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We, the sovereignFilipinopeople, imploringthe aidof AlmightyGod,inorderto builda just and

humane society, and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations,
promotethe commongood, conserve and develop our patrimony,and secure to ourselves and
ourposterity, the blessingsof independence anddemocracy underthe ruleof law anda regime


The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters
embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or
jurisdiction,consisting of its terrestrial,fluvialandaerialdomains,includingits territorialsea, the
seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around,
between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and

Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the
Section 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the
generallyaccepted principlesof internationallaw as part of the law of the landand adheres to
thepolicyofpeace,equality,justice,freedom,cooperation,andamitywithallnations. cralaw

Section 3. Civilianauthority is,at alltimes,supremeover the military.The ArmedForces of the

Philippinesisthe protector of the peopleandthe State. Its goalisto securethe sovereignty of
theStateandtheintegrityofthenationalterritory. cralaw

Section 4. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protec t the people. The
Governmentmay call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillmentthereof, all
citizens may be required,underconditions provided by law, to renderpersonal, militaryor civil
service. cralaw

Section 5.The maintenanceofpeace andorder,the protection oflife,liberty,andproperty,and

promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by all the people of the
blessingsofdemocracy. cralaw


Section 7. The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other
states, the paramountconsideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national
Section 8.The Philippines,consistent with the nationalinterest, adopts andpursuesa policy of
freedomfromnuclearweaponsinitsterritory. cralaw

Section 9. The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the
prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people frompoverty through policies
that provideadequate social services, promotefullemployment,a risingstandard of living,and
animprovedqualityoflifeforall. cralaw

Section10.TheStateshallpromotesocialjusticeinallphasesofnationaldevelopment. cralaw

Section 11. The State valuesthe dignity of every humanpersonandguarantees fullrespect for
humanrights. cralaw

Section 12.The State recognizes the sanctity offamilylifeandshallprotect andstrengthen the

familyasabasic autonomoussocial institution. Itshallequallyprotect the lifeofthe motherand
the lifeof the unbornfromconception. The naturalandprimaryrightandduty of parents inthe
rearingofthe youth forcivic efficiency andthe developmentofmoralcharacter shallreceive the
supportoftheGovernment. cralaw

Section 13.The State recognizes the vitalroleof the youth innationbuildingandshallpromote

andprotect theirphysical, moral,spiritual,intellectual, andsocial wellbeing.Itshallinculcate in
theyouthpatriotismandnationalism,andencouragetheirinvolvementinpublicandcivicaffairs. cralaw

Section 14. The State recognizes the role of women in nationbuilding, and shall ensure the
fundamentalequalitybeforethelawofwomenandmen. cralaw

Section 15. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill
healthconsciousnessamongthem. cralaw

Section 16. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and
healthfulecologyinaccordwiththerhythmandharmonyofnature. cralaw

Section 17.The State shallgivepriorityto education, science andtechnology, arts, culture, and
sports to foster patriotismandnationalism,accelerate social progress,andpromotetotal human
liberationanddevelopment. cralaw

Section 18.The State affirmslaborasaprimarysocialeconomicforce. Itshallprotect the rights

ofworkersandpromotetheirwelfare. cralaw

Section 19. The State shalldevelop a selfreliant andindependent nationaleconomy effectively

controlledbyFilipinos. cralaw

Section 20. The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages
privateenterprise,andprovidesincentivestoneededinvestments. cralaw

Section21.TheStateshallpromotecomprehensiveruraldevelopmentandagrarianreform. cralaw

Section 22. The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities
withintheframeworkofnationalunityanddevelopment. cralaw
Section 23. The State shall encourage nongovernmental, communitybased, or sectoral
organizationsthatpromotethewelfareofthenation. cralaw

Section 24. The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation
building. cralaw

Section25.TheStateshallensuretheautonomyoflocalgovernments. cralaw

Section 26. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service and
prohibitpoliticaldynastiesasmaybedefinedbylaw. cralaw

Section 27.The State shallmaintainhonesty andintegrityinthe publicservice andtakepositive

andeffectivemeasuresagainstgraftandcorruption. cralaw

Section 28. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and

Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects
against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be
inviolable,andnosearch warrant orwarrant of arrest shallissueexcept uponprobablecause to
be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the
complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be
searchedandthepersonsorthingstobeseized. cralaw

Section 3.(1)The privacy of communicationandcorrespondence shallbeinviolableexcept upon

lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requiresotherwise, as prescribed by
law. cralaw

(2) Any evidence obtained inviolation of this or the preceding section shallbe inadmissiblefor
anypurposeinanyproceeding. cralaw

Section 4. No law shall be passed abridgingthe freedom of speech, of expression, or of the

press, orthe rightof the peoplepeaceably to assembleandpetition the governmentforredress
ofgrievances. cralaw

Section 5. Nolaw shallbe maderespecting an establishment of religion,or prohibitingthe free

exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religiousprofession and worship, without
discriminationor preference, shallforever be allowed. Noreligioustest shallbe requiredfor the
exerciseofcivilorpoliticalrights. cralaw

not be impairedexcept upon lawful order of the court. Neither shall the right to travel be
impairedexcept in the interest of national security, public safety, or public health, as maybe
providedbylaw. cralaw
Section 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be
recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertainingto official acts,
transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy
development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitationsas may be provided by
law. cralaw

Section 8.The rightofthe people,includingthose employedinthe publicandprivatesectors, to

formunions,associations,orsocietiesforpurposesnotcontrarytolawshallnotbeabridged. cralaw

Section9.Privatepropertyshallnotbetakenforpublicusewithoutjustcompensation. cralaw

Section10.Nolawimpairingtheobligationofcontractsshallbepassed. cralaw

Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasijudicial bodies and adequate legalassistance
shallnotbedeniedtoanypersonbyreasonofpoverty. cralaw

Section 12. (1) Any personunderinvestigation for the commissionof an offense shallhave the
rightto beinformedofhisrightto remainsilentandto havecompetent andindependentcounsel
preferably of his own choice. If the person cannot afford the services of counsel, he must be
provided with one. These rights cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of
counsel. cralaw

(2) No torture, force, violence, threat, intimidation,or any other meanswhich vitiate the free
willshallbeusedagainst him.Secret detention places, solitary,incommunicado , orother similar
formsofdetentionareprohibited. cralaw

(3) Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 hereof shall be
inadmissibleinevidenceagainsthim. cralaw

(4) The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this section as well as
compensationtotherehabilitationofvictimsoftortureorsimilarpractices,andtheirfamilies. cralaw

Section 13. All persons, except those charged with offenses punishable by reclusion
perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong, shall, before conviction, be bailable by sufficient
sureties, orbe released on recognizance as maybe providedby law. The rightto bailshallnot
be impairedeven when the privilegeof the writ of habeas corpus is suspended. Excessive bail
shallnotberequired. cralaw

Section 14.(1)Nopersonshallbe heldto answer for a criminaloffense without due process of

law. cralaw

(2) In all criminalprosecutions, the accused shall be presumedinnocent until the contrary is
proved, and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himselfand counsel, to be informedof the
natureandcause of the accusation against him,to have aspeedy, impartial,andpublictrial,to
meetthe witnesses face to face, andto have compulsoryprocess to securethe attendance of
witnesses and the production of evidence in his behalf. However, after arraignment,trial may
proceed notwithstanding the absence of the accused: Provided, that he has been dulynotified
andhisfailuretoappearisunjustifiable. cralaw
Section 15.The privilegeofthe writofhabeascorpus shallnot besuspendedexcept incase sof
invasionorrebellion,whenthepublicsafetyrequiresit. cralaw

Section 16. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their cases before all
judicial,quasijudicial,oradministrativebodies. cralaw

Section17.Nopersonshallbecompelledtobeawitnessagainsthimself. cralaw

Section 18. (1) No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and
aspirations. cralaw

(2) Noinvoluntaryservitude inany formshallexist except as a punishmentfor a crimewhereof

thepartyshallhavebeendulyconvicted. cralaw

Section 19.(1)Excessive finesshallnot beimposed,norcruel,degradingorinhumanpunishment

inflicted. Neithershalldeath penalty beimposed,unless,forcompellingreasonsinvolvingheinous
crimes, the Congress hereafter provides for it. Any death penalty already imposed shall be
reducedto reclusionperpetua . cralaw

(2)The employmentof physical, psychological, ordegradingpunishmentagainst any prisoneror

bedealtwithbylaw. cralaw

Section20.Nopersonshallbeimprisonedfordebtornonpaymentofapolltax. cralaw

Section 21.Nopersonshallbe twice put injeopardyof punishmentfor the sameoffense. If an

act ispunishedbyalawandanordinance,conviction oracquittal undereithershallconstitute a
bartoanotherprosecutionforthesameact. cralaw

Section22.No expostfacto laworbillofattaindershallbeenacted.

Section1.ThefollowingarecitizensofthePhilippines: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary


[3]Those bornbeforeJanuary17,1973,ofFilipinomothers,whoelect Philippinecitizenshipupon

reachingtheageofmajorityand cralaw

[4]Thosewhoarenaturalizedinaccordancewithlaw. cralaw

Section 2. Naturalborncitizens are those who are citizens of the Philippinesfrombirthwithout

having to performany act to acquire or perfect their Philippinecitizenship. Those who elect
Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed
Section3.Philippinecitizenshipmaybelostorreacquiredinthemannerprovidedbylaw. cralaw
Section 4. Citizens of the Philippineswho marryaliens shall retain their citizenship, unless by
theiractoromission,theyaredeemed,underthelaw,tohaverenouncedit. cralaw

Section 5.Dualallegianceofcitizens isinimicalto the nationalinterest andshallbedealtwithby


Section 1. Suffrage maybe exercised by allcitizens of the Philippinesnot otherwise disqualified
bylaw,whoareat least eighteen years of age, andwhoshallhave residedinthe Philippinesfor
at least one year, and in the place wherein they propose to vote, for at least six months
immediatelyprecedingthe election. Noliteracy, property, orother substantive requirementshall
Section 2. The Congress shall provide a system for securing the secrecy and sanctity of the
ballotaswellasasystemforabsenteevotingbyqualifiedFilipinosabroad. cralaw

The Congress shallalso design a procedure for the disabledand the illiterates to vote without

Section 1. The legislative power shall be vested in the Congress of the Philippineswhich shall
consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives, except to the extent reserved to the
Section 2.The Senate shallbecomposed of twentyfour Senators whoshallbeelected at large
bythequalifiedvotersofthePhilippines,asmaybeprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Section 3.NopersonshallbeaSenato runlessheisanaturalborncitizen ofthe Philippinesand,

on the day of the election, is at least thirtyfive years of age, able to read and write, a
registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately
precedingthedayoftheelection. cralaw

Section 4. The term of office of the Senators shall be six years and shall commence, unless
otherwise providedby law, at noononthe thirtieth day of Junenext followingtheirelection. No
any length of timeshallnot be considered as an interruptioninthe continuity of hisservice for
thefulltermofwhichhewaselected. cralaw

Section 5. (1) The House of Representatives shallbe composed of not morethan two hundred
and fifty members,unless otherwise fixedby law, who shallbe elected fromlegislative districts
apportioned amongthe provinces, cities, and the Metropolitan Manila area in accordance with
the numberof theirrespective inhabitants, andon the basis of a uniformandprogressiveratio,
and those who, as provided by law, shallbe elected through a partylist system of registered
national,regional,andsectoralpartiesororganizations. cralaw

(2) The partylist representatives shall constitute twenty per centum of the total numberof
representatives including those under the party list. For three consecutive terms after the
ratification ofthisConstitution, onehalfofthe seats allocated to partylist representatives shall
be filled, as provided by law, by selection or election from the labor, peasant, urban poor,
indigenouscultural communities,women, youth, and such other sectors as maybe providedby
law,exceptthereligioussector. cralaw

(3) Each legislative district shall comprise, as far as practicable, contiguous, compact, and
adjacent territory. Each city with a populationof at least two hundredfifty thousand, or each
province,shallhaveatleastonerepresentative. cralaw

(4) Within three years following the return of every census, the Congress shall make a
reapportionmentoflegislativedistrictsbasedonthestandardsprovidedinthissection. cralaw

Section 6.Nopersonshallbe a Memberof the Houseof Representatives unlessheisa natural

borncitize n of the Philippinesand, on the day of the election, is at least twentyfive years of
age, ableto readandwrite, and,except the partylist representatives, aregisteredvoter inthe
district inwhichheshallbeelected, andaresidentthereof foraperiodofnotlessthanoneyear
immediatelyprecedingthedayoftheelection. cralaw

Section 7. The Membersof the House of Representatives shall be elected for a termof three
years which shallbegin,unlessotherwise providedby law, at noonon the thirtieth day of June
next followingtheirelection. NoMemberof the Houseof Representatives shallserve for more
than three consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of timeshall
not beconsideredasaninterruptioninthe continuity ofhisservice forthe fulltermforwhichhe
waselected. cralaw

Section 8. Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of the Senators and the
MembersoftheHouseofRepresentativesshallbeheldonthesecondMondayofMay. cralaw

Section 9. In case of vacancy in the Senate or in the House of Representatives, a special

election may be called to fillsuch vac ancy inthe mannerprescribedby law, but the Senator or
MemberoftheHouseofRepresentativesthuselectedshallserveonlyfortheunexpiredterm. cralaw

Section 10. The salaries of Senators and Members of the House of Representatives shall be
the fulltermof allthe Membersof the Senate andthe Houseof Representatives approvingsuch
increase. cralaw

Section 11. A Senator or Member of the House of Representatives shall, in all offenses
punishablebynot morethan sixyearsimprisonment,beprivilegedfromarrestwhilethe Congress
isinsession.NoMembershallbequestionednorbeheldliableinanyother place foranyspeech
ordebateintheCongressorinanycommitteethereof. cralaw

Section 12.AllMembersof the Senate andthe Houseof Representatives shall,uponassumption

of office, makea full disclosure of their financial and business interests. They shall notify the
Houseconcerned of a potential conflict of interest that mayarisefromthe filingof a proposed
legislationofwhichtheyareauthors. cralaw

Section 13.NoSenator orMemberof the Houseof Representatives mayholdanyother office or

employmentinthe Government,orany subdivision,agency, orinstrumentality thereof, including
governmentowned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries, during his term without
forfeiting hisseat. Neithershallhe be appointed to any office which mayhave been created or
theemolumentsthereofincreasedduringthetermforwhichhewaselected. cralaw
Section 14. No Senator or Memberof the House of Representatives maypersonally appear as
counsel before any court of justice orbefore the Electoral Tribunals,orquasijudicialandother
administrative bodies. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be interested financially in any
contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the Government, or any
subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any governmentowned or controlled
corporation, or its subsidiary, during his term of office. He shall not intervene in any matter
beforeanyoffice ofthe Governmentforhispecuniarybenefit orwherehemaybecalleduponto
actonaccountofhisoffice. cralaw

Section 15. The Congress shallconvene once every year on the fourth Monday of July for its
regularsession, unless a different date is fixed by law, and shallcontinue to be in session for
such numberof days as it maydetermineuntilthirty days before the openingof its nextregular
session, exclusive of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. The President maycall a special
sessionatanytime. cralaw

Section 16. (1). The Senate shall elect its President and the House of Representatives, its
Speaker, by a majorityvote of allits respective Members.Each Houseshallchoose such other
officersasitmaydeemnecessary. cralaw

(2)Amajorityofeach Houseshallconstitute aquorumto dobusiness,butasmallernumbermay

adjournfromday to day and maycompel the attendance of absent Membersin such manner,
andundersuchpenalties,assuchHousemayprovide. cralaw

(3) Each House may determinethe rules of its proceedings, punish its Membersfor disorderly
behavior, and, with the concurrence of twothirds of all its Members, suspend or expel a
Member.Apenaltyofsuspension,whenimposed,shallnotexceedsixtydays. cralaw

(4)Each Houseshallkeepa Journalof its proceedings, andfromtimeto timepublishthe same,

exceptingsuchpartsasmay,initsjudgment,affectnationalsecurityandthe yeasandnayson
any question shall, at the request of onefifth of the Members present, be entered in the
Journal.EachHouseshallalsokeepaRecordofitsproceedings. cralaw

(5) Neither House duringthe sessions of the Congress shall,without the consent of the other,
adjournfor morethan three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses
shallbesitting. cralaw

Section 17. The Senate andthe House of Representatives shalleach have anElectoral Tribunal
which shallbe the sole judgeof allcontests relatingto the election, returns, and qualifications
whomshall be Justices of the SupremeCourt to be designated by the Chief Justice, and the
remainingsixshallbeMembersof the Senate orthe Houseof Representatives, as the case may
be,whoshallbechosen onthe basisof proportionalrepresentation fromthepoliticalpartiesand
the parties or organizations registered under the partylist system represented therein. The
seniorJusticeintheElectoralTribunalshallbeitsChairman. cralaw

Section 18. There shall be a Commission on Appointments consisting of the President of the
Senate, as ex officio Chairman, twelve Senators, and twelve Members of the House of
Representatives, elected by each House on the basis of proportional representation from the
political parties and parties or organizations registered underthe partylist system represented
therein.The chairmanof the Commissionshallnot vote, except incase of atie. The Commission
shallact onallappointmentssubmittedto itwithinthirtysessiondaysofthe Congressfromtheir
submission.TheCommissionshallrulebyamajorityvoteofalltheMembers. cralaw

Section 19. The Electoral Tribunals and the Commissionon Appointments shall be constituted
withinthirty days after the Senate andthe Houseof Representatives shallhave been organized
with the election ofthe President andthe Speaker.The CommissiononAppointmentsshallmeet
onlywhilethe Congressisinsession, at the callof its Chairmanoramajorityof allits Members,
todischargesuchpowersandfunctionsasarehereinconferreduponit. cralaw

Section 20.The records andbooksof accounts of the Congressshallbepreservedandbeopen

to the public in accordance with law, and such books shall be audited by the Commissionon
Audit which shallpublishannuallyan itemizedlist of amountspaidto and expenses incurredfor
eachMember. cralaw

Section 21. The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of its respective committees
may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with its duly published rules of
procedure.Therightsofpersonsappearingin,oraffectedby,suchinquiriesshallberespected. cralaw

Section 22. The heads of departments may,upon their own initiative, with the consent of the
President, oruponthe request of eitherHouse,as the rulesof each Houseshallprovide,appear
before and be heard by such House on any matter pertaining to their departments. Written
questions shall be submitted to the President of the Senate or the Speaker of the House of
Representatives at least three days before theirscheduled appearance. Interpellationsshallnot
belimitedto written questions, butmaycover mattersrelatedthereto. Whenthe security ofthe
State or the public interest so requires and the President so states inwriting, the appearance
shallbeconductedinexecutivesession. cralaw

votingseparately,shallhavethesolepowertodeclaretheexistenceofastateofwar. cralaw

(2) In times of war or other national emergency, the Congress may, by law, authorize the
President, for a limited periodand subject to such restrictions as it mayprescribe, to exercise
powers necessary and properto carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn
byresolutionoftheCongress,suchpowersshallceaseuponthenextadjournmentthereof. cralaw

Section 24.Allappropriation,revenue ortariff bills,billsauthorizingincrease of the publicdebt,

bills of local application, and private bills, shall originate exclusively in the House of
Representatives,buttheSenatemayproposeorconcurwithamendments. cralaw

Section 25. (1) The Congress may not increase the appropriations recommended by the
President for the operation of the Governmentas specified in the budget. The form,content,
andmannerofpreparationofthebudgetshallbeprescribedbylaw. cralaw

(2) No provision or enactment shall be embraced in the general appropriations bill unless it
relates specifically to some particular appropriation therein. Any such provision or enactment
shallbelimitedinitsoperationtotheappropriationtowhichitrelates. cralaw

(3)The procedureinapprovingappropriationsforthe Congressshallstrictly followthe procedure

forapprovingappropriationsforotherdepartmentsandagencies. cralaw
(4) A special appropriationsbillshallspecify the purpose for which it is intended, and shallbe
supportedbyfundsactually availableascertified bythe NationalTreasurer,orto beraisedbya
correspondingrevenueproposaltherein. cralaw

(5) No law shall be passed authorizingany transfer of appropriations however, the President,
the President of the Senate, the Speakerof the Houseof Representatives, the ChiefJustice of
the SupremeCourt, andthe heads of Constitutional Commissionsmay,by law, be authorizedto
augmentany iteminthe general appropriations law for their respective offices fromsavings in
otheritemsoftheirrespectiveappropriations. cralaw

(6) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public
purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelinesas may be
prescribedbylaw. cralaw

(7) If, by the end of any fiscal year, the Congress shall have failed to pass the general
appropriations billfor the ensuing fiscal year, the general appropriations law for the preceding
fiscal year shall be deemed reenacted and shall remainin force and effect until the general
appropriationsbillispassedbytheCongress. cralaw

Section 26.(1)Everybillpassed by the Congressshallembraceonlyonesubject which shallbe

expressedinthetitlethereof. cralaw

(2) No billpassed by either House shall become a law unless it has passed three readings on
separate days, andprintedcopies thereof inits finalformhave been distributed to its Members
three days before its passage, except when the President certifies to the necessity of its
immediateenactment to meetapubliccalamityoremergency.Uponthe last readingof abill,no
amendmentthereto shallbeallowed,andthe vote thereonshallbetakenimmediatelythereafter,
andtheyeasandnaysenteredintheJournal. cralaw

the President.Ifheapprovesthe sameheshallsignitotherwise, heshallveto itandreturnthe
samewith his objections to the House where it originated, which shallenter the objections at
largeinits Journalandproceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, twothirds of all
the Members of such House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the
objections, to the other House by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by
twothirds of alltheMembersof that House,it shallbecomealaw. Inallsuch cases, the votes
of each Houseshallbedeterminedbyyeasornays,andthe namesof the Membersvotingforor
againstshallbeenteredinitsJournal.The Presidentshallcommunicatehisveto ofanybillto the
Housewhereit originatedwithinthirty days after the date of receipt thereof, otherwise, it shall
becomealawasifhehadsignedit. cralaw

(2)The President shallhave the power to veto any particularitemoritemsinan appropriation,

revenue, or tariff bill, but the veto shall not affect the item or items to which he does not
object. cralaw

Section 28.(1)The ruleof taxation shallbe uniformandequitable. The Congressshallevolve a

progressivesystemoftaxation. cralaw

(2)The Congressmay, by law, authorizethe President to fixwithinspecified limits,andsubject

to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas,
tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within the frameworkof the national
developmentprogramoftheGovernment. cralaw

(3)Charitableinstitutions, churches andpersonagesorconvents appurtenant thereto, mosques,

nonprofit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and improvements, actually, directly, and
exclusivelyusedforreligious,charitable,oreducationalpurposesshallbeexemptfromtaxation. cralaw

(4)Nolawgrantingany tax exemptionshallbepassed without the concurrence of a majorityof

alltheMembersoftheCongress. cralaw

Section 29. (1) No money shall be paid out of the Treasury except in pursuance of an
appropriationmadebylaw. cralaw

(2) No public money or property shall be appropriated, applied, paid, or employed, directly or
indirectly, for the use, benefit, or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian
institution, orsystem of religion,orof any priest, preacher, minister,other religiousteacher, or
dignitary as such, except when such priest, preacher, minister,or dignitary is assigned to the
armedforces,ortoanypenalinstitution,orgovernmentorphanageorleprosarium. cralaw

(3)Allmoneycollec ted onanytaxleviedforaspecial purposeshallbetreated asaspecial fund

and paid out for such purpose only. If the purpose for which a special fund was created has
been fulfilledorabandoned, the balance, ifany, shallbe transferred to the generalfundsof the
Government. cralaw

Section 30. Nolawshallbepassed increasingthe appellate jurisdictionof the SupremeCourtas

providedinthisConstitutionwithoutitsadviceandconcurrence. cralaw

Section31.Nolawgrantingatitleofroyaltyornobilityshallbeenacted. cralaw

Section 32. The Congress shall, as early as possible, provide for a system of initiative and
referendum,and the exceptions therefrom,whereby the people can directly propose and enact
laws or approve or reject any act or law or part thereof passed by the Congress or local
legislativebodyafter the registrationofapetition therefor signedbyat least tenper centum of
the total numberof registeredvoters, of which every legislativedistrict mustberepresented by
atleastthree percentum oftheregisteredvotersthereof.

Section 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a naturalborn citizen of the
Philippines,a registeredvoter, ableto readandwrite, at least forty years of age onthe day of
the election, anda resident of the Philippinesforat least ten years immediately preceding such
election. cralaw

Section 3. There shallbe a VicePresident who shallhave the samequalifications and termof
office andbeelected with, andinthe samemanner,as the President. Hemay beremovedfrom
officeinthesamemannerasthePresident. cralaw

The Vice PresidentmaybeappointedasaMemberofthe Cabinet.Such appointmentrequiresno

confirmation. cralaw
Section 4.The Presidentandthe VicePresident shallbeelected bydirect vote ofthe peoplefor
atermof sixyears which shallbeginat noononthe thirtieth day of Junenextfollowingthe day
of the election andshallendat noonof the samedate, sixyears thereafter. The Presidentshall
not beeligibleforanyreelection. Nopersonwhohassucceeded asPresidentandhasservedas
suchformorethanfouryearsshallbequalifiedforelectiontothesameofficeatanytime. cralaw

NoVicePresident shallserve formorethan two successive terms.Voluntaryrenunciationof the

office for any length of timeshallnot be considered as an interruptioninthe continuity of the
serviceforthefulltermforwhichhewaselected. cralaw

Unlessotherwise providedby law, the regularelection for President and VicePresident shallbe
heldonthesecondMondayofMay. cralaw

The returns of every election for President and VicePresident, duly certified by the board of
canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the
President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of the
Senate shall,not later than thirty days after the day of the election, openallthe certificates in
the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the
Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner
providedbylaw,canvassthevotes. cralaw

The personhavingthe highest numberof votes shallbe proclaimedelected, but incase two or
moreshallhave anequalandhighestnumberof votes, oneof themshallforthwithbechosen by
thevoteofamajorityofalltheMembersofbothHousesoftheCongress,votingseparately. cralaw

TheCongressshallpromulgateitsrulesforthecanvassingofthecertificates. cralaw

The Supreme Court, sitting en banc, shall be the sole judge of all cont ests relating to the
election, returns, and qualifications of the President or VicePresident, and maypromulgateits
rulesforthepurpose. cralaw

Section 5.Beforethey enter onthe execution of theiroffice, the President,the VicePresident,

ortheActingPresidentshalltakethefollowingoathoraffirmation: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

"I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as
President [or VicePresident or Acting President] of the Philippines,preserve and defend its
Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service
Section 6.The Presidentshallhave anofficial residence. The salariesof the PresidentandVice
Presidentshallbedeterminedbylawandshallnot bedecreased duringtheirtenure. Noincrease
in said compensation shall take effect until after the expiration of the term of the incumbent
duringwhich such increase was approved. They shallnot receive duringtheir tenure any other
Section 7.The Presidentelect andthe Vice Presidentelect shallassumeoffice at the beginning
oftheirterms. cralaw

If the Presidentelect fails to qualify, the Vice Presidentelect shall act as President until the
Presidentelectshallhavequalified. cralaw
IfaPresidentshallnot have beenchosen, the Vice Presidentelect shallact as Presidentuntila
Presidentshallhavebeenchosenandqualified. cralaw

Ifat the beginningofthe termofthe President,the Presidentelect shallhavediedorshallhave

becomepermanentlydisabled,theVicePresidentelectshallbecomePresident. cralaw

WherenoPresident andVicePresident shallhave been chosen orshallhave qualified,orwhere

both shallhave diedorbecomepermanentlydisabled,the President of the Senate or,incase of
hisinability,the Speakerofthe HouseofRepresentatives, shallact asPresidentuntilaPresident
oraVicePresidentshallhavebeenchosenandqualified. cralaw

The Congressshall,bylaw,provideforthe mannerinwhich onewhoisto act as Presidentshall

be selected until a President or a VicePresident shall have qualified, in case of death,
permanentdisability,orinabilityoftheofficialsmentionedinthenextprecedingparagraph. cralaw

Section 8. In case of death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the
President, the VicePresident shallbec omethe Presidentto servethe unexpiredterm.Incase of
death, permanentdisability,removalfromoffice, orresignationof both the President and Vice
President, the President of the Senate or, incase of hisinability,the Speakerof the House of
Representatives, shallthenact asPresidentuntilthe PresidentorVicePresident shallhavebeen
electedandqualified. cralaw

The Congress shall, by law, provide who shallserve as President in case of death, permanent
disability,or resignationof the Acting President. Heshallserve untilthe President or the Vice
President shall have been elected and qualified, and be subject to the same restrictions of
powersanddisqualificationsastheActingPresident. cralaw

Section 9. Whenever there isa vacancy inthe Office of the VicePresident duringthe termfor
whichhewas elect ed,the PresidentshallnominateaVicePresident fromamongthe Membersof
the Senate and the House of Representatives who shallassumeoffice upon confirmation by a
majorityvoteofalltheMembersofbothHousesoftheCongress,votingseparately. cralaw

Section 10.The Congressshall,at ten o'clock inthe morningof the thirddayafter the vacancy
inthe offices of the President and VicePresident occurs, convene inaccordance with its rules
without needofacallandwithinseven days, enact alawcallingforaspecialelection to elect a
President and a VicePresident to be held not earlierthan fortyfive days nor later than sixty
days fromthe timeof such call. The billcalling such special election shallbe deemedcertified
under paragraph 2, Section 26, Article V1 of this Constitution and shall become law upon its
approval on third reading by the Congress. Appropriations for the special election shall be
charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of
paragraph4, Section 25,Article V1of this Constitution. The convening of the Congresscannot
be suspended nor the special election postponed. No special election shall be called if the
vacancyoccurswithineighteenmonthsbeforethedateofthenextpresidentialelection. cralaw

Section 11.Wheneverthe Presidenttransmitsto the Presidentofthe Senate andthe Speakerof

the House of Representatives hiswritten declaration that he isunableto discharge the powers
and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary,
suchpowersanddutiesshallbedischargedbytheVicePresidentasActingPresident. cralaw
Whenever a majorityof allthe Membersof the Cabinet transmitto the President of the Senate
andto the Speakerof the Houseof Representatives theirwritten declaration that the President
is unableto discharge the powers and duties of hisoffice, the VicePresident shallimmediately
assumethepowersanddutiesoftheofficeasActingPresident. cralaw

Thereafter, when the President transmitsto the President of the Senate andto the Speakerof
the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inabilityexists, he shallreassume
the powers and duties of his office. Meanwhile, should a majority of all the Members of the
Cabinet transmit within five days to the President of the Senate and to the Speaker of the
Houseof Representatives, theirwrittendeclaration that the Presidentisunableto dischargethe
powers and duties of his office, the Congress shall decide the issue. For that purpose, the
Congress shallconvene, if it is not in session, within fortyeight hours, in accordance with its
rulesandwithoutneedofcall. cralaw

within twelve days after it is required to assemble, determines by a twothirds vote of both
Houses,votingseparately, that the Presidentisunableto dischargethe powersanddutiesofhis
office, the VicePresident shall act as President otherwise, the President shall continue
exercisingthepowersanddutiesofhisoffice. cralaw

hishealth. The membersof the Cabinet incharge of national security and foreignrelations and
the Chief of Staff of the ArmedForces of the Philippines,shall not be denied access to the
Presidentduringsuchillness. cralaw

Section 13. The President, VicePresident, the Membersof the Cabinet, and their deputies or
assistants shall not, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, hold any other office or
employmentduringtheirtenure.They shallnot, duringsaidtenure,directly orindirectly,practice
any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract
with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the Governmentor any subdivision,
agency, or instrumentality thereof, including governmentowned or contro lled corporations or
theirsubsidiaries.Theyshallstrictlyavoidconflictofinterestintheconductoftheiroffice. cralaw

The spouse and relatives by consan guinity or affinity within the fourth civil degree of the
President shall not, during his tenure, be appointed as Members of the Constitutional
Commissions,orthe Office of the Ombudsman,oras Secretaries, Undersecretaries, chairmenor
heads of bureaus or offices, including governmentowned or controlled corporations and their

Section 14.AppointmentsextendedbyanActing Presidentshallremaineffective, unlessrevoked

bytheelectedPresident,withinninetydaysfromhisassumptionorreassumptionofoffice. cralaw

Section 15.Two months immediatelybefore the nextpresidentialelections andupto the endof

his term, a President or Acting President shall not make appointments, except temporary
appointments to executive positions when continued vacancies therein will prejudice public
serviceorendangerpublicsafety. cralaw

Section 16. The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on
Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public
ministersandconsuls, orofficers of the armedforces fromthe rankof colonel ornavalcaptain,
and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. He shall also
appoint allother officers of the Governmentwhose appointmentsarenot otherwise providedfor
by law, and those whomhe maybe authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may,by law,
vest the appointment of other officers lowerinrankinthe President alone, inthe courts, orin
theheadsofdepartments,agencies,commissions,orboards. cralaw

The President shall have the power to makeappointments duringthe recess of the Congress,
bytheCommissiononAppointmentsoruntilthenextadjournmentoftheCongress. cralaw

Section 17. The President shall have control of all the executive departments, bureaus, and
offices.Heshallensurethatthelawsbefaithfullyexecuted. cralaw

Section 18.The President shallbe theCommanderinChiefof allarmedforces of the Philippines

andwhenever it becomes necessary, hemaycall out such armedforces to prevent orsuppress
lawless violence, invasion or rebellion.In case of invasion or rebellion,when the public safety
requires it, he may, for a period not exceeding sixty days, suspend the privilege of the writ
ofhabeascorpus orplace the Philippinesoranypartthereof undermartiallaw.Withinfortyeight
hours from the proclamation of martial law or the suspension of the privilege of the writ
ofhabeascorpus ,thePresidentshallsubmitareportinpersonorinwritingto the Congress.The
Congress, voting jointly,by a vote of at least a majorityof allits Membersinregularorspecial
session,mayrevokesuch proclamationorsuspension,whichrevocation shallnot beset asideby
the President. Upon the initiative of the President, the Congress may, in the same manner,
extend such proclamationor suspension for a periodto be determinedby the Congress, if the
invasionorrebellionshallpersistandpublicsafetyrequiresit. cralaw

The Congress, if not in session, shall, within twentyfour hours following such proclamation or
suspension,conveneinaccordancewithitsruleswithoutneedofacall. cralaw

The SupremeCourtmayreview,inanappropriateproceedingfiledbyanycit izen,the sufficiency

of the factual basis of the proclamation of martiallaw orthe suspension of the privilegeof the
writofhabeascorpus orthe extension thereof, andmustpromulgateits decision thereon within
thirtydaysfromitsfiling. cralaw

A state of martiallaw does not suspend the operation of the Constitutio n, nor supplant the
functioning of the civil courts or legislative assemblies, nor authorize the conferment of
jurisdictiononmilitarycourts andagencies over civilianswhere civilcourts areableto function,
norautomaticallysuspendtheprivilegeofthewritof habeascorpus . cralaw

The suspensionofthe privilegeofthe writofhabeascorpus shallapplyonlyto personsjudicially

chargedforrebellionoroffensesinherentin,ordirectlyconnectedwith,invasion. cralaw

Duringthe suspensionof the privilegeof the writofhabeascorpus , any personthus arrested or

detainedshallbejudiciallychargedwithinthreedays,otherwiseheshallbereleased. cralaw

Section 19. Except incases of impeachment,oras otherwise providedinthis Constitution, the

Presidentmaygrantreprieves,commutations, andpardons,andremitfinesandforfeitures, after
convictionbyfinaljudgment. cralaw
He shall also have the power to grant amnesty with the concurrence of a majorityof all the
MembersoftheCongress. cralaw

Section 20.The President maycontract orguarantee foreignloanson behalf of the Republicof

the Philippineswiththe priorconcurrence of the Monetary Board,andsubject to such limitations
as maybe providedby law. The Monetary Boardshall,withinthirty days fromthe end of every
quarter of the calendar year, submit to the Congress a complete report of its decision on
applications forloansto be contracted orguaranteed by the Governmentorgovernmentowned
and controlled corporations which would have the effect of increasing the foreign debt, and
containingothermattersasmaybeprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Section 21.Notreaty orinternationalagreementshallbevalidandeffective unlessconcurred in

byatleasttwothirdsofalltheMembersoftheSenate. cralaw

Section 22. The President shallsubmitto the Congress, within thirty days fromthe openingof
sourcesoffinancing,includingreceiptsfromexistingandproposedrevenuemeasures. cralaw

Section 23. The President shalladdress the Congress at the openingof its regularsession. He

Section 1.The judicialpower shallbe vested inone SupremeCourt andinsuch lowercourts as
Judicialpower includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving
rightswhich arelegallydemandableandenforceable, andto determinewhether ornot there has
been a grave abuse of discretion amountingto lack orexcess of jurisdiction on the part of any
branchorinstrumentalityoftheGovernment. cralaw

Section 2.The Congressshallhavethepowerto define,prescribe,andapportionthe jurisdiction

of the various courts but may not deprive the Supreme Court of its jurisdiction over cases
enumeratedinSection5hereof. cralaw

Nolawshallbepassedreorganizingthe Judiciarywhenitunderminesthe security oftenureofits

Members. cralaw

Section 3.The Judiciaryshallenjoyfiscal autonomy.Appropriationsforthe Judiciarymaynot be

reduced by the legislature below the amount appropriated for the previous year and, after
approval,shallbeautomaticallyandregularlyreleased. cralaw

Section 4. (1) The SupremeCourt shallbe composed of a Chief Justice and fourteen Associate
Justices. It maysitenbanc orinits discretion, indivisionof three, five, orseven Members.Any
vacancyshallbefilledwithinninetydaysfromtheoccurrencethereof. cralaw

(2)Allcases involvingthe constitution ality of a treaty, internationalorexecutive agreement,or

law, which shallbe heard by the SupremeCourt en banc, and allother cases which underthe
Rulesof Court are requiredto be heard en banc, including those involvingthe constitu tionality,
application, oroperation of presidentialdecrees, proclamations,orders,instructions, ordinances,
andother regulations,shallbe decided with the concurrence of a majorityof the Memberswho
actuallytookpartinthedeliberationsontheissuesinthecaseandvotedthereon. cralaw

(3)Casesormatters heardby a divisionshallbe decided orresolvedwith the concurrence of a

the required numberis not obtained, the case shall be decided en banc: Provided, that no
doctrine orprincipleof law laiddown by the court ina decision rendered en banc or in division
maybemodifiedorreversedexceptbythecourtsitting enbanc.

Section5.TheSupremeCourtshallhavethefollowingpowers: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

1) Exercise original jurisdiction over cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and
consuls, and over petitions for certiorari , prohibition, mandamus, quo warranto , and habeas
(2)Review,revise,reverse,modify,oraffirmonappealorcertiorari ,asthe laworthe Rulesof
Courtmayprovide,finaljudgmentsandordersoflowercourtsin: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

(a) Allcases in which the constitutionality or validity of any treaty, international or executive
agreement,law, presidentialdecree, proclamation,order,instruction, ordinance, orregulationis
(b) All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty
(d)Allcriminalcasesinwhichthepenaltyimposedis reclusionperpetua orhigher.
(3) Assign temporarilyjudges of lower courts to other stations as public interest mayrequire.
Such temporary assignment shall not exceed six months without the co nsent of the judge
(5) Promulgate rules concerning the protection and enforcement of constitutional rights,
pleading, practice, and procedure in all courts, the admission to the practice of law, the
integrated bar,andlegalassistance tothe underprivileged.Such rulesshallprovidea simplified
andinexpensiveprocedure for the speedy dispositionof cases, shallbe uniformfor allcourts of
the samegrade,andshallnotdiminish,increase, ormodifysubstantive rights.Rulesofprocedure
of special courts and quasijudicial bodies shall remain effective unless disapproved by the
(6) Appoint all officials and employees of the Judiciary in accordance with the CivilService
Section 6. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the
court unlessheisanaturalborncitizen of the Philippines.AMemberof the SupremeCourtmust
beat least forty yearsof age, andmusthave beenforfifteen years ormore,ajudgeof alower
courtorengagedinthepracticeoflawinthePhilippines. cralaw

(2)The Congressshallprescribethe qualifications of judgesof lowercourts, but nopersonmay


(3) A Memberof the Judiciary mustbe a person of proven competence, integrity, probity, and
independence. cralaw
Section 8.(1)AJudicialandBarCouncilisherebycreated underthe supervisionof the Supreme
Court composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman,the Secretary of Justice, and a
representative of the Congressasexofficio Members,a representative of the Integrated Bar,a
professor of law, a retired Memberof the SupremeCourt, and a representative of the private
sector. cralaw

(2) The regularmembersof the Council shallbe appointed by the President for a termof four
yearswiththe consent of the CommissiononAppointments.Ofthe Membersfirstappointed, the
representative of the Integrated Barshall serve for four years, the professor of law for three
years, the retired Justice for two years, and the representative of the private sector for one
year. cralaw

(3)TheClerkoftheSupremeCourtshallbetheSecretary exofficiooftheCouncilandshallkeep
arecordofitsproceedings. cralaw

(4)TheregularMembersof the Councilshallreceive such emolumentsas maybedeterminedby

the SupremeCourt. The SupremeCourt shallprovideinits annualbudget the appropriationsfor
theCouncil. cralaw

(5)The Councilshallhave the principalfunction of recommendingappointees to the Judiciary.It

mayexercisesuchotherfunctionsanddutiesastheSupremeCourtmayassigntoit. cralaw

Section 9.The Membersofthe SupremeCourtandjudgesofthe lowercourts shallbeappointed

by the President froma list of at least three nomineespreparedby the Judicialand BarCouncil
foreveryvacancy.Suchappointmentsneednoconfirmation. cralaw

For the lower courts, the President shall issue the appointments within ninety days fromthe
submissionofthelist. cralaw

Section 10.The salaryof the ChiefJustice andof the Associate Justices of the SupremeCourt,
and of judges of lower courts, shall be fixed by law. Duringtheir continuance in office, their
salaryshallnotbedecreased. cralaw

Section 11. The Members of the SupremeCourt and judges of lower courts shall hold office
during good behavior until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to
discharge the duties of their office. The Supreme Court en banc shall have the power to
disciplinejudgesof lowercourts, orordertheirdismissalbyavote of amajorityof the Members
whoactuallytookpartinthedeliberationsontheissuesinthecaseandvotedthereon. cralaw

Section 12.The Membersof the SupremeCourtandof other courts established bylawshallnot

bedesignatedtoanyagencyperformingquasijudicialoradministrativefunctions. cralaw

Section 13. The conclusions of the SupremeCourt in any case submitted to it for decision en
bancorindivisionshallbe reached inconsultation before the case isassigned to a Memberfor
the writingof the opinionof the Court. A certification to this effect signedby the ChiefJustice
shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the
parties. AnyMemberswhotooknopart, ordissented, orabstained fromadecisionorresolution,
muststate the reasontherefor. The samerequirementsshallbe observed by alllowercollegiate
courts. cralaw
Section 14. No decision shall be rendered by any court without expressingtherein clearly and
distinctlythefactsandthelawonwhichitisbased. cralaw

No petition for review or motionfor reconsideration of a decision of the court shallbe refused
duecourseordeniedwithoutstatingthelegalbasistherefor. cralaw

Section 15. (1) All cases or matters filed after the effectivity of this Constitution must be
decided orresolved within twentyfour monthsfromdate of submissionfor the SupremeCourt,
and, unless reduced by the SupremeCourt, twelve months for all lower collegiate courts, and
threemonthsforallotherlowercourts. cralaw

(2) A case ormatter shallbe deemedsubmittedfor decision orresolutionuponthe filingof the

lastpleading,brief,ormemorandumrequiredbytheRulesofCourtorbythecourtitself. cralaw

(3) Upon the expirationof the correspondingperiod,a certification to this effect signedby the
ChiefJustice orthe presidingjudgeshallforthwith beissuedandacopy thereof attached to the
record of the case or matter, and served upon the parties. The certification shallstate why a
decisionorresolutionhasnotbeenrenderedorissuedwithinsaidperiod. cralaw

(4) Despite the expirationof the applicable mandatory period, the court, without prejudice to
such responsibilityas mayhave been incurred in consequence thereof, shalldecide or resolve
thecaseormattersubmittedtheretofordetermination,withoutfurtherdelay. cralaw

Section 16.The SupremeCourtshall,withinthirty days fromthe openingofeach regularsession

of the Congress, submitto the President and the Congress an annualreport on the operations

Section 1. The Constitutional Commissions, which shall be independent, are the Civil Service
Section 2. No memberof a Constitutional Commissionshall, duringhis tenure, hold any other
office oremployment.Neithershallhe engage inthe practice of any profession orinthe active
managementorcontrol of any businesswhich, inany way, maybeaffected by the functions of
hisoffice, norshallhebe financiallyinterested, directly orindirectly, inany contract with, orin
any franchise or privilege granted by the Government, any of its subdivisions, agencies, or
instrumentalities,includinggovernmentownedorcontrolledcorporationsortheirsubsidiaries. cralaw

Section. 3.The salaryof the Chairmanandthe Commissionersshallbefixedbylawandshallnot

bedecreasedduringtheirtenure. cralaw

Section 4. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in
accordancewithlaw. cralaw

Section 5. The Commissionshall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Their approved annual appropriations
shallbeautomaticallyandregularlyreleased. cralaw

Section 6. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and
practice before it orbefore any of its offices. Such rules,however, shallnot diminish,increase,
ormodifysubstantiverights. cralaw
Section 7. Each Commissionshall decide by a majority vote of all its Members, any case or
matter brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or
resolution.Acase ormatterisdeemedsubmittedfordecision orresolutionuponthe filingof the
last pleading, brief, or memorandumrequired by the rules of the Commission or by the
Commissionitself. Unlessotherwise providedby this Constitution orby law, any decision, order,
or ruling of each Commissionmay be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the
aggrievedpartywithinthirtydaysfromreceiptofacopythereof. cralaw

Section 1. (1) The civil service shallbe administeredby the CivilService Commissioncomposed
of a Chairmanand two Commissioners who shallbe naturalborn citizens of the Philippinesand,
at the time of their appointment, at least thirtyfive years of age, with proven capacity for
public administration, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the
(2)TheChairmanandthe Commissionersshallbeappointedbythe Presidentwiththe consent of
the CommissiononAppointmentsforatermofseven yearswithout reappointment.Ofthose first
appointed, the Chairmanshall hold office for seven years, a Commissionerfor five years, and
anotherCommissionerforthree years, without reappointment.Appointmentto anyvacancy shall
beonlyforthe unexpiredtermof the predecessor. Innocase shallanyMemberbeappointed or
designatedinatemporaryoractingcapacity. cralaw

Section 2. (1) The civil service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and
agencies ofthe Government,includinggovernmentownedorcontrolledcorporations withoriginal
charters. cralaw

(2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to meritand fitness to be
determined, as far as practicable, and, except to positions which are policydetermining,
primarilyconfidential,orhighlytechnical,bycompetitiveexamination. cralaw

(3) Noofficer or employeeof the civil service shallbe removedor suspended except for cause
providedbylaw. cralaw

(4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any
electioneeringorpartisanpoliticalcampaign. cralaw

(5)Therighttoselforganizationshallnotbedeniedtogovernmentemployees. cralaw

(6)Temporaryemployees of the Governmentshallbe givensuch protection as maybe provided

bylaw. cralaw

Section 3. The CivilService Commission, as the central personnel agency of the Government,
shall esta blish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity,
responsiveness, progressiveness, and courtesy inthe civil service. It shallstrengthen the merit
and rewards system, integrate all human resources development programs for all levels and
ranks, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public acc ountability. It shall
submittothePresidentandtheCongressanannualreportonitspersonnelprograms. cralaw
Section 4. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and
defendthisConstitution. cralaw

Section 5. The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government
officials and employees, including those in governmentowned or controlled corporations with
originalcharters, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the
qualificationsrequiredfor,theirpositions. cralaw

Section 6. Nocandidate who has lost inany election shall,withinone year after such election,
be appointed to any office in the Government or any Governmentowned or controlled
corporationsorinanyoftheirsubsidiaries. cralaw

Section 7. Noelective official shallbe eligiblefor appointmentordesignation inany capacity to

anypublicofficeorpositionduringhistenure. cralaw

Unlessotherwise allowedbylaworbythe primaryfunctions of hisposition,noappointiveofficial

shall hold any other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision, agency or
instrumentality thereof, including Governmentowned or controlled corporations or their

Section 8.Noelect iveorappointivepublicofficer oremployeeshallreceive additional,double,or

indirect co mpensation,unlessspecifica llyauthorized by law, noraccept without the consent of
theCongress,anypresent,emolument,office,ortitleofanykindfromanyforeigngovernment. cralaw

Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six
Commissionerswho shall be naturalborn citizens of the Philippinesand, at the time of their
appointment, at least thirtyfive years of age, holdersof a college degree, and mustnot have
been candidates for any elective positions in the immediatelypreceding elections. However, a
majoritythereof, includingthe Chairman, shallbe membersof the PhilippineBarwho have been
(2)TheChairmanandthe Commissionersshallbeappointedbythe Presidentwiththe consent of
the CommissiononAppointmentsforatermofseven yearswithout reappointment.Ofthose first
appointed, three Membersshallholdoffice forseven years, two Membersforfive years, andthe
last Membersforthree years, without reappointment.Appointmentto any vacancy shallbeonly
for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or
designatedinatemporaryoractingcapacity. cralaw

Sec.2.TheCommissiononElectionsshallexercisethefollowingpowersandfunctions: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

(1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election,
(2)Exerciseexclusiveoriginaljurisdictionoverallcontests relatingto the elections, returns,and
qualifications of allelective regional,provincial,andcity officials, andappellate jurisdictionover
allco ntests involvingelective municipalofficials decided bytrialcourts of generaljurisdiction,or
involvingelectivebarangayofficialsdecidedbytrialcourtsoflimitedjurisdiction. cralaw

Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the Commissionon election contests involving elective
municipalandbarangayofficesshallbefinal,executory,andnotappealable. cralaw
(3) Decide, except those involvingthe rightto vote, allquestions affecting elections, including
determinationof the numberandlocat ionof pollingplaces, appointmentof election officials and
inspectors,andregistrationofvoters. cralaw

(4) Deputize, with the concurrenc e of the President, law enforcement agencies and
instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the
exclusivepurposeofensuringfree,orderly,honest,peaceful,andcredibleelections. cralaw

(5) Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organizations, or coalitions which, in
addition to other requirements, must present their platform or program of government and
accredit citizens' armsof the Commissionon Elections. Religiousdenominationsand sects shall
not be registered. Those which seek to achieve theirgoalsthroughviolence orunlawfulmeans,
or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreign
governmentshalllikewiseberefusedregistration. cralaw

Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties,
organizations, coalitions, or candidates related to elections, constitute interference in national
affairs, and, when accepted, shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their
registrationwiththeCommission,inadditiontootherpenaltiesthatmaybeprescribedbylaw. cralaw

(6) File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for inclusion or
exclusionofvoters investigate and,whereappropriate,prosecute cases ofviolationsofelection
laws,includingactsoromissionsconstitutingelectionfrauds,offenses,andmalpractices. cralaw

(7) Recommend to the Congress effe ctive measures to minimizeelection spending, including
limitationof places where propagandamaterialsshallbe posted, andto prevent andpenalizeall
formsofelectionfrauds,offenses,malpractices,andnuisancecandidacies. cralaw

(8)Recommendto the President the removalof any officer oremployeeit hasdeputized, orthe
impositionof any other disciplinaryaction, for violation or disregardof, or disobedience to, its
directive,order,ordecision. cralaw

(9) Submitto the President and the Congress, a comprehensivereport on the conduct of each
election,plebiscite,initiative,referendum,orrecall. cralaw

Section 3.The CommissiononElectionsmaysitenbanc orintwo divisions,andshallpromulgate

its rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases, including pre
proclamation contr oversies. All such election cases shall be heard and decided in division,
provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions shall be decided by the Commission en
Section 4.The Commissionmay,duringthe election period,superviseorregulatethe enjoyment
or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public
utilities, media of communicationor information, all grants, special privileges, or concessions
granted by the Governmentorany subdivision,agency, orinstrumentalitythereof, includingany
aimto ensureequalopportunity, and equalrates therefor, for publicinformation campaignsand
forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest,
peaceful,andcredibleelections. cralaw
Section 5.Nopardon,amnesty, parole,orsuspensionof sentence forviolationof election laws,
rules,andregulationsshallbegrantedbythe Presidentwithout the favorablerecommendationof
theCommission. cralaw

Section 6.Afreeandopenparty syste mshallbeallowedto evolve according to the freechoice

ofthepeople,subjecttotheprovisionsofthisArticle. cralaw

Section 7. No votes cast in favor of a political party, organization, or coalition shall be valid,
exceptforthoseregisteredunderthepartylistsystemasprovidedinthisConstitution. cralaw

Section 8. Political parties, ororganizationsorcoalitions registered underthe partylist system,

shallnot berepresented inthe voters' registrationboards,boardsof election inspectors, boards
ofca nvassers, orothersimilarbodies.However,they shallbeentitled to appointpollwatchers in
accordancewithlaw. cralaw

Section 9. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commissioninspecial cases, the election periodshall
commenceninetydaysbeforethedayofelectionandshallendthirtydaysthereafter. cralaw

Section10. Bonafidecandidates forany publicoffice shallbe free fromany formof harassment

anddiscrimination. cralaw

Section 11. Funds certified by the Commissionas necessary to defray the expenses for holding
regularand special elections, plebiscites, initiatives, referenda, and recalls, shallbe providedin
the regular or spec ial appropriationsand, once approved, shall be released automatically upon
Section 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two
Commissioners,who shall be naturalborn citizens of the Philippinesand, at the time of their
appointment, at least thirtyfive years of age, Certified Public Accountants with not less than
ten yearsofauditingexperience,ormembersofthe PhilippineBarwhohavebeenengagedinthe
practice of law for at least ten years, and must not have been candidates for any elective
positioninthe elect ionsimmediatelyprecedingtheirappointment.At notimeshallallMembersof
(2)TheChairmanandthe Commissionersshallbeappointedbythe Presidentwiththe consent of
the CommissiononAppointmentsforatermofseven yearswithout reappointment.Ofthose first
appointed, the Chairmanshallholdoffice for seven years, one Commissioner for five years, and
the other Commissionerfor three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy
shall be only for the unexpiredportion of the term of the predecessor. In no case shall any
Memberbeappointedordesignatedinatemporaryoractingcapacity. cralaw

Section 2. (1) The Commissionon Audit shallhave the power, authority, and duty to examine,
audit, and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of, and expenditures or
uses of fundsandproperty, owned orheldintrust by, orpertainingto, the Government,orany
of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including governmentowned or controlled
corporations with original charters, and on a post audit basis: (a) co nstitutional bodies,
commissionsand offices that have been granted fiscal autonomy under this Constitution (b)
autonomous state colleges and universities (c) other governmentowned or controlled
corporations andtheirsubsidiariesand(d) such nongovernmentalentities receiving subsidyor
equity, directly orindirectly, fromorthroughthe Government,which are requiredby law orthe
grantinginstitution to submitto such audit as a condition of subsidyorequity. However, where
the internal control system of the audited agencies is inadequate, the Commissionmay adopt
such measures, includingtemporary or special preaudit, as are necessary and appropriate to
correct the deficiencies. It shall keep the general accounts of the Governmentand, for such
periodasmaybeprovidedbylaw,preservethe vouchers andothersupportingpaperspertaining
thereto. cralaw

(2) The Commissionshallhave exclusive authority, subject to the limitationsin this Article, to
define the scope of its audit and examination,establish the techniques and methods required
therefor, and promulgateaccounting and auditingrulesand regulations, includingthose for the
prevention and disallowance of irregular, unnecessary, excessive, extravagant, or
unconscionableexpendituresorusesofgovernmentfundsandproperties. cralaw

Section 3. Nolaw shallbe passed exemptingany entity of the Governmentorits subsidiariesin

any guise whatever , or any investment of public funds, fromthe jurisdiction of the Commission
onAudit. cralaw

Section 4.The Commissionshallsubmitto the President andthe Congress,withinthe timefixed

by law, an annualreport covering the financial condition and operation of the Government,its
subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including governmentowned or controlled
corporations, and nongovernmental entities subject to its audit, and recommend measures
necessary to improvetheir effectiven ess and efficiency. It shall submitsuch other reports as

Section 1. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippinesare the
provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays. There shall be autonomous regions in Muslim
Section2.Theterritorialandpoliticalsubdivisionsshallenjoylocalautonomy. cralaw

Section 3. The Congress shall enact a local government code which shall provide for a more
responsive and accountable local government structure instituted through a system of
decentralization with effective mechanismsof recall, initiative, and referendum,allocate among
the different localgovernmentunitstheirpowers, responsibilities,andresources, andprovidefor
the qualifications, election, appointment and removal,term,salaries, powers and functions and
duties of local officials, and allother matters relating to the organization and operation of the
localunits. cralaw

Section 4. The President of the Philippines shall exercise general supervision over local
governments. Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities, and cities and
municipalities with respect to component barangays, shall ensure that the acts of their
componentunitsarewithinthescopeoftheirprescribedpowersandfunctions. cralaw

Section 5. Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of
revenues and to levy taxes, fees and charges subject to such guidelinesand limitationsas the
Congressmayprovide,consistent withthe basic policyoflocalautonomy.Such taxes, fees, and
chargesshallaccrueexclusivelytothelocalgovernments. cralaw

Section 6.Local governmentunitsshallhave ajust share,as determinedbylaw, inthe national

taxeswhichshallbeautomaticallyreleasedtothem. cralaw
Section 7. Local governments shall be entitled to an equitable share in the proceeds of the
utilization and development of the national wealth within their respective areas, inthe manner
providedbylaw,includingsharingthesamewiththeinhabitantsbywayofdirectbenefits. cralaw

Section 8.The termof office of elective local officials, except barangayofficials, which shallbe
determined by law, shall be three years and no such official shall serve for morethan three
consecutive terms. Voluntary renunciation of the office for any length of time shall not be
considered as an interruptioninthe continuity of hisservice for the fulltermfor which he was
elected. cralaw

Section 9. Legislative bodiesof local governmentsshallhave sectoral representation as maybe

prescribedbylaw. cralaw

Section 10. No province, city, municipality, or barangay may be created, divided, merged,
abolished, or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria
inaplebisciteinthepoliticalunitsdirectlyaffected. cralaw

Section 11.The Congressmay,bylaw,create special metropolitanpoliticalsubdivisions,subject

to a plebiscite as set forth inSection 10 hereof. The component cities and municipalitiesshall
retain their basic autonomy and shall be entitled to their own local executive and legislative
assemblies.The jurisdiction of the metropolitan authority that willthereby be created shall be
limitedtobasicservicesrequiringcoordination. cralaw

Section 12.Cities that arehighlyurbanized,as determinedby law, andcomponent cities whose

charters prohibittheirvoters fromvotingforprovincialelective officials, shallbe independent of
the province. The voters of component cities withinaprovince, whose charters contain nosuch
prohibition,shallnotbedeprivedoftheirrighttovoteforelectiveprovincialofficials. cralaw

Section 13. Local government units may group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their
efforts, services, and resources for purposes commonlybeneficial to them in accordance with
law. cralaw

Section 14.The President shallprovidefor regionaldevelopmentcouncils orother similarbodies

composed of local government officials, regional heads of departments and other government
offices, andrepresentatives fromnongovernmentalorganizationswithinthe regionsforpurposes
of administrative decentralization to strengthen the autonomy of the units therein and to
Section 15.There shallbecreated autonomousregionsinMuslimMindanaoandinthe Cordilleras
consisting of provinces, cities, municipalities, and geographical areas sharing common and
distinctive historical and cultural heritage, economic and social structures, and other relevant
characteristics withinthe frameworkof this Constitution andthe nationalsovereignty as wellas
Section 16. The President shallexercise generalsupervisionover autonomous regionsto ensure
thatlawsarefaithfullyexecuted. cralaw

Section 17.Allpowers, functions, andresponsibilitiesnot granted by this Constitution orby law

totheautonomousregionsshallbevestedintheNationalGovernment. cralaw
Section 18. The Congress shall enact an organic act for each autonomous region with the
assistance and participation of the regional consultative commission composed of
representatives appointed by the President froma list of nomineesfrommultisectoral bodies.
The organic act shalldefine the basic structure of governmentfor the regionconsisting of the
executive department and legislative assembly, both of which shall be elective and
representative of the constituent political units. The organic acts shall likewise provide for
special co urts with personal,family,and property law jurisdictionconsistent with the provisions
ofthisConstitutionandnationallaws. cralaw

The creat ion of the autonomous region shall be effective when approved by majority of the
votes cas t by the constituent units in a plebiscite called for the purpose, provided that only
autonomousregion. cralaw

Section 19.The firstCongresselected underthisConstitution shall,withineighteenmonthsfrom

the timeof organization of both Houses, pass the organic acts for the autonomous regions in
MuslimMindanaoandtheCordilleras. cralaw

Section 20.Withinits territorialjurisdictionandsubject to the provisionsofthisConstitution and

nationallaws,theorganicactofautonomousregionsshallprovideforlegislativepowersover: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary


Section 21. The preservation of peace andorderwithinthe regionsshallbe the responsibilityof

the local police agencies which shall be organized, maintained, supervised, and utilized in
accordance with applicable laws. The defense and security of the regions shall be the
Section 1. Public office is a public trust. Public officers and employees must, at all times, be
accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty, and
Section 2. The President, the VicePresident, the Membersof the SupremeCourt, the Members
of the Constitutional Commissions, and the Ombudsman may be removed from office on
impeachmentfor,andconviction of, culpableviolationofthe Constitution, treason, bribery,graft
and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of public trust. All other public officers and
employeesmayberemovedfromofficeasprovidedbylaw,butnotbyimpeachment. cralaw

Section 3.(1)The Houseof Representatives shallhave the exclusive powerto initiate allcases
ofimpeachment. cralaw
(2) A verified complaint for impeachment may be filed by any Member of the House of
Representatives or by any citizen upon a resolution or endorsement by any Member thereof,
which shall be included in the Order of Business within ten session days, and referred to the
properCommitteewithinthree session days thereafter. The Committee,after hearing,andby a
majorityvote of allits Members,shallsubmitits report to the House within sixty session days
fromsuchreferral,together withthe correspondingresolution.The resolutionshallbecalendared
forconsiderationbytheHousewithintensessiondaysfromreceiptthereof. cralaw

(3) A vote of at least onethird of all the Membersof the House shall be necessary either to
affirma favorable resolutionwith the Articles of Impeachmentof the Committee,oroverrideits
contraryresolution.ThevoteofeachMembershallberecorded. cralaw

(4)Incase the verifiedcomplaintorresolutionofimpeachmentisfiledbyat least onethirdofall

the Membersof the House, the sameshallconstitute the Articles of Impeachment,and trialby
theSenateshallforthwithproceed. cralaw

(5) No impeachment proceedings shall be initiated against the same offic ial more than once
withinaperiodofoneyear. cralaw

(6) The Senate shall have the sole power to try and decide all cases of impeachment.When
sitting forthat purpose,the Senators shallbeonoath oraffirmation.Whenthe President of the
Philippinesisontrial,the ChiefJustice ofthe SupremeCourtshallpreside,but shallnot vote. No
person shall be co nvicted without the concurrence of twothirds of all the Members of the
Senate. cralaw

(7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than removalfromoffice and
disqualificationto holdany office underthe Republicof the Philippines,but the party convicted
shallneverthelessbeliableandsubjecttoprosecution,trial,andpunishment,accordingtolaw. cralaw

(8)The Congressshallpromulgateits rulesonimpeachmentto effectively carry out the purpose

ofthissection. cralaw

Section 4. The present antigraft court knownas the Sandiganbayanshallcontinue to function

andexerciseitsjurisdictionasnoworhereaftermaybeprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Section 5.There isherebycreated theindependentOffice of the Ombudsman,composedof the

Ombudsmanto be knownas Tanodbay an, one overallDeputy and at least one Deputy each for
Luzon,Visayas, andMindanao.Aseparate Deputyforthe militaryestablishmentmaylikewisebe
appointed. cralaw

shallbeappointedbytheOmbudsman,accordingtotheCivilServiceLaw. cralaw

Section 7. The existing Tanodbayan shall hereafter be known as the Office of the Special
Prosecutor. It shall continue to function and exercise its powers as now or hereafter may be
provided by law, except those conferred on the Office of the Ombudsmancreated under this
Constitution. cralaw

Section 8.The OmbudsmanandhisDeputiesshallbenaturalborncitizens ofthe Philippines,and

at the time of their appointment, at least forty years old, of recognized probity and
independence, and membersof the PhilippineBar,and must not have been candidates for any
elective office inthe immediatelyprecedingelection. The Ombudsmanmusthave, for ten years
ormore,beenajudgeorengagedinthepracticeoflawinthePhilippines. cralaw

During their tenure, they shall be subject to the same disqualifications and prohibitions as
providedforinSection2ofArticle1XAofthisConstitution. cralaw

Section 9.The OmbudsmanandhisDeputiesshallbeappointedbythe Presidentfromalistofat

least sixnomineespreparedbythe JudicialandBarCouncil,andfromalistof three nomineesfor
every vacancy thereafter. Such appointments shall requireno confirmation. Allvacancies shall
befilledwithinthreemonthsaftertheyoccur. cralaw

Section 10. The Ombudsmanand his Deputies shall have the rank of Chairmanand Members,
respectively, of the Constitutional Commissions,and they shall receive the same salary which
shallnotbedecreasedduringtheirtermofoffice. cralaw

Section 11. The Ombudsmanand his Deputies shall serve for a term of seven years without
reappointment. They shall not be qualified to run for any office in the election immediately
succeedingtheircessationfromoffice. cralaw

Section 12.The OmbudsmanandhisDeputies,asprotectors ofthe people,shallact promptlyon

complaintsfiledinanyformormanneragainstpublicofficials oremployeesofthe Government,or
any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including governmentowned or controlled
corporations, and shall, in appropriate cases, notify the complainants of the action taken and
theresultthereof. cralaw

Section 13. The Office of the Ombudsmanshall have the following powers, functions, and
duties: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

(1) Investigate on its own, or on complaint by any person, any act or omissionof any public
official, employee, office or agency, when such act or omissionappears to be illegal,unjust,
(2) Direct, upon complaint or at its own instance, any public official or employee of the
Government, or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, as well as of any
governmentowned or controlled corporation with originalcharter, to performand expedite any
act or duty required by law, or to stop, prevent, and correct any abuse or improprietyin the
performanceofduties. cralaw

(3) Direct the officer concerned to take appropriateaction against a publicofficial oremployee
at fault, and recommendhis removal,suspension, demotion,fine, censure, or prosecution, and
ensurecompliancetherewith. cralaw

(4)Directthe officer concerned, inanyappropriatecase, andsubject to such limitationsasmay

be providedby law, to furnishit with copies of documents relatingto contr acts ortransactions
entered into by his office involvingthe disbursementor use of public funds or properties, and
reportanyirregularitytotheCommissiononAuditforappropriateaction. cralaw

(5) Request any governmentagency for assistance and informationnecessa ry inthe discharge
ofitsresponsibilities,andtoexamine,ifnecessary,pertinentrecordsanddocuments. cralaw
(6) Publicize matters covered by its investigation when circumstances so warrant and with due
prudence. cralaw

(7)Determinethe causes of inefficiency, redtape, mismanagement,fraud,andcorruptioninthe

Government and make recommendations for their elimination and the observance of high
standardsofethicsandefficiency. cralaw

(8)Promulgateits rulesof procedure andexercise such other powers orperformsuch functions

ordutiesasmaybeprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Section 14. The Office of the Ombudsmanshall enjoy fiscal autonomy. Its approved annual
Section 15.The right of the State to recover propertiesunlawfullyacquiredbypublicofficials or
employees,fromthemorfromtheirnomineesortransferees, shallnot bebarredbyprescription,
laches,orestoppel. cralaw

Section 16. No loan, guaranty, or other form of financial accommodation for any business
purposemaybe granted, directly orindirectly, by any governmentowned orcontrolled bankor
financial institution to the President, the VicePresident, the Members of the Cabinet, the
Congress, the SupremeCourt, and the Constitutional Commissions,the Ombudsman,or to any
firmorentityinwhichtheyhavecontrollinginterest,duringtheirtenure. cralaw

Section 17.Apublicofficer oremployeeshall,uponassumptionof office andas often thereafter

as may be requiredby law, submit a declaration under oath of his assets, liabilities,and net
worth. In the case of the President, the VicePresident, the Members of the Cabinet, the
Congress, the SupremeCourt, the Constitutional Commissionsand other constitutional offices,
and officers of the armedforces with generalorflag rank,the declaration shallbe disclosed to
thepublicinthemannerprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Section 18. Public officers and employees owe the State and this Constitution allegiance at all
times and any public officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or acquire the

Section 1.The goalsof the nationaleconomyarea moreequitable distributionof opportunities,
income,andwealth a sustained increase inthe amountof goods andservices produced by the
nation for the benefit of the people and an expandingproductivity as the key to raisingthe
The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural
development and agrarianreform,through industries that makefulland efficient use of human
and natural resources, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets.
However,the State shallprotect Filipinoenterprisesagainst unfairforeigncompetitionandtrade
practices. cralaw

Inthe pursuitof these goals, allsectors of the economy andallregionsof the country shallbe
givenoptimumopportunity to develop. Private enterprises, includingcorporations, cooperatives,
andsimilarcollectiveorganizations,shallbeencouragedtobroadenthebaseoftheirownership. cralaw
Section 2. All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals,coal, petroleum,and other mineral
oils,allforces ofpotential energy,fisheries,forests ortimber,wildlife,floraandfauna, andother
natural resources are owned by the State. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other
naturalresources shallnot be alienated. The exploration,development,andutilizationof natural
resources shall be under the full control and supervisionof the State. The State maydirectly
undertake such activities, or it may enter into coproduction, joint venture, or production
sharing agreements with Filipino citizens, or corporations or associations at least sixty per
centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. Such agreements maybe for a periodnot
exceeding twentyf ive years, renewable for not morethan twentyfive years, and under such
termsand conditions as maybe provided by law. In cases of water rights for irrigation,water
supply fisheries, or industrialuses other than the development of water power, beneficial use
maybethemeasureandlimitofthegrant. cralaw

The State shallprotect the nation'smarinewealth inits archipelagic waters, territorialsea, and
exclusiveeconomiczone,andreserveitsuseandenjoymentexclusivelytoFilipinocitizens. cralaw

The Congress may, by law, allowsmallscale utilizationof natural resources by Filipinocitizens,

as well as cooperative fish farming,with priorityto subsistence fishermenand fish workers in
rivers,lakes,bays,andlagoons. cralaw

The President may enter into agreements with foreignowned corporations involving either
technical or financial assistance for largescale exploration, development, and utilization of
minerals, petroleum, and other mineral oils according to the general terms and conditions
providedby law, based onrealcontributionsto the economic growth andgeneralwelfare of the
country. In such agreements, the State shall promote the development and use of local
scientificandtechnicalresources. cralaw

The President shallnotify the Congress of every contract entered into inaccordance with this
provision,withinthirtydaysfromitsexecution. cralaw

Section 3. Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, forest or timber,mineral
landsandnationalparks.Agriculturallandsof the publicdomainmaybefurtherclassified by law
according to the uses to which they maybe devoted. Alienablelandsof the publicdomainshall
be limitedto agriculturallands.Private corporations orassociations maynot holdsuch alienable
lands of the public domain except by lease, for a period not exceeding twentyfive years,
renewable for not morethan twenty five years, and not to exceed one thousand hectares in
area. Citizens of the Philippinesmaylease not morethan five hundredhect ares, oracquire not
morethantwelvehectaresthereof,bypurchase,homestead,orgrant. cralaw

the requirementsof agrarianreform,the Congress shalldetermine,by law, the size of lands of
the public domain which may be acquired, developed, held, or leased and the conditions
therefor. cralaw

Section 4. The Congress shall, as soon as possible, determine, by law, the specific limitsof
forest landsandnationalparks,markingclearlytheirboundariesonthe ground.Thereafter, such
forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not be increased nor diminished,
except by law. The Congress shall provide for such period as it may determine, measures to
prohibitlogginginendangeredforestsandwatershedareas. cralaw
Section 5. The State, subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national development
policies and programs, shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to their
ancestrallandstoensuretheireconomic,social,andculturalwellbeing. cralaw

The Congress mayprovide for the applicability of customary laws governing property rights or
relationsindeterminingtheownershipandextentofancestraldomain. cralaw

Section 6.The use of property bearsa social function, andalleconomic agents shallcontribute
to the commongood. Individualsand private groups, includingcorporations, cooperatives, and
similarcollective organizations, shall have the right to own, establish, and operate economic
enterprises, subject to the duty of the State to promote distributive justice and to intervene
whenthecommongoodsodemands. cralaw

Section 7. Save in cases of hereditary succession, no private lands shall be transferred or

conveyed except to individuals,corporations, orassociations qualifiedto acquireorholdlandsof
thepublicdomain. cralaw

Section 8. Notwithstanding the provisionsof Section 7 of this Article, a naturalborn citizen of

the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private lands,
subjecttolimitationsprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Section 9.The Congressmayestablishanindependenteconomicandplanningagency headedby

the President, which shall, after consultations with the appropriate public agencies, various
private sectors, and local governmentunits, recommendto Congress, and implementcontinuing
integratedandcoordinatedprogramsandpoliciesfornationaldevelopment. cralaw

Until the Congress provides otherwise, the National Economic and DevelopmentAuthority shall
functionastheindependentplanningagencyofthegovernment. cralaw

Section 10. The Congress shall, upon recommendationof the economic and planningagency,
when the national interest dictates, reserve to citizens of the Philippinesor to corporations or
associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens, or such
higherpercentage as Congressmayprescribe, certain areas of investments. The Congressshall
enact measures that willencourage the formationand operation of enterprises whose capital is
whollyownedbyFilipinos. cralaw

Inthegrant of rights,privileges,andconcessions coveringthe nationalecon omyandpatrimony,

theStateshallgivepreferencetoqualifiedFilipinos. cralaw

The State shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments within its national
jurisdictionandinaccordancewithitsnationalgoalsandpriorities. cralaw

Section 11. No franchise, certificate, or any other formof authorization for the operation of a
public utility shall be granted except to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or
associations organized under the laws of the Philippines,at least sixty per centum of whose
capital is owned by such citizens nor shall such franchise, certificate, or authorization be
exclusive incharacter orfora longerperiodthan fifty years. Neithershallany such franchise or
rightbegrantedexcept underthe conditionthat itshallbesubject to amendment,alteration, or
repeal by the Congress when the commongood so requires.The State shallencourage equity
participation inpublicutilitiesby the generalpublic.The participation of foreigninvestors inthe
governingbody of any publicutility enterprise shallbe limitedto theirproportionate share inits
capital, and allthe executive and managingofficers of such corporation orassociation mustbe
citizensofthePhilippines. cralaw

Section 12.The State shallpromotethe preferentialuseof Filipinolabor,domestic materialsand

locallyproducedgoods,andadoptmeasuresthathelpmakethemcompetitive. cralaw

Section 13.The State shallpursueatrade policy that serves the generalwelfare andutilizesall
formsandarrangementsofexchangeonthebasisofequalityandreciprocity. cralaw

Section 14. The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino
scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals, managers, highlevel technical manpower and skilled
workers and craftsmen in allfields shallbe promotedby the State. The State shallencourage
appropriatetechnologyandregulateitstransferforthenationalbenefit. cralaw

The practice of allprofessionsinthe Philippinesshallbelimitedto Filipinocitizens, save incases

prescribedbylaw. cralaw

Section 15. The Congress shall create an agency to promote the viability and growth of
cooperativesasinstrumentsforsocialjusticeandeconomicdevelopment. cralaw

Section 16. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation,
organization,orregulationof private corporations.Governmentownedorcontrolled corporations
may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and
subjecttothetestofeconomicviability. cralaw

Section 17.Intimesofnationalemergency,whenthe publicinterest sorequires,the State may,

during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take over or
direct the operation of any privatelyowned public utility or business affected with public
interest. cralaw

Section 18.The State may,inthe interest of nationalwelfare ordefense, establishandoperate

vital industries and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership utilities
andotherprivateenterprisestobeoperatedbytheGovernment. cralaw

Section 19.The State shallregulateorprohibitmonopolieswhen the publicinterest so requires.

Nocombinationsinrestraintoftradeorunfaircompetitionshallbeallowed. cralaw

Section 20. The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary authority, the
membersof whose governing board must be naturalborn Filipino citizens, of known probity,
integrity, and patriotism, the majorityof whomshall come fromthe private sector. They shall
also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilitiesas may be prescribed by law. The
authority shallprovidepolicy direction inthe areas of money,banking,and credit. It shallhave
supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be
provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing
similarfunctions. cralaw

Until the Congress otherwise provides, the Central Bank of the Philippines operating under
existinglaws,shallfunctionasthecentralmonetaryauthority. cralaw
Section 21.Foreignloansmayonlybeincurredinaccordance with lawandthe regulationof the
bemadeavailabletothepublic. cralaw

Section 22. Acts which circumvent or negate any of the provisions of this Article shall be
consideredinimicalto the nationalinterest andsubject to criminalandcivilsanctions, asmaybe
Section 1. The Congress shallgive highest priorityto the enactment of measuresthat protect
andenhance the rightof allthe peopleto humandignity, reduce social, economic, andpolitical
inequalities, and removecultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for
To thisend,the State shallregulatetheacquisition, ownership,use, anddispositionof property
anditsincrements. cralaw

Section 2. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitmentto create economic

Section 3. The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and
It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to selforganization, collect ive bargaining and
negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, includingthe rightto strikeinaccordance with
law. They shallbe entitled to security of tenure, humaneconditions of work,anda livingwage.
They shall also participate in policy and decisionmaking processes affect ing their rights and
benefitsasmaybeprovidedbylaw. cralaw

The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers
andthe preferentialuse of voluntary modesinsettling disputes, includingconciliation, andshall
enforcetheirmutualcompliancetherewithtofosterindustrialpeace. cralaw

The State shallregulate the relations between workersand employers,recognizingthe rightof

labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable

Section 4.The State shall,bylaw,undertakeanagrarianreformprogramfoundedonthe rightof
farmersandregularfarmworkerswho arelandless,to own directly orcollect ivelythe landsthey
the State shallencourage andundertakethe just distributionof allagriculturallands,subject to
ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just
compensation. In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the right of small
Section 5. The State shallrecognize the rightof farmers,farmworkers,andlandowners,as well
as cooperatives, and other independent farmers'organizations to participate in the planning,
organization, and managementof the program,and shallprovidesupport to agriculture through
appropriate technol ogy and research, and adequate financial, production, marketing,and other
supportservices. cralaw
Section 6. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever
applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources,
includinglandsof the publicdomainunderlease orconcession suitableto agriculture,subject to
priorrights, homesteadrightsof smallsettlers, andthe rightsof indigenouscommunitiesto their
ancestrallands. cralaw

The State mayresettle landless farmers and farmworkersin its own agricultural estates which
shallbedistributedtotheminthemannerprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Section 7. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local
communities,to the preferential use of the communalmarineand fishingresources, both inland
and offshore. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and
research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other services. The
State shallalso protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The protection shallextend to
offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. Fishworkers shall
receiveajustsharefromtheirlaborintheutilizationofmarineandfishingresources. cralaw

Section 8. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the
agrarianreformprogramto promote industrialization, employmentcreation, and privatization of
publicsec tor enterprises. Financialinstrumentsusedas paymentfortheirlandsshallbehonored
Section 9.The State shall,bylaw,andforthe commongood,undertake,incooperation withthe
private sector, a continuing programof urbanlandreformandhousingwhich willmakeavailable
at affordable cost, decent housingandbasic services to underprivilegedandhomelesscitizens
in urban centers and resettlement areas. It shall also promote adequate employment
opportunitiesto such citizens. Inthe implementationofsuch programthe State shallrespect the
Section 10. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished,
exceptinaccordancewithlawandinajustandhumanemanner. cralaw

No resettlement of urban or ruraldwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation

Section 11. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health
development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services
availabletoallthe peopleat affordable cost. There shallbepriorityforthe needs of the under
privileged,sick, elderly,disabled,women,andchildren.The State shallendeavor to providefree
Section 12.The State shallestablish andmaintainaneffective food anddrugregulatorysystem
and undertake appropriate health, manpower development, and research, responsive to the
country'shealthneedsandproblems. cralaw

Section 13.The State shallestablishaspecial agency fordisabledpersonfortheirrehabilitation,


Section 14. The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working
conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities
that willenhance theirwelfareandenablethemto realizetheirfullpotential inthe service ofthe

Section 15.The State shallrespect the roleof independentpeople'sorganizationsto enablethe
people to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework,their legitimateand collective
People's organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to
promotethepublicinterestandwithidentifiableleadership,membership,andstructure. cralaw

Section 16. The right of the people and their organizations to effect ive and reasonable
participation at alllevels of social, political, andeconomic decisionmakingshallnot beabridged.

Section 17.(1) There ishereby created an independent office called the Commissionon Human
(2) The Commissionshallbe composed of a Chairmanand four Memberswho must be natural
borncitizens of the Philippinesandamajorityof whomshallbemembersof the Bar.The termof
office andotherqualificationsanddisabilitiesofthe Membersofthe Commissionshallbeprovided
bylaw. cralaw

(3) Until this Commissionis constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on HumanRights
shallcontinuetoexerciseitspresentfunctionsandpowers. cralaw

(4) The approved annualappropriations of the Commissionshall be automatically and regularly

released. cralaw

Section18.TheCommissiononHumanRightsshallhavethefollowingpowersandfunctions: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

(1) Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all formsof humanrights violations

(2) Adopt its operational guidelinesand rulesof procedure, and cite for contempt for violations

(3) Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of humanrights of allpersons within
the Philippines,aswellasFilipinosresidingabroad,andprovideforpreventivemeasuresandlegal


(5) Establish a continuingprogramof research, education, and informationto enhance respect


(6) Recommend to Congress effective measures to promote humanrights and to provide for


(8) Grant immunityfrom prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose possession of
documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to determine the truth in any

(9) Request the assistance of any department, bureau,office, oragency inthe performanceof

(10)Appointitsofficersandemployeesinaccordancewithlawand cralaw

(11)Performsuchotherdutiesandfunctionsasmaybeprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Section 19.The Congressmayprovideforother cases of violationsof humanrightsthat should


Section 1.The State shallprotect andpromotethe rightofallcitizens to qualityeducation at all
Section2.TheStateshall: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

(1) Establish, maintain,and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education

(2) Establishandmaintain,a system of free publiceducation inthe elementaryandhighschool

levels. Without limitingthe naturalrights of parents to reartheirchildren,elementaryeducation

(3)Establishandmaintainasystemofscholarshipgrants, student loanprograms,subsidies,and

other incentives which shall be available to deserving students in both public and private

(4) Encourage nonformal, informal,and indigenous learningsystems, as well as selflearning,

independent, and outofschool study programsparticularly those that respond to community
needsand cralaw

(5) Provide adult citizens, the disabled, and outofschool youth with training in civics,
vocationalefficiency,andotherskills. cralaw

Section 3. (1) Alleducational institutions shallinclude the study of the Constitution as part of
thecurricula. cralaw

(2) They shallinculcate patriotismand nationalism,foster love of humanity,respect for human

rights, appreciation of the roleof national heroes inthe historical developmentof the country,
teach the rightsandduties of citizenship, strengthen ethical andspiritualvalues, develop moral
character andpersonaldiscipline,enco uragecritical andcreative thinking,broadenscientific and
technologicalknowledge,andpromotevocationalefficiency. cralaw

(3)At the optionexpressedinwritingbythe parents orguardians,religionshallbeallowedto be

taught to their childrenor wards inpublic elementaryand highschools withinthe regularclass
hoursby instructors designated orapproved by the religiousauthorities of the religionto which
thechildrenorwardsbelong,withoutadditionalcosttotheGovernment. cralaw
Section 4.(1)The State recognizes the complementaryrolesof publicandprivate institutions in
institutions. cralaw

(2)Educational institutions, other thanthose established byreligiousgroupsandmissionboards,

shall be owned solely by citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations at least
sixtypercentum ofthe capital ofwhichisownedbysuch citizens. The Congressmay,however,
requireincreasedFilipinoequityparticipationinalleducationalinstitutions. cralaw

The control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the

Noeducational institution shallbe established exclusively for aliensand no groupof aliensshall

comprisemorethan onethird of the enrollmentinany school. The provisionsof this subsection
shallnot applyto schools established forforeigndiplomaticpersonnelandtheirdependents and,
unlessotherwiseprovidedbylaw,forotherforeigntemporaryresidents. cralaw

(3) All revenues and assets of nonstock, nonprofit educational institutions used actually,
directly, and exclusively for educational purposes shallbe exemptfromtaxes and duties. Upon
the dissolutionorcessation of the corporate existence of such institutions, theirassets shallbe
disposedofinthemannerprovidedbylaw. cralaw

Proprietary educational institutions, including those cooperatively owned, may likewise be

entitled to such exemptions,subject to the limitationsprovidedby law, includingrestrictions on
dividendsandprovisionsforreinvestment. cralaw

(4)Subject to conditionsprescribedby law, allgrants, endowments,donations, orcontributions

usedactually,directly,andexclusivelyforeducationalpurposesshallbeexemptfromtax. cralaw

Section 5.(1)the State shalltake into account regionalandsectoral needs andconditions and
shallencouragelocalplanninginthedevelopmentofeducationalpoliciesandprograms. cralaw

(2)Academicfreedomshallbeenjoyedinallinstitutionsofhigherlearning. cralaw

(3) Every citizen has a right to select a profession or course of study, subject to fair,
reasonable,andequitableadmissionandacademicrequirements. cralaw

(4) The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advance ment. Nonteaching
academicandnonacademicpersonnelshallenjoytheprotectionoftheState. cralaw

(5)The State shallassignthe highestbudgetary priorityto education andensurethat teaching

will attract and retain its rightful share of the best available talents through adequate

Section 14. The State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a
Filipinonationalculture basedonthe principleofunityindiversityinaclimateoffreeartistic and
Section 15. Arts and letters shallenjoy the patronage of the State. The State shallconserve,
promote, and popularizethe nation's historical and cultural heritage and resources, as well as
artisticcreations. cralaw

Section 16.Allthe country's artistic andhistoric wealth constitutes the cultural treasure of the
nationandshallbeundertheprotectionoftheStatewhichmayregulateitsdisposition. cralaw

Section 17. The State shall recognize, respect, and protect the rights of indigenous cultural
communitiesto preserveanddevelop theircultures, traditions, andinstitutions. It shallconsider
theserightsintheformulationofnationalplansandpolicies. cralaw

Section 18. (1) The State shall ensure equal access to cultural opportunities through the
educational system, publicorprivate culturalentities, scholarships, grants andother incentives,
andcommunityculturalcenters,andotherpublicvenues. cralaw


Section 6. The national language of the Philippinesis Filipino.As it evolves, it shall be further
Subject to provisionsof law and as the Congress maydeemappropriate, the Governmentshall
takesteps to initiateandsustainthe useofFilipinoasamediumofofficialcommunicationandas
languageofinstructionintheeducationalsystem. cralaw

Section 7. For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the
PhilippinesareFilipinoand,untilotherwiseprovidedbylaw,English. cralaw

The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as
auxiliarymediaofinstructiontherein. cralaw

SpanishandArabicshallbepromotedonavoluntaryandoptionalbasis. cralaw

Section 8. This Constitution shallbe promulgatedinFilipinoand Englishand shallbe translated

intomajorregionallanguages,Arabic,andSpanish. cralaw

Section 9. The Congress shall establish a national language commission composed of

representatives ofvariousregionsanddisciplineswhichshallundertake,coordinate, andpromote

Section 10. Scienc e and technology are essential for national development and progress. The
State shallgivepriorityto research anddevelopment,invention,innovation,andtheirutilization
and to science and technology education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous,
appropriate,andselfreliant scientific andtechnological capabilities, andtheirapplication to the
Section 11. The Congress may provide for incentives, including tax deductions, to encourage
privateparticipationinprogramsofbasic andappliedscientific research. Scholarships,grantsin
aid, or other formsof incentives shallbe provided to deserving science students, researchers,
scientists,inventors,technologists,andspeciallygiftedcitizens. cralaw
Section 12.The State shallregulatethetransferandpromotethe adaptation oftechnology from
allsources forthe nationalbenefit. Itshallencourage the widest participation of privategroups,
local governments, and communitybased organizations in the generation and utilization of
scienceandtechnology. cralaw

Section 13. The State shall protect and secure the exclusive rights of scientists, inventors,
artists, and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property and creations, particularly when

Section 19. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs,
league co mpetitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to
foster selfdiscipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert

(2)Alleducational institutions shallundertakeregularsports activities throughout the country in


Section 1.The State recognizes the Filipinofamilyas the foundation of the nation. Accordingly,
Section 2.Marriage,asaninviolablesocialinstitution, isthe foundationofthe familyandshallbe
protectedbytheState. cralaw

Section3.TheStateshalldefend: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

(1)The rightof spouses to foundafamilyinaccordance with theirreligiousconvictions andthe

(2)Therightofchildrento assistance, includingpropercare andnutrition,andspecialprotection
fromall forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation and other conditions prejudicialto their
(4) The rightof familiesorfamilyassociations to participate inthe planning and implementation
Section 4.The familyhasthe duty to care forits elderlymembersbut the State mayalsodoso

Section 2.The Congressmay,bylaw,adopt anew nameforthe country, anationalanthem,or
a national seal, which shall all be truly reflective and symbolic of the ideals, history, and
traditions of the people. Such law shalltake effect onlyuponits ratification by the people ina
nationalreferendum. cralaw

Section3.TheStatemaynotbesuedwithoutitsconsent. cralaw
Section 4.The ArmedForces of the Philippinesshallbecomposedof acitizen armedforce which
shallundergomilitarytrainingandserve as maybeprovidedbylaw.It shallkeeparegularforce
necessaryforthesecurityoftheState. cralaw

Section 5. (1) Allmembersof the armedforces shalltake an oath or affirmation to upholdand

defendthisConstitution. cralaw

(2) The State shallstrengthen the patriotic spiritand nationalist conscious ness of the military,
andrespectforpeople'srightsintheperformanceoftheirduty. cralaw

(3) Professionalisminthe armedforce s and adequate remunerationand benefits of its members

shallbeaprimeconcernoftheState.Thearmedforcesshallbeinsulatedfrompartisanpolitics. cralaw

No member of the militaryshall engage, directly or indirectly, in any partisan political activity,
excepttovote. cralaw

(4) No memberof the armedforces in the active service shall, at any time, be appointed or
designated inanycapacity to acivilianpositioninthe Government,includinggovernmentowned
orcontrolledcorporationsoranyoftheirsubsidiaries. cralaw

(5)Lawsonretirementofmilitaryofficersshallnotallowextensionoftheirservice. cralaw

(6) The officers and men of the regular force of the armed forces shall be recruited
proportionatelyfromallprovincesandcitiesasfaraspracticable. cralaw

(7) The tour of duty of the Chief of Staff of the armedforces shall not exceed three years.
However, intimesof war or other national emergency declared by the Congress, the President
mayextendsuchtourofduty. cralaw

Section 6. The State shall establish and maintainone police force, which shall be national in
scope and civilian in character, to be administered and controlled by a national police
commission.The authority of local executives over the police units intheir jurisdictionshallbe
providedbylaw. cralaw

Section 7. The State shallprovide immediate and adequate care, benefits, and other formsof
assistance to war veterans and veterans of military campaigns, their surviving spouses and
orphans. Funds shall be provided therefor and due consideration shall be given them in the
dispositionof agriculturallandsof the publicdomainand, inappropriatecases, inthe utilization
ofnaturalresources. cralaw

Section 8.The State shall,fromtimeto time,reviewto increase the pensionsandotherbenefits

duetoretireesofboththegovernmentandtheprivatesectors. cralaw

Section 9. The State shallprotect co nsumersfromtrade malpractices and fromsubstandard or

hazardousproducts. cralaw

Section 10. The State shall provide the policy environmentfor the full development of Filipino
capability andthe emergenceof communicationstructures suitableto the needs andaspirations
of the nation and the balanced flow of information into, out of, and across the country, in
accordancewithapolicythatrespectsthefreedomofspeechandofthepress. cralaw

Section 11.(1)The ownershipandmanagementof massmediashallbelimitedto citizens of the

Philippines,orto co rporations,cooperatives orassociations, whollyowned andmanagedbysuch
citizens. cralaw

The Congress shall regulate or prohibit monopoliesin commercialmass mediawhen the public
interest so requires. Nocombinationsinrestraint of trade or unfaircompetition therein shallbe
allowed. cralaw

(2) The advertising industry is impressedwith public interest, and shallbe regulated by law for
theprotectionofconsumersandthepromotionofthegeneralwelfare. cralaw

OnlyFilipinocitizens orcorporations orassociations at least seventy per centum of the capital

ofwhichisownedbysuchcitizensshallbeallowedtoengageintheadvertisingindustry. cralaw

The participation of foreigninvestors inthe governingbody of entities insuch industry shallbe

limitedto their proportionate share in the capital thereof, and all the executive and managing
officersofsuchentitiesmustbecitizensofthePhilippines. cralaw

Section 12. The Congress maycreate a consultative body to advise the President on policies
affecting indigenousculturalcommunities,the majorityof the membersof which shallcomefrom

Section1.Anyamendmentto,orrevisionof,thisConstitutionmaybeproposedby: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary

Section 2. Amendmentsto this Constitution may likewise be directly proposed by the people
throughinitiativeuponapetitionofat least twelve percentum ofthe total numberofregistered
voters, of which every legislativedistrict mustbe represented by at least three per centum of
the registered vote rs therein. No amendmentunder this section shallbe authorized within five
years following the ratification of this Constitution nor oftener than once every five years
TheCongressshallprovidefortheimplementationoftheexerciseofthisright. cralaw

Section 3. The Congress may,by a vote of twothirds of allits Members,call a constitutional

convention, or by a majorityvote of allits Members,submitto the electorate the question of
callingsuchaconvention. cralaw

Section 4. Any amendmentto, or revisionof, this Constitution underSection 1 hereof shallbe

validwhen ratifiedby a majorityof the votes cast ina plebiscite which shallbe heldnot earlier
thansixtydaysnorlaterthanninetydaysaftertheapprovalofsuchamendmentorrevision. cralaw

Any amendmentunderSection 2 hereof shallbe validwhen ratified by a majorityof the votes

cast in a plebiscite which shall be held not earlierthan sixty days nor later than ninety days

The firstlocalelect ionsshallbeheldonadate to bedeterminedbythe President,whichmaybe
simultaneouswiththe election ofthe Membersofthe Congress.Itshallincludethe election ofall
MembersofthecityormunicipalcouncilsintheMetropolitanManilaarea. cralaw

Section 2. The Senators, Membersof the Houseof Representatives, and the local officials first
electedunderthisConstitutionshallserveuntilnoonofJune30,1992. cralaw

votesshallserveforsixyearsandtheremainingtwelveforthreeyears. cralaw

Section 3.Allexistinglaws,decrees, executive orders,proclamations,letters ofinstructions, and

other executive issuances not inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain operative until
amended,repealed,orrevoked. cralaw

Section 4.Allexistingtreaties orinternationalagreementswhich have not beenratifiedshallnot

be renewed or extended without the concurrence of at least twothirds of allthe Membersof
theSenate. cralaw

Section 5. The sixyear term of the incumbent President and VicePresident elected in the
February 7, 1986election is, for purposes of synchronization of elections, hereby extended to
noonofJune30,1992. cralaw

The first regularelections for the President and VicePresident underthis Constitution shallbe
heldonthesecondMondayofMay,1992. cralaw

Section 6. The incumbent President shall continue to exercise legislative powers until the first
Congressisconvened. cralaw

Section 7.Untilalawispassed, the Presidentmayfillbyappointmentfromalistof nomineesby

the respective sectors, the seats reservedforsectoral representation inparagraph(2), Section
5ofArticleV1ofthisConstitution. cralaw

Section 8. Until otherwise provided by the Congress, the President may constitute the
Metropolitan Manila Authority to be composed of the heads of all local government units
comprisingtheMetropolitanManilaarea. cralaw

Section 9.Asubprovince shallcontinue to existandoperate untilit isconverted into a regular

provinceoruntilitscomponentmunicipalitiesarerevertedtothemotherprovince. cralaw

Section 10.Allcourts existingat the timeofthe ratification ofthisConstitution shallcontinue to

exercisetheirjurisdiction, untilotherwise providedbylaw.The provisionsof the existingRulesof
Court, judiciary acts, and procedural laws not inconsistent with this Constitution shall remain
operativeunlessamendedorrepealedbytheSupremeCourtortheCongress. cralaw

Section 11.The incumbentMembersof the Judiciaryshallcontinue inoffice untilthey reach the

age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or are
removedforcause. cralaw

Section 12. The SupremeCourt shall,withinone year after the ratification of this Constitution,
adopt asystematic planto expeditethe decisionorresolutionofcases ormatterspendinginthe
SupremeCourtorthe lowercourts priorto the effectivity ofthisConstitution. Asimilarplanshall
beadoptedforallspecialcourtsandquasijudicialbodies. cralaw

Section 13. The legal effect of the lapse, before the ratification of this Constitution, of the
applicableperiodforthe decisionorresolutionofthe cases ormatterssubmittedforadjudication
bythecourts,shallbedeterminedbytheSupremeCourtassoonaspracticable. cralaw

Section 14. The provisions of paragraphs (3) and (4), Section 15 of Article VIII of this
Constitution shall apply to cases or matters filed before the ratification of this Constitution,
whentheapplicableperiodlapsesaftersuchratification. cralaw

Section 15. The incumbent Members of the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on
Elections, andthe CommissiononAuditshallcontinue inoffice foroneyearafter the ratification
of this Constitution, unless they are sooner removed for cause or become incapacitated to
discharge the duties of theiroffice orappointed to anew termthereunder.Innocase shallany
Member serve longer than seven years including service before the ratification of this
Constitution. cralaw

Section 16. Career civil service employees separated fromthe service not for cause but as a
result of the reorganization pursuant to Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 and the
reorganization following the ratificatio n of this Constitution shall be entitled to appropriate
separation pay andto retirementandother benefits accruing to themunderthe laws of general
application in force at the time of their separation. In lieu thereof, at the option of the
employees, they may be considered for employment in the Government or in any of its
subdivisions, instrumentalities, or agencies, including governmentowned or controlled
corporations and their subsidiaries. This provision also applies to career officers whose
resignation,tenderedinlinewiththeexistingpolicy,hadbeenaccepted. cralaw

Section 17.Untilthe Congressprovidesotherwise, the Presidentshallreceiveanannualsalaryof

three hundredthousand pesos the VicePresident, the President of the Senate, the Speakerof
the House of Representatives, and the Chief Justice of the SupremeCourt, two hundredforty
thousand pesos each the Senators, the Members of the House of Representatives, the
Associate Justices of the SupremeCourt, and the Chairmenof the Constitutional Commissions,
two hundredfourthousandpesoseach andthe Membersofthe Constitutional Commissions,one
hundredeightythousandpesoseach. cralaw

Section 18. At the earliestpossibletime, the Governmentshallincrease the salaryscales of the

otherofficialsandemployeesoftheNationalGovernment. cralaw

Section 19.Allproperties,records, equipment,buildings,facilities, andotherassets ofanyoffice

or body abolished or reorganized under Proclamation No. 3 dated March 25, 1986 or this
Constitution shall be transferred to the office or body to which its powers, functions, and
responsibilitiessubstantiallypertain. cralaw

Section 20. The first Congress shallgive priorityto the determinationof the periodfor the full
implementationoffreepublicsecondaryeducation. cralaw
Section 21. The Congress shall provide efficacious procedures and adequate remediesfor the
reversion to the State of all lands of the public domainand real rights connected therewith
which were acquired inviolation of the Constitution or the public landlaws, or through corrupt
practices. Notransfer or dispositionof such lands or realrights shallbe allowed untilafter the
lapseofoneyearfromtheratificationofthisConstitution. cralaw

Section 22. At the earliest possible time, the Governmentshall expropriate idle or abandoned
agriculturallandsas maybe defined by law, for distributionto the beneficiaries of the agrarian
reformprogram. cralaw

Section 23. Advertising entities affec ted by paragraph (2), Section 11 of Article XV1 of this
Constitution shall have five years from its ratification to comply on a graduated and
proportionatebasiswiththeminimumFilipinoownershiprequirementtherein. cralaw

Section 24.Private armiesandother armedgroupsnot recognized by dulyconstituted authority

shallbe dismantled.Allparamilitaryforces includingCivilianHomeDefense Forces not consistent
with the citizen armed force established in this Constitution, shall be dissolved or, where
appropriate,convertedintotheregularforce. cralaw

Section 25. After the expiration in 1991 of the Agreement between the Republic of the
Philippinesand the United States of America concerning militarybases, foreign militarybases,
troops, orfacilities shallnot beallowedinthe Philippinesexcept underatreaty dulyconcurred in
by the Senate and, when the Congress so requires,ratified by a majorityof the votes cast by
the people in a national referendumheld for that purpose, and recognized as a treaty by the
othercontractingState. cralaw

Section 26.The authorityto issuesequestration orfreeze ordersunderProclamationNo.3dated

March 25, 1986 in relation to the recovery of illgotten wealth shall remain operative for not
morethan eighteen monthsafter the ratification of this Constitution. However, in the national
interest,ascertifiedbythePresident,theCongressmayextendsuchperiod. cralaw

A sequestration or freeze order shall be issued only upon showing of a prima facie case. The
orderand the list of the sequestered orfrozen properties shallforthwith be registered with the
proper co urt. For orders issued before the ratification of this Constitution, the corresponding
judicialaction orproceeding shallbefiledwithinsixmonthsfromits ratificatio n.Forthose issued
after such ratification, the judicialac tion or proceeding shall be commenced within sixmonths
fromtheissuancethereof. cralaw

The sequestration or freeze order is deemed automatically lifted if no judicial action or

proceedingiscommencedashereinprovided. cralaw

Section 27. This Constitution shalltake effect immediatelyuponits ratificat ionby a majorityof
thevotescastinaplebisciteheldforthepurposeandshallsupersedeallpreviousConstitutions. cralaw

The foregoing proposed Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the
Constitutional Commissionof 1986onthetwelfth day of October, Nineteenhundredandeighty
six,andaccordingly signedonthe fifte enth day of October, Nineteenhundredandeightysix at
the Plenary Hall, National Government Center, Quezon City, by the Commissioners whose








Section 1.Forpurposesof the election of Membersof the Houseof Representatives of the First
Congress of the Philippines under the Constitution proposed by the 1986 Constitutional
Commissionandsubsequent elections, anduntilotherwise providedbylaw,the Membersthereof
shall be elected from legislative districts apportioned among the provinces, cities, and the


MANILA, six (6) First District: Barangays Nos. 1146, NCity Boundary between Manila and
Caloocan E From Estero de Sunog Apog going South to Estero de Vitas up to the bridge
spanning Juan Luna Street, eastwar d to Tayuman Street up to the Railroad Tracks along
DagupanStreet, thence southward to ClaroM. Recto Avenue SE Frompoint ClaroM. Recto
Avenue extendingwestward to ManilaBayW ManilaBaynorthwardto City boundarybetween
Manila and Caloocan. Second District: Barangays Nos. 147267, N City boundary between
Manilaand Caloocan E Fromend of RizalAvenue Extension extending southward to Railroad
Tracks at Antipolo Street from corner Antipolo Street and Rizal Avenue on southern side of
RailroadTracks extending westward to Estero de San Lazaro, southward along Estero de San
Lazaro up to corner of C. M. Recto Avenue westward to bridge spanning Claro M. Recto at
Estero de la Reina W Estero de la Reina to Estero de Vitas to Estero Sunog Apog to City
boundary between Manila and Caloocan Third District: Barangays Nos. 268394, N City
boundary between Manila and Caloocan E A. Bonifacio Street extending southward to
Dimasalang,to Andalucia, ClaroM. Recto Avenue eastward to Estero de San Miguelendingat
Pasig River S Mouth of Estero de San Miguel at Pasig River, westward to Del Pan Bridge,
thence to Del Pan Street W Del Pan Street northward up to Claro M. Recto Extension to
Estero de San Lazaro, northward to Antipolo Street, eastward to Rizal Avenue Extension,
northwardto boundarybetween ManilaandCaloocan Fourth District: Barangays Nos.395 586
SW Estero de San Miguel up to Mendiola Bridge,thence to C. M. Recto Avenue to Quezon
BoulevardW Quezon Boulevard, Andalucia, Dimasalangup to boundary between Manila and
Quezon City NE City boundary between Manila and Quezon City up to RamonMagsaysay
Boulevard SE Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard up to V. Mapa Street S RamonMagsaysay
Boulevardupto point Estero de SanMiguelwhere RamonMagsaysay Boulevardspans Estero de
San MiguelFifth District: BarangaysNos. 649828N Mouth of Pasig Riverinlandto point Paz
M. GuanzonStreet extendingto Estero de Pandacan NE Estero de Pandacan up to Pedro Gil
Street to Tejeron Street up to boundary of Manila and Makati SE City boundary between
ManilaandMakatiupto Estero deTripadeGallinaS City boundarybetwee nPasay andManila
downto RoxasBoulevardupto edgeofreclaimedareaswestward to ManilaBay W ManilaBay
up to mouthof Pasig River,Sixth District: Barangays Nos. 587648 and 829905 N Starting
frompoint which ismouthof Estero de San Miguelgoingeastward to MendiolaBridge,following
linealongEstero deSanMiguelupto pointwhereRamonMagsaysay Boulevardeastward to City
boundary between Manila and Quezon Cityl NE City boundary up to point city boundary of
Manila, San Juan and Quezon City E ManilaSan JuanMandaluyongMakati boundariesup to
Tejeron Street SE Tejeron Street to Pedro Gil Street up to bridge spanning Estero de
Pandacan SW & W Estero de Pandacan going northward to Paz M. Guanzon Street, then
northwardonPaz M.GuazonStreet upto PasigRiverto mouthof Estero deSanMiguelonPasig
QUEZON CITY, four (4) First District : Barangays Del Monte, Paltok, Bungad, San Antonio,
Katipunan, Veterans Village, Talayan, Damayan,Mariblo, Paraiso, Sta. Cruz, Nayong Kanluran,
Philam, West Triangle, N.S. Amoranto, Paang Bundok, San Isidro Labrador, Sta. Teresita,
Salvacion, Maharlika, St. Peter, Lourdes, Sto. Domingo,Sienna, San Jose, Manresa, Pagibig sa
Nayon, Balingasa, Masambong, Damar,Bahay Toro, St. Cristo, RamonMagsaysay, Project 6,
Vasra, Alicia, and Bagong Pagasa Second District: Barangays Fairview, New Era, Holy Spirit,
Batasan Hills, Commonwealth, Payatas, Bagong Silangan, Sauyo, Talipapa, Bagbag, San
Bartolome,Sta. Lucia, Gulod,Novaliches Proper, San Agustin, NagkaisangNayon, Sta. Monica,
Kaligayahan,PasongPutik,ApolonioSamson,UnangSigaw, Tandang Sora,Pasong Tamo,Culiat,
Baesa, Capri, Balumbato, and Sangandaan: Third District : Barangays E. Rodriguez, Silangan,
Quirino3A, DuyanDuyan, Quirino3B, Amihan,Socorro, San Roque, Manga, Zobel Dioquino,
Tagumpay, Aguinaldo, Escopa 1, Escopa 2, Escopa 3, Escopa 4, West Kamias,East Kamias,
Quirino 2 A, Quririno 2 B, Quirino 2 C, Ugong Norte, Bagumbayan, Libis, Villa Maria Clara,
Masagana, Milagrosa, Marilag, Bagumbayan, Loyola Heights, Pansol, and Matandang Balara
Fourth District: Barangays Bagong Lipunan, Kaunlaran, San Martin, Immaculate Concepcion,
South Triangle, Sacred Heart, Laging Handa, Paligsahan, Obrero, Roxas, Kamuning,Kanluran,
KamuningSilangan, Tatalon, Don Manuel, Dona Josefa, San Isidro, Dona Aurora, Santo Nino,
Santol, Dona Imelda,Kristong Hari, Kalusugan, DamayangLagi, Mariana, Valencia, Horseshoe,
Pinagkaisahan,San Vicente, U.P. Campus,KrusNaLigas, Central, OldCapital Site, U.P. Village,
Teacher'sEast,Teacher'sWest,Sikatuna,Malaya,Pinahan,andBotocan. cralaw

CALOOCANCITY, two (2) First District : 70 Barangays Allof Caloocan North EDSASecond
District:118BarangaysAllofCaloocanSouthEDSA. cralaw










BENGUET,with the City of Baguio,two (2) First District: BaguioCity Second District: allthe
MunicipalitiesofBenguet. cralaw

ILOCOS NORTE, with Laog City, two (2) First District: Laoag City and the Municipalities of
Bacarra, Bangui, Burgos, PagudPagud, Pasuquin, Piddig, Sarrat, Vintar, Adams, Carasi, and
DumalnegSecond District: Municipalities of Badoc, Batac, Currimao,Dingras, Espiritu, Marcos,
NuevaEra,Paoay,Pinili,SanNicolas,andSolsona. cralaw

ILOCOS SUR, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Bantay, Cabugao, Caoayan, Magsingal,
San Ildefonso, San Juan, San Vicente, San Catalina, Santo Domingo,Sinait, and ViganSecond
District: Municipalities of Alilem,Banayoyo, Burgos,Candon, Cervantes, Galimuyod,Gregoriodel
Pilar, Lidlidda, Nagbukel, Narvacan, Quirino, Salcedo, San Emilio,San Esteban, Santa, Santa
Cruz,SantaLucia,SantaMaria,Santiago,Suyo,Tagudin,Sigay,andSugpon. cralaw

LA UNION, two (2) First District : Municipalities of Bacnotan, Balaoan, Bangar, Luna, San
Fernando, San Gabriel,San Juan, Santol, and SudipenSecond District: Municipalities of Agoo,
Aringay,Bagulin,Bauang,Burgos,Caba,Naguilian,Pugo,Rosario,SantoTomas,andTubao. cralaw


PANGASINAN,with the Citiesof DagupanandSanCarlos,six(6) First District: Municipalitiesof

Bolinao,Bani,Agno, Burgos,Dasol, Infanta, Mabini, Alaminos,Anda and Sual Second District:
Municipalities of Labrador, Lingayen, Bugallon,Aguilar, Mangatarem, Binmaley,Urbiztondo, and
BasistaThirdDistrict: SanCarlosCity,andthe Municipalitiesof Malasiqui,Bayambang,Calasiao,
Mapandan, andSta. BarbaraFourth District: DagupanCity andthe Municipalitiesof Mangaldan,
San Fabian, San Jacinto, and Manaoag Fifth District: Municipalities of Binalonan, Laoac,
Urdaneta, Villasis, Sison, Pozorrubio, Bautista, Alcala, and Sto. Tomas Sixth District:
MunicipalitiesofRosales,Asingan,Balungao,Sta. Maria,Umingan,SanQuintin,Natividad,Tayug,

CAGAYAN, three (3) First District: Municipalities of Aparri,Camalaniugan, Lallo, Buguey, Sta.
Teresita, Gonzaga, Sta. Ana, Gattaran, Baggao, and Alcala Second District: Municipalities of
Sta. Praxedes, Sanchez Mira, Claveria, Pamplona, Abulug, Ballesteros, Allacapan, Lasam, Sto.
Nino, Rizal, Piat, and Calayan Third District: Municipalities of Tuguegarao, Solana, Enrile,
Penablanca,Iguig,Amulung,andTuao. cralaw


ISABELA,four(4)First District: Municipalitiesof Sta. Maria,San Pablo, Cabagan, Sto. Tomas,

Albano, Tumauini,Ilagan, Divilican,Maconacon, and Palanan Second District: Municipalities of
Aurora,SanManuel,Roxas,Mallig,Quezon, Quirino,Burgos,Gamu,Naguilian,BenitoSoliven,An
MarianoThirdDistrict: Municipalitiesof ReinaMercedes, Cauayan, Luna,Cabatuan, San Mateo,
Alicia, Angadanan, and San GuillermoFourth District: Municipalities Cordon, Santiango, Ramon,
SanIsidro,Echague,Jones,SanAgustin,andDinapigui. cralaw




BATAAN, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Dinalupihan,Hermosa,Orani,Samal,Abucay,
BULACAN, four (4) First District : Municipalities of Hagonoy, Paombong, Malolos, Calumpit,
Pulilan,andBulacanSecond Distict: MunicipalitiesBaliuag,Bustos, Plaridel,Guiguinto,Balagtas,
Pandi,andBocaue ThirdDistrict: MunicipalitiesofSanMiguel,SanIldefonso,SanRafael,Angat,
Norzagaray, and RemediosTrinidad Fourth District: Municipalities of San Jose del Monte, Sta.
Maria,Marilao,Meycauayan,,andObando. cralaw

NUEVA ECIJA, with the Cities of Cabanatuan, Palayan and San Jose, four (4) First District:
Zaragoza, Second District: San Jose City and the Municipalities of Lupao, Munoz, Talugtog,
Caranglan, Pantabangan, Lanera, and RizalThird District: Cabanatuan City Palayan City, and
the Municipalities of General Natividad, Bongabong, Laur, Gabaldon, and Sta. Rosa, Fourth
District: Municipalities fof San Leonardo, GeneralTinio, Penaranda, Gapan, San Isidro, Cabiao,
SanAntonio,andJaen. cralaw

PAMPANGA, with Angeles City, four (4) First District : Angeles City and the Municipalities of
Mabalacat andMagalangSecond District: Municipalitiesof Lubao,Guagua,Floridablanca,Porac,
Sta. Rita,andSexmoanThirdDistrict: Municipalitiesof San Fernando, Arayat, Mexico, Bacolor,
and Sta. ana Fourth District: Municipalities of Candaba, Apalit, Macabebe, Masantol, Minalin,
Sto.Tomas,SanLuis,andSanSimon. cralaw

TARLAC, three (3) First District: Municipalitiesof Mayantoc, Sta. Ignacia, Camiling,Moncada,
San Manuel, Anao, Paniqui, Ramos,San Clemente, and Pura Second District: Municipalities of
Tarlac, Gerona,andVictoria ThirdDistrict: Municipalitiesof Bamban,Capas, Concepcion, andLa
Paz. cralaw

ZAMBALES,with OlongapoCity, two (2) First District: OlongapoCity and the Municipalitiesof
Subic, Castillejos, and San Marcelino, Second District: Municipalities of Botolan, Cabangan,

BATANGAS, with the Cities of Batangas and Lipa, four (4) First District: Municipalities of
Nasugbu, Lian, Calatagan, Balayan, Tuy, Calaca, Lemery,and Taal Second District: Batangas
City and the Municipalities of Lobo, San Pascual, Bauan, Mabini, San Luis, and Tingloy Third
District: Municipalities of Balete, Malvar, Sto. Tomas, Tanauan, Talisay, Laurel, Agoncillo, San
Nicolas, Sta. Teresita, Alitagtag, Cuenca, and Mataas na KahoyFourth District : LipaCity and
theMunicipalitiesofSanJuan,Taysan,Rosario,P.Garcia,Ibaan,andSanJose. cralaw

CAVITE,withthe CitiesofTagaytay, Cavite andTrece Martires,three(30 FirstDistrict:Cavite

City and the Municipalities of Bacoor, Kawit, Noveleta, and Rosario Second District: Trece
MartiresCityandthe MunicipalitiesofImus,Dasmarinas,Carmona,Gen.MarianoAlvarez,General
Trias, and Tanza Third District: Tagaytay City and the Municipalities of Alfonso, Amadeo,
GeneralAguinaldo,Indang,Magallanes,Maragondon,MendezNunez,Naic,Silang,andTernate. cralaw

LAGUNA,withSanPabloCity, four(4) FirstDistrict:MunicipalitiesofBinan,SanPedroandSta.

Rosa Second District: Municipalities of Bay, Cabuyao, Calamba,and Los Banos Third District:
San Pablo City and the Municipalitiesof Calauan, Alaminos,Rizal,Nagcarlan, Liliw,and Victoria:
Fourth District: Municipalities of Sta. Cruz, Pila, Lumban,Pagsanjan, Cavinti, Kalayaan, Paete,
Pakil,Pangil,Siniloan,Famy,Mabitac,Sta.Maria,Magdalena,Luisiana,andMajayjay. cralaw


ORIENTAL MINDORO, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Baco, Calapan, Naujan, Puerto
Galera, San Teodoro, Victoria, Pola, and Socorro Second District: Municipalities of Bansud,
Bongabon,Bulalakao,Gloria,Mansalay,Pinamalayan,andRoxas. cralaw

PALAWAN, with Puerto Princesa City, two (2) First District: Municipalitiesof Agutaya, Araceli,
Busuanga, Cagayancillo, Coron, Cuyo, Dumaran, El Nido, Linapacan, Magsaysay, Roxas, San
Vicente, Taytay, and Kalayaan Second District: Puerto Princesa City and the Municipalities of
Aborlan,Balabac,Batarasa,Brooke'sPoint,Narra,Quezon,andMarcos. cralaw

QUEZON, with Lucena City, four (4) First District: Municipalities of Burdeos, Gen. Nakar,
Infanta, Jumalig,Panukulan, Patnanungan, Polilio, Real, Sampaloc, Mauban, Pagbilao, Lucban,
and Tayabas Second District: Lucena city and Municipalities of Candelaria, Dolores, San
Antonio, Sariaya, and Tiaong ThirdDistrict: Municipalitiesof Catanauan, Gen. Luna,Macalelon,
Mulanay,Pitogo, San Andres,San Francisco, San Narciso, Buenavista, PadreBurgos,Agdangan,
and Unisan Fourth District: Municipalities of Calauag, Guinayangan, Gumaca, Lopez,

RIZAL, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Antipolo, Taytay, Cainta, Angono, and
Binangonan Secon d District: Municipalities of E. Rodriguez, San Mateo, Morong, Cardona,
Teresa,Baras,Tanay,Pililla,andJalaJala. cralaw


ALBAY, with LegazpiCity, three (3) First District: Municipalitiesof Bacacay, Malinao,Malilipot,
Santo Domingo, Tabaco, and Tiwi, Second District: Legazpi City and the Municipalities of
Camalig,Daraga, Manito, and RapuRapu Third District: Municipalities of Guinobatan, Jovellar,

CAMARINESSUR,includingthe Cities of NagaandIriga,four(4) First District: Municipalitiesof

DelGallego, Ragay, Lupi,Sipocot, Libmanan, Cabusao, Pamplona,Pasacao, Minalabac, and San
Fernando, Second District : Naga City and the Municipalities of Bonbon,Calabanga, Camaligan,
Canaman,Gainza,Magarao, Milaor,Ocampo,and PiliThird District: Municipalitiesof Caramoan,
Garchitorena, Goa, Lagonoy, Presentacion, Sangay, San Jose, Tigaon, Tinambac, and Siruma
FourthDistrict:IrigaCityandtheMunicipalitiesofBaao,Balatan,Bato,Buhi,Bula,andNabua. cralaw


MASBATE, three (3) First District Municipalitiesof SanPascual, Claveria,Monreal,SanJacinto,

San Fernando, and Batuan Second District: Municipalities of Masbate, Mobo, Milagros,Aroroy,
Baleno, Balud, and Mandaon Third District: Municipalities of Uson, Dimasalang, Palanas,
Cataingan,PioV.Corpuz,Esperanza,Placer,andCawayan. cralaw

SORSOGON,two (2) First District: Municipalities of Sorsogon, Pilar, Donsol, Castilla, Bacon,
Casiguran, and Magallanes Second District: Municipalities of Barcelona, Prieto Diaz, Gubat,

CAPIZ, includingRoxasCity, two (2) First District: RoxasCity andthe Municipalitiesof Panay,
Pilar, Pontevedra, President Roxas, Maayon, and Panitan Second District: Municipalities of
Dumalag,Jamindan,Mambusao,Sapian,Sigma,Tapaz,Cuartero,Dao,Dumarao,andIvisan. cralaw

ILOILO, five (5) First District: Municipalities of Guimbal,Igbaras, San Joaquin, Tigbauan,
Tubungan, Miagao, and Oton Second District Municipalities of Jordan, Nueva Valencia,
Buenavista, Pavia, Leganes, Sta. Barbara, New Lucena, Zarraga, Alimodian, Leon, and San
Miguel Third District: Municipalities of Maasin, Cabatuan, Janiuay, Badiangan, Mina, Pototan,
Calinog,Lambunao, and BingawanFourth District: Municipalitiesof Passi, San Enrique,Duenas,
Dingle,Barotac Nuevo, Dumangas,Anilao, and Banate Fifth District: Municipalities of Barotac
Viejo, San Rafael, Ajuy, Lemery,Concepcion, Sara, San Dionisio,Batad, Estancia, Balasan,and


NEGROSOCCIDENTAL,with the Citiesof SanCarlos,Cadiz,Bago,LaCarlota, andSilay,six(6)

First District: San Carlos City and the Municipalities of Toboso, Calatrava, Escalante, and S.
Benedicto Second District: Cadiz City and the Municipalities of Sagay and Manapla Third
District: SilayCity andthe Municipalitiesof Victorias, EnriqueB.Magalona, Talisay, andMurcia
Fourth District: Bago City and the Municipalities of Valladolid, San Enrique, Pontevedra,
Pulupandan,andLaCarlotaFifth District:MunicipalitiesofLaCastellana, MoisesPadilla,Isabela,
Binalbagan, Himamaylan, and Hinigaran Sixth District: Municipalities of Kabankalan, Ilog,
Cauayan,Candoni,Sipalay,andHinobaan. cralaw


BOHOL,with TagbilaranCity, three (3) First District: TagbilaranCity and the Municipalitiesof
Alburquerque, Antequera, Baclayon, Balilihan,Calape, Catigbian, Corella, Cortes, Dauis, Loon,
Maribojoc, Panglao, Sikatuna, and Tubigon Second District: Municipalitiesof Clarin,Inabangan,
Sagbayan, Buenavista, Jetafe, Dagohoy, Danao,SanMiguel,Trinidad,Talibon,Ubay,BienUnido,
San Isidro, and Pres. C. P. Garcia Third District: Municipalities of Loay, Loboc, Bilar,Batuan,
Carmen,Sevilla, Lila, Dimiao,Valencia, GarciaHernandez, Jagna, Duero, Guindulman,Candijay,
CEBU, with the Cities of Danao, LapuLapu, Mandaue, and Toledo, six (6) First District:
MunicipalitiesofTalisay, Minglanilla,Naga,SanFernando,Carcar, andSibonganSecond District:
Municipalities of Argao, Dalaguete, Alcoy, Boljoon, Oslob, Santander, Samboan, Ginatilan,
Malabuyoc, Alegria, Badian,Moal boal, Alcantara, Ronda,and DumanjugThird District: Toledo
City and the Municipalities of Barili, Alonguinsan, Pinamungajan, Balamban, Asturias, and
TuburanFourthDistrict:MunicipalitiesofTabuelan, SanRemigio,Sta. Fe, Bantayan,Madridejos,
Daan bantayan, Medellin,Bogo, and Tabogon Fifth District: DanaoCity and the Municipalities
of Borbon,Sogod, Catmon,Carmen,Compostela,Liloan,San Francisco, Poro, Tudela, and Pilar
Sixth District: Lapulapu City, Mandanue City, and the Municipalities of Cordova and
Consolacion. cralaw

CEBUCITY , two (2) First District: Barangays of Adlawon, Agsungot, Apas, Bacayan, Banilad,
Binaliw,Budlaan, Busay, Cmbinocot, Camputhaw, Capitol Site, Carreta, Central Proper, Cogon
Ramos,Dayas, Ermita,Guba, Hipodromo, Kalubihan,Kamagayan,Kasambagan,Lahug, Lorega,
Lusaran,Luz,Mabini,Mabolo,Malubog,PahinaCentral,Parian,Paril,Pitos, PulangBato,Sambag
1, Sambag 11, San Antonio, San Jose, San Roque, Sta. Cruz, Sirao, T. Padilla, Talamban,
Taptap, Tejero,Tinago,andZapatera Second District: Barangaysof Babag,BasakPardo,Basak
San Nicolas, Bonbon,Buhisan,Bulacao pardo, BoutTaup, Calamba,Cogon Pardo, DuljoFatima,
Pamutan, Pardo, Pasil Abuno, Sibugay, Punta Princesa, Quiot, San Nicolas, Sawang Calero,
Sinsin,SubaPasil,Sudlon,Sapangdako,Tabunan,Tigbao,Tisa,andToong. cralaw

NEGROSORIENTAL,with the Cities of Bais,Canlaon, and Dumaguete,three (3) First District:

CanlaonCity andthe Municipalitiesof Vallehermoso,Guihulngan,LaLibertad,Jimalalud,Tayasan,
Ayungon, Bindoy, and Manjuyod Second District: Bais City, Dumaguete City, and the
Municipalities of Mabinay, Tanjay, Pamplona, Amlan, San Jose, and Sibulan Third District:
Municipalities of Valencia, Bacong, Dauin, Zamboanguita, Siaton, Sta. Catalina, Bayawan, and
Basay. cralaw



LEYTE, with the Cities of Tacloban and Ormoc, five (5) First District: Tacloban City and the
municipalitiesofAlangalang,Babatngon,Palo,SanMiguel,Sta. Fe, Tanauan, andTalosa Second
District: Municipalities of Barugo, Barauen, Capoocan, Carigara, Dagami,Dulag,Jaro, Julita, La
Paz, Mayorga, MacArcthur, Pastrana, Tabontabon, and Tunga Third District: Municipalities of
Almeria,Biliran,Cabucgayan, Caibiran, Calubian, Culaba, Kawayan, Leyte, Maripipi,Naval, San
Isidro,Tabango,andVillabaFourthDistrict: Ormoccity andthe MunicipalitiesofAlbuera,Isabel,
Kananga,Matagob, Merida,andPalomponFifth District: Municipalitiesof Abuyog,Bato, Baybay,


NORTHERNSAMAR,two (2) First District: Municipalitiesof Allen,Biri,Bobon,Capul,Catarman,

Lavezares, LopedeVega, Rosario,SanAntonio, SanIsidro,SanJose, SanVicente, Victoria, and
Mondragon Second District: Municipalities of SilvinoLobos, San Roque, Pambuyan,Las Navas,
Catubig,Laoang,Palapag,Mapanas,Gamay,andLapinig. cralaw

SAMAR, with Calbayog City, two (2) First District: Calbayog City and the Municipalities of
almagro,Gandara, Matuguinao, Pag sanghan, San Jorge, Santa Margarita, Sto. Nino,Tagapul
an, and Tarangnan Second District: Municipalities of Basey, Calbiga, Catbalogan, Daram,
Hinabangan,San Jose de Buan, Jiabong, Marabut, Motiong, Pinabacadao, San Sebastian, Sta.

SULU, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Jolo, Marungas, Indanan, Pangutaran, Parang,
Talipao, Maimbung,and PatikulSecond District: Municipalitiesof Siasi,Pandami,Pata, Luuk,K.
Culuang,Panamao,NewPanamao,Tapul,Lungus,andTongkil. cralaw


ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE, with the Cities of Dapitan and Dipolog, three (3) First District:
Dapitan City and the Municipalities of Sibutad, Rizal,La Libertad, Mutia, Pinan, SergioOsmena,
Sr.,andPolanco Second District: DipologCity andthe Municipalitiesof Katipunan,Pres. Manuel
A.Roxas,Manukan,Ponot, Siayan,andSindanganThirdDistrict: Municipalitiesof SalugGodod,
Liloy,Tampilisan,Labason,Gutalac,Siocon,Baliquian,Siraway,Bacungan,andSibuco. cralaw

ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR, with Pagadian City, three (3) First District: Pagadian City and the
Municipalities of Dumingag, Mahayag, Molave, Tambulig, Midsalip, R. Magsaysay, Labangan,
Aurora,Tukuran,Josefina, andDonMarianoMarcos Second District: MunicipalitiesofDumalinao,
San Pablo, Tabina, Dimataling, Dinas,San Miguel,Margosatubig, Lapuyan, Kumalarang,Bayog,
Lakewood, Pitogo, and Vincenzo A. Sagun Third District: Municipalities of Malangas, Alicia,
Olutanga,Mabuhay,Siay,Kabasalan,Naga,Ipil,Titay, Tungawan, Buug,Imelda,Payao, Talusan,
Diplahan,andRosellerLim. cralaw


AGUSAN DEL NORTE, with the City of Butuan, two (2) First District: Butuan City and the
Municipality of Las Nieves, Second District: Municipalities of Buenavista, Cabadbaran, Carmen,

BUKIDNON,three(3) FirstDistrict:MunicipalitiesofTalakag,Baungon,Malitbog,Libona,Manolo
Fortich, Sumialo,Pangantocan, and KalilanganSecond District: Municipalities of Malaybalay,
Lantapan, Cabanglasan, Valencia, San Fernando, and ImpasugongThird District: Municipalities
ofMaramag,Quezon,DonCarlos,Kitaotao,Dangcagan,Kibawe,Damulog,andKadingilan. cralaw


MISAMISOCCIDENTAL,withthe CitiesofOroquieta,OzamizandTangub, two (2) FirstDistrict:

Oroquieta City and the Municipalities of Baliangao, Plaridel, Calamba, Sapang Dalaga, Lopez
Jaena,Aloran,Concepcion, Panaon,andJimenezSecond District:OzamizCity,TangubCity, and
theMunicipalitiesofBonifacio,Tudela,Clarin,Sinacaban,andDonMarianoMarcos. cralaw

MISAMIS ORIENTAL, with Gingoog City, two (2) First District: Gingoog City and the
Municipalitiesof Magsaysay, Talisayan, Balingoan,Medina,Kinogitan,Sugbongcogon, Binuangan,
Salay, Lagonglong, and Balingasag Second District: Municipalities of Claveria, Jasaan,
Villanueva, Tagoloan, Alubijid, El Salvador, Gitagum, Initao, Laguindingan, Libertad, Lugait,
Manticao,Naawan,andOpol. cralaw


SURIGAODEL NORTE, with the City of Surigao, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Sta.
Monica, San Isidro,DelCarme,Pilar,GeneralLuna, Dapa, Socorro, Burgos,San Benito, Loreto,
Libjo, Dinagat, Cagdianao, Tubajon, and Basilisa Second District: Surigao City and the
Municipalitiesof San Francisco, Taganaan, Sison, Placer, Malimono,Bacauag, Gigaquit,Tubod,

DAVAODELNORTE,three(3) FirstDistrict: MunicipalitiesofMoncayo, Montevista, Compostela,
Nabunturan, New Bataan, Mawab, and San Mariano Second District: Municipalities of San
Vicente, Capalong, Asuncion, New Corella,Tagum, Maco, Mabini,and Pantukan Third District:
DAVAO ORIENTAL, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Boston, Catee l, Baganga, Caraga,
Manay, and Tarragona Second District: Municipalities of Mati, Banaybanay, Lupon, San Isidro,
andGovernorGeneroso. cralaw

DAVAO DEL SUR, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Magsaysay, Bansalan, Sta. Cruz,
Matanao, Digos, Hagonoy, and Padada Second District: Municipalities of Kiblawan, Sulop,
Malalag,Sta.Maria,Malita,JoseAbadSantos,DonMarcelino,andSaranggani. cralaw

Buhangin, Bunawan, and Paquibato Third District: Districts of Toril, Tugbok, Calinan, and

SOUTHCOTABATO, with GeneralSantos City, three (3) First District: GeneralSantos City, and
the Municipalities of Polomolok, Tampakan, and Tupi Second District: Municipalities of
Tantangan, Norala, Banga,Sto. Nino,Surallah,Koronadal,Tiboli, and LakeSebu Third District:
MunicipalitiesofAlabel,Malapatan,Glan,Maasim,Kiamba,Maitum,andMalungon. cralaw

SURIGAODELSUR,two (2) FirstDistrict: MunicipalitiesofBayabas,Cantilan,Carrascal,Cortes,

Lanuza,Madrid,SanMiguel,Tago, Tandag,Cagwit, Marihatag,SanAgustin,Carmen,andLianga

LANAO DEL NORTE, with IliganCity, two (2) First District: IliganCity, Linamon,Kauswagan,
Bacolod,Maigo,Kolambugan,Tubod, andBaroySecond District:Baloi,Pantar,Tagoloan, Poona
Piagapo,PantaoRagat, Matungao, Tangkal,Munai,Nunungan,Magsaysay, Salvador,Kapatagan,
LANAO DEL SUR, with Marawi City, (2) First District: Marawi City and the Municipalities of
Marantao, Piagapo, Saguiaran,Tagoloan, Kapai,Ditsaan Ramain,Bubong,BuadiposoBuntong,
Bumbaran, Maguing, Wao, Molundo, Taraka, LumbaBayabao, PoonaBayabao, Masiu and
Tamparan Second District: Municipalities of Balindong, Tugaya, Bacolod Grande, Madalum,
Madamba, Pualas, Ganassi, Pagayawan, Sultan Gumander, Malabang, Balabagan, Kapatagan,
Marogong,Tubaran,Binidayan,Lumbatan,Lumbayanague,Butig,BayangandCalanogas. cralaw

MAGUINDANAO,withCotabato City, two(2) First District: Cotabato City andthe Municipalities

of Parang,SultanKudarat,Buldon,Barira,Dinaig,Kabuntalan,Matanog andUpiSecond District:
MunicipalitiesofPagalunga,Buluan,SultansaBarongis,Maganoy, Talaya, South Upi,DatuPiang,
DatuPaglas,andAmpatuan. cralaw

NORTH COTABATO, two (2) First District: Municipalities of Carmen, Kabacan, Libungan,
Midsayap, Pigkawayan, Pikit, Aleosan, Banisilan,and AlamadaSecond District: Municipalitiesof
Kidapawan,Makilala,Matalam,Antipas,Mlang,Pres.RoxasTulunan,andMagpet. cralaw


Section 2.The CommissiononElections isherebyempoweredto makeminoradjustmentsof the

reapportionmenthereinmade. cralaw
Section 3. Any province that may hereafter be created, or any city whose population may
hereafter increase to morethan two hundredfifty thousand shallbe entitiledinthe immediately
followingelection to at least oneMemberorsuch numberofMembersasitmaybeentitled to on
the basis of the numberof its inhabitants andaccording to the standards setforth inparagraph
(3), Section 5 of Article VI of the Constitution. The numberof Members apportioned to the
province out of which such new province was created orwhere the city, whose populationhas
so increased, is geographically located shallbe correspondinglyadjusted by the Commissionon
Elections butsuch adjustmentshallnot bemadewithinonehundredandtwenty daysbeforethe
election. cralaw

Section 4. This Ordinance shall be appended to the Constitution proposed by the 1986
Constitutional Commission,and shall be submitted to a plebiscite simultaneously with such
Constitution, and shalltake effect upon its ratification by a majorityof the votes cast insuch
plebiscite. cralaw



Attested: chanroblesvirtuallawlibrary