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HYDRAULIC AND

PNEUMATIC
CONTROL EQUIPMENTS

Levente Tamás, Ionuţ Muntean, Előd Páll
Department of Automation
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca

Editura UTPRESS
Cluj-Napoca, 2015
ISBN 978-606-737-031-7

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the support of all our colleagues who
contributed to the practical experimental setups for the pneumatic
and hydraulic control equipments laboratory during the past years.
The non-exhaustive list of the contributors from the teaching group of
Prof. Gh. Lazea include: Sorin Herle, Cosmin Marcu, Radu Robotin
and Florin Cotofan. Without their work, these laboratory exercises
would not be possible today.

Abstract

This collection of practical works is part of the course of Hydraulic
and Pneumatic Control Equipments within the Control Engineering
curricula from the Faculty of Automation and Computer Science De-
partment from the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca. As the main
aim within this course is on the practical aspects of these equipments
and concepts, also the focus in this laboratory work is on these details.
The individual works are synchronized with the main course from
this discipline, however each part can be studied individually with
the mentioned bibliographies. These works contain a minimal intro-
duction to the theoretical aspects of the equipments, as well as the
practical parts focusing on the hands-on experimental exercises.
Hopefully these exercises will be useful not only for this specific course,
but also in the generic field of engineering for the future graduates.

1 Pneumatic amplifier type nozzle-flapper . . . .1 Measurement of the real flow . . . . . . . 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.2 Computed flow . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .3 System configuration and mounting instruction for measuring the flow. 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 PNEUMATIC AMPLIFIERS 9 2. . . . . .1 Static characteristics of nozzle-flapper amplifier . . . . . . 9 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pneumatic Power Amplifier . . . . . . .3 Laboratory work .2 Static characteristics of power amplifier . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1 Laboratory Objectives: . . .2 Theoretical considerations . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. . . . .3.1 Laboratory objectives . . . . . . 14 iii . . . 4 1. . . . . . .2.2. . .Contents Contents iii List of Figures iv Nomenclature iv 1 NONLINEAR PNEUMATIC RESISTANCES The utilization of diaphragms as a measuring element of fluid flow 1 1. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . 9 2. 12 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Theoretical Considerations: . . 9 2. . .

. . . . .2 Theoretical Considerations . . . . 47 7 SIMULATION OF HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS USING SIMHY- DRAULICS TOOL FROM MATLAB 49 7. . . . . . . .2 SimHydraulics introduction . . . . . . . .5 Compiling and executing the programs . .1 Laboratory objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 7. . . . . . . . 35 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 Work Subject . . . . 49 7. . .2. .2 Theoretical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Theoretical Considerations . . . . . . . . 45 6. . .1 Laboratory Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 6. . . . . . . . . . . .6 Proposed exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1 Program presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Theoretical Considerations . . .1 Work Subject .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Laboratory Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4 STUDY OF THE PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS WITH MEM- BRANE 22 4. .2 FE-3DM pneumatic converter . . . . . . 22 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS 3 THE STUDY OF THE ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC CONVERTER 16 3. . . . . . . .3 Laboratory activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Laboratory activity . . . . . . 30 5. . .3 Creating a new project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3. . . . . . . .3 Laboratory Activity . . 50 iv . . .1 AT 30 PLT 370 Pneumatic transducer . . . . . . . 29 5. . . . .2 Modeling characteristics . . . . . . . . . 22 4. . . . . 32 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Commands for the SPC200 controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5 STUDY OF THE DIFFERENTIAL PNEUMATIC PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS 29 5. . . 16 3. . . . . 35 6. . . . 33 6 PROGRAMING THE SPC200 CONTROLLER FOR A FESTO PNEUMATIC POSITIONING SYSTEM 35 6. . . . . . . . . . 29 5. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . 69 8. . . . .6 Start block . . . .4. . . .4 Exercise .5. . . . . . . . . . .1 FluidSim interface . . .2. . . 73 8. . . . 67 8. . . . 54 7. CONTENTS 7. . . . . . . 53 7. . . . 73 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 7. . . . . .3. .Creating a simple model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Position block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The usage of special fluids in modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 67 8. .2. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .5 Modeling and simulation of a hydro-mechanical system with SimHydraulics . . . . . . . . . .3 Input block . . . .1 Creating the hydraulic model . . . . . . . .0 interface . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .2.10 Terminal block . .5. . . . .3 SimHydraulics . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Output block .3 Circuit simulation . .1 SimHydraulics library blocks . . . . . . . . . .3 Modeling of physical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 8. . . . . .2 Theoretical Considerations . .4. . . . . . . . . . . 67 8. . 52 7. . . . .3. . . . 74 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Display block . . . . 75 v . . . . . 61 7. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Rules for creating a model . . . . . 73 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Introduction in modeling hydraulic systems . . . . . . . .2. . . . .4 SimHydraulics . . .3. . . . . . . 59 7. . . 64 8 CONTROL OF ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS USING LLWIN 3.3 Connecting the hydraulic actuator to the mechan- ical one . . . . .3. 64 7. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 7. . . . . . . . . .2. . . 51 7. . . .2 Circuit creation . . . .4 Edge block . .7 Stop block . . . . . 52 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 62 7. 61 7. . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . 73 8.3. . .3. . . . . .1 Laboratory objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 FluidSIM . . . . .2. . . . .2 Simulating the mechanical system in closed circuit 60 7.8 Reset block . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Emergency break block . . . . . 71 8. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . 70 8.1 LLWIN 3. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 77 8. . . .2. . . 75 8. . . . . . . . . . 76 8. . . . . .12 Show values block . . . . .2. . . . . . . 79 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 79 vi . . . 77 8. . . . .5 Description of the application . . . . 78 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 What should be achieved . . . . . . .14 Assignment block . . . . . . .18 SubIn/SubOut block . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Compare block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Beep block .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . 76 8. . CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Subprogram creation . . . . . . . 77 8. . . .13 Variable ±1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Wait block . 76 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3. . . .2 The structure of a pneumatic actuator . . . . . . . .3 Static characteristic of the nozzle-flapper amplifier . . . .1 The electro-pneumatic converter . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4. . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . 15 3. . . . 18 3. . . . . . . . 5 1. . . . .4 Schematics . .3 Functional block scheme . . . .2 Diagram of the practical flow. . . .5 Experimental model for the power pneumatic amplifier . . . . . . . . . 13 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on the left the field adjustment. .2 Functional principle of the nozzle-flapper amplifier . . . . . . . .3 Pneumatic actuator without positioner . . . 10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Pneumatic nozzle-flapper amplifier . . . . .4 Static characteristic of the electro-pneumatic converter . . . . . . . . 17 3.2 Detailed operating principle . .1 Diaphragm . . . 19 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3. . . . . . . . .4 Constructive principle and functional of the power pneumatic am- plifier . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. . . 2 1. . . . . . . . . . .6 Connections of the terminal box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3. . . . . . 13 2. . . . .1 General control circuit diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4. .3 The diagram as a flow measuring element . . . 21 4. . . . . . . .5 Laboratory scheme connections . . . . . . 6 2. . . . . . 24 vii . . . . . . . . .7 On the right the zero adjustment. . . .6 Experimental setup for the combination of the nozzle-flapper am- plifier with the pneumatic power amplifier. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .17 configuration window for valves. .9 Input-output for the system and configuration blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 7. . .3 The structure of a program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Demonstration program . . . 65 viii . . . 36 6. . . .2 Specific and basic elements from Foundation Library. .1 AT 30 detector where the internal part transforms the translation motion into angular one. . . . . . .12 The connection scheme for the closed loop mechanical system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Fluid parameters of the system. .2 The PLT 370 adaptor . . . . . . . . .4 The translation axes characteristics .5 Pneumatic actuator with positioner . . . . . . . . . . .7 Hydraulic system scheme . . . 50 7. . . . . 53 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5. 47 7. . . . . . 60 7. . . . . 56 7. . on the right and Single Acting Cylinder with reaction spring on the left. . LIST OF FIGURES 4.3 Example for multidomain models. 31 5. . . . .3 The FE-3DM converter . . 37 6. . . 64 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 7. . . . . . . . . .8 Simple model in simulink . . . . . . . . . . 33 5. . .2 Creating a new project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Characteristics of a pneumatic actuator without positioner . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Connecting the hydraulic actuator system to the mechanical system 62 7. . . . . 59 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Cylinder and valve parameters . 30 5. . 55 7. .18 Circuit configuration for Double Acting Cylinder. . . . . 50 7. . . . .1 Festo pneumatic stand . . . . . . . . . 54 7. . . . 57 7. . . . . . . 63 7. . . . . . . . .15 Festo FluidSim main window.16 Simple circuit example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Experimental assembly . 38 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 SimHydraulics library structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Conversion block properties . . . . .11 The hydraulic system with ideal actuator . . . . . 27 4. . . . . . . . . .13 Parameters for cylinder and distributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The physical system’s simulation product family. . 37 6. . . . . . . . . 61 7. . . . 58 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 6. . 63 7. . . . .

. . . . . . . 78 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sorting electro-pneumatic systems . .4 Typical logic block in LlWin . . . . . . . . . . 66 8. . . . .6 Counter block . . . . . . . . .20 Circuit configurations nr. . . . . .7 Start and Stop blocks . 74 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Alarm and wait blocks . . . . . . . . . 79 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 70 8. . . . .13 Subprogram modules . . 72 8. . . . . .8 Reset and Emergency blocks . . . . 3. . . 75 8. . . . .10 Display. . . LIST OF FIGURES 7. . . . . . 68 8. . . . . . . 69 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Circuit configurations nr. . . 71 8. . . . . . . . . 72 8. . . . . increment and decrement blocks . . . . . . . . .3 The New Project window . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .9 Terminal block . . .14 Subprograms . 75 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Assign and compare blocks .5 The edge block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 User interface of LLWIN 3. .

1) where ∆p = p1 − p2 is the pressure drop between the input and the output of the resistance. 1. Rp is the value of the pneumatic resistance.2 Theoretical considerations According to the electro-pneumatic analogy.1 is valid only for linear pneumatic resistances for the electric-pneumatic analogy.Chapter 1 NONLINEAR PNEUMATIC RESISTANCES The utilization of diaphragms as a measuring element of fluid flow 1. a pneumatic resistance is defined by the following relation: ∆p = Rp × Q (1. The relation 1. the principles of the nonlinear pneumatic resistance should be understood. Regarding the diaphragm‘s position and operation as fluid flow measurement elements should be also known. and Q represents the fluid flow through the resistance. 1 .1 Laboratory objectives At the end of the laboratory.

1. • linear pressure drop losses along the resistance are negligible in regard to local ones (input and output).1: Diaphragm Constructively. In figure 1. The necessary conditions for a pneumatic linear resistance are: • small length to diameter ratio. characterized by a passing diameter D0 and a length L 1. The 2 . For the nonlinear field: Q = f (∆p) (1. a pressure drop and a decrease in the section of fluid (contraction) until S2 (smaller than S0 ) who’s surface and position are not well determined and is considered to be a virtual section.1 we have a pipe.2) Figure 1. characterized by the passing section S0 = π × D02 /4. the pneumatic resistance can be described as a restriction in the path of the air flux. When the fluid passes through the resistance a turbulent regime appears. (C) a nonlinear resistance of type diaphragm (D).

which is in case of air has the value 0.4) χ − 1 ρ1 p1 where χ is the adiabatic index.debit flow through the resistance is computed with the following relation: Qg = S2 × ω2 × y2 (1. we can define the following regimes (see figure 1. p1 is the upstream pressure. Considering the flow through the resistance as a function of . we obtain: v "  2   χ+1 # u u 2χ g p2 χ p2 χ QG = Cd × S0 · p1 t × − (1.7) χ − 1 R × T1 p1 p1 p2 The ratio p1 is replaced with  and it is called relaxation coefficient.5) ρ1 p1 and the section S2 is expressed as a function of S0 : S2 = Cd × S0 (1. • W2 is the fluid speed in the section S2 . p2 is the downstream pressure).2): 3 .528. The speed of the fluid is given by the Saint-Venant equation: v u u 2χ "   χ−1 # p 1 p 2 χ ω2 = t × × 1− (1.6) where Cd represents the sub-unit coefficient of the flow. • S2 is the passing surface for the fluid throw the resistance.3) where • Qg is the gravimetric debit flow. The x maximum debit flow is obtain from dQ 2  x−1 d G = 0 for cr = x+1 (critical relaxation coefficient. Taking into account that the adiabatic transfor- mation is characterized by:   x1 ρ2 p2 = (1. • y2 is the specific weight.

but using another equations).1). b) connection of pneumatic traducers of type AT 30 PLT 370 or equivalent. b)  = cr . Figure 1.7 the flow trough the diagram can be computed. c)  < cr . using equation 1. a)  > cr .overcritical regime. Applications: a) flow measurements: air.2: Diagram of the practical flow. In the following cases: b) and c) the debit flow through the resistance is equal to the maximum debit flow which can be obtained with equation 1. 4 . the calculation is done with the equation from 1. 1. when no right flow measuring devices are available. in which  is replaced with cr .critical regime. in the case of flow control loops.7.subcritical regime. steam (even for liquids. When we measure ∆p = p1 − p2 ∼ = p01 − p02 (see figure 1.7.3 System configuration and mounting instruc- tion for measuring the flow. methane gas.

• Rz is the tank with known value. as those with floaters.3: Figure 1.20 × D upstream and 5 × D downstream from the diaphragm.3: The diagram as a flow measuring element Notations: • C is the compressor (ECR) with a filter (F). • M1 . • M3 is the liquid column manometer.4: 1.3 × D).... diaphragm.. • R1 is a inlet resistance (can be a second filter)..5 bar). M2 are the pressure gauges (0. • D diaphragm. b) the connection of flowmeters that use a differential pressure signal at the input..10 bar and 0. The diaphragm is mounted on the horizontal plane of a pipe with constant diameter over 15. The constructive and mounting details are shown in figure 1. In this laboratory you will have to make air flow measurement using the scheme in figure 1. The points where the pressure is collected are right next to the diaphragm (< 0. 5 .

measuring room.3. 5. gripping device. Figure 1.1 Measurement of the real flow By increasing the tank pressure (Rz) to 2 bar in which there are 2V liters of air (2 × V ). fixating bolt. 3.4: Schematics 2. 4. 1. pipe. opening the valve until the pressure drops to 1 bar and measuring the elapsed time (t1 [sec]). The volumetric flow is: V Qvm = [l/sec] t1 and this translates in gravimetric flow: Qgm = γair × Qvm [kgf /sec] where γair = 1.293 [kgf /m3 ] 6 .

7. • g = 9. • χ = 1. • T1 = 273 + ta . 1[P a] = 1[ mN2 ]   Hints: • during the measurements try to avoid high pressures setup (more than 3 bars). The gravimetric flow is computed using equation 1. 7 .632897.81 m/s2 .1. • you can even make the two measurements in parallel. • make sure that you transform each quantity in the IS units.565 mm. When the pressure p reaches 1 bar ∆p{1bar} [mmH2 O] is read. Other data: • Cd = 0. 2 2+1 p1 = = 1. • R = 2927cm/o K.4 (air).2 Computed flow The measurements are either repeated or done in parallel: at the opening of the valve p = 2 bar and from the liqued column manometer ∆p{2bar} [mmH2 O] is read. if you work in a team.3. • make sure that you use the right volume information for the compressor.5 [bar] 2 p2 = p1 − ∆p [bar]. where: ∆p{2bar} + ∆p{1bar} ∆p = [mmH2 O]. • d0 = 11. ta = ambient temperature Observation: The gravimetric flows will be computed by using the following transformations: 1[mmH2 O] = 1kgf /m2 = 1g · mN2 = 10−5 g[bar].

8 . Note: Compare and explain the possible differences between the obtained two flow values. • make sure that you compute the right way the pressure for the diaphragm.

linking by chamber (1).1 Pneumatic amplifier type nozzle-flapper The constructive details of the pneumatic nozzle-flapper amplifiers is presented in figure 2. Pneumatic amplifiers are energy con- trol elements.2. 2.2 Theoretical Considerations: The pneumatic amplifiers. in which the input information ”commands” an energy flow of compressed air.Chapter 2 PNEUMATIC AMPLIFIERS 2. have the role to model an input signal (mechanical or pneumatic) and to give an output signal (pneumatic) following a certain input variation law.1 Laboratory Objectives: In this laboratory we study the constructive and operational principles of the nozzle-flapper and pneumatic power amplifiers. As structural elements are mentioned the fixed pneumatic resistance R1 and the variable pneumatic resistance R2 . as active circuit elements.generated by the auxiliary source using as control signal the input signal). 2. The static characteristic of these will be measured during the lab activities. in the form of an auxiliary source (delivers the output power- pressure and/or flow .1. The resistance 9 .

2 (left) shows a pneumatic first order circuit: if the gas flow through the resistances is laminar and we work with small signal varia- tions on the static characteristics (linear zones) around some operating points. we can apply the electro-pneumatic analogy and build the equivalent electric scheme 10 .2: Functional principle of the nozzle-flapper amplifier The circuit from figure 2.2. of type lateral surface of a cylinder (S200 = π · d2 · h). Figure 2.1: Pneumatic nozzle-flapper amplifier We can determine a connection between the output signal pe and the input signal h (or ) by looking at figure 2.R2 has a fixed part R20 (jet or nozzle) and a variable part R200 (h = corresponding to the distance between the jet and the pallet). By modifying the distance h will lead to a modification of the flow section of resistance R200 (and also R2 ). Figure 2.

With the equation: V α1 = σ.3).2 (right). k is a division coefficient of pressure pa with regards to the ratio of the resistances R1 and R2 . considering that in a stationary operation Qc = 0 (the chamber works on a closed enclosure): Qa = Q = 2 It can be written successively: pa Qa = R1 +R2 +R2 pa = pa − R1 × Qa (2.shown in figure 2. with α2 variable). the flow resistance is very large (R ∼= inf).4 bar. The equation which characterizes the delay circuit is: V 1 dpe α1 × × + p2 = ∗ pa (2. the operating equa- tion is simplified. Constructively.2) R × T × (α1 + α2 ) α1 + α2 we obtain: dpe σ× + p2 = k × pa (2. T is the absolute temperature. R is the air constant.2 (right). α1 and α2 are the flow coefficients for the R1 and R2 resistances. therefore σ is negligible and the amplifier’s equation becomes: pe = K × pa On the basis of the equivalent scheme from figure 2.1) R×T α1 + α2 dt α1 + α2 relation 2. while the pressure in the jet room is maximum and approximately equal to the primary pressure 11 .1 is for patm ∼ = 0.3) dt where σ is the time constant of the circuit (V is the volume of the room. When the pallet is stuck to the jet (h=0). The gas supply for the amplifier is done at 1. as reference pressure.4) pe = pa − R1 × R1p+Ra 2 The static characteristic of the amplifier pe = f (h) is strongly nonlinear when considering negligible capacities and atmospheric pressures as a reference (figure 2. the connecting chamber of volume V is very small. k = (2.

Practically. The build principle is that of a pressure divisor made of a cylinder-ball type resistances R1 and R2 . The pressure change is obtained by moving the ball (B) under the mechanical action of the elastic membrane (M) on which the input pressure (pi ) acts.2 Pneumatic Power Amplifier A pneumatic power amplifier of an electro-pneumatic converter ELA 104 s shown in figure 2.source (minus the pressure drop on R1 ). At a distance h ≥ d2 /4. The schematic of the divisor. 2. R200 ∼ = 0 and in the jet the residue pressure is greater than the atmospheric pressure (there exists a pressure drop on R10 ). leads to the 12 . the resistance R2 decreases and with it the pressure pe also decreases. a linear zone AB on the static characteristic of the nozzle-flapper amplifier can be determined.3: Static characteristic of the nozzle-flapper amplifier As the pallet moves farther from the jet. in figure 2. the resistance R2 ≈ R20 .4 (right). Figure 2.2. the optimal operating point will be determined.4.

Figure 2. From the static characteristic we can find the pressure amplifying coefficient: ∆pe kp = (2.5: Experimental model for the power pneumatic amplifier 13 .4: Constructive principle and functional of the power pneumatic ampli- fier following formula: R2 pe = pa × R1 + R2 which means that pe can take any value between the extreme values: 0 bar (R2 = 0). or pa (R1 = 0).5) ∆pi Figure 2.

The reading of the pressure gauges are done for the feed pressure pa = 1. the setup from figure 2. • M1. Draw the graphics and calculate the pressure amplification for the linear area of hte static characteristic (see equation 2.2.Power amplifier.3. 2.3 bar (pe = 0) and then decrease it in small steps until it has reached 0 bar (we have to take into consideration the negative slope of the characteristic).5). FR2 are reductive filters. M2. where: • FR1.6 should be realized. 14 . pe2 = f (h). Graphically pe1 = f (h). First.5.3. • C(EE) is closed chamber (execution element) For the measurements. we increase pi to 0. and pe2 = f (pe1 ) are represented. com- ments are specified and finally the results are interpreted.4 bar. • A . M3 are gauges.2 Static characteristics of power amplifier The static characteristics of the nozzle-flapper amplifier and of the nozzle-flapper amplifier combined with the power amplifier should be reused.1 Static characteristics of nozzle-flapper amplifier The static characteristic pe = f (pi ) of the power amplifier ELA 140 is created from the measurements obtained from the setup in figure 2.3 Laboratory work 2.

15 .6: Experimental setup for the combination of the nozzle-flapper amplifier with the pneumatic power amplifier.Figure 2.

between the electronic transducer with an electric output signal and the pneumatic regulator. or on the panel. it is used in automatic control schemes: between the regulator (electronic) and the actuator (pneumatic).Chapter 3 THE STUDY OF THE ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC CONVERTER 3. (4 ÷ 20 mA d.1 Work Subject We will study the constructive and operational principle of the electro-pneumatic converter.c. From the static characteristics: p = f (ic ) both the zero and operational adjustments will be done. with mount on pneumatic actuators. or 2 ÷ 10 mA d. It can also be inserted in the reaction loop. 3.2 ÷ 1 bar). The ELA 104 converter is build in two asymmetric architectures: • ELA 104 A.2 Theoretical Considerations The electro-pneumatic converter is a device that provides the conversion of an electrical command signal. 16 . In other words.c.) into a proportional pneumatic signal (0.

17 .1: The electro-pneumatic converter where: 1 Pneumatic relay (amplifier). 3 Nozzle flapper amplifier. Figure 3. • ELA 104 AS. with mount on pneumatic actuators made in Romania. after Gulde license.1 . 2 Polarized electromagnet. The main blocks of the electro-pneumatic converter ELA 104 are presented in Figure 3. 5 Adjustment system for the flap position. 6 Bellow of the negative reaction.

the instrumental air gets to the nozzle valve amplifier (3). is in balance under the action of the magnetic force (constant magnetic field of the permanent magnet built in the polarized relay) and the reaction force of the spring (5). Through the fixed resistance R0 (7).1) ic (s) 1 + k1 ·k 2 ·d·Sb ae ·ke 18 . The functional block scheme from which we can deduce the transfer function is presented in Figure 3.2 combined with Figure 3. The reinforcement (4). through which the distance ”h” between nozzle and wall is modified. Figure 3. we will have a variable pressure in the chamber (b) of the pneumatic amplifier.4 bar. Depending on the distance ”h”.2 and 3. Sbr is the effective surface of the reaction spring. When supplying the coil of the polarized electromagnetic relay with a continuous signal 2÷10 mA (4÷20 mA) we will get an electromagnetic force which modifies the previous equilibrium and also the distance ”h”. K2 is the amplification factor of the power amplifier (1).3. and also at the exit toward the servomechanism (actuator). Ke is the equivalent elasticity constant. Km is the constant of the electromagnet (linearized characteristic).2: Detailed operating principle In Figure 3.3 K1 is the amplification factor of the nozzle flapper amplifier (3). The equipment works on the principle of time compensation. We get the following transfer function: 1 k ×k 2 p(s) ae ×ke H(s) = = km × c × (3. The converter is supplied by a pressure of 1.

4 (with tgβ = kp ).2) Sb · d while km and Sb are constant (the spring works in the linear zone and Sb is constant).4: Static characteristic of the electro-pneumatic converter 19 . Figure 3. Figure 3. we have: km · c H(s) = (3. relation (2) represents a proportionality constant (kp ) and leads to the static characteristic from figure 3.3: Functional block scheme k1 ·k2 and considering 1 << a2 ·ke .

5: Laboratory scheme connections • ELA 104 AS is the electro-pneumatic converter (CB terminal box).a) for an input of 2÷10 mA d.1: Tabulation The zero adjustment (point p=0.6. with the help of which the distance ”h” is modified. • SI is the instrumental air source. • R is the reducing filter FR100.2 bar for ic =2(4) mA) will be made from the spring (5).6. • M1. or parallel (Figure 3.1 will be realized where: Figure 3.7) 20 . (Figure 3. M2 are the pressure gauges (0÷2 bar)..1 will be filled after the following operations are finished: series input Ic [mA] 2 4 6 8 10 output p [bar] parallel input Ic [mA] 4 8 12 16 20 output p [bar] Table 3.c.c. The connections with the terminal box can be made in series (Figure 3.5 based on the diagram 3.3 Laboratory activity The scheme from figure 3. • EE is the actuator (closed chamber).b) for an input of 4÷20 mA d..3. The table 3. without acting on the input signal.

Figure 3. as we see in figure 3. is made based on the relationship: kp = tg (β). 21 .7 left side. acting on the distance ”d” (the reaction spring can be moved left-right). on the left the field adjustment.7: On the right the zero adjustment. The field adjustment and also the slope of the static characteristic.6: Connections of the terminal box Figure 3.

the structure and the operating principles of the pneumatic actuators with membrane will be studied and their behavior in the static regim will be measured.1 Laboratory Objectives In this laboratory. through which the process operation is influenced.1. 22 . The input signal for this element is the command signal Xc while the output is Xm . Figure 4.1: General control circuit diagram.2 Theoretical Considerations The execution element/actuator form an automated control system is marked with E in Figure 4. 4.Chapter 4 STUDY OF THE PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS WITH MEMBRANE 4.

The most important component is the pneu- matic actuator (SP) with membrane. a pneumatic actuator. SP is connected 23 . 5. The schematic representation of a pneumatic actuator with membrane and spring is represented in Figure 4. pneumatic amplifiers. 3. composed of: chamber (1).3. elastic mem- brane (2). hence the controlling the process.2): 1. case when an electro-pneumatic converter is necessary. 4. The supply pressure of the pneumatic actu- ators coming from pneumatic regulators (0. Xm should be represented as a function of the control signal. a position transducer. Figure 4. 2. we can distinguish between proportional or integral execution elements. the power amplifier. spring (4) and shaft (5).2: The structure of a pneumatic actuator From these elements. rigidity washer (3).2 ÷ 1 bar). By the way that the pressurized air acts on one side or on both sides of the elastic membrane. the sensing element and the position transducer from the positioner. The pneumatic actuators with membrane transform the potential energy of the pressurized air into mechanical energy represented by a linear movement of an execution element. executive element. In order to study the behavior of the actuator in the control system. Structurally. a pneumatic actuator is composed of (see Figure 4. or electronic regulators. Xc is a pressure). This element further manipulates the process variables. sensing element. xc (for the pneumatic actuator with membrane.

If the command pressure (pc ) will rise.3: Pneumatic actuator without positioner to the executive element (OE) through the shaft.1) α·R·T dt 24 . the air flow equation from chamber (1) is: dG Q= = α(pc − p) dt From the above two expression. Figure 4. • k1 is the the membrane‘s rigidity coefficient. The behavior of the actuator in dynamic operation is described by a nonlinear differential equation. and a volume variation will appear in the chamber as in the following relation: V = V0 + k1 · p where: • V0 is the volume at pressure p = p0 . which depends on Sef . the pressure in chamber (1) will also rise. On the other hand. based ont he general gas law (pv = GRT ) and dG V · dp  dt = RT dt : V0 + k1 · p dp · + p = pc (4. which links the command signal xc (pressure or flow) to the displacement Xm (linear move- ment).

or : (4. For this power amplifiers that deliver high flow quantities are used when the output pressure is equal to the input one. the term k1 · p is ignored and the above formula will be the equation of a first order delay element: V0 dp α·T ·T · dt +p = pc .2) dp T· dt +p = pc We can see from equation 4.3 we can note the natural oscillation frequency fn of the valve: r 1 k fn = (4. Vo or (with T = αRT ) : (4.3 is: r b 1 ζ= 2 k·m dXm  where b is the friction coefficient in regard to the speed: Ff = b · dt . The equation that de- scribes the motion of the mobile elements is: m·a = Sef (p − p0 ) − kXm − Ff . or equivalent the section of the air flow nozzles. The 25 .2 that in order to decrease the time constant T. • p0 is the initial pressure (usually. the OE makes a linear motion (Xm ).In general.4) 2π m This frequency should be a minimum of 15-30 Hz. the atmospheric pressure. p0 =0). From equation 4. which implies a small m and a big k. α must be increased. for the valve to have no continuous oscillation. Under pressure p. in regard to shaft (5).3) d2 XM m· dt2 + k · Xm + F f = Sef (p − p0 ) where: • m is the mass of the elements in movement. • Ff is the friction force. The damping factor ζ from equation 4.

From equation 4. the tuned process P. through the spring). which implies k · m should not be too big.4. through its free surface.5) p dp dt mV d3 Xm d2 Xm V0 k dXm Sef pc = αRT · dt3 +m· dt2 + αRT · dt + kXm + Ff In this equation we considered that the friction forces don‘t depend on the pres- sure (Ff = ct). If we change the variation direction for pc . in equation 4. which tends to be 26 . (This is not valid in the case of a valve with double acting elements. the error is sent as an input signal to amplifier A. Figure 4. in elements of high quality are 12% of the total course of the valve. of the valve are.2 and 4.5 actually consists of a control system. The shaft (1) and the spring (2) represent the measuring element. which are in fact pneumatic power amplifiers with a feed-back signal coming from the shaft of the executive element. To reduce the hysteresis effect and the time constant of the actuator we use positioning devices (Figure 4. we can see a hysteresis for the characteristic Xm = f (pc ) (Figure 4.damping factor should not be too small. This will be graphically determined from the membrane‘s static characteristic. The spring (6) and shaft X. The errors.4). In practice. realizes the comparison between the input signal (Fc = Sb · pc ) and the output of the system (Fc = kx. where the command measure is pressure p from the output of the amplifier A and the execution signal is Sef · p (the membrane). The movement of the flapper/pallet (4) in front of the nozzle (5) is proportional to the error.5). In steady state operation: k · X = Sef · p and it is linear if k and Sef are constant throughout the whole section of the valve shaft. in this system. due to variations of these characteristics. where the forces that act in opposite senses cancel each other out). The bellow (3). not only Ff but also k varies with the pressure.3 we get:  2   3  1 d Xm V0 d Xm dXm pc = Sef m + KXm + Ff + Sef αRT m +K dt2 dt3 dt | {z } | {z } (4. In such a control system we will get an output measure x.

a spacial scale and measurement units. • high amplification factor on the air circuit. will be measured. • the time constant of the actuator is reduced.3 Laboratory Activity a) The static characteristics of pneumatic actuators without positioner will be graphically represented.2 ÷ 1 bar in both directions. Figure 4. By using the positioner we will have the following advantages: • precision of the actuator is improved. and the position Xm . therefore we can also work when static friction forces or higher disturbances are present.4: Characteristics of a pneumatic actuator without positioner equal to pc . For this the command pressure will be var- ied between 0. b) The static characteristics for ELT-114 actuator with membrane and position should be plotted c) Plot and comment the obtained characteristics: x = f (pc ). 4. 27 .

Figure 4.5: Pneumatic actuator with positioner 28 .

mainly scaling operations yielding to a unified output signal. integrators. 29 . The focus will be on assembly operations and start up on the equipment from the laboratory. indicators and register equip- ment). The output signal of the converter is used by other equipments (regulators.2 Theoretical Considerations The converter transforms the measured physical quantity in a pneumatic signal. 5.1 Laboratory Objectives In this laboratory. regardless of its measured physical quantity. ensuring proportionality between the two. the construction and operating principle of pneumatic trans- ducers will be studied and compared with electronic converters.Chapter 5 STUDY OF THE DIFFERENTIAL PNEUMATIC PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS 5.2 ÷ 1 bar. The transducers on the other hand provides a transformation between the same type of physical signal. The pneumatic converter provides an output signal of 0.

1: AT 30 detector where the internal part transforms the translation motion into angular one. We can obtain other constructive versions by using another type of detector.2) consists of: • nozzle-flapper amplifier which uses as control signal the rotational motion received from the detector.1 AT 30 PLT 370 Pneumatic transducer The PLT 30 is composed of two distinct parts: the detector (AT 30) and the adapter (PLT 370). 30 . (1) and (2) are connected with a rigid rod (3). into a proportional pneumatic signal in a unified range (0. The AT 30 detector (see figure 5.5. in which two elastic bellows. The PLT 370 pneumatic transducer transforms an angular movement (0◦ ÷8◦ ) received from the detector. Figure 5. Displacing both bellows as a result of applied differential pressure is transmitted to a lever (10) which transforms the lever’s linear displacement in an angular displacement of axis (4) of maximum 8◦ . A detector transforms the measured physical quantity (differential pressure) into a proportional angular movement which is 8◦ at the maximum value the measured quantity.1) is composed of two pressure chambers. The PLT 370 adaptor (see figure 5.2 ÷ 1 bar).2. • a feed-back part composed of a mechanical capsule (elastic) and a mecha- nism with an elastic joint.

• fields of measure: – normal: 0-80.4 bar. which is capable of reacting to the variation of the distance h of the nozzle-flapper and by sending an output pneumatic signal of range (0.• a pneumatic amplifier fed with air at a pressure of 1. 150. • static working pressure: 1.2: The PLT 370 adaptor The main characteristics of the AT 30 pneumatic transducer are: • measured signal: differential pressure. proportional with the angular displacement of the detector‘s axis. 300. 31 .4 bar. 200.2 ÷ 1 bar). Figure 5. 400 mmH2 O .

2.4 ± 10% bar.2 ÷ 1 bar. – special: derive from the normal ones by reducing one or both measur- ing limits (minimum range = 40% in normal field). Both pressures. 5. when a step input signal is applied: around 5 seconds. 32 . Any displacement of the power bar is detected and causes current increase in secondary detector.2 FE-3DM pneumatic converter Even though it is known as an electronic converter of differential pressure. It measures the differ- ential pressure and transmits. which is balanced with a force excited by the feedback coil. as output signal. This current is amplified and simultaneously transmit- ted to the feedback coil and receiver. that determines the equilibrium force is pro- portional to the differential pressure. • response time the time duration while the output signal to reach 63%. The force developed by the feedback coil equilibrates the displacement of the sensitive element. The functional principle is shown in figure 5. The main characteristics of a PLT 370: • instrumental air supply pressure:1. only the adaptor is electronic and the detector is composed of mechanic . The output signal.3. This converter is using the power balance principle. proportional with the input signal. high and low are applied on the membranes of the measuring capsule. The resulting differential pressure. creates a force on the lower end of ”the power bar”. 4 ÷ 20 mA.pneumatic elements. in reality. • output signal: 0. a continuous current of range 4 ÷ 20 mA.

the equalization valve is opened followed by the supply valves for the high pressure. respectively the low pressure chambers.valves.reference prescription block.station preparing instrumental air. Figure 5.regulator and Ref .diaphragm. First. Execute the starting and verification for AT30 PLT370 converter according to the schematic from figure 5. PAP - pneumatic actuator with positioner. where: C . The equalization valve is than closed.pipeline. SPA . First. The installation is started from the BV valves.3: The FE-3DM converter 5. D . Then close the equalization valve. 33 . BV .3 Laboratory activity The construction of the AT30 PLT 370 respectively the FE-30CM converters are studied. Reg .4. open the equalization valve and then the supply valves from high and low pressure rooms.

Figure 5.4: Experimental assembly 34 .

2 Theoretical Considerations The Festo pneumatic stand (figure 6. an SPC200 controller (4) connected to a DC power supply (7) and an emergency stop system (6). The SPC200 controller can be programmed using the WinPISA 4. two pneumatic translation axes.41 applica- 35 . 6. connected to the inferior part of the Y axis. a pneumatic gripper (5).1 Work Subject The purpose of this laboratory is to understand the operating mode of the Festo pneumatic positioning system and to acquire the necessary SPC200 controller programming skills in order to control the two translation axes and the effector of the pneumatic system.Chapter 6 PROGRAMING THE SPC200 CONTROLLER FOR A FESTO PNEUMATIC POSITIONING SYSTEM 6. a horizontal one (X-3 axis) and a vertical one (Y-2 axis).1) contains a process computer (1).

The project window (figure 6. This application allows the creation of new projects/programs. The list of predefined positions is unique for every project and is automatically created along with the project so it can be modified but it cannot be recreated or deleted. 36 .3 Creating a new project A new project is created by using the ”New Project” option from the ”File” menu. editing of the predefined position list. Figure 6. a programing language that is used for programing numeric command tool machines. 6. The necessary data for the new project are the name of the file (.prj). The programs and the list of the predefined positions (figure 6. The controller allows using up to 100 programs (numbered from 0 to 99). the editing of existing programs.2b) are found in the ”Software” folder. the title of the project and the description of the project (optional). uploading and downloading the programs in/from the controller‘s memory.1: Festo pneumatic stand tion. compiling project- s/programs. The programs for the SPC200 are realized in ”G code”.2a) ensures an easy management of the controller programs.

From the ”Edit” menu select the ”Insert object” option. Press ”OK” for confirmation. Fill the ”Title” and ”Description” fields from the newly opened window. Figure 6.3. (a) Project window (b) The list of predefined positions Figure 6. 37 .1 object (7)). Start the controllers power supply (figure 6.3: The structure of a program For editing a new program you need the hardware characteristics of the axes and controller. 2. The structure of the program is shown in figure 6. 4. Select the ”Software” directory.2: Creating a new project The steps for creating a new program are: 1. The hardware characteristics are obtained by following the next steps: 1. 3.

A program can contain maximum 1000 code lines. The registration number is assigned manually or automatically. every code line having a unique registration number. A program for the SPC200 controller is valid only if every line has a regis- tration number. Note:The lower software end position should be 32 and the upper should be 400 for the X axis. Numbering the code lines is made starting from 0 (N000) up to 999 (N999). Figure 6. Open the ”Online mode” function from the ”Online” menu. The controller allows the loading of a minimum of 100 programs with a number of code lines that shouldn’t exceed 2000. 38 . Open the ”Hardware” function from the ”Online − > Upload” menu. For automatically numbering the lines. The characteristics of the translation axes of the stand are presented in figure 6. 3.4: The translation axes characteristics 2. the ”Start numbering” function from the ”Edit” menu will be called.4.

the positioning will be ab- solute.. absolutely or relatively to the current position (G90 or G91) Example: N000 G00 G91 X100 the gripper is positioned at 100 mm in the positive di- rection on the X axis with maximum speed Note: if none of the G90 and G91 options is used.4 Commands for the SPC200 controller SyntaxG00: G00 [ G90 | G91 ] [ X|Y]< p o s i t i o n > where <p o s i t i o n >: [40 −390] f o r X a x i s and [40 −190] f o r Y a x i s or <p o s i t i o n >: X@n Y@n ( where n i s th e p o s i t i o n symbol from t he p o s i t i o n s l i s t ) Description: positions the final effector in the coordinates defined by < position >. 9 9 ] where (0=100% .99=99%) Description: positions the final effector in the coordinates defined by < position >. with maximum speed. Syntax G01: G01 [ G90 | G911 ] [ X|Y]< p o s i t i o n > F<X| Y><speed> where <p o s i t i o n >: [40 −390] f o r X a x i s and [40 −190] f o r Y a x i s or <p o s i t i o n >: X@n Y@n ( where n i s th e p o s i t i o n symbol from th e p o s i t i o n s l i s t ) <speed >: r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t he maximum speed [ 0 . .6.. the positioning will be abso- lute. . with the speed defined by < speed >. Syntax G04: 39 . absolute or relative to the current position (G90 or G91) Example: Note: if not using one of the G90 and G91 options.

N000 G01 X100 FX20 Y150 FY30 the gripper is moved at position 100
mm on the X axis with 20% of the max-
imum speed and on at 150 mm on the
Y axis with 30% of the maximum speed

G04 <time>
where
<time >: s t a t i o n a r y time ( time ∗10ms)
Description: stops the running of the system for < time > ∗10ms;
Example:

N000 G04 250 The system stops in 2.5 seconds

Syntax G08:
G08 [X|Y] <a c c e l e r a t i o n >
where
<a c c e l e r a t i o n >: r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f th e maximum a c c e l e
Description: sets the acceleration on the X and/or the Y axis for approaching
a point;
Example:

N000 G08 X50 The acceleration on the X axis is 50 % of the maximum,
N001 G01 X80 FX50 before the given position 80 mm on the X axis.
N002 G08 X0 The acceleration is set to the maximum after the given
point was reached

Syntax G09:
G09 [X|Y] <a c c e l e r a t i o n >
where
<a c c e l e r a t i o n >: r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f th e maximum a c c e l e
[ 0 . . 9 9 ] where (0=100% ,.. ,99=99%)
Description: sets the breaking acceleration of the X and/or Y axis;
Example:
G90 Syntax:

40

N000 G09 X50 The throttle brake is set to 50 % of the maximum,
N001 G01 X80 FX50 before reaching the given position 80 mm on the X axis.

G90 [X|Y]< p o s i t i o n >
where
<p o s i t i o n >: [40 −390] f o r X a x i s and [40 −190] f o r Y a x i s
or <p o s i t i o n >: X@n Y@n ( where n i s th e p o s i t i o n symbol from
t he p o s i t i o n s l i s t )
Description: positions the final effector in the absolute coordinates (relative to
the 0 reference system) defined by the < position >;
Example:

N000 G00 G90 X200 The griper is positioned at 200 mm on the X axis with
respect to the origin of the reference frame

Syntax G91:
G91 [X|Y]< p o s i t i o n >
where
<p o s i t i o n >: [40 −390] f o r X a x i s and [40 −190] f o r Y a x i s
or <p o s i t i o n >: X@n Y@n ( where n i s th e p o s i t i o n symbol
from th e p o s i t i o n s l i s t )
Description: positions the final effector with relative coordinates from the cur-
rent position defined by < position >, with respect or negative direction;
Example:

N000 G00 G91 X200 The griper is positioned at 200 mm on the X axis with
respect to the current position,
N001 G00 G91 X-100 the gripper is moved with 100 mm backward on the X
axis in regard to the last position.

Syntax M00:
M00
Description: stops the execution of a program.
Example:

41

N000 G01 X100 FX50 The griper is positioned at 100 mm on the X axis with
respect to the origin
N001 M00 of the reference frame with maximum speed, the pro-
gram stops

Syntax M02:
M02
Description: stops the execution of a sub-program.
Example:

N000 G01 X100 FX50 The griper is positioned at 100 mm on the X axis with
respect to the origin
N001 M02 of the reference frame with maximum speed, the sub-
program stops

Syntax M30:
M30
Description: repeats a program.
Example:

N000 G01 X100 FX50 The griper is positioned at 100 mm on the X axis with
respect to the origin
N001 M03 of the reference frame with maximum speed, repeats the
execution of a program

Syntax L:
L<n>
where
<n>: t he number o f t h e program from th e
c o n t r o l l e r ‘ s memory ;
Description: launches a sub-program.
Example:
Syntax #SQ:

42

N012 E05 030 the program jumps to line 030 without any conditions. 1 5 ) . Example: N010 G00 G91 X10 The gripper is moved 10 mm forward with regard the current position. 0 0 t o 1 3 . n> where <n . Description: resets the bit of an exit port. Example: N000 #SQ0. #SQ<n .0 The port 0. 1 5 ) . Example: N000 #RQ0. n>: e x i t p o r t ( from 0 . n> where <n . the gripper is positioned at 100 mm with regard the origin of the reference frame N030 G00 G90 X100 Syntax #T: 43 . Syntax E05: E < r e g i s t r a t i o n number> Description: executes an unconditioned jump to the < registrationnumber > line of the program. launches the sub-program number 1.0 is set to true. N000 G01 X100 FX50 The griper is positioned at 100 mm on the X axis with respect to the origin N001 L1 of the reference frame with maximum speed. 0 0 t o 1 3 . logical ”1”. logical ”0”. Syntax #RQ: #RQ<n .0 is set to false.0 The port 0. n>: e x i t p o r t ( from 0 . Description: sets the bit of an exit port.

#T<I |Q><n . n><r e g i s t r a t i o n number>
where
I : input port ;
Q: output p o r t ;
<n . n>: t h e number o f t h e p o r t ( from 0 . 0 t o 1 3 . 1 5 ) ;
Description: tests the value of a port (input or output). If the value is logical
”1” it jumps to < registration number > line. If the value is logical ”0” it
executes the next line.
Example:

N010 #TI0.0 12 Verifies the state of the port 0.0 if it is true,
N011 E05 10 ”1” than jumps to the 012 line, else executes again the
line 010.
N012 G01 Y100 FY50

Syntax #TN:
#TN<I |Q><n . n><r e g i s t r a t i o n number>
where
I : input port ;
Q: output p o r t ;
<n . n>: t he number o f t h e p o r t ( from 0 . 0 t o 1 3 . 1 5 ) ;
Description: tests the value of a port (input or putput). If the value is logical
”0”, it jumps to < registration number > line. If the value is logical ”1” it
executes the next line.
Example:

N010 #TNI0.0 12 Verifies the state of the port 0.0 if it is false,
N011 E05 10 ”0” than jumps to the 012 line, else executes again the
line 010.
N012 G01 Y100 FY50

Syntax #LR:
#LR<R e g i s t e r >=<value >
where

44

<R e g i s t e r >: t h e number o f t h e r e g i s t e r ( between 0 and 9 9 ) ;
<value >: an i n t e g e r v a l u e between −32768 and 3 2 7 6 7 .
Description: saves an integer value < value > in the register < Register >.
Example:

N010 #LR0=0 Saves the value 0 to the register at adders 0

Syntax #AR:
#AR<R e g i s t e r >=<value >
where
<R e g i s t e r >: t h e number o f t h e r e g i s t e r ( between 0 and 9 9 ) ;
<value >: an i n t e g e r v a l u e between −32768 and 3 2 7 6 7 .
Description: increments the value saved in the < Register > register with the
integer value < value >.
Example:

N010 #LR0=0 Saves the value 0 to the register at adders 0,
N011 #AR0=1 increments the registers value by 1

Syntax #TR:
#TR<R e g i s t e r >=<value > < r e g i s t r a t i o n number>
where
<R e g i s t e r >: t h e number o f t h e r e g i s t e r ( between 0 and 9 9 ) ;
<value >: an i n t e g e r v a l u e between −32768 and 3 2 7 6 7 .
Description: tests the value saved in the < Register > register. If the value is
equal with < value >,it jumps to the < registration number > line. If not, it
executes the next line.
Example:

6.5 Compiling and executing the programs
The programs from a project are compiled using the ”Project” function from
the ”Compile” menu. After compiling, the WinPISA application will display the

45

N009 #LR0=0 Saves the value 0 to the register at adders 0,
N010 L1 executes the sub-program 1
N011 #AR0=1 increments the value in the register 0 by 1
N012 #TR0=4 14 if the value is 4 than jumps to line 012
N013 E010 else jumps to line 010
N014 G01 X100 FX20

result of the compilation in a window. In case there are compilation errors, these
will be displayed with the lines of the program in which they appear.
The steps for saving a project in the controller’s memory are the following:
• Save all the programs within the project;

• Turn on the power source of the controller (figure 6.1, (7));

• Activate the ”Online mode” option from the ”Online” menu;

• Call the ”Project” function from the ”Online− >Download” menu;
For launching a program, call the ”Control axes” function from the ”Online”
menu (in online mode). WinPisa will open a window with the projects existing
in the controllers memory. Choose the desired program to be executed.
IMPORTANT!!!

Before launching any program, the station must be powered following the given
steps below:
• Generate 6 [bar] pressure in the compressor.

• Open very slowly the red safety valve placed on the station, rotating
clockwise till it is in a horizontal position. After the valve is opened, the Y
axis moves in it‘s maximum position.

• The program can be launched.

• In case of any malfunctioning immediately push the emergency stop button
(red) for safety measurements (see figure 6.1 (6)).

46

• Identify the code sequences used for opening and closing the gripper.0 3 330 130 1.30 0. 2. 50). 47 . y) = (360.30 2.6. Create a project that contains the program from figure 6.0 4 330 60 1.50 2 120 130 0. Create a program for a palleting application knowing that: • the processed parts are of two types and the processing is done alternatively at every 20 seconds.6 Proposed exercises 1.0 3. Create a program which positions gripper in the following points: X axis position [mm] Y axis position [mm] X axis speed [m/s] Y axis speed [m/s] 1 120 80 0. • the store has the coordinates (x.0 1.0 2.5. Figure 6.5: Demonstration program • Identify the role of every line of the program.

y) = (70. • the number of processed parts is 6 (3 of every type). 60).• the pallets for the two types of parts have the coordinates (x.2b). y) = (100. • the moving speed cannot exceed 1 m/s (for both axes). • the points in which the final effector will pass (including the loading/un- loading points of the parts) have to be defined and taken from the position‘s list (figure 6.5 m/s2 on the Y axis. • in the moving zone there is a rectangle shaped obstacle of 150 mm length (from X = 1500 mm to X = 300 mm) and 50 mm height (from Y = 80 mm to Y = 130 mm). • the project has to contain a main program which counts the processed parts and two sub-programs called from the main program (one for each pallet). 60) and (x. 48 . • the stopping acceleration in the closing and opening points of the gripper cannot exceed 0.

2 SimHydraulics introduction 7. models for analyzing the features of specific hydraulic equipments will be constructed 7.Chapter 7 SIMULATION OF HYDRAULIC CIRCUITS USING SIMHYDRAULICS TOOL FROM MATLAB 7. Starting from basic elements. SimHydraulics is based on the Physical Networks from Simscape toolbox and contains a set of hydraulic elements next to electrical and mechanical ones which 49 .2.1 Laboratory objectives The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce the MatLab SimHydaulics tool as a modeling and simulation environment for hydraulic circuits.1 Program presentation SimHydraulics R is a modeling environment that offers the possibility of simulat- ing hydraulic systems through the MatLab Simulink tool.

2: Specific and basic elements from Foundation Library. are to be found in the Foundation Library from Simscape. SimHydraulics is developed especially for modeling control loops with pistons. Figure 7.2. Figure 7. The system is not intended to be used for: • Fluid transportation • Irrigation systems 50 . as part of complex control systems. 7.1: The physical system’s simulation product family. There is alo the possibility to create specific models apart from the standard ones from the Foundation library.2 Modeling characteristics SimHydraulics can be used in the analysis of hydro-mechanical systems even in the transient regime.

the difference between Simulink and SimHydraulics is that Simulink blocks are mathematical. the Simulink platform for modeling phys- ical systems. kilogram and second). Thus. 51 .3 Modeling of physical systems SimHydraulics is based on Simscape. Figure 7. 7. The conversion block parameters are in IS (e. SimHydraulics integrated into the Simulink / MatLab en- vironment. • Distributed parameter systems SimHydraulics is based on the isothermal transformation principle: the temper- ature is considered constant during experiments. SimHydraulics models are based on Simscape models. using SimHydraulics requires basic knowledge of Simulink / MatLab. Therefore. thus for every model a Solver Configurator block should be added.2. electrical and hydraulic elements together. with there respective parameters.g. For interconnecting different elements we will use signal converters such as Simulink-PS converter and PS-Simulink converter from Simscape library.3: Example for multidomain models. Multidomain models can be constructed by connecting mechanical. while SimHydraulics blocks become physical and ones. meter.

1 SimHydraulics library blocks Besides Simscape elements. 7. To open SimHydraulics library we can use sh lib command in MatLab. 52 . The library structure is as listed below: • Foundation library . valves etc.3 SimHydraulics . mechanical and physical systems.4: Conversion block properties 7.consists of advanced hydraulic systems such as pumps.Introduction in modeling hydraulic systems This chapter will present basic elements that are used in modeling hydraulic systems. Beside combining elements from these libraries. • Utility library consists of basic elements for modeling physical systems. Simulink elements can also be integrated for modeling and simulating physical systems. • SimHydraulics library . Figure 7.consists of basic blocks for hydraulic. the SimHydraulics library includes specific elements for hydraulic systems which can be connected to Simscape elements.3.

• Two interconnected conservation points should have the same physical char- acteristic. • Physical connections can be spited. translation me- chanics and rotation mechanics. • Conservation ports are bidirectional and cannot be connected to signal lines from Simulink. but the physical measures that pass through that certain section will be divided according to that certain sys- tem‘s structure (e. • There are three types of Conservation ports: hydraulic. Figure 7. These rules are summarized below: • SimHydraulics usually allows the use of Conservation Points and Phys- ical Signals for input and output.5: SimHydraulics library structure. Every port has a variable specification Through and Across (e. 7.g.g. Ohm‘s Law. 53 . • Only same-type conservation ports can be interconnected.3.). pressure and flow). the sum of currents etc.2 Rules for creating a model The rules for creating SimHydraulics models emerge from the Simscape rules.

parameters that interfere in the model’s equations. a clear vision over the developed model can be maintained. density.6: Fluid parameters of the system. 7.3 The usage of special fluids in modeling Changing the fluid in the model will affect the global parameters of the system. Figure 7. the signals have measurement units. temperature. percentage of air in the fluid etc. 54 . • Custom Hydraulic Fluid blocks: allows specifying the system‘s fluid param- eters: viscosity. it is recommended to start from simple models and further devel- oped them as modules in this way. petrol and oil. Generally. In the program two fluid categories can be specified: • Predefined Hydraulic Fluid blocks: these contain predefined parameters for certain standard fluids such as gasoline. • Signals between Simscape and Simulink blocks can be interconnected but we have to use a conversion block (PS-Simulink or Simulink-PS).3. Conversion blocks can be used to modify the measurement units. • In contrast to Simulink.

4 SimHydraulics . 55 . The figure illustrates a hydraulic cylinder which is controlled by a distributor.3. the diagram will present an idealized pump. In order to create the Simulink model the next steps are to be followed: 1. Figure 7. 4.7: Hydraulic system scheme The power part of the scheme is composed of an engine. 3.7 is shown below. Choose from Simscape > SimHydraulics > Hydraulic Cylinders a Single- Acting Hydraulic Cylinder.Creating a simple model Next. The cylinder acts on a mass tied to a spring and considers a viscous friction force. 2. Open a new model in Simulink: File > New. Therefore. a hydraulic pump and a blowdown valve. From Simscape > Foundation Library > Hydraulic > Hydraulic Sensors and Sources an Ideal Hydraulic Pressure Source block is chosen and placed in the new model.7. the steps required to create a simple model ins SimHydraulics as the one from figure 7. The pump is considered powerful enough to keep a constant pressure at the valve. Open Simscape and Simulink libraries.

The T output will also be connected from the pressure source to the reference. In order to model this.8: Simple model in simulink 7. 8. the Mass. The T output of the valve is connected to a tank at atmospheric pres- sure. sources and scopes will be added from Simulink.8a have to be added. For interconnections. (a) The source. Beside this block. Simulink-PS and PS-Simulink conversion blocks are needed.9. 6. For modeling the mechanical load. The links will be done according to figure 7.8b. a Hydraulic Fluid block will be added in order to specify the fluids parameters. valve. Translational Spring. For visualizing the characteristics. Choose for the valve from Simscape > SimHydraulics > Valves Library a 3-Way Directional Valve which can be found in the Directional Valves sub library and a 2-Position Valve Actuator from Valve Actuators. the output will be connected to a hydraulic reference from Simscape > Foundation Library > Hydraulic > Hydraulic Elements.5. The connections listed in figure 7. Transla- tional Damper and Mecanical Translational Reference blocs from Simscape > Foundation Library > Mechanical > Translational Elements library will be selected. Every Simscape model needs a Solver Configuration block. actuator and (b) Mechanical elements connected to cylinder the hydraulic system Figure 7. These elements will be connected such as in figure 7. 56 .

2. is preset to 24.10. Skydrol 5 is chosen with the Relative amount of trapped air parameter at 0.5 kg. Change the parameters from Simulation > Configuration Parameters (Ctrl+ E) Solver at ode15s with Max step size 0. the Nominal Signal Value parameter. 6. For specifying the ideal pump input value. the value of the constant is changed to 10e5 and the measurement unit for the constants conversion block will be set to Pa. follow the next steps: 1.9: Input-output for the system and configuration blocks In order to modify the initial parameters of the system. 5.002 and 40 for the temperature. the damping coefficient to 250 N/m and the elasticity coefficient of the spring to 6e3 N/m with the initial 57 . The mass block’s value is set to 4. 2. the sinus block amplitude is set to a value grater then 50% of the valve’s preset value (e. The cylinder and valve parameters are set according to figure 7. 20). For selecting the fluid from the system we will use the Hydraulic Fluid block. 4. Taking into account that for the valve actuator.g. Figure 7. 3.

For simulating the obtained system. What can be seen at the Scope output with positioner after simulation? 58 . What happens with the cylinder‘s position compared to the previous case? Explain. Explain the following: • What obstructs the valve? • For the cylinder position: why does the cylinder return to the initial posi- tion? • Change the sinusoidal input signal amplitude to 50. • Choose millimeter as measurement unit at the signal convertor from the cylinder position. Figure 7. 7. What happens with the cylinder and valve signal? • Change the spring‘s elasticity constant to 12e3 N/m.02 m. press Ctrl+T.10: Cylinder and valve parameters deformation of 0. Save the changes made to the model.

The problem of modeling the hydraulic system will be treated while the mechanical model is supposed to be already built.3.005 amplitude.1 Creating the hydraulic model The system configuration shown in figure 7. • Pressure relief valve: pressure value: 1e5.5.3.11: The hydraulic system with ideal actuator The parameters for the elements of the system are: • Sinus input: 0. Figure 7. regulation value: 1e4.5 Modeling and simulation of a hydro-mechanical sys- tem with SimHydraulics The purpose of this chapter is to give an example of a more complex system such as a forklift.7. 7.11 is capable of driving the mechanical system of an excavator. • Pump nominal pressure: 1e+07. • Cylinder: default. 1 frequency. 59 .

5. Observe the inputs-outputs of the system. regulation value = 197. 60 . • Elastic coefficient: 1000 KN/m. Figure 7.3 Connecting the hydraulic actuator to the mechanical one In this part. • Distributor: default. the systems are interconnected. open the Wheel Loader Closed Loop model and simulate the system. Simulate the system and interpret the result. • Mass: 1 kg. 7.7. Copy the hydraulic system and the already build mechanical system in a new model. 7.13: • Pressure relief valve: pressure value = 19.3.3.2 Simulating the mechanical system in closed circuit For this. The parameters of the hydraulic system are changed according to figure 7. • Fluid: Skydrol DL4.5. • Damping coefficient: 100 [-].12: The connection scheme for the closed loop mechanical system Question: Why does the excavator move downwards for the first time? Study the mechanical part of the system.

the most important functions of FluidSim from FESTO will be presented. 7. • Sinus input: amplitude = 1.015].4 FluidSIM In the last part of the laboratory. Visualize the oscilloscopes from the mechanical model.15. +0.1 FluidSim interface To open the application run Festo Didactic from the Start menu and the main window will appear shortly as shown in figure 7.4 · π.015. Observe the system’s behavior. 7. the 2 systems will be connected such as in figure 7.4.13: Parameters for cylinder and distributor • Saturation: [−0. frequency = 1. • Solver: relative tolerance = 1e-8. The presented hydraulic circuits should be build and simulated.14. After setting the parameters. Figure 7. 61 .

7.14: Connecting the hydraulic actuator system to the mechanical system On the left side of the main window can be found the the components bibliography. • 3/n Way valve. in order to create complete circuits.Figure 7.16 with the following components: • Air Service Unit. which has hydraulic and electric components. In the same manner (drag and drop) all the components on the sheet can be moved.2 Circuit creation First create a new and empty sheet by selecting from the main menu: File− >New.4. 62 . On the upper menu can be found the options for circuit creation and simulation. Build the circuit shown in figure 7. From the Components Library drag an item and drop on the sheet.

Figure 7.15: Festo FluidSim main window.16: Simple circuit example. 63 .Figure 7.

4. Simulate the new model and discuss the behavior of the two configurations.3 Circuit simulation The circuit shown on figure 7.17: configuration window for valves.17). all the pressures in circuit are calculated and the cylinder changes its position. where the cylinder on the right side is a Double Acting Cylinder. 7. 2. The simulation can be started with the play button or from the main menu: Execute− >Start (F9). the diagram will show the states of the chosen components.18.4. 64 . Simulate the new model and discuss the behavior of the two configurations. Set the opening level to 50% for the One way Flow Control valve. 7. in order to visualize the states of the circuit‘s elements the State Diagram should be placed on the sheet. • Compressed Air Supply. In order to chose the type of the valve (3/n Way valve) double click on the item to open the configuration window (see figure 7. to add components. Build the hydraulic circuits on the same sheet as show on figure 7. drag it and drop on the State Diagram. Meanwhile the simulation is running. If the circuit is re-simulate. Figure 7.16 should be simulated. The circuit on the left side is the same as built in the previous sections.4 Exercise 1.19. • One way Flow Control valve. Build the hydraulic circuits on the same sheet as show on figure 7.

on the left side of the 3/n Way valve should be only the 65 . 3. 2. Simulate the new model and discuss the behavior of the two configurations. 3. Simulate and discuss the behavior of the circuit.18: Circuit configuration for Double Acting Cylinder. as show on figure 7. Simulate and discuss the behavior of the circuit.3 In this case.Figure 7. on the right and Single Acting Cylinder with reaction spring on the left.19: Circuit configurations nr.2 A return spring should be placed on the right of the 3/n Way valve. 3. Build the hydraulic circuit where the vales opening level is set to 50%. 3.19.1 The one way flow control valve‘s opening level should be set to 70%. Figure 7.

Figure 7.20: Circuit configurations nr. 3. return spring and on the right side should be only the manual actuation. Simulate and discuss the behavior of the circuit. 66 .

the sensors (color and switch) are attached to this unit.Chapter 8 CONTROL OF ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS USING LLWIN 3. The microcontroller from figure 8. after the transfer there is no need of a communication with the PC or.0 8.1 Laboratory objectives The laboratory presents an electro-pneumatic sorting system and its correspond- ing LLWIN 3. when the program is run from the computer. then the communication is 67 .1 provides power/commands to the feeding motor and to the electro-valves that command the positioning arm. There is the possibility to download the application from the PC to the mi- crocontroller.2 Theoretical Considerations The electro-pneumatic system used in this laboratory is presented in figure 8. An applicationof separating white tokens from black ones is proposed. The microcontroller communicates through RS232 with LLWIN which runs on the PC.0.control software.1. 8. Moreover.

68 . For creating a project these steps should be followed: 1. 4.2.2.0 interface To launch LLWIN 3. 8. Figure 8. The program can be written as functional blocks and subprograms (see figure 8. Open the New project window (see figure 8. In order to develop a control application a project needs to be created.0: Start>All programs>LLWIN 3. Assign a name to your project. the subprograms being also functional blocks. From the main window choose Project and then New.06. The user interface is presented in figure 8.06>LLWIN 3.3) from which the ”Empty Project” template will be chosen. 3.1: Sorting electro-pneumatic systems maintained. Define the location where the project will be saved on hard drive.1 LLWIN 3.2) with. 2.

2. In the Output box choose the output from controller to which the block will be linked. drag the output block symbol and drop it in the logic diagram area.2: User interface of LLWIN 3. each control program can include several functional blocks as described bellow: 8. 3.2). 69 . Open the Output window from figure 8.2. Figure 8.2 Output block 1. From Toolbox (see figure 8.0 As mentioned earlier.4a.

70 . E17÷E26 outputs can be used for buttons on the terminal (described later).2. In the Type box choose the type of the output block: engine. In the Type box choose the type of the output block: pushbutton. 8. reed contact. 3. 6. 5. In the right-side of the Output window we can find the buttons correspond- ing to the actions that can be linked to the respective output block.3 Input block 1. From Toolbox (see figure 8.4b. or photo-transistor. or lamp. 5. In the Input box choose the input of the controller to which the block will be linked. Figure 8. Open the Input window from figure 8.1). In the right-side of the Input window there are buttons corresponding to the associated to the respective blocks.3: The New Project window 4. electromagnet. drag the input block symbol to drop it in the logic diagram area. 4. 2.

2. 3.5a) choose the input. (a) Output box (b) Input box (c) Other types of in- put blocks Figure 8. From Toolbox (see figure 8.2.5b 8. clockwise (see figure 8. to which this block should be associated and on the right-side choose if the block should be active at a transition from 0− >1 or from 1− >0. Corresponding to the selected type a block will appear like the ones in figure 8.2).4 Edge block 1. In the Edge window. From Toolbox window (see figure 8. Wait for a transition from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0. 2. drop it in the logic diagram area. the block will count 2 impulses. for example if a button is pushed and it pops back.5 Position block 1.4c). 7.4: Typical logic block in LlWin 8. Input box (see figure 8. drag the ”edge” symbol. 71 .2) drag the ”position” symbol. drop it in the logic diagram area. 2. Counts impulses given at digital input until reaching a desired value. Outputs E31÷E38 and E41÷E48 are used to memorize the engine rotation: counterclockwise.

counter variable. In figure 8.6: Counter block 72 . value from/to which it will count ascending/descending.6a) choose the cor- responding input. In the Result box insert values from/to which it should count the impulses.6b. (a) The edge window (b) Edge blocks active at a transition 0− >1 and 1− >0 Figure 8. If option ”Use standard counter” is selected then automatically the program will attach a counter to each E1-E16 input. In the Position window. 4.5: The edge block 3. 5. in the Input box (see figure 8. the fields represents (from left to right): input. in the Counter box there will be a defined counter variable memorizing the state of the block. depending on the chosen counting direction. if not. (a) Position window used to (b) Position window used as define the counter block of ascending and descending im- some impulses pulse counter Figure 8.

2.8b the block is presented together with Stop window used for block configuration.7: Start and Stop blocks 8.8a the Reset block is presented and the Reset window used for block configuration. Only one use of this block is allowed in a single project.In figure 8. It cannot be physically connected to other functional blocks.2.2.7a).8 Reset block The block resets all the sequences when the reset condition is fulfilled meaning that all blocks are brought to the start blocks. The reset condition can be a simple input or a mathe- matical expression. In figure 8.9 Emergency break block Deactivates all output blocks when active. 8. 8.8. If the program works in a loop then this block is not needed. (a) Start block (b) Stop block Figure 8. More program sequences can be linked to the same block.7b). The reset block cannot be con- nected to other functional blocks.2.6 Start block Every logic diagram that describes a control program begins with this block (see figure 8. while the program continues to run. Only a single use of this block is allowed in a single project. then each will start with this block.7 Stop block Used as a terminator for a program sequence (see figure 8. The formula used as a condition cannot have more than 40 characters. If an application needs other diagrams. The reset condition can 73 .

Used to stop a program when in ”online” mode. 2. It cannot be connected to other blocks and includes several fields: 1. 8. Displays a message of maximum 17 characters. 8. 3.8: Reset and Emergency blocks be a simple input or a mathematical expression. Digital input. activated from the interface (contacts with return). 4. 6. Used to reset a program when in ”online” mode.2. (a) Reset block and con.9). Digital input.10 Terminal block The terminal block is used to display certain data from the process and to insert input measures (see figure 8. The formula used as a condition cannot have more than 40 characters. 74 . 5. 7. Used to display the values of some variables. Parameters and switches can be activated. Shows when a motor is active and the direction of the rotation. or changed in ”edit” state using the right click. activated from the interface (contacts without return). Sets the EA-ED parameters.(b) Emergency break figuration window block and configuration window Figure 8.

the name of the input or a number.9: Terminal block 8. In the configuration 75 . (a) Display mod. Figure 8.11 Display block Used to display a value. increment and decrement blocks 8.2.12 Show values block Displays the current value of a variable when the program is in online state (see figure 8. a variable or EX-EY or EA-ED inputs on one of the displays included in the terminal block.2.(b) Values display (c) Variable incre- ule block ments/decrements block.10a) we can specify the display number and the name of the variable whose values will be displayed. In the configuration window (see figure 8. The block cannot be connected to other blocks. Figure 8.10b).10: Display.

It si also possible to display another variable while the program runs by selecting the block and insert its name. Both branches can be reversed between them in the same window (see figure 8. If the condition is true. In the configuration window (see figure 8. follows the 1 branch otherwise the 0 branch.11b).14 Assignment block It assigns a value or a mathematical expression to a variable.13 Variable ±1 Can increment/decrements a value of a variable. 8.2.11a. 8.11: Assign and compare blocks 8. The length of the expression can have maximum 34 characters. Configuration of the block is made from the configuration window as in figure 8.The maximum number of characters for a formula is 40.window define the name of the variable or of the input that will be displayed. (a) Assign block (b) Compare block Figure 8.2.2.15 Compare block It allows the evaluation of a condition introduced as formula in the configuration window. 76 .10c)one can insert the variable name and select the desired operation: +1 for incrementing and -1 for decrementing.

12: Alarm and wait blocks 8.99 sec.2.12a).16 Beep block Sends a sound through the speaker. (a) Alarm block (b) Wait block Figure 8.18 SubIn/SubOut block The blocks are visible only when a subprogram is edited.2. Selecting type ”random” t a random time delay will be generated but not longer than the one specified. Selecting the type ”define” the specified value will be used. 77 . Time delay is defined in the configuration window (see figure 8. The random option can be useful when programming reaction tests. A name cannot be associated to more than one block.13a).8. The duration and frequency of the emitted sound can be changed from the configuration window (see figure 8.2.12b) up to maximum of 999. They connect the main program and the beginning of the subprogram (SubIn) or the ending of the main program and the main program (SubOut) (see figure 8.17 Wait block The block can include a delay between two consecutive instructions. Sounds cannot generated in the download mode. 8.

3 Subprogram creation A subprogram is represented as a block. It is the equivalent of a procedure from high level languages.In order to define and insert a subprogram in the main program we must follow these steps from the Edit menu select Subprogram (see figure 8. 78 . The SubIn and SubOut blocks added in the diagram contain the circles Out1 and In1 from figure 8.13c). (The adding is made by ”drag and drop”). (a) Sub in and out block (b) Subprogram creation (c) Subprogram design block Figure 8.14a. Close the window from figure 8.13b) and in the window specify a name for it. Getting back to the main program is made by right clicking. a new window will appear with the defined name: Add SubIn and SubOut (see figure 8. in order to see the instructions from a block left click on it.14b so that the associated subprogram block can be used in the main program (they have to be inserted in main program). To start the program press the start button. While the program runs.13: Subprogram modules 8.13a).14b and then the corresponding subprogram block can be added to the main program in a same manner as adding other blocks from Toolbox. After introducing a name and validating with OK. These have to be added into the subprogram block as in figure 8. then introduce instructions that define the subprogram: From the Subprogram menu choose Design and then select the previous defined subprogram (see figure 8.

an electro-pneumatic sorting system controlled with a micro- 79 . placed under the arm that will transfer them in one of those the containers.4 What should be achieved Based on the above presentation.5 Description of the application Using the device presented in figure 8. after identification. (a) Subprogram block (b) Subprogram block with assigned input and connected to input and to output ports. Conclusions In this laboratory.14: Subprograms 8. a program has to be designed and implemented that assures the color sorting of tokens. After being identified by a color sensor. It is recommended to add comments at every instruction to make a program easier to be understood. Requirements The program needs to ensure that pieces are pushed out of the storage. 8. depending on their color the tokens are moved in one of two containers. One can choose between a modular program (by procedures) or writing the entire application in the same window. output ports Figure 8.1 a program should be written that ensures the sorting of cylindrical tokens by color. trans- ported to the color sensor and then. Pieces of white and black color are found in a cylindrical storage from where they are pushed outside with the help of a crank and connecting rod system driven by an electric motor.

80 .controller. was presented All the instructions from the software LLWin for a pneumatic sorting machine programming were described and the developed program offered a general view on the control of an electro-pneumatic process with a microcontroller.

References URL www. accessed 6-January-2015]. 3.com. Gh.06. 1978. L. Lazea. User Manual. 30407.de. 4. Software LLWin 3. accessed 6-January-2015].fischertechnik. art. 81 . [Online.mathworks. Assembling automated installations. URL http://www. no. printed in germany edition. 1982. [Online. laboratory tutor. Bivolaru. Hydraulic and pneumatic control equipments. volume vol.