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FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF COUNTING If an operation can be performed in ‘m’ different ways and another operation in ‘n’ different ways then these two operations can be performed one after the other in ‘mn’ ways. If an operation can be performed in ‘m’ different ways and another operation in ‘n’ different ways then either ofthese two operations can be performed in ‘m+n’ ways.(provided only one has to be done) This principle can be extended to any number of operations FACTORIAL ‘n’ The continuous product of the first ‘n’ natural numbers is called factorial n and is deonoted by n! i.e, n!=1×2x3x…..x(n-1)xn. PERMUTATION An arrangement that can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things (or objects) is called a Permutation. Order of the things is very important in case of permutation. A permutation is said to be a Linear Permutation if the objects are arranged in a line. A linear permutation is simply called as a permutation. A permutation is said to be a Circular Permutation if the objects are arranged in the form of a circle. The number of (linear) permutations that can be formed by taking r things at a time from a set of n distinct things is denoted by . . NUMBER OF PERMUTATIONS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS

Number of permutations of n different things. 9. r things are alike of another type. . q things are alike of other type. when m specified things always come together is . The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is . taken r at a time. is . If p things are alike of one type. when m specified never come together is . The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when k(< r) particular things always occur is . 7. taken all at a time. 6.1. Number of permutations of n different things. taken not more than r at a time. 2. 5. The number of permutations of n different things taken not more than r at a time . 4. Number of permutations of n different things. The number of permutations of n different things. when a particular thng is to be always included in each arrangement . taken r at a time. then the number of permutations with p+q+r things is . Number of permutations of n different things. 3. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when repetition of things is allowed any number of times is . 8. when a particular thing is never taken in each arrangement is . PERMUTATIONS OF SIMILAR THINGS The number of permutations of n things taken all tat a time when p of them are all alike and the rest are all different is . when each thing may occur any number of times is . taken all at a time. CIRCULAR PERMUTATIONS 1. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when k particular things never occur is .

. DISTRIBUTION OF THINGS INTO GROUPS 1.2. The number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is denoted by 1. 3. 4. The number of circular permutations of n things taken r at a time in one direction is . . The number of combinations of n things taken r at a time in which a)s particular things will always occur is b)s particular things will never occur is . c)s particular things always occurs and p particular things never occur is . The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is . 5. 2. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things in clockwise direction = Number of permutations in anticlock-wise direction = . 3. COMBINATION A selection that can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things( or objects) is called a Combination. 4.Number of ways in which (m+n) items can be divided into two unequal groups containing m and n items is . .

The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups. required number of ways= DIVISION OF IDENTICAL OBJECTS INTO GROUPS The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons.The required number of ways of dividing 3n things into three groups of n each = . each containing n objects and the order of the groups is important is .2. 3.n. an p things respectively is 5. each containing n objects and the order of the groups is not important is .The number of ways in which (m+n+p) things can be divided into three different groups of m. such that one object of each kind may be included is the coefficient of is the coefficient of in the expansion . 4. The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons. q objects of second kind. and so on is the coefficient of in the expansion is he number of ways of choosing r objects from p objects of one kind. can receive 0. q objects of second kind.1.When the order of groups has importance then the . . and so on. The number of ways of choosing r objects from p objects of one kind. each one of whom receives at least one item is The number of positive integral solutions of the equation . each one of whom.The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups.2 or more items The number of non-negative integral solutions of the equation .

2.The total number of combinations of things taken any number at a time when things are alike of one kind.The total number of combinations of things taken one or more at a time when things are alike of one kind. is . The number of ways in which n different letters can be placed in their n addressed envelopes so that al the letters are in the wrong envelopes is IMPORTANT RESULTS TO REMEBER . things are alike of kind. is . things are alike of second kind…. things are alike of kind. things are alike of second kind….TOTAL NUMBER OF COMBINATIONS 1. SUM OF THE NUMBERS Sum of the numbers formed by taking all the given n digits (excluding 0) is Sum of the numbers formed by taking all the given n digits (including 0) is Sum of all the r-digit numbers formed by taking the given n digits(excluding 0) is Sum of all the r-digit numbers formed by taking the given n digits(including 0) is DE-ARRANGEMENT: The number of ways in which exactly r letters can be placed in wrongly addressed envelopes when n letters are placed in n addressed envelopes is . .

. In a plane if there are n points out of which m points are collinear. The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is . The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them is . Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n x n is Number of squares of any size in a square of n x n is In a rectangle of p x q (p < q) number of rectangles of any size is In a rectangle of p x q (p < q) number of squares of any size is n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three lines three lines are concurrent. The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is . 2. 3. 3.In a plane if there are n points of which no three are collinear. The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them is . The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is . then 1. 2. The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is . Then the number of parts into which these lines divide the plane is equal to . then 1.

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