
simultaneously so that a constant phase point moves A
in the direction of positive (or negative) x.
Explanation:
Isolation equals coupling plus directivity.
10. Both Impatt and Trapatt devices use avalanche effect
A.True 12. As the frequency is increased, the charging MVAR in
B. False a cable
A. decreases
A B. increases
Answer: Option A C. remain the same
Explanation: D.decreases or remains the scheme
An Impatt diode has n+ - p - i - p + structure and is B
used with reverse bias.
It exhibits negative resistance and operates on the Answer: Option B
principle of avalanche breakdown. Explanation:
Impatt diode circuits are classified as broadly tunable Charging current and MVAR are proportional to
circuit, low Q circuit and high Q circuit. frequency.
The impedance of Impatt diode is a few ohms. The
word Impatt stands for Impact Avalanche Transit 13. Loss angle of a good quality cable is about
Time diode. A. 1
The features of Impatt diode oscillator are : B. 30
frequency 1 to 300 GHz, Power output (0.5 W to 5 W C. 70
for single diode circuit and upto 40 W for D.90
combination of several diodes), efficiency about 20%. A
power microwave transmitter etc. Explanation:
Avalanche diode can also be operated in large signal For ideal dielectric loss angle is zero. For good quality
high efficiency mode called Trapped Avalanche cables, loss angle is very small, about 1 only.
Transit Time mode.
The Trapatt oscillations depend on the delay in the 14. In a three cavity klystron amplifier, the oscillations
current caused by avalanche process. are excited in
The avalanche delay makes it possible to increase the A. input cavity
diode voltage well above the breakdown voltage. B. output cavity
Therefore a very rapid multiplication of charge C. intermediate cavity
carriers occurs. A Trapatt diode is also a negative D.both (a) and (b)
resistance device.
C
The features of Trapatt diode oscillator are :
Frequency 3 to 50 GHz, Power output 1-3 W, Answer: Option C
Its applications are low power doppler radar, A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for
microwave beacon landing system etc. generation/amplification of microwaves.
An electron beam is produced by oxide coated
11. In a directional coupler indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and
A. isolation (dB) equals coupling plus directivity accelerated by focussing electrode.
B. coupling (dB) equals isolation plus directivity
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The B. Coaxial
input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is C. Both
called buncher. D.None of the above
As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating B
field for half cycle and retarding field for the other
Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some Explanation:
are retarded. This process is called velocity Since fields are confirmed within a coaxial cable it is
The velocity modulation causes bunching of
electrons. This bunching effect converts velocity 17. Assertion (A): The impedance of a matched load is
modulation into density modulation of beam. equal to characteristic impedance of line.
The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken Reason (R): A matched termination absorbs all the
at catcher cavity. power incident on it.
In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more explanation of A
intermediate cavities are also used. Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
The features of a multicavity klystron are : explanation of A
1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz C. A is correct but R is wrong
2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW D.A is wrong but R is correct
3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value) A
A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters, Explanation:

15. In the given figure reflection coefficient at load is 18. Skin effect is more pronounced at high frequencies.
A.True
B. False
A
Explanation:
Skin effect increases as frequency increases.

## 19. Assertion (A): The phenomenon of differential

A. 0.6 mobility is called transferred electron effect.
B. - 0.6 Reason (R): GaAs exhibits transferred electron effect.
C. 0.4 Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
D.- 0.4 explanation of A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B B.
explanation of A
Answer: Option B C. A is correct but R is wrong
Explanation: D.A is wrong but R is correct
B
Explanation:
16. Which of the following lines is non-radiating?
A. Open two wire
A Gunn diode uses GaAs which has a negative
differential mobility, i.e., a decrease in carrier 21. Which of the following parameters is negligible in
velocity with increase in electric field. transmission lines?
This effects is called transferred electron effect. The A. R
impedance of a Gunn diode is tens of ohms. B. L
A Gunn diode oscillator has a resonant cavity, an C. C
arrangement to couple Gunn diode to cavity, biasing D.G
arrangement for Gunn diode and arrangement to D
Applications of Gunn diode oscillator include Answer: Option D
receivers. Shunt conductance can be neglected in most of
calculations.
20. Which of the following devices uses a helix?
A. Klystron amplifier 22. The width of a radio beam from a 1 m diameter
B. Klystron oscillator parabolic antenna at 10 GHz is about
C. TWT A. 100
D.Both (a) and (b) B. 50
C. 5
C D.1
Explanation:
In a klystron the resonant structure limits the Answer: Option C
bandwidth. Explanation:
A TWT is a broadband device. Its main components
are electron gun (to produce the electron beam) and .
a structure supporting the slow electromagnetic
wave. 23. The diagram to show distance time history of
The velocity of wave propagation along the helix electrons in klystron amplifier is called
structure is less than velocity of light. A. apple gate diagram
The beam and wave travel along the structure at the B. asynchronous diagram
same speed. C. bunching diagram
Thus interaction occurs between beam and wave and D.velocity modulation diagram
the beam delivers energy to the RF wave.
A
Therefore the signal gets strengthened and amplified
output is delivered at the other end of tube. Answer: Option A
The main features of TWT are : Explanation:
1. Frequency range - 0.5 GHz to 90 GHz Applegate diagram is distance time plot.
2. Power output - 5 mW at low frequencies(less than
20 GHz) 250 kW (continuous wave) at 3 GHz 10 MW 24. Impedance level of Impatt diodes is generally lower
(pulsed) at 3 GHz than that of Gunn diodes
3. Efficiency - about 5 to 20% A.True
4. Noise - about 5 dB for low power TWT 25 dB for B. False
high power TWT A
TWT is used as RF amplifier in broadband microwave
Explanation:
communication systems, communication satellites
An Impatt diode has n+ - p - i - p + structure and is
etc.
used with reverse bias.
It exhibits negative resistance and operates on the Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
principle of avalanche breakdown. explanation of A
Impatt diode circuits are classified as broadly tunable C. A is correct but R is wrong
circuit, low Q circuit and high Q circuit. D.A is wrong but R is correct
The impedance of Impatt diode is a few ohms. The B
word Impatt stands for Impact Avalanche Transit
The features of Impatt diode oscillator are : Explanation:
frequency 1 to 300 GHz, Power output (0.5 W to 5 W It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver
for single diode circuit and upto 40 W for microwave power over a wide frequency band.
combination of several diodes), efficiency about 20%. It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However
Its applications include police radar systems, low the interaction between electron beam and RF wave
power microwave transmitter etc. is different than in TWT.
The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to
25. A quarter wave line open circuited at far end behaves the electron beam.
as The frequency of wave can be changed by changing
A. inductance the voltage which controls the beam velocity.
B. L and C in parallel Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be
C. capacitance decreased continuously to zero by changing the
D.L and C in series beam current.
It features are:
D
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz.
Answer: Option D 2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous
Explanation: wave) 250kW (pulsed).
A quarter wave line o.c. at far end behaves as a series It is used as signal source in transmitters and
tuned circuit. instruments.

26. A line has Z0 = 300 0 . If ZL = 150 0 , 28. In a microstrip transmission the signal can be easily
reflection coefficient is redirected by changing the centre strip.
A. 0.5 A.True
B. 0.3333 B. False
C. -0.3333 A
D.-0.5
C
Explanation:
Answer: Option C A Microstrip line has a single dielectric substratc with
Explanation: ground plane on one side and a strip on the other
Reflection coefficient face.
fabrication.
The high dielectric constant of the substrate reduces
27. Assertion (A): A backward wave oscillator has an guide wavelength and circuit dimensions.
internal positive feedback. A microstrip line is the most commomly used
Reason (R): A positive feedback is necessary for transmission structure for microwave integrated
sustained oscillations. circuits.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
explanation of A 29. The frequency of oscillation in a backward wave
oscillator can be changed by
A. varying the voltage which controls beam velocity 31. In the given figure the time taken by the wave to make one ro
B. varying the beam current
both by varying the beam current and by light
C.
varying the voltage which controls beam velocity
D.changing the rate of thermionic emission
A
Explanation:
It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver
microwave power over a wide frequency band.
A. 10 ns
It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However
B. 20 ns
the interaction between electron beam and RF wave
C. 30 ns
is different than in TWT.
D.40 ns
The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to
the electron beam. D
The frequency of wave can be changed by changing Answer: Option D
the voltage which controls the beam velocity. Explanation:
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be
decreased continuously to zero by changing the
beam current.
It features are: 32. For a 50 resistor for 3 GHz application, the stray
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. capacitance should be less than
2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous A. 1 F
wave) 250kW (pulsed). B. 1 nF
It is used as signal source in transmitters and C. 1 pF
instruments. D.0.1 pF
D
30. A line has a phase constant of 29.8 rad/m. At 1000 MHz the wavelength is
A. 29.8 m Answer: Option D
B. 2.98 m Explanation:
C. 2.1 m XC should be at least ten times greater than R.
D.0.21 m Therefore for 50 resistor at 3 GHz, C should be less
D than 0.1 pF.

## Answer: Option D 33. In a travelling wave tube distributed interaction

Explanation: between an electron beam and a travelling wave
takes place
. A.True
B. False
A
Explanation:
In a klystron the resonant structure limits the
bandwidth.
A TWT is a broadband device. Its main components
are electron gun (to produce the electron beam) and
a structure supporting the slow electromagnetic A. RL = 1
wave. B. R = 0
The velocity of wave propagation along the helix
C.
structure is less than velocity of light.
The beam and wave travel along the structure at the D.
same speed.
Thus interaction occurs between beam and wave and D
the beam delivers energy to the RF wave.
Therefore the signal gets strengthened and amplified
Explanation:
output is delivered at the other end of tube.
The condition for minimum distortion is found by
The main features of TWT are :
1. Frequency range - 0.5 GHz to 90 GHz
2. Power output - 5 mW at low frequencies(less than equating The result is .
20 GHz) 250 kW (continuous wave) at 3 GHz 10 MW 36. The action of backward wave oscillator is similar to
(pulsed) at 3 GHz that of
3. Efficiency - about 5 to 20% A. klystron amplifier
4. Noise - about 5 dB for low power TWT 25 dB for B. reflex klystron oscillator
high power TWT C. TWT
TWT is used as RF amplifier in broadband microwave D.magnetron
communication systems, communication satellites C
Explanation:
34. The fabrication of microstrip line is done by It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver
A. photo etching microwave power over a wide frequency band.
B. printed circuit technique It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However
C. oxidation the interaction between electron beam and RF wave is
B The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to
the electron beam.
Answer: Option B The frequency of wave can be changed by changing
Explanation: the voltage which controls the beam velocity.
Printed circuit techniques is used for micro strip line. Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be
decreased continuously to zero by changing the beam
35. The condition of minimum distortion in a transmission current.
line is It features are:
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz.
2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous wave)
250kW (pulsed).
It is used as signal source in transmitters and
instruments.
37. In the given figure the reflection coefficient at source Explanation:
end is It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver
microwave power over a wide frequency band.
It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However
the interaction between electron beam and RF wave
is different than in TWT.
The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to
the electron beam.
The frequency of wave can be changed by changing
the voltage which controls the beam velocity.
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be
A. 1 decreased continuously to zero by changing the
B. -1 beam current.
C. 1/3 It features are:
D.-1/3 1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz.
C
2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous
wave) 250kW (pulsed).
Answer: Option C It is used as signal source in transmitters and
Explanation: instruments.

## . 40. A line is excited by a 100 V dc source. If reflection

coefficients at both ends are 1 each then
38. Assertion (A): Artificial transmission lines are A. there will be no oscillations on line
frequently used in laboratories. B. there will be only 1 or 2 oscillations on line
Reason (R): An artificial transmission line can be used C. there will be a finite number of oscillations on line
to represent an actual line and can also be used as a D.the oscillations will continue indefinitely
delay circuit, as attenuator, as filter network etc. D
Both A and R are correct and R is correct Answer: Option D
A.
explanation of A Explanation:
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct Because rv = 1 at each end, the line voltage will not
B.
explanation of A reach a steady value and oscillations will continue
C. A is correct but R is wrong indefinitely.
D.A is wrong but R is correct
A 41. Assertion (A): A coaxial line is a non-radiating line.
Answer: Option A Reason (R): In a coaxial line the electric and magnetic
Explanation: fields are confined to the region between the
Artificial transmission lines have many applications. concentric conductors.
One of the applications is to simulate an actual line in Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
the laboratory. explanation of A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
39. In a backward wave oscillator the wave travelling explanation of A
along the line winds itself back and forth C. A is correct but R is wrong
A.True D.A is wrong but R is correct
B. False A
Since the fields are confined, there is no radiation.
42. Reflex klystron oscillator is essentially a low power Explanation:
device Since all ports matched, input SWR = 1. No power is
A.True reflected and Pin = P4 = 1 W.
B. False This power splits between ports 1 and 2. Therefore P1
A = P2 = 0.5 , P3 = 0.
Answer: Option A 45. Which TM mode in rectangular waveguide has lowest
Explanation: cutoff frequency?
It uses a single cavity resonator for generating A. TM11
microwave oscillations. B. TM01
Its parts are electron gun, resonator, repeller and C. TM10
output coupling. D.TM21
It operates on the principle of positive feed back.
A
The repeller electrode is at negative potential and
sends the partially bunched electron beam back to Answer: Option A
resonator cavity. Explanation:
This positive feedback supports oscillations. Its Hz = 0
feature are:
1. Frequency range - 2 to 100 GHz
2. Power output - 10 MW to about 2 W
3. Efficiency - 10 - 20 %
oscillator in microwave devices, oscillator for
microwave measurements in laboratories etc.
Ex = ZTM Hy
43. A 10 km long line has a characteristic impedance of Ey = ZTM Hx
400 ohms. If line length is 100 km, the characteristic where E0 is the amplitude of the wave.
impedance is The expressions for , c, fc, g, a are the same as for
A. 4000 TE waves.
B. 400 For TM wave the lowest cut off frequency in
C. 40 rectangular wave guide is for TM11 mode.
D.4
B If , the cutoff frequency for TM11 mode is
about 12% more than that for TE20 mode.
Explanation:
46. A resistive microwave load with ZL = 150 is
connected to 50 coaxial line. SWR is
and is independent of line length. A. more than 3
B. less than 3
44. A matched generator (Zg = Z0) with 1 available. If all C. equal to 3
ports are matched, the power delivered at ports 1, 2, D.either (a) or (c)
3 respectively are
C
A. 0.5 W, 0.5 W, 0 W
B. 0 W, 0 W, 1 W Answer: Option C
C. 0.33 W each Explanation:
D.0 W, 0.25 W, 0.25 W
A
Since the two wire radiators are at 90 to each other,
47. Which of the following devices uses a slow wave they have to be excited 90 out of phase with each
structure? other.
A. Klystron two cavity amplifier
B. Klystron multicavity amplifier 49. A waveguide section in a microwave circuit acts as
C. Reflex klystron oscillator A. LP filter
D.TWT B. Bandpass filter
D C. HP filter
D.Band stop filter
Explanation: C
In a klystron the resonant structure limits the Answer: Option C
bandwidth. Explanation:
A TWT is a broadband device. Its main components It allows high frequencies.
are electron gun (to produce the electron beam) and
a structure supporting the slow electromagnetic 50. In a klystron amplifier dc electron velocity is v0 and dc
wave. electron charge density is r0 the dc beam current is
The velocity of wave propagation along the helix A. r0v0
structure is less than velocity of light. B. r0/v0
The beam and wave travel along the structure at the C. v0/r0
same speed. D.(v0/r0)2
Thus interaction occurs between beam and wave and A
the beam delivers energy to the RF wave.
Therefore the signal gets strengthened and amplified Answer: Option A
output is delivered at the other end of tube. Explanation:
The main features of TWT are :
1. Frequency range - 0.5 GHz to 90 GHz = coulomb |sec|m2 = current
2. Power output - 5 mW at low frequencies(less than density.
20 GHz) 250 kW (continuous wave) at 3 GHz 10 MW
(pulsed) at 3 GHz
3. Efficiency - about 5 to 20%
4. Noise - about 5 dB for low power TWT 25 dB for
high power TWT
TWT is used as RF amplifier in broadband microwave
communication systems, communication satellites
etc.

## 48. In a turnstile antenna two-half wave resonant wire

radiators are placed at 90 to each other in the same
plane and are excited
A. in phase
B. in phase opposition
C. 90 out of phase with each other
D.45 out of phase with each other
C
Explanation:
As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating field
for half cycle and retarding field for the other half
cycle.
Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some
are retarded. This process is called velocity
SECTION 2 modulation.
The velocity modulation causes bunching of electrons.
1. The directivity in a receiving antenna This bunching effect converts velocity modulation into
increases the intercept area in forward direction density modulation of beam.
reduces the noise picked up from other sources The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken
provides a means of discriminating against undesired at catcher cavity.
signals originating in directions other than in which the In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher
desired transmitter lies. cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more
Which of the above statements are correct? intermediate cavities are also used.
A. 1 only The features of a multicavity klystron are :
B. 1 and 2 only 1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz
C. 1, 2 and 3 2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW
D.2 and 3 only 3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value)
C 4. Efficiency - about 40%.
A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters,
2. Assertion (A): PIN diode can be used as attenuator and Radar transmitter and satellite communication.
limiter.
Reason (R): PIN diode has a thin intrinsic layer. 4. The cut off wavelength in circular waveguide
Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation A. guide diameter
A.
of A B. square of guide diameter
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct C. cube of guide diameter
B.
explanation of A D.square root of guide diameter
C. A is correct but R is wrong
A
D.A is wrong but R is correct
Explanation:
3. The bunching action which occurs in multicavity Some applications require dual polarization capability.
klystron amplifier can be represented by Applegate Circular waveguide has this capability.
diagram These analysis uses cylindrical coordinates.
A.True In circular waveguide TE11 mode has the lowest cut off
B. False frequency and is the dominant mode.
A If D is diameter of waveguide
Answer: Option A c = 1.706 D for TE11 mode
Explanation: c = 1.029 D for TE21 mode
A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for c = 0.82 D for TE01 mode
generation/amplification of microwaves. c = 1.306 D for TM01 mode.
An electron beam is produced by oxide coated
indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and 5. In Reflex Klystron oscillator the focussing electrode is
accelerated by focussing electrode. at a high potential
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The A. True
input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is B. False
called buncher. B
Explanation: It exhibits negative resistance and operates on the
It uses a single cavity resonator for generating principle of avalanche breakdown. Impatt diode
microwave oscillations. circuits are classified as broadly tunable circuit, low
Its parts are electron gun, resonator, repeller and Q circuit and high Q circuit.
output coupling. The impedance of Impatt diode is a few ohms. The
It operates on the principle of positive feed back. word Impatt stands for Impact Avalanche Transit
The repeller electrode is at negative potential and Time diode.
sends the partially bunched electron beam back to The features of Impatt diode oscillator are :
resonator cavity. Frequency 1 to 300 GHz, Power output (0.5 W to 5
This positive feedback supports oscillations. Its feature W for single diode circuit and upto 40 W for
are: combination of several diodes), efficiency about
1. Frequency range - 2 to 100 GHz 20%.
2. Power output - 10 MW to about 2 W Its applications include police radar systems, low
3. Efficiency - 10 - 20 % power microwave transmitter etc.
in microwave devices, oscillator for microwave 7. In high frequency circuits impedance matching can
measurements in laboratories etc. be done by
open circuited stubs
6. Consider the following statements short circuited stubs
Impedance of Gunn diode is about tens of ohms.
Impedance of Impatt diode is a few ohms. transformer
Impedance of Impatt diode are of the same order. Which of the above correct?
Impedance of Impatt diode is more than that of A. 1, 2 and 3
Gunn diode. B. 1 and 2 only
Which of the above statement are correct? C. 1 and 3 only
A. all D. 2 and 3 only
B. 1 and 2 only
A
C. 1, 2 and 3
D. 1, 2 and 4 Answer: Option A
B Explanation:
All the three can be used for impedance matching in
Answer: Option B high frequency circuits.
Explanation:
A Gunn diode uses GaAs which has a negative 8. The directive gain of a transmitting antenna is
differential mobility, i.e., a decrease in carrier proportional to
velocity with increase in electric field. A. its cross-sectional area
This effects is called transferred electron effect. The B. square of cross-sectional area
impedance of a Gunn diode is tens of ohms. C. square root of cross-sectional area
A Gunn diode oscillator has a resonant cavity, an D. cube root of cross-sectional area
arrangement to couple Gunn diode to cavity,
A
biasing arrangement for Gunn diode and
Applications of Gunn diode oscillator include Explanation:
An Impatt diode has n+ - p - i - p + structure and is and is thus proportional
used with reverse bias. to cross sectional area.
9. In a loss line RL < Z0, then 11. If a line having Z0 = 300 0 W is open circuited at far
A. Reflection coefficient is zero end, VSWR is
B. Reflection coefficient is A. 0
C. Reflection coefficient is negative B. 1
D. Reflection coefficient is positive C.
C D. 2
Explanation:

## Since RL < Z0, rv is negative.

If line is o.c. |rv| = 1 and VSWR = .
10. Assertion (A): A backward wave oscillator can be
used as a sweep generator. 12. If f is the frequency of electromagnetic wave, fc is
Reason (R): The frequency of oscillation of a cutoff frequency, then in a rectangular waveguide
backward wave oscillator can be changed by A. attenuation is low when f > fc
varying the voltage which controls the beam B. attenuation is low when f < fc
velocity. C. attenuation is high when f < fc
Both A and R are correct and R is correct D.either (b) or (c)
A.
explanation of A A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong Explanation:
D. A is wrong but R is correct Wavelength should be less than cutoff wavelengths.
Therefore frequency should be higher than cutoff
A
frequency for minimum attenuation.
Explanation: 13. Assertion (A): The condition of minimum distortion in
It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver a transmission line is L = RC/G.
It has an electron gun and a helix structure. inductance to satisfy the condition L = RC/G.
However the interaction between electron beam Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
and RF wave is different than in TWT. explanation of A
The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
to the electron beam. explanation of A
The frequency of wave can be changed by C. A is correct but R is wrong
changing the voltage which controls the beam D.A is wrong but R is correct
velocity. B
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be
decreased continuously to zero by changing the Answer: Option B
beam current. Explanation:
It features are: Oscillator circuits using vacuum tubes (triodes,
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. pentodes) have the following limitations at very high
2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous frequencies (microwave region).
wave) 250kW (pulsed). The stray capacitances and inductances become
It is used as signal source in transmitters and important and affect the operation of the circuit.
instruments. At low frequencies the transit time between cathode
and anode is a small fraction of period of oscillation.
However, at microwave frequencies this transit time C
becomes comparable to time period of oscillations.
Answ er: Option C
14. A magnetron has a cylindrical cathode surrounded by Explanation:
an anode structure having cavities opening into
interaction space by means of slots
If line is o.c. |rv| = 1 and VSWR = .
A.True
B. False 12. If f is the frequency of electromagnetic wave, fc is
A cutoff frequency, then in a rectangular waveguide
Answer: Option A A. attenuation is low when f > fc
Explanation: B. attenuation is low when f < fc
It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver C. attenuation is high when f < fc
microwave power over a wide frequency band. D.either (b) or (c)
It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However A
the interaction between electron beam and RF wave Answer: Option A
is different than in TWT. Explanation:
The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to Wavelength should be less than cutoff wavelengths.
the electron beam. Therefore frequency should be higher than cutoff
The frequency of wave can be changed by changing frequency for minimum attenuation.
the voltage which controls the beam velocity.
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be 13. Assertion (A): The condition of minimum distortion in
decreased continuously to zero by changing the a transmission line is L = RC/G.
It features are: inductance to satisfy the condition L = RC/G.
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. Both A and R are correct and R is correct
2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous A.
explanation of A
wave) 250kW (pulsed). Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
It is used as signal source in transmitters and B.
explanation of A
instruments. C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.A is wrong but R is correct
15. The correct sequence of parts in klystron amplifier
are B
A. anode, catcher cavity, cathode, buncher cavity Answer: Option B
B. cathode, buncher cavity, catcher cavity, cavity Explanation:
C. anode, buncher cavity, catcher cavity, cathode Oscillator circuits using vacuum tubes (triodes,
D. cathode, catcher cavity, anode, buncher cavity pentodes) have the following limitations at very high
B frequencies (microwave region).
The stray capacitances and inductances become
Answer: Option B important and affect the operation of the circuit.
Explanation: At low frequencies the transit time between cathode
Cathode is the first part and anode is the last. and anode is a small fraction of period of oscillation.
However, at microwave frequencies this transit time
11. If a line having Z0 = 300 0 W is open circuited at far becomes comparable to time period of oscillations.
end, VSWR is
A. 0 14. A magnetron has a cylindrical cathode surrounded by
B. 1 an anode structure having cavities opening into
C. interaction space by means of slots
D. 2
A.True A. 1.265 - 18.43
B. False B. 1.01 - 10
A C. 1.14 66.68
D. 1.09 66.68
Explanation: A
It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver Answer: Option A
microwave power over a wide frequency band. Explanation:
It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However
the interaction between electron beam and RF wave
is different than in TWT. Transmission coefficient
The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to = 1.265 - 18.43.
the electron beam.
The frequency of wave can be changed by changing 17. In a reflex klystron oscillator, repeller electrode is at
the voltage which controls the beam velocity. A
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be low positive potential
.
decreased continuously to zero by changing the B
beam current. high positive potential
.
It features are: C
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. negative potential
.
2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous D
wave) 250kW (pulsed). zero potential
.
It is used as signal source in transmitters and C
instruments.
15. The correct sequence of parts in klystron amplifier Explanation:
are It uses a single cavity resonator for generating
A. anode, catcher cavity, cathode, buncher cavity microwave oscillations.
B. cathode, buncher cavity, catcher cavity, cavity Its parts are electron gun, resonator, repeller and
C. anode, buncher cavity, catcher cavity, cathode output coupling.
D. cathode, catcher cavity, anode, buncher cavity It operates on the principle of positive feed back.
The repeller electrode is at negative potential and
B
sends the partially bunched electron beam back to
Explanation: This positive feedback supports oscillations. Its
Cathode is the first part and anode is the last. feature are:
1. Frequency range - 2 to 100 GHz
16. A transmission line has Z0 = 300 and ZL = (300 - 2. Power output - 10 MW to about 2 W
j300) ohm. The transmission coefficient is 3. Efficiency - 10 - 20 %
oscillator in microwave devices, oscillator for
microwave measurements in laboratories etc.

## 18. A quarter wave line short circuited at load end

behaves as
A. an inductance
B. an inductance and capacitance in series
C. a capacitance C
D.an inductance and capacitance in parallel
D Explanation:
Answer: Option D A Gunn diode uses GaAs which has a negative
Explanation: differential mobility, i.e., a decrease in carrier
A quarter wave line short-circuited at far end velocity with increase in electric field.
behaves as a parallel tuned circuit. This effects is called transferred electron effect. The
impedance of a Gunn diode is tens of ohms.
19. A (75 - J50) ohm load is connected to a coaxial of Z0 = A Gunn diode oscillator has a resonant cavity, an
75 ohm at 10 GHz. The best method of matching is to arrangement to couple Gunn diode to cavity, biasing
connect arrangement for Gunn diode and arrangement to
B. a short circuited stub at load Applications of Gunn diode oscillator include
C. a short circuited stub at specific distance from load continuous wave radar, pulsed radar and microwave
C
22. A magnetron requires an external magnetic field with
Answer: Option C flux lines parallel to axis of cathode
Explanation: A.True
A short-circuited stub is a suitable method of B. False
matching.
A
20. The width of a radio beam from a 1 m diameter Answer: Option A
parabolic antenna at 1 GHz is about Explanation:
A It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver
100
. microwave power over a wide frequency band.
B It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However
50
. the interaction between electron beam and RF wave
C is different than in TWT.
5
. The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to
D the electron beam.
2
. The frequency of wave can be changed by changing
B the voltage which controls the beam velocity.
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be
Answer: Option B decreased continuously to zero by changing the
Explanation: beam current.
Beam width between nulls of a parabolic antenna It features are:
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz.
. 2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous
Therefore 50 is the nearest value. wave) 250kW (pulsed).
It is used as signal source in transmitters and
21. Which one of the following is transferred locking instruments.
A. BARITT diode
B. IMPATT diode 23. When a line short circuited at far end, the minimum
C. Gunn diode voltage occurs at
D. Step recovery diode A. far end
B. source end
C. midway between source and far end A. 20 dB more
D.none of the above B. 20 dB less
A C. 700 dB more
D.100 dB less
Explanation: A
When a line is short-circuited at far end, the voltage Answer: Option A
at far end is zero. Explanation:
As frequency increases, transmission loss increases
24. In a TWT the axial component of electric field slightly.
A. at a velocity that is almost equal to speed of light
B. at a velocity that is a small fraction of speed of light 26. For a circular wave guide
C. at a velocity that is about 50% of speed of light A. cutoff frequency for TE10 and TE01 modes are same
at a velocity that may be even more than speed of cutoff frequency for TE10 and TE01 modes are
D. B.
light different
B cutoff frequency for TE10 mode = twice the cutoff
C.
frequency for TE20 mode
Answer: Option B cutoff frequency for TE10 mode = haf the cutoff
Explanation: D.
frequency for TE20 mode
In a klystron the resonant structure limits the
bandwidth. A
A TWT is a broadband device. Its main components Answer: Option A
are electron gun (to produce the electron beam) and Explanation:
a structure supporting the slow electromagnetic When a circular waveguide is rotated by 90, the
wave. configuration remain the same.
The velocity of wave propagation along the helix
structure is less than velocity of light. 27. In the given figure the reflected voltage wave after
The beam and wave travel along the structure at the first reflection is
same speed.
Thus interaction occurs between beam and wave and
the beam delivers energy to the RF wave.
Therefore the signal gets strengthened and amplified
output is delivered at the other end of tube.
The main features of TWT are :
1. Frequency range - 0.5 GHz to 90 GHz
2. Power output - 5 mW at low frequencies(less than
20 GHz) 250 kW (continuous wave) at 3 GHz 10 MW
(pulsed) at 3 GHz A. 18 V
3. Efficiency - about 5 to 20% B. -18 V
4. Noise - about 5 dB for low power TWT 25 dB for C. 30 V
high power TWT D.-30 V
TWT is used as RF amplifier in broadband microwave B
communication systems, communication satellites Answer: Option B
etc. Explanation:

## 25. If other parameter are constant, transmission loss at 5

GHz as compared to that at 0.5 GHz is .
31. Which of the following terminations makes the
28. Assertion (A): A half wavelength line can be used as a input impedance of a line equal to characteristic
1 : 1 transformer. impedance Z0?
Reason (R): The input impedance of a half A. line open circuited at far end
wavelength line is equal to load impedance. B. line terminated in Z0
Both A and R are correct and R is correct C. line short circuited at far end
A.
explanation of A D. line terminated in inductance
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct B
B.
explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong Answer: Option B
D.A is wrong but R is correct Explanation:
If ZL is load impedance and Z0 is characteristic
A impedance.
Explanation:
Since a half wavelength line has an input impedance
Input impedance =
equal to load impedance, the impedance
. If ZL = Z0 the input impedance = Z0.
transformation ratio is 1:1.
32. In microwave system the function of mode filter is
29. The magnitudes of OC and SC input impedances of a
A. to suppress modes with lower cut off frequencies
transmission line an 100 and 25 . The
B. to suppress modes with higher cut off frequencies
characteristic impedance is
C. to change mode of wave transmission
A. 25
D.both (b) and (c)
B. 50
C. 75 D
B Explanation:
Mode filter suppress modes with lower cutoff
frequencies.
Explanation:
33. For the strip line in the given figure the capacitance
per unit length =
30. A loss less line is terminated in a circular lines are E
lines
A. SWR = 0
B. SWE = 0
C. SWR is finite
D. SWR =
C
Explanation:
A.
= finite number and VSWR
B.

= finite number. C.
Reason (R): A quarter wave transformer is a
D. transmission line of quarter wave length.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A A.
explanation of A
Answer: Option A Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
Explanation: explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.A is wrong but R is correct
B
34. The total field developed by an antenna array at a Answer: Option B
distant point is Explanation:
phasor sum of fields produced by individual
A.
antennas of the array A line of length is called quarter wavelength line.
algebraic sum of fields produced by individual Such a line is used for impedance matching.
B.
antennas of the array
C. either (a) or (b) depending on type of array If
D.neither (a) nor (b)
A
Answer: Option A A quarter wave line can match a source impedance
Explanation: Zin with load impedance ZL by selecting a proper value
Since field is a phasor quantity we have to take of Z0 so as to satisfy equation.
phasor sum.
Such a line is also called transformer.
35. High speed logic circuits use
A. pulses with very small width 38. Assertion (A): Magnetron is generally used in n mode.
B. pulses with very large width Reason (R): Frequency for p mode can be easily
C. pulses whose width is neither small nor large separated from adjacent modes.
D.either (b) or (c) Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
A explanation of A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
explanation of A
Explanation:
C. A is correct but R is wrong
High speed means time period is small. Therefore pulses should also have small width.
D.A is wrong but R is correct
36. To couple a coaxial line to a parallel wire line it is best to use A
A. slotted line Answer: Option A
B. balun Explanation:
C. directional coupler It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver
D./4 transformer microwave power over a wide frequency band.
B It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However
the interaction between electron beam and RF wave
is different than in TWT.
Explanation:
The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to
A balun gives 4 : 1 impedance transformation.
the electron beam.
The frequency of wave can be changed by changing
37. Assertion (A): A quarter wave transformer is used to
the voltage which controls the beam velocity.
match a resistive load to a transmission line.
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be Explanation:
decreased continuously to zero by changing the TE01 mode is unaffected because its horizontally oriented elect
beam current. to the conducting strips.
It features are:
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. 42. The directive gain of a transmitting antenna is
2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous A. proportional to wavelength
wave) 250kW (pulsed). B. inversely proportional to wavelength
It is used as signal source in transmitters and C. proportional to square of wavelength
instruments. D. inversely proportional to square of wavelength
D
39. A balun should have
A. low SWR at both ports Answer: Option D
B. high SWR at both ports Explanation:
C. high SWR at input port and low SWR at output port
D.low SWR at input port and high SWR at output
A
Answer: Option A 43. A duplexer is used to
Explanation: A. couple two antennas to a transmitter
Turn ratio is so selected as to give low SWR at both B. isolate the antenna from the local oscillator
ports. prevent interference between two antennas
C.
use an antenna for reception or transmission
D.
40. Assertion (A): The velocity factor of a line is the ratio of wave velocity
withoutoninterference
the line to speed of light.
Reason (R): If the conductors of a line are immersed in a non magnetic
D insulating liquid, the wave
velocity increases.
A. Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A Answer: Option D
B. Both A and R are correct but R is not correct explanation of Explanation:
A
C. A is correct but R is wrong Same antenna is used for transmission and reception.
D.A is wrong but R is correct
44. A branched duplexer requires
C
A. TR tubes
Answer: Option C B. ATR tube
Explanation: C. both TR and ATR tube
R is wrong because wave velocity decreases. D.none of the above
C
41. In mode filter of the given figure which of the following modes is unaffected
Explanation:
A branched duplexer funds use in narrow bandwidth
applications.
TR tube stands for transmit-receive tube and ATR
A. TE01 tube stands for antitransmit receive tube.
B. TE10 Both these tubes are used in branched duplexer.
C. TE11
D.all TM 45. In a backward wave oscillator the wave
A. travelling along the line winds itself back and forth
A
B. progresses only in forward direction
Answer: Option A C. progresses only in backward direction
D.either (a) or (c) Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
A explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong
Answer: Option A D.A is wrong but R is correct
Explanation:
It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver microwave powerBover a wide frequency band.
It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However the interaction
Option Belectron beam and RF
wave is different than in TWT. Explanation:
The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to the electron
A PINbeam.
diode has an intrinsic (i) layer between p and n
The frequency of wave can be changed by changing the voltage layers.
which
When
controls
reverse
the beam
bias isvelocity.
applied depletion layers
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be decreased continuously
are formed to at
zero
p-i by
andchanging
i-n junctions.
the beam
current. The effective/width of depletion layer increases by
It features are: the width of i layer. It can be used as a voltage
1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz. controlled attenuator.
2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous wave) 250kW At(pulsed).
high frequencies the rectification effect ceases
It is used as signal source in transmitters and instruments. and impedance of diode is effectively that of i layer.
This impedance varies with the applied bias. It is used
46. A coaxial line has L = 500 nH/m and C = 50 pF/m. The characteristic
in highimpedance
frequency isswitching circuits, limiters,
A. 500 modulators etc.
B. 250
C. 100 49. In a vacuum tube, the transit time of electron
D.50 between cathode and anode is important at
C A. low frequencies
B. high frequencies
Answer: Option C C. both (a) and (b)
Explanation: frequencies which are neither very low nor very
D.
high
B
.
47. The main feature of a parametric amplifier is Explanation:
A. low noise At high frequencies transit time is large as compared
B. very high gain to the period of microwave signal.
D.both (b) and (c) 50.
C Assertion (A): A line of length and short circuited
Answer: Option C at far end has an input impedance of infinity.
Explanation:
Since reactance does not contribute thermal noise to Reason (R): A line of length and short circuited at
the circuit, it is a low noise device. far end behaves as a parallel resonant circuit.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
48. Assertion (A): PIN diode is commonly used for explanation of A
microwave control. Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
Reason (R): A PIN diode uses heavily doped p and n explanation of A
materials. C. A is correct but R is wrong
Both A and R are correct and R is correct D.A is wrong but R is correct
A.
explanation of A A
Answer: Option A 1. A cavity resonator is
Explanation: A. a hollow metallic enclosure
A parallel tuned circuit has an infinite impedance if R a hollow enclosure having magnetic material as its
B.
is zero. walls
a hollow enclosure having dielectric material as its
C.
walls
D.either (b) or (c)
A

Explanation:

## Hollow metallic enclosures exhibit resonance

behaviour when excited by electromagnetic field.

## 2. If antenna diameter is increased four times, the

maximum range is increased by a factor of
A. 2
B. 2
C. 4
D.0.2
C

Explanation:

device.

## Reason (R): A Gunn oscillator uses the phenomenon

of transferred electron effect.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
explanation of A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.A is wrong but R is correct
MICROWAVE COMMS
INDIABIX B
SECTION 3
5. The component in the given figure is

Explanation:

## A Gunn diode uses GaAs which has a negative

differential mobility, i.e., a decrease in carrier velocity
with increase in electric field.

## This effects is called transferred electron effect. The

impedance of a Gunn diode is tens of ohms.
A. attenuator
B. T type low pass filter
A Gunn diode oscillator has a resonant cavity, an
C. T type high pass filter
arrangement to couple Gunn diode to cavity, biasing
D. phase shifter
arrangement for Gunn diode and arrangement to
couple RF power to load. B

## Applications of Gunn diode oscillator include Answer: Option B

4. Atomic and molecular resonance is observed in many Z01 provides series inductances and teflon filled low impedance
substances line Z02 provides shunt capacitance.
A. at microwave frequencies
B. at low frequencies
C. at frequencies used in AM broadcast 6. The semiconductor diode which can be used in switching circui
D.at both (b) and (c) microwave range is
A A. PIN diode
B. Varactor diode
Answer: Option A C. Tunnel diode
D. Gunn diode
Explanation: A

## Atomic and molecular distances are very small. Answer: Option A

Therefore resonance can occur only at microwave
frequencies. Explanation:

## A PIN diode has an intrinsic (i) layer between p and n layers.

When reverse bias is applied depletion layers are formed at p-i
and i-n junctions.

## The effective/width of depletion layer increases by the width o

layer. It can be used as a voltage controlled attenuator.
At high frequencies the rectification effect ceases and impedance
B. False
of diode is effectively that of i layer. B

## This impedance varies with the applied bias. It is used in high

frequency switching circuits, limiters, modulators etc. Answer: Option B

## 7. In the given figure the reflected current wave after Explanation:

first reflection is
The quantities required to be measured in microwave
circuits are frequency, power and impedance.

## Microwave frequency measurement is done by slotted

line, resonant cavities and transfer oscillator.

## Microwave power measurement uses bolometers and

micromave power meters.

## A. 0.18 A A self balancing bridge working on the principle of

B. -0.18 A power substitution is commomly used.
C. 0.3 A
D.-0.3 A Microwave impedance measurement is done by
measurement of reflection coefficient and VSWR.
B

## A slotted line and probe is a basic tool for these

Answer: Option B measurements.' Network analyser enables rapid
impedance measurement over a broad frequency
Explanation: range.

## 10. A reflex klystron oscillator uses

A. one cavity resonator
B. two cavity resonators
8. A line has an attenuation of 0.054 Np/m. The C. three cavity resonators
attenuation in decibels is D.none of the above
A. 4.7 dB/m A
B. 0.47 dB/m
C. 0.54 dB/m
B
Explanation:

Answer: Option B It uses a single cavity resonator for generating microwave osci

Explanation: Its parts are electron gun, resonator, repeller and output coup

0.054 x 8.68 = 0.47 dB/m. It operates on the principle of positive feed back.

9. If a line is open circuited Zin = Z0 tanh (gl). The repeller electrode is at negative potential and sends the p
A.True
This positive feedback supports oscillations. Its feature are: Explanation:

1. Frequency range - 2 to 100 GHz Power handling capacity (voltage)2 and is inversely
proportional to f2 max.
2. Power output - 10 MW to about 2 W
13. To couple a coaxial line to a parallel wire line it is best
3. Efficiency - 10 - 20 % to use
A. slotted line
B. balundevices, oscillator for microwave measurements in
laboratories etc. C. directional coupler
D./4 transformer
B
11. A coaxial RF cable has a characteristic impedance of 50 and C equal to 40 pF/m. The inductance is
A. 1 H/m
B. 10 H/m
C. 0.1 H/m
Explanation:
D.0.01 H/m
C A balun gives 4 : 1 impedance transformation.

## Answer: Option C 14. In a multicavity klystron amplifier the signal to be

amplified develops an ac voltage of signal frequency
Explanation: across the gap in buncher cavity
A.True
B. False
A
.

## 12. In a microwave coaxial line, the maximum operating Answer: Option A

frequency is f max and breakdown strength of
dielectric is Ed' Then maximum power handling Explanation:
capacity is proportional to
A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for
A. generation/amplification of microwaves.

## B. An electron beam is produced by oxide coated

indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and
accelerated by focussing electrode.
C.
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The
D. input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is
called buncher.
B
As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating
field for half cycle and retarding field for the other
Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some 16. In a circular waveguide TE21 mode has lowest cutoff
are retarded. This process is called velocity frequency
modulation. A.True
B. False
The velocity modulation causes bunching of B
electrons. This bunching effect converts velocity
modulation into density modulation of beam.
The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken
at catcher cavity. Explanation:

In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher Some applications require dual polarization
cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more capability. Circular waveguide has this capability.
intermediate cavities are also used.
These analysis uses cylindrical coordinates.
The features of a multicavity klystron are :
In circular waveguide TE11 mode has the lowest cut
1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz off frequency and is the dominant mode.

## A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters, c = 0.82 D for TE01 mode

c = 1.306 D for TM01 mode.
15. If VSWR is infinite, the transmission line is terminated
in 17. The number of TV channels which can be
A. short circuit accommodated in a spectrum of 300 MHz is about
B. complex impedance A. 5
C. open circuit B. 10
D.either (a) or (c) C. 50
D.200
D
C

Explanation:
Explanation:

## A TV channel has a bandwidth about 5 MHz. Hence

and . Since VSWR = 300 MHz spectrum can accommodate about 50
, |rv| = 1. This can happen if ZL = 0 or ZL = , i.e., channels.
line is o.c or s.c.
18. The noise figure of multicavity klystron amplifier is
very low
A.True 4. Efficiency - about 40%.
B. False
B A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters,
Answer: Option B 19. Assertion (A): The velocity of electromagnetic waves
on overhead lines and coaxial cables is the same.
Explanation:
Reason (R): Free space has an intrinsic impedance of
A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for 377 ohms.
generation/amplification of microwaves. Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
explanation of A
An electron beam is produced by oxide coated Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and B.
explanation of A
accelerated by focussing electrode. C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.A is wrong but R is correct
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The
D
input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is
called buncher.
As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating
field for half cycle and retarding field for the other Explanation:
half cycle.
Velocity of em waves on caoxial cables is less than
Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some that on overhead lines.
are retarded. This process is called velocity
modulation. 20. In the given figure the E and H lines in a coaxial cable

## The velocity modulation causes bunching of

electrons. This bunching effect converts velocity
modulation into density modulation of beam.

## The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken

at catcher cavity.

In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher A. The radial lines are E lines and circular lines are H lines
cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more B. Radial lines are H lines and circular lines are E lines
intermediate cavities are also used. C. The directions of E and H lines are wrong
D.Radial lines may be E and H lines depending an direction of c
The features of a multicavity klystron are : A

## 1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz

2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW
Explanation:
3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value)
H lines are concentric circles around conductor and E lines are
In circular waveguide TE11 mode has the lowest cut
21. Roughly the time required for microwave cooking as compared
offtofrequency
conventional
and cooking
is the dominant
is mode.
B. about half If D is diameter of waveguide
D.about one-tenth c = 1.706 D for TE11 mode
D
c = 1.029 D for TE21 mode
c = 0.82 D for TE01 mode
Explanation:
c = 1.306 D for TM01 mode.
Time required for microwave cooking is much less than the time required for conventional cooking.
24. Assertion (A): Klystron amplifiers use one or more
intermediate cavities in addition to buncher and
22. If the minimum range of a radar is to be doubled, the
catcher cavity.
peak power has to be increased by a factor of
A. 2
Reason (R): When one or more intermediate cavities
B. 4
are used the bandwidth can be increased.
C. 8
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
D.16 A.
explanation of A
D Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
explanation of A
Answer: Option D C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.A is wrong but R is correct
Explanation: A

Range = (power)025.
23. Which mode has the lowest cut off frequency in
Explanation:
circular wave guides?
A. TE01
A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for
B. TE11
generation/amplification of microwaves.
C. TE20
D.TE21
An electron beam is produced by oxide coated
B indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and
accelerated by focussing electrode.
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The
Explanation: input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is
called buncher.
Some applications require dual polarization
capability. Circular waveguide has this capability. As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating
field for half cycle and retarding field for the other
These analysis uses cylindrical coordinates. half cycle.
Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some
are retarded. This process is called velocity Answer: Option A
modulation.
Explanation:
The velocity modulation causes bunching of
electrons. This bunching effect converts velocity It uses a single cavity resonator for generating microwave osci
modulation into density modulation of beam.
Its parts are electron gun, resonator, repeller and output coup
The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken
at catcher cavity. It operates on the principle of positive feed back.

In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher The repeller electrode is at negative potential and sends the p
cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more
intermediate cavities are also used. This positive feedback supports oscillations. Its feature are:

## 2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW 3. Efficiency - 10 - 20 %

3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value) Its applications include radar receivers, local oscillator in micro
laboratories etc.
27. Consider the following applications
A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters,
Radar transmitter and satellite communication. 1. TV tuning
2. Active filter
25. A wave Em cos (bx - t) is a backward wave. 3. Microwave frequency multiplication
A.True
B. False In which of above can a varactor diode be used?
B A. 1 2 and 3
B. l and 2 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D.2 and 3 only
Explanation: A

## It is a forward wave because as t increases, x increases. Answer: Option A

Explanation:
26. A reflex klystron oscillator is a
A. low power device Varactor diode is used in all the three applications.
B. high power device
C. high efficiency device 28. Consider the following statements
D.both (a) and (b)
A
1. Dissipative attenuator has a fixed value of
2. Reflective attenuator has a fixed value of
attenuation. Explanation:
3. Both dissipative and reflective attenuators
are available only with fixed attenuation. A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for generation/amplification
4. Both dissipative and reflective attenuators
are available with either fixed or variable An electron beam is produced by oxide coated indirectly heate
attenuation. electrode.

Which of the above are correct? This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The input cavity
A. 1 only
B. 1 and 2 As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating field for hal
C. 1, 2 and 3
D.4 only Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some are retar
D
The velocity modulation causes bunching of electrons. This bu
Answer: Option D modulation of beam.

Explanation: The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken at catche

Both dissipative and reflective attenuators are In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher cavity are us
available with either fixed or variable attenuation. cavities are also used.

29. Impedance inversion may be obtained with The features of a multicavity klystron are :
A. a short circuited stub
B. a quarter wave line 1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz
C. an open circuited stub
D.a half wave line 2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW
B
3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value)

## Impedance inversion occurs when load impedance is

not matched with characteristic impedance of line. 31. If a short line is terminated in characteristic impedance it beha
A.True
30. Power gain of a multicavity klystron amplifier is B. False
A. more than 30 dB
A
B. causes retardation of all electrons
C. causes acceleration of some electrons and retardation of others
D.none of the above Answer: Option A
A
Explanation:
In a line terminated by Z0, there are no reflections. Explanation:

32. Ga As exhibits negative differential mobility A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for
A.True generation/amplification of microwaves.
B. False
A An electron beam is produced by oxide coated
indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and
accelerated by focussing electrode.
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The
Explanation:
input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is
called buncher.
A Gunn diode uses GaAs which has a negative
differential mobility, i.e., a decrease in carrier
As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating
velocity with increase in electric field.
field for half cycle and retarding field for the other
half cycle.
This effects is called transferred electron effect. The
impedance of a Gunn diode is tens of ohms.
Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some
are retarded. This process is called velocity
A Gunn diode oscillator has a resonant cavity, an modulation.
arrangement to couple Gunn diode to cavity, biasing
arrangement for Gunn diode and arrangement to
The velocity modulation causes bunching of
electrons. This bunching effect converts velocity
modulation into density modulation of beam.
Applications of Gunn diode oscillator include
The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken
at catcher cavity.
33. Consider the following statements
In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher
cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more
1. Bunching of electrons occurs in two cavity
intermediate cavities are also used.
klystron amplifier.
2. Bunching of electrons occurs in multi cavity
The features of a multicavity klystron are :
klystron amplifier.
3. Bunching of electrons occurs in reflex cavity
1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz
klystron amplifier.
2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW
Which of the above statements are correct?
A. 1, 2, and only
3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value)
B. 1, 2 and 3 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D.2 and 3 only 4. Efficiency - about 40%.
B
A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters,
34. Assertion (A): For high frequency lines inductive 36. Which one of the following is not a negative resistance device
reactance is very high as compared to ac resistance. A. Gunn diode
B. Tunnel diode
Reason (R): Due to skin effect ac resistance of line is C. Impatt diode
higher than dc resistance. D. Varactor diode
Both A and R are correct and R is correct D
A.
explanation of A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.A is wrong but R is correct Explanation:
B
Gunn diode, Tunnel diode and Impatt diodes are negative
resistance devices.
The limitation of solid state devices at high frequencies includ
Explanation: those associated with transit time and junction capacitances.

XL = L. As frequency increases line resistance The devices used are : Transferred electron oscillators (Gunn
increases slightly but XL increases directly as per diode), Avalanche diode oscillators (Impatt diode, Trapatt dio
frequency. Masters, Lasers, Tunnel diode, Varactor etc).

35. Consider the following applications 37. Microwave links are typically 50 km apart
A. because of atmospheric attenuation
1. Switch B. because of output tube power limitation
2. Attenuator C. because of earth's curvature
3. Phase shifter D.to ensure that applied dc voltage is not excessive
4. Oscillator C

## In which of the above can a PIN diode be used?

1 2 3 and 4
.
B Explanation:
1 2 and 3 only
.
C Earth's curvature limits the distance between
1 and 2 only microwave links.
.
D
2, 3 and 4 only 38. For matching over a range of frequencies in a
.
transmission line it is best to use
B
A. a balun
B. a broad band directional coupler
Answer: Option B C. double stub
D.a single stub of adjustable position
Explanation: C

## PIN diode is not used in oscillators.

Explanation: 1. Frequency range - 1 GHz to 1000 GHz.

Double stub is useful for matching over a range of 2. Power output - 10 mV to 150 mW (continuous
frequencies. wave) 250kW (pulsed).

39. Assertion (A): In the interaction region of magnetron It is used as signal source in transmitters and
an electron is subjected to three forces: force due to instruments.
electric field, force due to magnetic field and
centrifugal force. 40. Which of the following is wrong for a magic used to tee?
A. E and H arms are decoupled
Reason (R): The mechanism of generation of B. coplanar arms are coupled
microwaves, in a magnetron, involves interaction of C. all ports are perfectly matched
electromagnetic fields with electrons moving in static D.A signal into coplanar arm splits equally between E and H ar
electric and magnetic fields oriented at right angles B
to each other.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
explanation of A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B. Explanation:
explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.A is wrong but R is correct Coplanar arms are decoupled.
41. The expression HZ = C cos(Bx) cos(Ay)yz is for
A
A. TE wave
B. TM waves
Answer: Option A C. both TE and TM waves
D.some TE and some TM waves
Explanation: A

## It is somewhat similar to TWT and can deliver

microwave power over a wide frequency band. Answer: Option A

## It has an electron gun and a helix structure. However Explanation:

the interaction between electron beam and RF wave
is different than in TWT. In TM mode Hz = 0.

The growing RF wave travels in opposite direction to 42. Assertion (A): Impedance matching can be done by
the electron beam. using stubs.

The frequency of wave can be changed by changing Reason (R): A double stub is used for impedance
the voltage which controls the beam velocity. matching when frequency of signal varies.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
Moreover the amplitude of oscillations can be explanation of A
decreased continuously to zero by changing the Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
beam current. explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.A is wrong but R is correct
It features are:
A
Therefore the signal gets strengthened and amplified
Answer: Option A output is delivered at the other end of tube.

## Explanation: The main features of TWT are :

Hollow metallic enclosures exhibit resonance 1. Frequency range - 0.5 GHz to 90 GHz
behaviour when excited by electromagnetic field.
2. Power output - 5 mW at low frequencies(less than
These enclosures are called cavity resonators. 20 GHz) 250 kW (continuous wave) at 3 GHz 10 MW
(pulsed) at 3 GHz
3. Efficiency - about 5 to 20%
1. It uses thermionic emission.
2. It uses an attenuater. 4. Noise - about 5 dB for low power TWT 25 dB for
3. It is inherently a resonant device. high power TWT
TWT is used as RF amplifier in broadband microwave
Which of the above are correct? receivers, repeater amplifier in broad band
A. 1, 2, 3 and 4 communication systems, communication satellites
B. 1, 2 and 3 etc.
C. 1, 3 and 4
D.1, 2 and 4 44. If a line having Z0 = 300 0 W is short circuited at far
D end, VSWR is
A. 0
B. 1
D.2
Explanation:
C

## A TWT is a broadband device. Its main components Explanation:

are electron gun (to produce the electron beam) and
a structure supporting the slow electromagnetic If line is s.c |rv| = 1 and VSWR = .
wave.
45. A klystron amplifier generally uses Pierce gun
The velocity of wave propagation along the helix A.True
structure is less than velocity of light. B. False
A
The beam and wave travel along the structure at the
same speed.
Thus interaction occurs between beam and wave and
Explanation:
the beam delivers energy to the RF wave.
It uses a single cavity resonator for generating microwave This impedance varies with the applied bias. It is used in high
oscillations. frequency switching circuits, limiters, modulators etc.

Its parts are electron gun, resonator, repeller and output47. A pulsed radar produces 1 sec pulses at a rate of
coupling. 1000 per second. The duty cycle is
A. 0.001
It operates on the principle of positive feed back. B. 0.01
C. 0.1
The repeller electrode is at negative potential and sends the D.1
partially bunched electron beam back to resonator cavity. A

## This positive feedback supports oscillations. Its feature are:

1. Frequency range - 2 to 100 GHz
Explanation:
2. Power output - 10 MW to about 2 W
1 x 10-6 x 1000 = 0.001.
3. Efficiency - 10 - 20 %
48. Assertion (A): Impedance measurement at
microwave frequencies is done by finding SWR.
microwave devices, oscillator for microwave measurements in
Reason (R): SWR and reflection coefficient depend
laboratories etc.
on the characteristic impedance and load impedance.
46. Assertion (A): PIN diode is used as a fast switch.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A.
explanation of A
Reason (R): PIN diode has very high resistance when reverse Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
biased and very low resistance when forward biased. B.
explanation of A
A. Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A C. A is correct but R is wrong
B. Both A and R are correct but R is not correct explanation ofD.AA is wrong but R is correct
C. A is correct but R is wrong
B
D.A is wrong but R is correct
A
Explanation:
Explanation:

## A PIN diode has an intrinsic (i) layer between p and n layers.

When reverse bias is applied depletion layers are formed at p-i
and i-n junctions. 49. When a line is loaded the characteristic impedance is
equal to
The effective/width of depletion layer increases by the widthA. (R + jL)(G + jC)
of i layer. It can be used as a voltage controlled attenuator. B.

## At high frequencies the rectification effect ceases and C.

impedance of diode is effectively that of i layer.
D.LC
B The velocity modulation causes bunching of
electrons. This bunching effect converts velocity
modulation into density modulation of beam.
The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken
Explanation: at catcher cavity.

## In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher

cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more
intermediate cavities are also used.
or
The features of a multicavity klystron are :
.
1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz

## 2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW

50. Which device has internal positive feedback?
A. Two cavity klystron amplifier 3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value)
B. Multi-cavity klystron amplifier
C. Reflex klystron amplifier 4. Efficiency - about 40%.
D.All of the above
C A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters,

Explanation:

## A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for

generation/amplification of microwaves.

## An electron beam is produced by oxide coated

indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and MICROWAVE COMMS
accelerated by focussing electrode. INDIABIX
SECTION 4
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The
input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is 1. The domain mode in rectangular waveguide is
called buncher. A. TE01
B. TE02
As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating C. TE10
field for half cycle and retarding field for the other D.TM11
half cycle. C
Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some
are retarded. This process is called velocity
2. The reverse voltage applied to a varactor diode
modulation.
A. is less than avalanche breakdown voltage
B. is more than avalanche breakdown voltage
may be more or less than a avalanche breakdown Answer: Option D
C.
voltage
is very high as compared to avalanche breakdown 6. In a TWT the amplitude of resultant wave travelling
D.
voltage down the helix remains constant
A A.True
B. False
Explanation: B
The action of varactor diode is due to the capacitance Answer: Option B
of depletion layer. The thickness of depletion layer Explanation:
depends on the reverse bias which should not cause The signal gets strengthened.
breakdown.
7. In the given figure forward current wave has a
magnitude of
3. To ensure that only dominant mode TE10 is allowed to
propagate in an air filled rectangular waveguide, the
lower frequency limit and upper frequency limit are
about 25% above fc for TE10 and 5% below fc for TE20
A.
mode respectively
about 50% above fc for TE10 and 25% below fc for
B.
TE20 mode respectively
about 25% above fc for TE10 and 25% below fc for
C.
TE20 mode respectively
A. 0.45 A
D.none of the above
B. 0.3 A
A C. 0.2 A
B
4. The skin depth at 1000 MHz as compared to that at Answer: Option B
500 MHz is
Explanation:
A. 2
B. 12
C. 0.707
D.0.5
8. In an infinite line the input impedance at every point is
C equal to characteristic impedance.
B. False
5. The transit time (in cycles) for electrons in repeller A
space of reflex klystron oscillator for sustaining
oscillations is (n is any integer)
A. 2(n - 1)
9. Consider the following time parameters
B. 2n - 1
Domain growth time constant.
C. Transit time.
Dielectric relaxation time in positive mobility regime.
D. Which of the above are used in connection width
transferred electron device?
D A. 1, 2, and 3
B. 1 and 2 only
C. 1 and 3 only 14. In the given figure shows the equivalent circuit of a
D.2 and 3 only magic tee. If all ports are matched
A

## 10. PIN diode has

A. p+ and n layers separated by i layer
B. p+ and n+ layers separated by i layer
C. p- and n- layers separated by i layer
D.none of the above
B A. nE = nH = 2
B. nE = nH = 0.707
C. nE = 2, nH = 0.707
D.nH = 0.707, nH = 2
11. The two terms used to describe performance of a
directional coupler are A
A. coupling and directivity Answer: Option A
B. gain and coupling
C. gain and directivity
D.gain and isolation 15. Assertion (A): Microstrip is very commonly used in
A microwave integrated circuits.
surface so that active and passive discrete
components can be easily mounted.
12. The number of PM radio channels which can be
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
accommodated in a spectrum of 300 MHz is about A.
explanation of A
A. 10
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B. 100 B.
explanation of A
C. 500
C. A is correct but R is wrong
D.1500
D.A is wrong but R is correct
D
A
Explanation:
13. Consider the following statements
A Microstrip line has a single dielectric substratc with
Gunn diode can be used in combinational logic
ground plane on one side and a strip on the other
circuits.
face.
Gunn diode can be used in sequential logic circuits.
Both Gunn diode and GaAs Mesfet can be used in
logic circuits.
fabrication.
Which of the above statements are correct?
The high dielectric constant of the substrate reduces
A. 1, 2, and 3
guide wavelength and circuit dimensions.
B. 1 and 2 only
A microstrip line is the most commomly used
C. 2 and 3 only
transmission structure for microwave integrated
D.1 and 3 only
circuits.
A
16. A 75 ohm line is first short terminated and minima D.(pulse width) + (PRF)
locations are noted. Then the short is replaced by A
resistive load and minima location are again noted. If
minima location are not altered and VSWR is 3, the Answer: Option A
A. 25 20. In a klystron amplifier the bunching effect
B. 50 converts velocity modulation into current
A.
C. 225 modulation of beam
D.250 converts current modulation into velocity
B.
modulation of beam
C C. both (c) and (b)
Answer: Option C D.neither (a) nor (b)
Explanation: A
rv and VSWR . Explanation:
A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for
17. The word 'LORAN' means generation/amplification of microwaves.
A. long range navigation An electron beam is produced by oxide coated
B. long range TV transmission indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and
C. long range cable transmission accelerated by focussing electrode.
D.either (b) or (c) This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The
A input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is
called buncher.
field for half cycle and retarding field for the other
18. In the given figure forward voltage wave has a half cycle.
magnitude Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some
are retarded. This process is called velocity
modulation.
The velocity modulation causes bunching of
electrons. This bunching effect converts velocity
modulation into density modulation of beam.
The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken
at catcher cavity.
In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher
cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more
A. 90 V intermediate cavities are also used.
B. 60 V The features of a multicavity klystron are :
C. 30 V 1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz
D.10 V 2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW
C 3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value)
A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters,
19. The duty cycle of a radar transmitter is equal to
A. (PRF) (pulse width)
21. Out of modes TE20 and TE30 of propagation of
B. (PRF)/(pulse width)
electromagnetic engery
C. (pulse width)/(PRF)
A. both have the same cutoff frequency
TE20 has lower cut off frequency as compared to The input is fed at buncher cavity and output is taken
B.
TE30 at catcher cavity.
TE30 has lower cutoff frequency as compared to In a two cavity klystron only buncher and catcher
C.
TE20 cavity are used. In multi cavity klystron one or more
D.either (a) or (c) intermediate cavities are also used.
B The features of a multicavity klystron are :
1. Frequency range - 0.25 GHz to 100 GHz
Answer: Option B 2. Power output - 10 kW to several hundred kW
3. Power gain - 60 dB (nominal value)
22. A TE10 rectangular waveguide is to be designed for 4. Efficiency - about 40%.
operation over 25-35 GHz and the band centre is 1.5 A multicavity klystron is used in UHF TV transmitters,
times the cutoff frequency. The dimension of Radar transmitter and satellite communication.
A. 15 mm 24. If load impedance ZL >> Z0, then
B. 10 mm A. Z0 = ZL (VSWR)
C. 9 mm B. ZL = Z0 (VSWR)
D.7.5 mm C. ZL = Z0 (VSWR - 1)
D D.ZL = Z0 VSWR
23. In a klystron amplifier the force on all electrons Explanation:
A. causes acceleration of all electrons
B. causes retardation of all electrons
causes acceleration of some electrons and If ZL >> Z0, |rv| and VSWR .
C.
retardation of others Therefore ZL = Z0(VSWR).
D.none of the above
C 25. The inductance of a twin feeder used to connect
A. 0.2 H/m
Explanation:
B. 0.6 H/m
A Klystron is a vacuum tube used for
C. 1.6 H/m
generation/amplification of microwaves.
D.10 H/m
An electron beam is produced by oxide coated
indirectly heated cathode and is focussed and C
accelerated by focussing electrode. Answer: Option C
This beam is transmitted through a glass tube. The
input cavity where the beam enters the glass tube is 26. When resonant cavities are coupled together the
called buncher. result is
As electrons move ahead they see an accelerating A. one resonant frequency
field for half cycle and retarding field for the other B. n resonant frequencies
half cycle. C. resonant frequencies
Therefore, some electrons are accelerated and some
are retarded. This process is called velocity D.either (b) or (c)
modulation. B
The velocity modulation causes bunching of Answer: Option B
electrons. This bunching effect converts velocity
modulation into density modulation of beam.
27. For a rectangular waveguide having width a and B. 0.01
height b, the cutoff wavelength for TM11 mode is C. 0.05
equal to D.0.25
A. D
B.
30. As wavelength decrease the size of high directivity
C. antenna
A. decreases
D. B. increases
C. is not affected
B D.either (b) or (c)
28. The path length between ports 1 and 2 for the two
waves in a hybrid ring is
31. Which of the following modes of transmission will
A. 1
not be supported by a rectangular waveguide?
B. A. TE15
B. TE12
C. C. TM11
D.TM10
D. D
C
Answer: Option C 32. In a circular waveguide with radius r, the dominant
Explanation: mode is
The quantities required to be measured in A. TM01
microwave circuits are frequency, power and B. TE01
impedance. C. TM11
Microwave frequency measurement is done by D.TE11
slotted line, resonant cavities and transfer oscillator.
B
Microwave power measurement uses bolometers
and microwave power meters. Answer: Option B
A self balancing bridge working on the principle of Explanation:
power substitution is commonly used. Some applications require dual polarization
Microwave impedance measurement is done by capability. Circular waveguide has this capability.
measurement of reflection coefficient and VSWR. These analysis uses cylindrical coordinates.
A slotted line and probe is a basic tool for these In circular waveguide TE11 mode has the lowest cut
measurements.' Network analyser enables rapid off frequency and is the dominant mode.
impedance measurement over a broad frequency If D is diameter of waveguide
range. c = 1.706 D for TE11 mode
c = 1.029 D for TE21 mode
29. The radiation resistance of a circular loop of one turn c = 0.82 D for TE01 mode
is 0.01 ohm. For 5 turn loop the radiation resistance c = 1.306 D for TM01 mode.
is
A. 0.002
33. If 'a' is the width of rectangular wave guide and '' is for single diode circuit and upto 40 W for
the wave length, then combination of several diodes), efficiency about 20%.
A. Its applications include police radar systems, low
power microwave transmitter etc.
B.
C. 36. Which one of the following can be used for
amplification of microwave energy?
D. A. TWT
B
B. Magnetron
C. Reflex klystron
A
34. A parametric amplifier uses
A. non linear resistance Answer: Option A
B. non linear reactance
C. either (a) or (b) 37. If ZTE is wave impedance for TE waves, Ed is maximum
D.neither (a) nor (b) dielectric strength of insulating material, a and b are
B
the width and height of a rectangular wave guide, the
maximum power handling capability Pmax for TE10
Explanation:
In a parametric amplifier the non-linear element is A.
varactor diode or inductor.
B.
35. Assertion (A): Impatt diode can be used in both
amplifiers and oscillators.
C.
Reason (R): Impatt diode has a low resistance.
Both A and R are correct and R is correct
A. D.
explanation of A
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B. B
explanation of A
C. A is correct but R is wrong Answer: Option B
D.A is wrong but R is correct
38. At frequencies of 10 MHz and higher the impedance
B
represented by ground is primarity
Explanation: B. inductive
An Impatt diode has n+ - p - i - p + structure and is C. capacitive
used with reverse bias. D.partly resistive and partly capacitive
It exhibits negative resistance and operates on the
C
principle of avalanche breakdown.
circuit, low Q circuit and high Q circuit.
The impedance of Impatt diode is a few ohms. The 39. A disadvantage of microstrip line as the connections
word Impatt stands for Impact Avalanche Transit of compared to strip line is that former
Time diode. A. do not lend themselves to printed circuit
The features of Impatt diode oscillator are : B. are more likely to radiate
frequency 1 to 300 GHz, Power output (0.5 W to 5 W C. are bulky
D.are more expensive and complex
Explanation:
Answer: Option B The operation of magnetron is based on interaction
of electromagnetic fields with electrons moving in
40. As frequency increases, the transmission efficiency static electric and magnetic fields oriented at 90
A. decreases with respect to each other.
B. increases In a magnetron three forces act on electron viz. force
C. is not affected due to electric field (equal to - eE), force due to
D.either (a) or (c) magnetic field [equal to - e (v x B)] and centrifugal
B force (equal to mv2/r).
Answer: Option B The path of the electron can be found by balancing
these three forces. Magnetron can be of three types
41. A circular polarizer converts a linearly polarized wave i.e., negative resistance device, cyclotron frequency
into a circularly polarised wave. device and travelling wave or cavity device.
A.True In negative resistance magnetron use is made of the
B. False negative resistance between two anode segments.
It has low efficiency and is used at frequencies less
A
than 0.5 GHz.
Answer: Option A In cyclotron magnetron a synchronism exists
between ac component of electric field and periodic
42. If D is diameter of circular waveguide the cutoff oscillation of electrons in a direction parallel to the
wave-length for TE11 mode is equal to field.
A. 1.706 D It is used for frequencies higher than 100 MHz.
B. 2.11 D A cavity magnetron has a number of cylindrical
C. 0.82 D cavities in the interaction region.
D.0.41 D The cavity magnetron is the most common type of
A magnetron. Its features are :
1. Frequency range - 500 MHz to 10 GHz
2. Power output - 250 kW (pulses)
Explanation:
Some applications require dual polarization
It is used in radar systems, industrial heating systems
capability. Circular waveguide has this capability.
and microwave ovens.
These analysis uses cylindrical coordinates.
In circular waveguide TE11 mode has the lowest cut
44. Varactor diodes use
off frequency and is the dominant mode.
A. silicon
If D is diameter of waveguide
B. GaAs
c = 1.706 D for TE11 mode
C. either (a) or (b)
c = 1.029 D for TE21 mode
D.neither (a) nor (b)
c = 0.82 D for TE01 mode
c = 1.306 D for TM01 mode. C
43. The external magnetic field in a magnetron is such
that lines are 45. A circular waveguide carries TE11 mode whole radial
A. parallel to the axis of cathode electric field is given by
B. perpendicular to the axis of cathode Er = E0j1(r) sin V/m
C. inclined to the axis of cathode where r is radial distance in cm from the axis
D.either (b) or (c) The cut off wavelength is
A A. 10 cm
B. 3 p cm power transmission is least efficient when there
A.
C. 2 p cm are no standing waves on the line
D.8 cm power transmission is most efficient when there
B.
A are no standing waves on line
C. Load power depends on phase constant
Answer: Option A D.standing waves will always exist on the line
46. Assertion (A): Impatt diode is an avalanche diode. B
Reason (R): Avalanche breakdown phenomenon Answer: Option B
occurs when a p-n junction is reverse biased. Explanation:
Both A and R are correct and R is correct If standing waves are not there, whole of the power
A.
explanation of A is absorbed by load.
Both A and R are correct but R is not correct
B.
explanation of A 49. In the given figure a short circuited transmission line
C. A is correct but R is wrong resonator If n = 1, 2, 3...
D.A is wrong but R is correct
B
Explanation:
An Impatt diode has n+ - p - i - p + structure and is
used with reverse bias.
It exhibits negative resistance and operates on the For series reasonance l = np and for parallel
principle of avalanche breakdown. A.
Impatt diode circuits are classified as broadly tunable resonance
circuit, low Q circuit and high Q circuit.
The impedance of Impatt diode is a few ohms. The
B. For series resonance and for
word Impatt stands for Impact Avalanche Transit
Time diode. parallel resonance l = np
The features of Impatt diode oscillator are : C. l = np for both series and parallel resonance
frequency 1 to 300 GHz, Power output (0.5 W to 5 W
for single diode circuit and upto 40 W for D. for both series and parallel
combination of several diodes), efficiency about 20%. resonance
Its applications include police radar systems, low
A
power microwave transmitter etc.
47. A radar has a maximum range of 120 km. The
maximum allowable pulse repetition frequency for 50. The electric field in a TWT due to applied signal
unambiguous reception is A. is directed along the helix axis
A. 1250 B. is directed radially from helix axis
B. 330 C. is inclined to the helix axis by about 60
C. 2500 D.is inclined to the helix axis by about 45
D.8330 A
In a klystron the resonant structure limits the
bandwidth.
48. In a line with finite attenuation
A TWT is a broadband device. Its main components
are electron gun (to produce the electron beam) and
a structure supporting the slow electromagnetic
wave.
The velocity of wave propagation along the helix
structure is less than velocity of light.
The beam and wave travel along the structure at the
same speed.
Thus interaction occurs between beam and wave and
the beam delivers energy to the RF wave.
Therefore the signal gets strengthened and amplified
output is delivered at the other end of tube.
The main features of TWT are :
1. Frequency range - 0.5 GHz to 90 GHz
2. Power output - 5 mW at low frequencies(less than
20 GHz) 250 kW (continuous wave) at 3 GHz 10 MW
(pulsed) at 3 GHz
3. Efficiency - about 5 to 20%
4. Noise - about 5 dB for low power TWT 25 dB for
high power TWT
TWT is used as RF amplifier in broadband microwave