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College Latin

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College Latin
An Intermediate Course

Peter L. Corrigan

New Haven and London

Copyright © 2015 by Yale University.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Corrigan, Peter L., author.
College Latin : an intermediate course / Peter L. Corrigan.
pages cm
Includes indexes.
ISBN 978-0-300-19092-2 (pbk. : alk. paper)  1.  Latin language—Grammar. 
2.  Latin language—Textbooks.  I.  Title.
PA2087.5.C67 2015

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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

This book is dedicated to the memory of Lyman E. Hawbaker Sr.,

teacher, mentor, colleague, and friend

“How can we come to a creative contact with the grounding of our
own life? Only through a teacher who can lead us to the source of
our existence by showing us who we are, and, thereby, what we
are to do.”
 —Henri Nouwen

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Preface xi
Introduction xiii

Part I. Morphology and Grammar Review 1
A. Nouns 3
1. Regular Declensions 3
2. Irregular Declensions 7
3. Review of Cases 8
4. Place and Time Constructions 15
B. Adjectives and Adverbs 17
5. Regular and Irregular Declensions 17
6. Regular and Irregular Comparisons 20
C. Pronouns 23
7. Declensions 23
D. Prepositions 27
8. Prepositions (and Postpositions) 27
E. Verbs 30
9. Regular Conjugations 30
10. Irregular Conjugations 56
11. Deponents, Semideponents, and Fio 72
12. Infinitives and Participles 81
13. Ablative Absolutes 84
14. Indirect Discourse 87
15. Independent Uses of the Subjunctive 89
16. Dependent Uses of the Subjunctive 91
17. Supines, Gerunds, Gerundives, and Periphrastics 104

viii Contents

18. Conditional Sentences 107
19. Commands 110
20. Miscellaneous Verb Information 113
21. Complete Rule for the Sequence of Tenses 117
22. Overview of Dependent Clauses 123

Part II. Exercises 125
A. Passive Voice 127
B. Ablative Absolutes 128
C. Indirect Statement 130
D. Uses of the Subjunctive 131
E. Gerunds, Supines, Gerundives, and Periphrastics 138
F. Conditional Sentences I 139
G. Conditional Sentences II 140

Part III. Annotated Readings 143
A. Animals and Nature 145
1. Prose Readings 145
2. Verse Readings 156
3. Supplemental Readings 170
B. Religion 182
1. Prose Readings 182
2. Verse Readings 196
3. Supplemental Readings 213
C. Fables 221
1. Verse Readings 221
2. Supplemental Readings 239
D. Preeminence 244
1. Prose Readings 244
2. Verse Readings 254
3. Supplemental Readings 270
E. Women 280
1. Prose Readings 280
2. Verse Readings 295
3. Supplemental Readings 310
F. Love 319
1. Prose Readings 319
2. Verse Readings 325

Part IV. Vocabularies 345
A. Acquisition Vocabulary 347
B. General Vocabulary 355

Texts 436 C. Indexes 433 A. Authors 435 B. Contents ix Part V. Definitions 441 . Appendix: Latin Word Order and Sentence Structure 421 Part VI.

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1939). . This admirable volume. And he has generously devoted to me long stints of reading drafts and arguing fine points. I have spent many hours imposing on his knowledge of the pedagogy of ancient languages. As products of a thoroughgoing presentism. now long out of print. Our textbooks need to reflect the progress we’ve made in understanding our students and their widely varying learning styles. They have made the teaching of intermediate Latin—an assignment that some instructors dread—a true pleasure for me. anticipating many changes that would occur in foreign-language instruction in the postwar era. What probably dates Levy’s textbook most from today’s perspec- tive is the assumption that students’ curiosities are primarily antiquarian. But I know that whatever virtues reside in this text are largely due to them. and they would meet an intermediate reader just like Levy’s with considerable diffidence. which I have always tried to take into careful account. Robert Mondi of the University of Northern Colorado has been a treasured friend and collaborator. Emily B. So many of my Latin students have “test-driven” significant sections of this book that there isn’t space here to thank them all by name. Preface The present book has been inspired by many of the same pedagogical instincts that informed Harry L. Catharine University has shown the utmost patience and forbearance with me as I tested ideas for this book (and others) on her and her students. our students today typically don’t value antiquarianism per se. West of St. Dr. this book has benefited from countless improvements. Over time. Dr. was quite innovatory for its time. innumerable little things have been added to and subtracted from the book. mostly due to students’ responses. I also extend my heartfelt gratitude to two colleagues who have used my materials in their classes and provided me with invaluable feedback. Some traditionalists at the time must have greeted Levy’s introduction of noncanonical authors like Aulus Gellius and Phaedrus as radical. Levy’s A Latin Reader for Colleges (New York: Prentice Hall. Because of the input of both these scholars. This text contains material I’ve worked on and with for nearly thirty years. and I remain mindful of and grateful to them.

my efforts would be for naught. And the admirable editorial staff at Yale was a delight to work with. Amy Elman and W. I single out Ash Lago and. my wife. particularly. xii Preface Another debt of gratitude I must acknowledge goes to those inmates I’ve tutored in an English-literacy program at a local jail. Tim Shea for special thanks. Because of this experi- ence. and I am most thankful to them. and my outcomes are much improved. Their efforts at self-improvement never failed to inspire me. I want to thank the gentlemen I’ve worked with over the years who contributed a richness to my teaching career while their own lives stood in difficult transitions. Trent Foley for this project sustained me and was much appreciated. . my daughter. I no longer teach intermediate Latin as a foreign language but as a familiar language. Without all their sup- port. and Daniela. The encouragement of friends R. Many of the lessons I learned from teaching English speakers to read English have worked their subtle way into this book. for their boundless understanding during my push to complete this book. The anonymous readers for Yale University Press offered some exceptionally good sug- gestions for making this a better book. I thank Junjuan. Last.

For students to proceed successfully with the language. At the same time. and it shows off much of the intriguing complexity of Roman society and culture. I sincerely hope that this text will ameliorate these and most other challenges that inter- mediate Latin poses. I might add one more difficulty I occasionally en- counter. intermediate Latin requires a text and an approach that will “level” all earlier texts and approaches. The instructor of such a heterogeneous class needs to homogenize it within a week or so. It has certainly worked better in my classes than the alternative texts available. The mix of students can often be quite heterogeneous: besides those who have taken the institution’s beginning Latin sequence. they enter the class having been trained with different introductory Latin texts. syntax. And to mention just one more of the challenges frequently encountered in intermediate Latin: this is the course where a stu- dent discovers that the Romans valued poetry far more than our culture does. there are others enrolled who have studied Latin in high school or at a different college or even through self-study. when they first confront the nuances and complexities and ambi- guities of literary texts in intermediate Latin. Intermediate Latin is also difficult because it is the hump course for students to develop the reading skills they’ll need in upper-division courses on Latin literature. throughout the book. thus. informed by different pedago- gies. Moreover. precisely because it begins to model the sort of critical thinking that more ad- vanced literary studies require. In the introductory sequence. students are constantly reminded that proficiency and fluency largely depend on . it provides a thorough overview of morphol- ogy. become frustrated and disappointed: How can a language that makes so much sense be used to make such little sense?. there are some students who fall in love with the tidiness of Latin morphology and the exquisite logic of many grammatical constructions. they sometimes ask. therefore. though. and if she or he wants to continue studying Latin. Introduction Teaching intermediate Latin to college or university students offers a variety of challenges. a basic comfort with verse expression must be acquired. This enumeration is hardly exhaustive. but these same students. and vocabulary building for the students’ recovery and review.

and they need to learn consider- ably more Latin to make any discussion of canon substantive for them. with the desired outcome that it will also lower the attrition rate typically observed in enrollments at this stress point in the Latin curriculum. I have drawn the Latin readings in part III from a great variety of sources over a consid- erable span of literary history. unless it’s pointed out to them). just wait till you read ____!” The preceding blank can be filled in with Cicero. When I teach advanced Latin courses on Catullus or Ovid or Cicero or Livy. Ovid. the numeration system used in this section may seem unnecessarily cumbersome at the time of reviewing it. Vergil. and the introduction to largely unadapted texts from Roman literature. The exercises in part II reinforce most of the more challenging concepts that part I presents and should be used for that purpose. in fact. Horace. In fact. in some places the Latin can be downright poor (the students won’t really know it. In my intermediate classes. whatever literary analysis that’s done at the intermediate level is fairly superficial and selective—and that’s how it should be. of course. The readings were selected to reflect the breadth of Latin literature and to engage the interests and sensibilities of modern college and university students. To be sure. To help distinguish authentic from “made-up” Latin. a student will greet the great texts of Roman literature. xiv Introduction their secure command of these features of the language. The readings in this volume offer tasty appetizers. none of the readings found in this textbook is likely to be reencountered later on in the students’ undergraduate study. and I believe there is an advantage to this all around. The vocabulary employed for the illustrations in part I and for the sentences in part II is fairly basic and presumably was mas- tered during the students’ prior study of the language. Battle narratives and forensic oratory won’t be found here. it can serve as a useful reference for most of their succeeding upper-division Latin literature courses. I have not capitalized the first words of sentences in parts I or II. or Tacitus as situationally appropriate. I can commonly be heard uttering something like “If you think this is good/interesting/provocative. There is a fundamental threefold purpose to any intermediate Latin course: the recovery and review of morphology and syntax. Livy. as a tabula rasa. and a word of explanation to justify this is probably warranted. The truth is. unless they are proper nouns. Catullus. Terence. they can be studied and appreciated in upper-division courses. They weren’t necessarily chosen for their high Latinity. it is a personal bête noire when a student declares to me that he or she “knows” a passage or a poem just because the student’s intermediate Latin class read it. the continuation of vocabulary acquisition. A further word on the use of noncanonical authors and texts: of course. getting a student to unlearn to relearn takes a lot of energy on both sides. we . Caesar. indeed. whether poetry or prose. typical interme- diate students don’t fully grasp what is or isn’t canon or why. I find it much more useful at this stage of their learning to employ the noncanonical to whet their palates for the canonical. After using this book. This text should definitely lower the elevation of that hump between introductory and advanced Latin courses. The comprehensive over- view of grammar in part I provides students with all the information they need about the language at this stage in their progress. But its value and purpose will become readily apparent to you on encountering the marginal gram- mar cues in part III.

In our upper-division Latin curriculum we typically pay near-equal attention to poetry and prose. Students are immediately put at ease when told they are going to read a Latin fable. is a subjective accusative and not a direct object than to double-check it against the grammar of part I. these questions simply prime the pump by helping the students to anticipate. we don’t want reading facility to be frustrated simply because of a student’s weak vocabulary. but then they taper off some. “Reading for Information” ques- tions. it’s usually in the direction of trying to improve reading facility. Balancing the various desiderata here is not an easy calculus. this information even seems to trump most anxieties about reading poetry. However they’re used. and the questions should therefore be read and answered carefully— the answers will reveal whether or not the students are reading with precision and attention to detail. On the principle that all proficient reading is basically anticipatory (that is. in this case. It only makes sense that the bridge course to advanced studies should reflect what the subsequent curriculum strives for: an equal proficiency in Latin prose and verse. we’ll always be talking up the next courses in our curriculum. extra credit. At some point in their linguistic development it’s better and easier for them to puzzle out that a certain accu- sative. are intended to situate the students in the passage even before they begin reading it. Their overall content and pedagogy are consistent with the other readings.” While the obvious common denominator is reading and its pro- motion. Moreover. when we read. they can be very beneficial for advancing the students’ reading skills. testing. The book provides fairly copious supplemental readings in part III. grammar cues and vocabulary aids are very generous for the first few selections in prose and verse. There is an inherent pleasure—one might even say comfort—in fables. practice. further topi- cal reading. Latin lit- erature relies much on the aphoristic and the anecdotal to capture the truth or essence of any given topic. the broad semantic range of many Latin lexemes requires us to accustom students to the use of dictionaries— not a bad thing. apart from these considerations. . That near-equal attention is paid to prose and verse readings requires little comment. the two kinds of questions do different things. we’re always engaged in the active process of expecting what will come next). diagnostics. The intent here is that students will realize that overreliance on these types of assistance will begin to hold them back. especially in prose. If we’re smart. In part III. for example. more of the same serves to showcase further the breadth and depth of Roman literature and thought. Similarly. but if I’ve erred. together with the headings or introductions. and anec- dotes. Introduction xv need to build anticipation for the more substantial and piquant entrées to follow. where the logos of aphorism or anecdote commonly replaces the muthos of poetic fable and myth. aphorisms. Students and instructors are free to do with them what they will: self-study. as Phaedrus first acknowledged. and they should be mined for the resources that they contain. Every reading is accompanied by questions called “Reading for Information” and “Read- ing for Understanding. An explanation can be offered for this text’s heavy use of fables. but at the same time we constantly need to motivate students to improve their vocabulary. ancient Roman thought is markedly less dialectical than ancient Greek.

There’s a great teaching mo- ment to be had by bringing into class the Oxford Latin Dictionary and letting the students pore over entries like those for et. It should be assigned reading early in the term and repeat- edly referred to thereafter. work. Following the appendix. res. which constitutes part V. and to accustom them to a little dictionary work. in which they will discover. Our dictionaries are more word rich and less definition rich. this is because it’s meant to elicit a vigorous response. Reference to the original texts will reveal the extent to which I have adapted the readings (not much). keep a careful eye out for those uses or constructions that are high-frequency. on Latin word order and sentence structure. The topic is certainly not the students’ favorite. part IV presents a straightforward strategy. but it only rarely causes any conceptual consternation. while a Latin glossary is just the opposite. That way. write out the Latin of the exercises on separate paper and adjoin your translations thereto. When students begin to be able to discuss what they’ve just read in critical and factually accurate ways. As for the latter. habeo. at the book’s end. I strongly recommend that you don’t write your translations of the exercises in the book itself. serving you well in your next Latin courses too. that Latin diction differs greatly from English. or period. there is a useful list of authors and texts. which provides some chronological and bibliographical detail. Finally. After that experience. at- tempts to cover only the basics. it suffices if our students recognize the norms of word order and the most com- mon anomalies. These questions often exploit cross- cultural and intercultural pressure points. To that end. xvi Introduction The “Reading for Understanding” questions not only reveal students’ comprehension but also can generate some very lively class discussions. Recommendations for Students Not to oversimplify things. inviting students to examine their own culture carefully before passing judgment on the Romans’.. follow that and you will cultivate a strong operative vocabulary. this becomes a reliable indicator of their readiness for advanced studies and theory. and repeatedly test your understanding with those exercises in part II that are keyed to them. you can repeat the exercises as many times as you need to in order to achieve the desired accuracy and precision in your translations. This difference may prompt some practical resis- tance. a synopsis of part I will be found. but any worthy étude requires the student to differentiate between theme and variation. but success in college Latin depends mostly on your command of Latin vocabulary and your ability to distinguish between different uses of common con- structions (e. is twofold: to provide students with a con- crete and specific strategy for building their Latin vocabulary. At this stage of Latin study. the ablative case or the subjunctive mood). If a question here or there seems ten- dentious or partisan. The purpose of part IV. make sure you really understand the language logic underlying them. rather. This list may also prove helpful if a student desires to do further reading in a particular author. if they haven’t already. they’ll tend to regard the modest general vocabulary in part IV with more respect. genre. as adumbrated above. For the former.g. The appendix. . and ut. This can be removed and mounted on heavy paper for use both as ready reference and as a bookmark.

be guided by the headings for each reading and the “Reading for Information” questions. Muscle memory is as important for languages as for playing music. whether it’s in your first language or a studied lan- guage. There will be several items. Reading Latin is like playing a musical instrument: the best way to get better at it is by practicing every day. when I introduce . there are plenty more where these were selected from. as well as even the “Reading for Understanding” ques- tions. so don’t get discouraged in any way just because you’re using the assistance provided to facilitate your reading. and pave the way for your reading fluency. with your instructor’s assistance you will begin to gain a facility in reading Latin—not simply translating it. What you find in this textbook is but a foretaste of all that you can enjoy in the vast variety of Roman literature. is the spectacular panorama that is Roman literature. part I. The basic challenge for you as you proceed in your firsthand understanding of Roman thoughts and values is to remain open to the ideas they got right as you stay alert to and cognizant of the ideas they got wrong. Keep in mind that even the most expert Latin scholars occasionally need to consult grammar books and dictionaries. Introduction xvii Armed with a strong vocabulary and a secure command of grammar and syntax. someone will doubtless ask you to explain this difference. When you consider that this all took place roughly two thousand years ago. You’ll know you’re getting better at reading Latin when you find yourself less often look- ing down for vocabulary aids and over for grammar cues. You will probably need to spend a little extra time on those (and the concomitant exercises in part II). and summer breaks. however. Recommendations for Instructors Most of the grammar and syntax in part I will be familiar to your students. relies heavily on expectation or anticipation: as we’re reading. Because students today like things to be quantified. and experience. spring. the supplemental readings found in part III offer you great opportunities to prac- tice the skills you’re trying to develop. Also. The supplemental readings are interesting. create greater fluidity within each reading. observation. may somewhat initially disorient some students. especially the latter half. If you like the fables or the love poetry or the natural sciences or the medical writings or the aphorisms or the historical anecdotes. that some students may be encountering for the first time. these will help shape your expectations. because the material has been organized very differently than it was in their primers. though. we’re almost always guessing what will come next. One more idea: use these readings to keep “road rust” off your Latin during winter. although they may have learned it under different nomenclature. Finally. Therefore. it’s nothing short of amazing. It’s a pretty simple truism: the more you practice your Latin skills. Your instructor can point you to similar texts for further reading. Remember that reading. This understanding will help you in your lifelong effort to make sense of your own culture. Here can be found nearly every subject and every perspective ap- proximating the sum of human thought. the better they’ll become. Probably the most important thing for you to recognize. and they’ll complement and sophisticate your understanding of the major themes that each of the six reading sections present.

as often happens. but in that role I’m often ask- ing questions such as “Where in the Latin are you finding support for your claim?” or “When John just made this claim about our culture. for the first four weeks of the term I may spend more time on parts I and II than on part III. to the extent you can. The results are hardly the Tusculan Disputations.” This kind of information seems to help them process the grammar better. I devote a lot of attention in class to the “Reading for Information” and “Reading for Un- derstanding” questions. But by the last four weeks of the term we’re spending almost all our time reading and vocabulary building. I ask my students to explain the relationship. You’ll notice that I provide gram- mar cues for only some of the selections. Because every group of students is different. Generally speaking. And I occasionally get the student who will blurt out. I usually let the students decide which order they’d like to follow in part III. That is. I typically spread this over the entire term. the application of logic and rhetoric. I usually stand back and play only a moderating role. Furthermore. for some reason. Each of the six reading topics is an independent unit and does not presume the completion of a previous reading topic. between prose and verse selections. this book provides enough readings that it cer- tainly isn’t necessary to complete each and every one under each topic: feel free to pick and choose as you see fit or as the predilections of your students dictate. But however much you pick and choose. I often tell them something like “If you read Latin for one hour every day for a week. I’ve suggested above a wide range of possible uses for the supplemental readings. it will quickly disclose to you which of your students either don’t grasp or don’t employ the meth- ods of the book. xviii Introduction them to a construction whose syntax is unfamiliar to them. Almost all of us subscribe to the view that the more reading our students do. when we encounter a word glossed in part III that’s related to a word I’ve required them to learn. . and reference to literary authority. As a bit of a vocabulary-acquisition martinet. testing my students once per week on it. that is perfectly all right. Depending on the class itself and its preparedness for intermediate Latin. Whenever we get into a spirited discussion over an “Understanding” question. you’ll probably see this construction X or Y times. I plan out my Latin classes in one-week blocks: I decide by Monday morning what I want to accomplish before the end of class on the upcoming Friday. I have never followed the same formula twice for using the book. I en- courage you to make full use of them. If you try this exercise yourself. Also. but students do learn that ancient argumentation was based on facts. I strongly recommend that you divide the readings equally. if they want to do the readings about love before undertaking the fables. as a useful exercise. making something of a game of the former while applying a stricter critical rigor to the latter. but this is the Zth time!” which indicates to me that she or he is keeping an eye out for the construction precisely because I did try to quantify it. the better readers they become. I encourage you to require your students to follow the strategy for vocabulary building that part IV presents. do the rest of you concur?” I want the students using both the readings and their classmates to measure and test their assertions. I frequently ask my students to supply the cues for a passage that’s lacking them. “You said X or Y times.

iambs. dactyls. in the last week or two of the school term. Students will better remember what you present to them about the elder Scipio. I am aware that opinions on this vary.1 than to keep look- ing it up. he or she should be encouraged to draw a semantically significant distinction (“What would this be/what would it mean if there weren’t a macron present?”). elision. and spondees). Introduction xix Of course. I would advise against using aphorisms for teaching scansion. but at the same time I reassure the students who are mostly unfamiliar with the macron that.) In this way. As the term progresses. the instructor. as well as vocabulary and grammar aids. For my part. (Some prose apho- risms have been included among those in verse because they display a poetry-like concision and even prose rhythm. Latin students find the most slippery. I’m often saying things like “It’s better to look within than to look down” or “It’s easier just to learn 12. I introduce my students to only the barest of the basics (long and short syllables. Indeed. and I designed the book so that both schools of pedagogical thought can exercise their prerogative freely. .I. this is the essential role of the classroom instructor. trochees. and so I’ve opted to use this text to begin detaching students from such cues when and where they’re unnecessary for reading proficiency and understanding. ancient medicine. On a related matter.” Most students will agree (however reluctantly) and start to use the aids only as a last resort. They get the message. those lexemes that. or Roman marriage. in my experience. Macra are also commonly provided for particles. As an instructor of intermediate Latin. a cogent case could be made for an all-or-nothing approach at the intermediate level. to expand on your own en- thusiasms. when the student sees a macron. I always praise the students who have learned and apply their macra properly. than what I might offer here in the context of an intermediate Latin course. Helping our students to develop a discerning eye for fine details will serve them tremen- dously well in all their subsequent studies. apart from proper pronuncia- tion. I intentionally provide a bare minimum of historical and cultural background for the readings so as to set up opportunities for you. for example. I have employed macra in this book to distinguish between two (or more) similar forms or lexical items. I’ve found that textbooks only rarely kindle genuine student interests. look rather to fables and elegies for this purpose. my students won’t be put off at all by some of the intricacies of prosody. the mark will become important later in their study of poetics. it’s the goal of every intermediate Latin instructor that all grammar cues and vocabulary aids will become superfluous. my use (or nonuse) of the macron may initially strike you as odd or idiosyncratic.c. Instructors and even primers of beginning Latin are now inconsistent in their use of or emphasis on macra. Another strategy I employ toward this goal is bringing in an edition of the Latin author or work they’ll be studying in the next term and showing them that their next text- book won’t be as generous to them as their current one is. and they can enter their first advanced Latin poetry class with an elementary understanding of technical poetics. I repeatedly encourage students to wean themselves off these forms of assistance. I leave entirely to your discretion whether to teach your students prosody and scansion for the poetic texts provided. Advanced philo- logical texts omit macra. and I carefully select one or two of the poetic texts to illustrate these basics.

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Part I Morphology and Grammar Review .

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g. Scaevola) and a few occupations (e. except for a few proper names of men (e. for which see the notes under each declension. ex- cept for the names of trees (e. S ECO N D D EC LE N S I ON II.1.1. Agrippa. Masculines Case Singular Plural Nominative cibus cibi Genitive cibi ciborum* Dative cibo cibis Accusative cibum cibos Ablative cibo cibis Vocative cibe* cibi II. Nouns 1. Regular Declensions An asterisk (*) signifies that the declension exhibits a potential alternate ending.a.1.. scriba.g. which are feminine. poeta. I I. 1st declension nouns are typically feminine in gender. pinus). I. A. agricola. ornus.. F I R ST DE C LE N S I ON Case Singular Plural Nominative fama famae Genitive famae famarum Dative famae famis Accusative famam famas Ablative famā famis Vocative fama famae I.g.. ­pirata). which are masculine. ulmus. 2nd declension nouns ending in -us or -r are typically masculine in gender. .

T H I R D DEC LE N S I ON III. II. II. . Vocative singulars for 2nd declension nouns ending in -ius are -i. I I I.1. the archaizing -om for -orum can also be found in the genitive plural.or -qu. lex leges cor corda Genitive legis legum cordis cordum Dative legi legibus cordi cordibus Accus. 2nd declension nouns that end in -um are neuter in gender.1. and ending in -r are -r. or neuter in gender. 4 Morphology and Grammar Review II. ending in -us are -e.b.a. any 2nd declension noun whose stem ends in -v.c.1.1. Normal 3rd declension nouns can be masculine or feminine in gender. Regulars Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Nomin.1.2.a. you can sometimes find -um instead of -orum in the genitive plural.can have -os (M) or -om (N) in the nominative singular and -om in the accusative singular. legem leges cor corda Ablative lege legibus corde cordibus Vocative lex leges cor corda III. Neuters Case Singular Plural Nominative verbum verba Genitive verbi verborum Dative verbo verbis Accusative verbum verba Ablative verbo verbis Vocative verbum verba II.d.2. in which case they behave like cor. II. in which case they behave like lex. With certain very common nouns. In older Latin.

-ar.g.d A.d. III. or -al in the nominative singular are i-stem (e. or neuter in gender.2.2. I-stems Case Singular Plural Singular Plural Nomin.. ignīs for ignes). noctis). —Neuter nouns that end in -e. Normal 3rd declension i-stem nouns can be masculine or feminine in gender. Nouns 5 III.g. -īs for -es (e.g. and volucris.. in the accusative singular.2. ignis ignes* mare maria Genitive ignis ignium maris marium Dative igni ignibus mari maribus Accus. 1. —Masculine and feminine nouns that both end in -is or -es in the nominative sin- gular and have the same number of syllables in the nominative and genitive sin- gular are i-stem (e.. The three rules for recognizing i-stems are as follows: —Masculine and feminine nouns that both are monosyllabic in the nominative singular and have stems ending in two consonants are i-stem (e. in the nominative. iuvenis. ignis). III. nox.g. in which case they behave like mare.2. -i for -e (e. Like most rules in Latin.. -im for -em (e.III. igni or mari for igne or mare). none of which has -ium in the genitive plural. ignis. i-stems exhibit the following alternate forms: in the abla- tive singular.b. The most com- mon exceptions are canis.a..b–1. ignim for ignem). maris). in which case they behave like ignis. senex. Especially in poetry.g. III.2.1.g. and vocative plural. ignem* ignes* mare maria Ablative igne* ignibus mare* maribus Vocative ignis ignes* mare maria III. . the preceding aren’t 100 percent rules.c..II. mare.2. accusative.

1. -ubus for -ibus (e. 6 Morphology and Grammar Review IV. and in the dative and abla- tive plural.2.2..a. F I F T H DEC LE N S I ON Case Singular Plural Nominative spes spes Genitive spei sperum Dative spei spebus Accusative spem spes Ablative spe spebus Vocative spes spes V.a. IV. IV. or genubus for genibus).1. Masculines and Feminines Case Singular Plural Nominative metus metūs Genitive metūs metuum Dative metū* metibus* Accusative metum metūs Ablative metū metibus* Vocative metus metūs IV. 4th declension nouns ending in -us are most often masculine but sometimes feminine in gender. metubus for metibus. V. metui for metū). FO U RT H DEC LE N S I ON IV. -ui for -ū (e. 5th declension nouns are most often feminine but sometimes masculine in gender.g. In poetry and some older Latin literature. Neuters Case Singular Plural Nominative genu genua Genitive genūs genuum Dative genū genibus* Accusative genu genua Ablative genū genibus* Vocative genu genua IV..1. the following alternate forms can be found: in the dative singular. 4th declension nouns ending in -u in the nominative are neuter in gender. .3.g.

bovis boum loci locorum Gen.IV–2. Iovem —— neminem —— Acc. Case Nom. vis. while the neuter plural loca. Gen. deo deis. domo domibus Dat. Acc. Acc. Case Nom. deus. Plur. Sing.VIII A. locorum are usually unrelated places. 1. domū domibus Abl. Dat. M IV. deus dei. Sing. Plur. Acc. Iuppiter. Case Nom. Abl. loca Nom. dis deae deabus Dat. domus. vi viribus domui. Dat. dea. V. Iovis —— nullius —— Gen. locus. diis. Iove —— nullo —— Abl. Plur. F Case Sing. Case Nom. Plur. domūs Acc. Gen. deum deae dearum Gen. domorum Gen. F II. Gen. Iuppiter —— nemo —— Nom. bovi bubus loco locis Dat. Sing. vi viribus domo. deum deos deam deas Acc. virīs domum domos. Dat. dei deorum. VII. Iovi —— nemini. Acc. bos boves locus loci.1. bovem boves locum locos. Plur. Nouns 7 2. dī dea deae Nom. nemo. Gen. M/F VI. vis vires domūs domūs Nom. domi domuum. vis virium domūs. locorum are places that share something in common. M Case Sing. Plur. M VIII. M/N Case Sing. Note that the masculine plural loci. Abl. . Sing. dis deā deabus Abl. Abl. Dat. Abl. loca Acc. Plur. nulli —— Dat. Plur. diis. VI. vim vires. deo deis. III. bove bubus loco locis Abl. bos. Irregular Declensions I. F Case Sing. dii.

6. Of material urna auri a pitcher of gold II. We remember your deeds. Marcus will be a soldier. Of characteristic (predicate genitive) aequē regere est boni regis. Subject complement (predicate attribute) Marcus erit miles. Of description femina magnae sapientiae a woman of great wisdom II. shops of the merchants II. Marcus was appointed tribune. II.4. the shop of the merchant mercatorum tabernae the merchants’ shops.6. G E N IT IVE II. Partitive (of the whole) pars urbis part of the city fortissimus virorum the bravest of the men II. Marcus fights. We accuse you of cowardice.2. Review of Cases I. Verbal nos te ignaviae damnamus. I I.a. II.1. (verbs of remembering and forgetting) . Nominal dux proelii the leader of the battle spes pacis a hope of peace pecunia est belli causa.b. Objective II.3. It is (the mark) of a good king to rule fairly.2.1. (verbs of accusing and condemning) meminimus tuorum factorum.6. Of possession mercatoris taberna the merchant’s shop. Subject of finite verb Marcus pugnat. 8 Morphology and Grammar Review 3. Money is the cause of war.5. Marcus tribunus creatus est. I. NO M I N AT IV E I.

Adjectival urna plena aquae a pitcher full of water vir scientiae doctus the man learned in science II. II. tell. ignosce mihi! Forgive me! III. III. We bought the book for the sailor.3. DAT IVE III. similis.g.1. The son was like his father. see 17. I gave money to the slave. offer. iucundus) vir est amicus nobis.2. Of definite measurement flumen sex pedum a river of six feet iter decem dierum a journey of ten days I I I.IV. Of agent (with passive periphrastics. studeo) ego tibi non credo. I have a new house. show. filius erat similis patri. credo. . carus. persuadeo.g. placeo. This house is of little worth. He destroyed the bridge for the enemy.3) hoc agendum puellis est.c.) servo pecuniam dedi. With certain adjectives (e.5. etc. faveo.. noceo. there is for me a new house) III. haec villa parvi est.6 A.6. The man is friendly to us. Indirect object (with verbs: give. amicus.1–3. It is necessary for the girls to do this. I don’t trust you. par. I have a house worth much.8. With certain intransitive verbs (e. The girls must do this. pareo. inimicus. Of the possessor est mihi nova villa. (literally. III. ignosco. parco. Of advantage or disadvantage (referential) librum nautae ēmimus. III. proximus..7.I.III. I gave the slave money.4. pontem hostibus delevit. 3. Of indefinite value villam magni habeo. Nouns 9 II. idoneus.6. impero. dissimilis.

IV.govern the dative case (with or without an accusative direct object). inter-.8.I. (double accusative) vivemus longam vitam. in-. He teaches us science. Ethical (always a personal pronoun) illud mihi scelus non est. docet nos scientiam. He lived for many years. circum-. III. I have many brothers.7. Subject of infinitive (subjective accusative.4. Of purpose (of service) librum dono ēmimus. see 4. . post-. IV. in viā patri occurri. We will live a long life. (cognate accusative) IV. IV. III.3. The boy carried the rock five feet. Direct object habeo multos fratres. I gave money to the slave as a gift. “Double dative”: The so-called double dative is a combination of the dative of pur- pose with either an indirect object or a referential dative. can produce a direct object: viventes longam vitam living a long life habens multos fratres having many brothers IV. The soldiers were sent for/as help. like finite verbs.2.1. They don’t want us to leave. bellum provinciae inferimus.1. He says that the women have come.II. 10 Morphology and Grammar Review III. ante-. dicit feminas vēnisse. prae-. IV. That isn’t a crime in my opinion/to my thinking/as far as I’m concerned/for my part.b. He put the legate in charge of the ships. pro-. The complement or attribute of a direct object is also put into the accusative: habemus eum regem.1. and super. We inflict war on the province. Active participles and gerunds. see 12. legatus navibus praeest.a. We bought the book for/as a gift. milites auxilio missi sunt.9. servo pecuniam dono dedi. we have him as king. ob-. con-. The legate is in charge of the ships. Of extent of space puer saxum quinque pedes portavit. ACCU SAT I VE IV.4) nos discedere nolunt. legatum navibus praefecit.10. III. sub-. Of time duration (no preposition. With certain compound verbs: many verbs compounded with the prefixes ad-. I met my father in the street.3) multos annos vixit.

Of exclamation me miserum! O miserable me! infelicem diem! O unlucky day! IV. Of accompaniment (with the preposition cum) cum matre vēni. vir me nihil vexat. A B L AT IVE V. IV. V.b. With the preposition cum pugnat cum virtute. V.5.3. I’m hurrying to Rome.I) ad urbem to the city prope Italiam near Italy post bellum after the war IV. He was wounded by a soldier.I. With certain prepositions (see 8. IV. Nouns 11 IV. With or without cum in the presence of an adjective pugnat magnā (cum) virtute.7. He fights with courage. V. The man annoys me not at all.4.2. He ran home.4 A.2) domum cucurrit. He says the women are widows.V.9. He was wounded by/with a stone. Of means or instrument (no preposition) saxo vulneratus est. IV. I came with my mother. Romam contendo.III.1. He fights with great courage. 3.3.7–3.a.a. Predicate attribute of a subjective accusative dicit feminas esse viduas. Place to which (without preposition. For the most part this pleases me. Of agent (with the preposition a/ab) a milite vulneratus est.8.4. . see 4. V.3. V.6. Adverbial maximam partem hoc mihi placet. Of manner V. The men were wounded in the eyes. Of the part of the body affected viri oculos vulnerati sunt.

V. The river rushes with a great clamor. Of degree of difference hoc monile est multō pulchrius. Of respect or specification est pulcher corpore et animo. I saw a man with one eye/a one-eyed man. Germans are braver than Romans. I’ll return in a few years. paucis annis reveniam. V.2) nocte advēnimus. We arrived at night. Of comparison Germani fortiores sunt Romanis. This necklace is much/by far prettier. V. V.15.g.1 and 4. Of route advēnit Appiā Viā. He used a sword.12. laetus) dignus laude worthy of praise fretus virtute relying on courage contentus spe content with hope . Of attendant circumstances flumen magno clamore ruit. V. A woman with long fingers is beautiful. V. Marcus est longior duobus pedibus. 12 Morphology and Grammar Review V. V. utor. With certain deponent verbs (e.9. fungor.. potior. V. He arrived on/by the Appian Road.8.14. I sold the slave at/for a great price. Of cause cucurrit timore.13. fruor vino. dignus. Of price vendidi servum magno pretio.11.16.II. He ran because of/out of/from fear. V. fretus. With certain adjectives (e. Of time when or within which (see 4.10.g.7. Marcus is taller by two feet.II. Ablative absolute (see section 13) V. femina digitis longis est pulchra..6. fruor. He is beautiful in body and mind. Of description (always with an adjective) vīdi virum uno oculo. contentus. V.5. indignus. vescor) usus est gladio. I enjoy wine.

3. Boys. The appositive is always placed in the same case as the noun to which it refers. it’s necessary to leave. flumen a mari oritur.1. Marce et Mani. Place from which (without preposition. The ship was made of oak. navis (ex) robore facta est. He was born of a beautiful mother. Of material (with or without the prepositions de or e/ex) est statua (de) marmore in foro.1) domo cucurrit. Caesar saved you from harm. come! VI I. A P P OS I T I ON A noun (or a pronoun or even an adjective) can be loosely attached to another noun in order to clarify or restrict it.20.V. Nouns 13 V. V. He was descended from a famous family. de.19. venite! Marcus and Manius.18. The river rises from the sea. est necesse discedere. Romā contendo. Of origin (with or without a preposition) gente clarā natus est.I.3.5–3. He ran from home. or e/ex) solvite nos ex carcere! Free us from prison! Caesar te noxā servavit.VIII A. VI. There’s a statue of marble in the forum. . LOC AT I V E See 4. VI I I. Of separation (with or without the prepositions a/ab. e matre pulchrā natus est. Direct address pueri. V. and is called an appositive.17.I. see 4. V.II) de reginā concerning the queen pro auxilio in return for the help prae templo in front of the temple (place where) in Italiā in Italy (place where) ex Africā out of Africa (place from which) de monte down (from) the mountain (place from which) V. I’m hurrying from/out of Rome.21. VO C AT IVE VI. With certain prepositions (see 8.

Indeed. my father. Latin often omits a noun (or pronoun) that can be understood from the context. 4th. meus pater. This type of omission is sometimes referred to as brachylogy. -ae in the 1st declension genitive and dative singular. In the preceding. -bus in the 3rd. meum patrem. X.. the word fratrem (brother) is construed with meum but also understood with tuum. For example: interfecerunt meum fratrem et tuum. Agrippa. vocat. 14 Morphology and Grammar Review Agrippa. it may not al- ways be evident to a reader which case (or which use of a case) the author intended. IX. the author may even have artfully intended this ambiguity and wanted the reader to consider all the semantic possibilities together. Agrippam. E LLI P S I S As an economical language. -o in the 2nd declension dative and ablative singular. She summons Agrippa. summons. A M B IG U IT Y Since Latin noun (and pronoun) declensions exhibit numerous repeated forms (e. and 5th declension dative and ablative plurals). They killed my brother and yours.g. . my father. vocat.

time during or within which. ad urbem.3. ab urbe.. . . He came during/in the night. Cypri. . . Romam/domum.1. “at Athens”. see 3. She runs . . . and time duration (how long). prepositions are not used in place constructions. rus I. “at Cyprus” or “on Cyprus”. II. . . humus (ground). in/at the city. in accusative (no preposition) TO WHICH with accusative currit . . vēnit nocte. ruri (or rure). Latin distinguishes between time when or at which. . . Romae. .2. She is . from Rome/home. . .a. . . domi. . to the city. . The following chart provides Latin’s different place constructions: With Ordinary With Cities. Place and Time Constructions I. . Romae/domi. . She comes . in urbe. . . . the prepositions ad or sub with the accusative case are used: vēnit ad/sub noctem. see 3. Construction Nouns domus.2 A. II. .. “at home”).g. When the time is just an approximation. . Athenis. . and rus (country). . Romā/domo. and small islands and with the nouns domus (home). II. . .6. de. . . A simple ablative usually expresses time within or during which. .II. This class of words expresses place in or at which by means of the locative case. 3. .g. e/ex ablative (no preposition) FROM WHICH with ablative venit .V. Small Islands. .V. to Rome/home.IX–4. He came at nighttime. . towns. . . .6. . . PLACE IN OR in locative AT WHICH with ablative est . He came around nighttime. Neapoli. . humus. .2. in/at Rome/home. . “in the country”). “at Naples”. I. II. otherwise like that of the ablative (e. Nouns 15 4. PLACE a/ab. With the names of cities. . . “at Rome”. A simple ablative usually expresses time when or at which. . PLACE ad.1. from the city. . . vēnit nocte. I. . Towns.1. Its form is like that of the genitive singular for nouns of the 1st and 2nd declensions (e.

A simple accusative usually expresses the period during which an action occurred (time duration).2. . He stayed for exactly ten days.a.IV. He came exactly at night. the preposition per with the accusative can be used for time duration: manebat per decem dies. II.a. He stayed for ten days.3. II. see 3. manebat decem dies.3. 16 Morphology and Grammar Review II. For greater explicitness.2. the preposition in with the ablative can be used for time during or within which: vēnit in nocte. For greater explicitness.

PLURALS Nom. 3rd declension adjectives are classified as 1-termination. magno magnā magno Abl. 2-termination. Acc. Abl. Abl. -um. magni magnae magni Gen. magno magnae magno Dat. Gen. magnum magnam magnum Acc. or 3-termination. ingentibus ingentibus Abl. miser. ingenti ingenti Dat. Dat. 1-termination Case Masculine/Feminine Neuter Case SINGULARS Nom. Acc. Gen. magnus magna magnum Nom.2. Regular and Irregular Declensions I. -a. magni magnae magna Nom.a.2. Gen..2. Abl. PLURALS Nom.1. I.g. ingentium ingentium Gen. ingentes ingentia Acc. Dat. Most 1st and 2nd declension adjectives decline like magnus. ingentes ingentia Nom. ingenti ingenti Abl. Regular Latin adjectives belong to one or another classification: they decline according to either the 1st and 2nd declensions or else the 3rd declension. Gen.2. I. magnorum magnarum magnorum Gen. Acc. Adjectives and Adverbs 5. magnis magnis magnis Abl. miserum). ingens ingens Nom. misera. ingentis ingentis Gen. Dat. . 4. ingentibus ingentibus Dat. this refers to the number of distinctive endings in the nominative singular. ingentem ingens Acc. A small group ends in -r in the nominative masculine singular (e. Adjectives and Adverbs 17 B. I. Abl. Dat. Acc. Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Case SINGULARS Nom. magnis magnis magnis Dat.II.I.a B.a–5. magnos magnas magna Acc.

i. omnis omnis Gen. Gen. acris acris Gen. Abl. 18 Morphology and Grammar Review I. omnis omne Nom. . omnibus omnibus Abl. acres acria Nom. acrium acrium Gen. 2-termination Case Masculine/Feminine Neuter Case SINGULARS Nom. acrem acre Acc. except comparatives. They allow the fol- lowing alternate forms: -īs for -es in the masculine/feminine accusative and vocative plurals. omnem omne Acc. omnibus omnibus Dat. 1-termination adjectives include all present active participles.2.a. PLURALS Nom. I. Acc.2. I. omni omni Abl. Dat. Dat. acribus acribus Abl. Acc. I. acri acri Abl. Abl. All 3rd declension adjectives. Gen. Gen. I. Acc.2. PLURALS Nom. Abl.c.b. are i-stem. omni omni Dat. Gen.2. Acc. acribus acribus Dat. Dat. Abl. Dat. acer/acris acre Nom. acri acri Dat. acres acria Acc.2.d. and -e for -i in some 1-termination and 2-termination ablative singulars.b. omnes omnia Acc. omnium omnium Gen. 2-termination adjectives include all comparative adjectives.i. omnes omnia Nom. 3-termination Case Masculine/Feminine Neuter Case SINGULARS Nom.

-a. not any uter. I RR E G U L A R/PRONO M I N A L AD J E C T I VE S There is a group of 1st and 2nd declension adjectives that are identical to other 1st and 2nd declension adjectives except that they end. utra. sole unus. altera. totus. -a. -um — no. toto totā toto II. -a. like many pronouns. neutra. totus tota totum Gen. For example. utrum — which (of two) neuter. -um — one. and gender. -a. number. none.2. -um) Acc. . aliud — other alter.III B. totum totam totum Abl. toti toti toti those of magnus. in -ius in the genitive singu- lar and in -i in the dative singular. alterum — the other (of two) ullus. alia. alone III. agree with the nouns they modify in all three respects of case. -um — any nullus. -a. regardless of declension.i–5.I. Other adjectives of this group are: alius. -a. 5. All regular adjectives. all): Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter SINGULARS PLURALS Nom. neutrum — neither solus.a. -um — only. -um (whole. Adjectives and Adverbs 19 I I.1. totius totius totius (regular endings like Dat.

2. -um — most miserable. fortissimus virorum the bravest of the men . Positive: fortis.3. too brave miserior. and the superlative. very miserable I.1.9). bonus. fortis.II. Comparatives are frequently accompanied by an ablative of comparison (see 3. -ius — braver. 20 Morphology and Grammar Review 6. Germans are braver than Romans.V. All superlatives conform to the 1st and 2nd declensions. more brave.III. Most adjectives have three degrees of comparison: the positive. Superlatives are often accompanied by a genitive of the whole (see 3.2. I. very brave miserrimus. an ablative of degree of difference (see 3.8). Regular and Irregular Comparisons I. -a. hoc monile est multō pulchrius.2. All comparatives conform to the 3rd declension. misera. rather miserable.a.2). or a relative clause of purpose (see 16. I.a. -ius — more miserable. miserum — miserable Comparative: fortior.V. I. The general is setting out for Arabia to find bigger horses.3. Germani fortiores sunt Romanis. I. -a. imperator ad Arabiam proficiscitur quō maiores equos inveniat.. -e). Comparatives constitute the only group of 3rd declension adjectives which are not i-stems.2. I. the comparative. All positives belong either to the 1st and 2nd declensions (e.b. -e — brave miser.g. -um) or to the 3rd declension (e.g.c). too miserable Superlative: fortissimus.. rather brave. most brave. -um — bravest. -a. This necklace is much/by far prettier.

The most common adverbs exhibiting irregular comparison are: Positives Comparatives Superlatives bene — well melius — better optimē — very well male — poorly peius — worse pessimē — worst multum/multō — much magis — more maximē — most parum — too little minus — less minimē — least . miserrimē. Most comparatives. Most positives derived from 3rd declension adjectives end in -iter (or -ter). for example saepissimē. end in -issimē (or -rimē). quickly. too miserably. most miserably. regardless of derivation. audacter. for instance carē.4. regardless of derivation. Adjectives and Adverbs 21 I.4. tutō. dearly. most often. II.2. safely.3. superlative. II.I–6. Most positives derived from 1st and 2nd declension adjectives end in -ē (or -ō). end in -ius.1. 6. boldly. II. comparative. more miserably. Most adverbs derived from adjectives have the same three degrees of comparison: posi- tive. Most superlatives. rather miserably. The most common adjectives exhibiting irregular comparison are: Positives Comparatives Superlatives bonus — good melior — better optimus — best —— deterior — worse deterrimus — worst exterus — outward exterior — outer extremus — outmost inferus — below inferior — lower infimus — lowest —— interior — inner intimus — inmost magnus — big maior — bigger maximus — biggest malus — bad peior — worse pessimus — worst multus — much plus — more plurimus — most parvus — little minor — less minimus — least posterus — following posterior — latter postremus — last —— prior — former primus — first —— propior — nearer proximus — nearest superus — above superior — higher supremus/summus — highest —— ulterior — farther ultimus — farthest II. for instance miserius.4 B.II. II. for example celeriter.

Cicero is older than he. III. III. With a comparative: Cicero est senior quam is. . She ran as quickly as possible.3. He is as noble as can be. With a positive: quam celeriter cucurrit! How quickly she ran! quam elegans est! How elegant she is! III.1.2. With a superlative: quam celerrimē cucurrit. quam nobilissimus est. The adverb quam is commonly found with adjectives and adverbs and has differing translations depending on the degree of comparison. 22 Morphology and Grammar Review III.

nobis vobis Abl. is ea id Nom. nos vos Nom. Abl. iis. Acc. eorum earum eorum Gen. 1st person I. Acc. eum eam id Acc. i eae ea Nom. . ii. Dat. nostrum vestri. iis. īs eis. me te Abl. I. iis. Abl.1.6).3. nos vos Acc. Abl.I. Nostrum and vestrum are used for partitive genitives (see 3. Gen. PLURALS Nom.II. Declensions I. iis.2. I. eo eā eo Abl. mihi. eius eius eius Gen. Gen.2. vestrum Gen.III–7. mei tui Gen. ei. ei ei ei Dat. īs eis. P E R SO N A L PRONOU N S I. 6. Dat. Gen.a. 2nd person SINGULARS Nom. ego tu Nom. Acc. īs Dat. 3rd person (determinative) Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Case SINGULARS Nom. nobis vobis Dat.3 C. Gen. iis. eis. Dat. īs Abl.2). Abl. eos eas ea Acc. Pronouns 7. nostri and vestri for objective genitives (see 3.II. Acc. nostri. mi tibi Dat. īs eis. eis. iis. PLURALS Nom. Dat. Pronouns 23 C. īs eis. me te Acc.

Neut. . Acc. huius huius huius illius illius illius Gen. hōc hac hōc illo illā illo Abl. Fem. Case SINGULARS Nom. Neut. ipsi ipsae ipsa Nom. ——— Gen. earundem). PLURALS Nom. 24 Morphology and Grammar Review I. Masc. hunc hanc hoc illum illam illud Acc. ipsi ipsi ipsi Dat. Abl. Abl. Dat.3. DE M ON STRAT I VE PRONOU N S Case Masc. inadmissible in Latin. I N T E N S IVE PRONOU N Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Case SINGULARS used in the masculine and feminine accusative singular (eundem. Acc. Since the consonant clus- ter -md. ipsum ipsam ipsum Acc. idem. se. huic huic huic illi illi illi Dat. ipsis ipsis ipsis Dat. eadem. I I. eandem) and in the plural genitives (eorundem. -nd. Gen. Gen. R E F LE X IVE PRONOU N (3 R D PE R S ON ) Case Singular/Plural Nom. I I I. Acc. ipso ipsā ipso Abl. Dat. hic haec hoc ille illa illud Nom. sibi Acc. ipsorum ipsarum ipsorum Gen. ipsius ipsius ipsius Gen. Dat. sui Dat. sese IV. ipsis ipsis ipsis Abl.a. se. ipsos ipsas ipsa Acc. Behaving similarly is the pronoun īdem. ipse ipsa ipsum Nom. Fem. Gen. sese Abl.

is used in the masculine and feminine accusative singulars (quendam. horum harum horum illorum illarum illorum Gen. Neut. V. Gen. For quidam. cui cui cui Dat. and quivis. quibus quibus quibus* Abl. Acc.1. IV.a–7. The form quīs is sometimes found instead of quibus in the dative and ablative plural. hos has haec illos illas illa Acc. -nd. . istud. his his his illis illis illis Dat. Acc. Abl.1. Dat. quarundam). hi hae haec illi illae illa Nom. V. quo quā quo Abl. Acc. since the consonant cluster -md. Dat.3. V. Dat.3.a. V. quilibet. quibus quibus quibus* Dat. ista. his his his illis illis illis Abl. Relative pronouns are frequently used at the beginning of a sentence or clause to refer to something mentioned in the previous sentence or clause. quem quam quod Acc. We best translate this usage with one of the English demonstratives. quibus rebus auditis when these things were heard V.V. quandam) and in the genitive plurals (quorundam. R E L AT IV E PRONOU N Case Masc. Case SINGULARS Nom.a inadmissible in Latin.3. Abl.3. quos quas quae Acc. illud is the pronoun iste. 7. Abl. qui quae quod Nom. Fem.2. Gen. illa. Gen. Similar in declension are the pronouns quicumque. qui quae quae Nom. cuius cuius cuius Gen.I. PLURALS Nom. quorum quarum quorum Gen. quidam. Behaving similarly to ille. Pronouns 25 PLURALS Nom.

quisnam.1. VI.1. quis quis quid Nom. Case SINGULARS Nom. quisque. quorum quarum quorum Gen. quos quas quae Acc. don’t forget the little ditty “After si. add neve and neu. Acc. VII. quibus quibus quibus Dat. and ne.a. 26 Morphology and Grammar Review VI. Gen. Gen. nequis. and quisquis. Behaving similarly are the pronouns aliquis. quo quo quo Abl. num. numquis. PLURALS Nom. Acc. All the pronouns provided above. and V. Dat. . I. III. For the pronoun aliquis. Abl.2. qui quae quae Nom. Fem. except those in I. cuius cuius cuius Gen. ecquis.1. quem quem quid Acc. quisquam. Dat.” To this list of conjunctions. Abl. VI. Neut. quibus quibus quibus Abl. quispiam. I N T E RRO G AT I VE PRONOU N Case Masc. nisi. all the ali’s drop away. cui cui cui Dat. can also function as adjectives.

e. before (time) *clam — unknown to. about *circiter — about. beyond. W IT H T H E ACC U S AT I VE C A S E I. less than. within the limits of penes — in the power of. beside. by propter — near. beyond I. comes after the positive it governs) * = also occurs as an adverb I. beyond. Prepositions 27 D. close to. Prepositions 8. toward. according to *ante — before. next door to ob — on account of. near. next to. facing. later than *intrā — inside. after. at the house of. The more common prepositions: ad — to. with . during. against. beneath.1. across. contrary to in — into. for the sake of *post — behind. within (time) *citrā — on this side of. contrary to. until inter — between. by means of.VI–8. about. very like. without the knowledge of erga — toward. according to *circum — round. beyond. short of.2. against *circā — round. since *praeter — past. Prepositions (and Postpositions) Key: (P) = commonly postpositional (i. free from. except for *infrā — below. over. against. on account of super — over. with. onto. at. except for *prope — near. near *contrā — opposite to. near (time or number) cis — on this side of. until. in the vicinity of. besides trans — across. throughout. during. in addition.. surpassing. during. prior to apud — among. among. in the possession of. under. in spite of *iuxtā — close to. in the house of. against *extrā — outside. toward.I.2 D. within. 7. because of per — through. apart from. above. The less common prepositions used with the accusative case: adversus or adversum — toward.

a. nobiscum — with us tecum — with you secum — with themselves II. of in — in. up to (sometimes governs the genitive case) . above. The more common prepositions: a/ab/abs — from. on top of. in return for. over and above (P) *versus — toward I I. in proportion to sine — without sub — under. next to. up to subter — beneath. down from. before. beyond. on. closer to *proximē — next to. under. from. The less common prepositions used with the ablative case: *coram — in the presence of. closest to. on behalf of. instead of. 28 Morphology and Grammar Review *pone — behind *propius — nearer to.2. during pro — in front of. past (time). according to sub — along.III). compared with. above. after. before (time). more than *ultrā — beyond. from. among. beneath. up close to *suprā — over. during *super — upon. nearest to secundum — behind.1 and 7. besides II. far away from *simul — together with. by cum — with de — down. in front of *palam — in the presence of *prae — in front of.I. cum becomes both postpositive and enclitic. on the far side of. concerning.2) and with the reflexive pronoun (see 7. W IT H T H E AB L AT I VE C A S E II. concerning e/ex — out of. When used with the 1st and 2nd person personal pronouns (see 7.1. about. because of *procul — far from. at.1. at the same time as (P) *tenus — as far as.I.

Prepositions 29 I I I. FU N CT I ON I NG LI KE PR E POS I T I ON S . In a literary figure called anastrophe. 8.II–8. because of (P) *tenus — as far as. . GOVE R N I N G T H E G E N IT I V E C A S E (P) causā — for the sake of. because of (P) gratiā — for the sake of. up to (sometimes governs the ablative case) IV.IV D. any preposition (especially those of two syllables) can be used postpositively.

negavi. Active voice Present active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 nego negamus 2 negas negatis 3 negat negant Imperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negabam negabamus 2 negabas negabatis 3 negabat negabant Future active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negabo negabimus 2 negabis negabitis 3 negabit negabunt Perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negavi negavimus 2 negavisti negavistis 3 negavit negaverunt . Verbs 9. F I R ST CO N J U G AT I ON Principal parts: nego.1.a. 30 Morphology and Grammar Review E.1 Indicative mood I. Regular Conjugations I. negatus I. negare.

Verbs 31 Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negaveram negaveramus 2 negaveras negaveratis 3 negaverat negaverant Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negavero negaverimus 2 negaveris negaveritis 3 negaverit negaverint I.1.I.b E. Passive voice Present passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negor negamur 2 negaris negamini 3 negatur negantur Imperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negabar negabamur 2 negabaris negabamini 3 negabatur negabantur Future passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negabor negabimur 2 negaberis negabimini 3 negabitur negabuntur . 9.1.I–9.b.

-a eratis 3 negatus. -a. -um erit negati. Active voice Present active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 negem negemus 2 neges negetis 3 neget negent Imperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 negarem negaremus 2 negares negaretis 3 negaret negarent . -ae. -a. -ae. -um est negati. -a erimus 2 negatus. -a. -a eramus 2 negatus. -ae. -um eram negati. -a.a. -ae. -um erat negati. -ae.2. Subjunctive mood I. -ae. -a. -a. -a sunt Pluperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negatus. -ae. -um es negati. -um sum negati. -um eras negati. -um ero negati. -a erunt I. -a. -a. -a sumus 2 negatus.2. -a erant Future perfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negatus. 32 Morphology and Grammar Review Perfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 negatus. -a. -um eris negati. -a estis 3 negatus. -ae. -ae. -a eritis 3 negatus.

-a simus 2 negatus.2–9. -a.I.b E. -ae. Verbs 33 Perfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 negaverim negaverīmus 2 negaverīs negaverītis 3 negaverit negaverint Pluperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 negavissem negavissemus 2 negavisses negavissetis 3 negavisset negavissent I. -um sit negati.I.b. 9.2. -a sitis 3 negatus. -ae. -a sint . -a. -um sim negati. Passive voice Present passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 neger negemur 2 negeris negemini 3 negetur negentur Imperfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 negarer negaremur 2 negareris negaremini 3 negaretur negarentur Perfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 negatus.2. -ae. -a. -um sis negati.

a. -um essem negati.b.5. -a.6. -um I. Supines —— —— negatum negatū . Active voice Singular Plural nega negate I.6. Active negans —— negaturus. Gerunds and supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative I. -a essent I. Active negare negavisse negaturus esse I.b.5. -a.a.a. -a. -a essemus 2 negatus.4. -ae. -um esset negati. -um I. -ae.3. Passive —— negatus. -um negandus.6. Infinitives Present Perfect Future I. -a.4. -a.4.3. Participles Present Perfect Future I.5.3. -ae. Gerunds negandi negando negandum negando I. Imperative mood I.b. -a. -a essetis 3 negatus. 34 Morphology and Grammar Review Pluperfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 negatus. Passive negari negatus esse negatum iri I. Passive voice Singular Plural negare negamini I.a. -um esses negati.b.

1.1.a.II.1. monitus II. Indicative mood II. S ECON D CON J U G AT I ON Principal Parts: moneo. Active voice Present active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 moneo monemus 2 mones monetis 3 monet monent Imperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 monebam monebamus 2 monebas monebatis 3 monebat monebant Future active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 monebo monebimus 2 monebis monebitis 3 monebit monebunt Perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 monui monuimus 2 monuisti monuistis 3 monuit monuerunt . 9. Verbs 35 I I. monēre.a E. monui.3–9.I.

36 Morphology and Grammar Review Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 monueram monueramus 2 monueras monueratis 3 monuerat monuerant Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 monuero monuerimus 2 monueris monueritis 3 monuerit monuerint II. Passive voice Present passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 moneor monemur 2 moneris monemini 3 monetur monentur Imperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 monebar monebamur 2 monebaris monebamini 3 monebatur monebantur Future passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 monebor monebimur 2 moneberis monebimini 3 monebitur monebuntur .b.1.

9.II.1.b–9.II.2.a E. Verbs 37

Perfect passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 monitus, -a, -um sum moniti, -ae, -a sumus
2 monitus, -a, -um es moniti, -ae, -a estis
3 monitus, -a, -um est moniti, -ae, -a sunt

Pluperfect passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 monitus, -a, -um eram moniti, -ae, -a eramus
2 monitus, -a, -um eras moniti, -ae, -a eratis
3 monitus, -a, -um erat moniti, -ae, -a erant

Future perfect passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 monitus, -a, -um ero moniti, -ae, -a erimus
2 monitus, -a, -um eris moniti, -ae, -a eritis
3 monitus, -a, -um erit moniti, -ae, -a erunt

II.2. Subjunctive mood
II.2.a. Active voice

Present active subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 moneam moneamus
2 moneas moneatis
3 moneat moneant

Imperfect active subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 monērem monēremus
2 monēres monēretis
3 monēret monērent

38 Morphology and Grammar Review

Perfect active subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 monuerim monuerīmus
2 monuerīs monuerītis
3 monuerit monuerint

Pluperfect active subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 monuissem monuissemus
2 monuisses monuissetis
3 monuisset monuissent

II.2.b. Passive voice

Present passive subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 monear moneamur
2 monearis moneamini
3 moneatur moneantur

Imperfect passive subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 monērer monēremur
2 monēreris monēremini
3 monēretur monērentur

Perfect passive subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 monitus, -a, -um sim moniti, -ae, -a simus
2 monitus, -a, -um sis moniti, -ae, -a sitis
3 monitus, -a, -um sit moniti, -ae, -a sint

9.II.2.b–9.II.6.b E. Verbs 39

Pluperfect passive subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 monitus, -a, -um essem moniti, -ae, -a essemus
2 monitus, -a, -um esses moniti, -ae, -a essetis
3 monitus, -a, -um esset moniti, -ae, -a essent

II.3. Imperative mood
II.3.a. Active voice

Singular Plural
monē monete

II.3.b. Passive voice

Singular Plural
monēre monemini

II.4. Infinitives

Present Perfect Future
I.4.a. Active monēre monuisse moniturus esse
I.4.b. Passive monēri monitus esse monitum iri

II.5. Participles

Present Perfect Future
I.5.a. Active monens —— moniturus, -a, -um
I.5.b. Passive —— monitus, -a, -um monendus, -a, -um

II.6. Gerunds and supines

Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative
II.6.a. Gerunds monendi monendo monendum monendo
II.6.b. Supines —— —— monitum monitū

40 Morphology and Grammar Review

Principal parts: gero, gerere, gessi, gestus

III.1. Indicative mood
III.1.a. Active voice

Present active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gero gerimus
2 geris geritis
3 gerit gerunt

Imperfect active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gerebam gerebamus
2 gerebas gerebatis
3 gerebat gerebant

Future active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 geram geremus
2 geres geretis
3 geret gerent

Perfect active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gessi gessimus
2 gessisti gessistis
3 gessit gesserunt

9.III.1–9.III.1.b E. Verbs 41

Pluperfect active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gesseram gesseramus
2 gesseras gesseratis
3 gesserat gesserant

Future perfect active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gessero gesserimus
2 gesseris gesseritis
3 gesserit gesserint

III.1.b. Passive Voice

Present passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 geror gerimur
2 gereris gerimini
3 geritur geruntur

Imperfect passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gerebar gerebamur
2 gerebaris gerebamini
3 gerebatur gerebantur

Future passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gerar geremur
2 gerēris geremini
3 geretur gerentur

42 Morphology and Grammar Review

Perfect passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gestus, -a, -um sum gesti, -ae, -a sumus
2 gestus, -a, -um es gesti, -ae, -a estis
3 gestus, -a, -um est gesti, -ae, -a sunt

Pluperfect passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gestus, -a, -um eram gesti, -ae, -a eramus
2 gestus, -a, -um eras gesti, -ae, -a eratis
3 gestus, -a, -um erat gesti, -ae, -a erant

Future perfect passive indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 gestus, -a, -um ero gesti, -ae, -a erimus
2 gestus, -a, -um eris gesti, -ae, -a eritis
3 gestus, -a, -um erit gesti, -ae, -a erunt

III.2. Subjunctive mood
III.2.a. Active voice

Present active subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 geram geramus
2 geras geratis
3 gerat gerant

Imperfect active subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 gererem gereremus
2 gereres gereretis
3 gereret gererent

9.III.2–9.III.2.b E. Verbs 43

Perfect active subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 gesserim gesserīmus
2 gesserīs gesserītis
3 gesserit gesserint

Pluperfect active subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 gessissem gessissemus
2 gessisses gessissetis
3 gessisset gessissent

III.2.b. Passive voice

Present passive subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 gerar geramur
2 geraris geramini
3 geratur gerantur

Imperfect passive subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 gererer gereremur
2 gerereris gereremini
3 gereretur gererentur

Perfect passive subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 gestus, -a, -um sim gesti, -ae, -a simus
2 gestus, -a, -um sis gesti, -ae, -a sitis
3 gestus, -a, -um sit gesti, -ae, -a sint

44 Morphology and Grammar Review

Pluperfect passive subjunctive

Person Singular Plural
1 gestus, -a, -um essem gesti, -ae, -a essemus
2 gestus, -a, -um esses gesti, -ae, -a essetis
3 gestus, -a, -um esset gesti, -ae, -a essent

III.3. Imperative mood
III.3.a. Active voice

Singular Plural
gere gerite

III.3.b. Passive voice

Singular Plural
gerere gerimini

III.4. Infinitives

Present Perfect Future
I.4.a. Active gerere gessisse gesturus esse
I.4.b. Passive geri gestus esse gestum iri

III.5. Participles

Present Perfect Future
I.5.a. Active gerens —— gesturus, -a, -um
I.5.b. Passive —— gestus, -a, -um gerendus, -a, -um

III.6. Gerunds and supines

Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative
III.6.a. Gerunds gerendi gerendo gerendum gerendo
III.6.b. Supines —— —— gestum gestū

9.III.3–9.IV.1.a E. Verbs 45

Principal parts: scio, scire, scivi, scitus

IV.1. Indicative mood
IV.1.a. Active voice

Present active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 scio scimus
2 scis scitis
3 scit sciunt

Imperfect active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 sciebam sciebamus
2 sciebas sciebatis
3 sciebat sciebant

Future active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 sciam sciemus
2 scies scietis
3 sciet scient

Perfect active indicative

Person Singular Plural
1 scivi scivimus
2 scivisti scivistis
3 scivit sciverunt

46 Morphology and Grammar Review Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 sciveram sciveramus 2 sciveras sciveratis 3 sciverat sciverant Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 scivero sciverimus 2 sciveris sciveritis 3 sciverit sciverint IV.b. Passive voice Present passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 scior scimur 2 sciris scimini 3 scitur sciuntur Imperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 sciebar sciebamur 2 sciebaris sciebamini 3 sciebatur sciebantur Future passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 sciar sciemur 2 scieris sciemini 3 scietur scientur .1.

-a. -um sum sciti. -a eritis 3 scitus.2.a E. -ae. -a estis 3 scitus. -ae. Verbs 47 Perfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 scitus. -a eramus 2 scitus. -um eris sciti. -ae. -a. -ae. Active voice Present active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 sciam sciamus 2 scias sciatis 3 sciat sciant Imperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 scirem sciremus 2 scires sciretis 3 sciret scirent . -um est sciti. -um ero sciti. Subjunctive mood IV. -a. -a erant Future perfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 scitus. -a eratis 3 scitus. -ae.a.2. -a. -a erunt IV. -a. 9.1. -ae. -a. -a. -a sumus 2 scitus. -ae. -um erit sciti. -a erimus 2 scitus. -ae. -um erat sciti.2. -um es sciti. -a.IV. -um eram sciti.b–9. -um eras sciti. -ae. -a sunt Pluperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 scitus. -a.IV.

-a. -ae. -ae. -um sit sciti. -a. Passive voice Present passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 sciar sciamur 2 sciaris sciamini 3 sciatur sciantur Imperfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 scirer sciremur 2 scireris sciremini 3 sciretur scirentur Perfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 scitus.b. 48 Morphology and Grammar Review Perfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 sciverim sciverīmus 2 sciverīs sciverītis 3 sciverit sciverint Pluperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 scivissem scivissemus 2 scivisses scivissetis 3 scivisset scivissent IV.2. -um sim sciti. -um sis sciti. -a simus 2 scitus. -a. -a sint . -a sitis 3 scitus. -ae.

Participles Present Perfect Future IV. Active sciens —— sciturus.b. Infinitives Present Perfect Future IV. -ae. -ae.6. -um essem sciti.4.a. Gerunds and supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative IV.b. Verbs 49 Pluperfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 scitus. Passive sciri scitus esse scitum iri IV. -a.5. -a.5. 9.3.5. Passive —— scitus. Active voice Singular Plural sci scite IV.a. Passive voice Singular Plural scire scimini IV. -a. -um sciendus.6.a. -um esset sciti.3.b. -a.2. -um esses sciti.b. Imperative mood IV. Supines —— —— scitum scitū . Gerunds sciendi sciendo sciendum sciendo IV.IV.3.4. Active scire scivisse sciturus esse IV. -um IV. -a essetis 3 scitus.a.6. -ae.b E. -a essent IV.4. -a. -um IV.b–9. -a. -a essemus 2 scitus.6.IV.

IO Principal parts: pario. Active voice Present active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 pario parimus 2 paris paritis 3 parit pariunt Imperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 pariebam pariebamus 2 pariebas pariebatis 3 pariebat pariebant Future active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 pariam pariemus 2 paries parietis 3 pariet parient Perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 peperi peperimus 2 peperisti peperistis 3 peperit pepererunt . parere.1.a. peperi. Indicative mood V. 50 Morphology and Grammar Review V. partus V.1. T H I R D CON J U G AT I ON .

1. Passive voice Present passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 parior parimur 2 pareris parimini 3 paritur pariuntur Imperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 pariebar pariebamur 2 pariebaris pariebamini 3 pariebatur pariebantur Future passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 pariar pariemur 2 parieris pariemini 3 parietur parientur .b E.1–9.V.1. Verbs 51 Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 pepereram pepereramus 2 pepereras pepereratis 3 pepererat pepererant Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 peperero pepererimus 2 pepereris pepereritis 3 pepererit pepererint V.b. 9.V.

-a eritis 3 partus. -a. -a eratis 3 partus. -ae. -um eris parti. -a. -ae.a. -a eramus 2 partus. -ae. -a sunt Pluperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 partus. -a.2. -a. -ae. -ae. -a. -a estis 3 partus. -a sumus 2 partus. -um eras parti.2. -a. -ae. -ae. -a erunt V. -a erant Future perfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 partus. Active voice Present active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 pariam pariamus 2 parias pariatis 3 pariat pariant Imperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 parerem pareremus 2 pareres pareretis 3 pareret parerent . -a erimus 2 partus. -a. -a. -um sum parti. -ae. -a. -um eram parti. -um est parti. -um ero parti. -ae. -um erat parti. Subjunctive mood V. -um erit parti. 52 Morphology and Grammar Review Perfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 partus. -um es parti.

2–9. -um sit parti. Verbs 53 Perfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 pepererim pepererīmus 2 pepererīs pepererītis 3 pepererit pepererint Pluperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 peperissem peperissemus 2 peperisses peperissetis 3 peperisset peperissent V. -ae. -ae.2. -a simus 2 partus.V.2. Passive voice Present passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 pariar pariamur 2 pariaris pariamini 3 pariatur pariantur Imperfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 parerer pareremur 2 parereris pareremini 3 pareretur parerentur Perfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 partus.b. -a sint . -ae. -a. -a. -a. 9. -a sitis 3 partus. -um sis parti.V.b E. -um sim parti.

4.6.b. Imperative mood V. Active voice Singular Plural pare parite V. Active pariens —— parturus.3.a. -um V. -a. -a. -um pariendus.3. -ae. -um essem parti. Participles Present Perfect Future V. -a essetis 3 partus. Gerunds and supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative V. -um esses parti. Gerunds pariendi pariendo pariendum pariendo V. -a. -a essemus 2 partus.6. -ae. Active parere peperisse parturus esse V. -ae. -a essent V.4.b.4. Supines —— —— partum partū .a. Passive voice Singular Plural parere parimini V. -um esset parti. 54 Morphology and Grammar Review Pluperfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 partus.b.5.b. Infinitives Present Perfect Future V. Passive —— partus. -a. -um V.3. -a.5.a. Passive pari partus esse partum iri V.5.a.6. -a.

4. see 20.I. NOT E S VI. . VI.3–9. VI. see 12. The esse of all perfect passive and future active infinitives is often omitted in indirect statements. 9.II. imperfect. see 14.4 E.1.VI.3.V. pluperfect.2. The perfect. The present. and future tenses are collectively known as the present sys- tem.I. and future perfect tenses are collectively known as the per- fect system. Future passive participles are also called gerundives. Verbs 55 VI. VI. Some of the forms noted above are subject to syncopation.

I. Irregular Conjugations Note: Parentheses indicate syncopated forms (see 20. īstis) 3 ivit (iit. 56 Morphology and Grammar Review 10. Indicative mood active voice Present active indicative Imperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 eo imus ibam ibamus 2 is itis ibas ibatis 3 it eunt ibat ibant Future active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 ibo ibimus 2 ibis ibitis 3 ibit ibunt Perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 ivi (ii) ivimus (iimus) 2 ivisti (iisti. IVI ( I I).I) commonly used in place of unsyn- copated forms. īsti) ivistis (iistis. I R E. īt) iverunt (ierunt) Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 iveram (ieram) iveramus (ieramus) 2 iveras (ieras) iveratis (ieratis) 3 iverat (ierat) iverant (ierant) .1. ITU S I. EO.

1–10. -um esse . Infinitives Present Perfect Future ire ivisse (iisse.4. Verbs 57 Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 ivero (iero) iverimus (ierimus) 2 iveris (ieris) iveritis (ieritis) 3 iverit (ierit) iverint (ierint) I.I.4 E.3.2.I. -a. Imperative mood active voice Singular Plural i ite I. 10. Subjunctive mood active voice Present active subjunctive Imperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 eam eamus irem iremus 2 eas eatis ires iretis 3 eat eant iret irent Perfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 iverim (ierim) iverīmus (ierīmus) 2 iverīs (ierīs) iverītis (ierītis) 3 iverit (ierit) iverint (ierint) Pluperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 ivissem (īssem) ivissemus (īssemus) 2 ivisses (īsses) ivissetis (īssetis) 3 ivisset (īsset) ivissent (īssent) I. īsse) iturus.

Active iens. proditus — go out. redii. visit. pass (time). enter upon anteeo. subitus — go under. praeterii. exivi (-ii). die. be in love praeeo. survey. prodii. elude. itus include: abeo. succeed. undergo transeo. -um I. ivi (ii). rise ineo. abire. obitus — go to meet. obivi (-ii). outstrip praetereo. undertake intereo.7. Passive —— itus. surpass. inire. praeterire. exclude. aditus — go to. visit. surpass. obire. omit. overstep. go past. abitus — go away. deceive coeo. retire adeo. conspire exeo. Common compounds of eo.6.5. precede.b. pass away.b. enter. appear. undertake. follow. adii. -a. revert subeo. initus — go in. -um eundus. transgress prodeo. issue. leave. begin. interire. interitus — perish. encircle. perii. perish. subire. come secretly. enter.5. Participles Present Perfect Future I. praeitus — lead the away. reditus — go back. -a. go first.6. depart. transire. surpass circueo (circumeo). neglect. subii. coivi (-ii). interii. go over. escape. anteire. leave out. go ahead. reject. Gerunds eundi eundo eundum eundo I. Supines —— —— itum itū I. ire. come to mind.a. exitus — go out. agree.5. 58 Morphology and Grammar Review I. peritus — be lost. suffer. go in. transitus — pass over. cross over. praeire. -a. mate. be undone. spring up. circuivi (-ii). overtake. euntis —— iturus. redire. submit to. surround. pass through. inivi (-ii). be lost obeo. assemble. aid. Gerunds and supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative I. prodire. encounter. circuire. die. approach. expire (time). abii. change into. enter upon. perire. advance. circuitus — go around. die pereo.6. -um I. exire. go forward. praeteritus — pass.a. anteitus — precede. anteii. transii. pass away . adire. coire. outstrip. advance redeo. praeivi (-ii). return. coitus — meet.

1. Passive voice Present passive indicative Imperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 feror ferimur ferebar ferebamur 2 ferris ferimini ferebaris ferebamini 3 fertur feruntur ferebatur ferebantur . Active voice Present active indicative Imperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 fero ferimus ferebam ferebamus 2 fers fertis ferebas ferebatis 3 fert ferunt ferebat ferebant Future active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 feram feremus 2 feres feretis 3 feret ferent Perfect active indicative Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 tuli tulimus tuleram tuleramus 2 tulisti tulistis tuleras tuleratis 3 tulit tulerunt tulerat tulerant Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 tulero tulerimus 2 tuleris tuleritis 3 tulerit tulerint II.1.b. F E RO. F E RR E . Indicative mood II. 10.1. L ATU S II.II. Verbs 59 I I. TU LI.b E.I.1.a.5–10.

-um sum lati. -ae. -a. -ae. -ae. -a. -um eris lati. -ae. -ae. -a. -um erit lati. -a sunt Pluperfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 latus. -a. -um es lati. -um erat lati. -a estis 3 latus. -ae. -ae. -a. -um eras lati. -a eratis 3 latus.2. -a erimus 2 latus. -a. -a erunt II. 60 Morphology and Grammar Review Future passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 ferar feremur 2 fereris feremini 3 feretur ferentur Perfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 latus.2. -um ero lati.a. -ae. -a. Subjunctive mood II. -a. -um est lati. -a erant Future perfect passive indicative Person Singular Plural 1 latus. -a eramus 2 latus. -ae. -a. -a eritis 3 latus. -a sumus 2 latus. Active voice Present active subjunctive Imperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 feram feramus ferrem ferremus 2 feras feratis ferres ferretis 3 ferat ferant ferret ferrent . -um eram lati.

-a.b.2–10. -a sitis 3 latus. Passive voice Present passive subjunctive Imperfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 ferar feramur ferrer ferremur 2 feraris feramini ferreris ferremini 3 feratur ferantur ferretur ferrentur Perfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 latus.2. -ae. -a. 10. -a simus 2 latus. -ae. Active voice Singular Plural fer ferte .3. -a.a E.a. -um sim lati. -um esses lati. Imperative mood II. -a essetis 3 latus. -um sis lati. -um sit lati.II. -a essent II. -a essemus 2 latus. -a.3.3. -ae. -um esset lati. -a. -ae. -um essem lati. Verbs 61 Perfect active subjunctive Pluperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 tulerim tulerīmus tulissem tulissemus 2 tulerīs tulerītis tulisses tulissetis 3 tulerit tulerint tulisset tulissent II.II. -ae. -a. -ae. -a sint Pluperfect passive subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 latus.

transferre. compare se conferre — take oneself. carry off confero. bring down. -a. tuli. expose refero.b.a. report. illatus — carry into. ablatus — carry away. -um II. offer differo. Common compounds of fero. -um II. transport. bring forth infero. delatus — bring away. efferre. abstuli.6. -a.b. Gerunds and supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative II. elatus — carry out.3. conferre. 62 Morphology and Grammar Review II. transfer. transtuli. -um esse II. rettuli.5.5. extuli.6.4.4. -a. deferre. distuli. Passive ferri latus. inferre. endure transfero. referre. detuli. Active ferens —— laturus. Participles Present Perfect Future II.5. Infinitives Present Perfect Future II. offer. Supines —— —— latum latū II. -um esse latum iri II. collect.b. latus include: adfero. adferre. adlatus — bring to. intuli. -a. -um ferendus. -a. ferre. Active ferre tulisse laturus. sustuli.b.a. differre. oblatus — bring before. sufferre.a. offerre.6. sublatus — undergo. attuli.4. relatus — bring back. Gerunds ferendi ferendo ferendum ferendo II. Passive voice Singular Plural ferre ferimini II.7. present aufero. inflict offero. collatus — bring together. contuli. dilatus — differ effero. go defero. Passive —— latus. report suffero. translatus — bring across. obtuli. auferre. translate . transform.

S U M . FU I.b–10. Subjunctive mood active voice Present active subjunctive Imperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 sim simus essem essemus 2 sis sitis esses essetis 3 sit sint esset essent .1. 10.3. Verbs 63 I I I. Indicative mood active voice Present active indicative Imperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 sum sumus eram eramus 2 es estis eras eratis 3 est sunt erat erant Future active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 ero erimus 2 eris eritis 3 erit erunt Perfect active indicative Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 fui fuimus fueram fueramus 2 fuisti fuistis fueras fueratis 3 fuit fuerunt fuerat fuerant Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 fuero fuerimus 2 fueris fueritis 3 fuerit fuerint III.II. E S S E .2 E. FUTU RU S III.2.III.

b. -um III.6. Gerunds and supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative III. Imperative mood active voice Singular Plural es este III. etc. Supines —— —— —— —— III.5. forent. Passive —— —— —— III. foret.b. 64 Morphology and Grammar Review Perfect active subjunctive Pluperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 fuerim fuerīmus fuissem fuissemus 2 fuerīs fuerītis fuisses fuissetis 3 fuerit fuerint fuisset fuissent III. sies.a.5. In classical Latin. For the present subjunctive: siem.7.7.b. -um esse III. siemus.c. For the imperfect subjunctive: forem.8. III.a.a. Participles Present Perfect Future III.3.6. the participle [ens] is found only in compounds.6. III. Gerunds —— —— —— —— III. Active [ens] —— futurus. .5. Infinitives Present Perfect Future esse fuisse futurus.7. -a. III. siet.4.7. Alternate forms include: III. fores. For the future infinitive: fore. -a.

be suf- ficient. POS S U M. futurus include: absum. belong to intersum. be at hand.IV) praesum. interesse. be latent in supersum. profuturus — be useful.IV. underlie. prodesse. subesse — be underneath. posse. be different adsum. take the lead prosum. survive. abesse. superfuturus — be left.1 E. POS S E . Indicative mood active voice Present active indicative Imperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 possum possumus poteram poteramus 2 potes potestis poteras poteratis 3 potest possunt poterat poterant Future active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 potero poterimus 2 poteris poteritis 3 poterit poterunt Perfect active indicative Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 potui potuimus potueram potueramus 2 potuisti potuistis potueras potueratis 3 potuit potuerunt potuerat potuerant . it is of importance obsum. profui.3–10. be close to. be absent. be among. afui. superesse.9. harm possum. be present at. potui — be able. adfui. 10. fail insum. inesse. interfui. esse. Verbs 65 III. obesse. praefui. Common compounds of sum. support. obfuturus — be against. infuturus — be in. can (see 10. defui. adfuturus — be present. deesse. remain. adesse. praefuturus — be in charge of. praeesse. fui.III. POTU I IV. benefit subsum. superfui. obfui. infui. be on. defuturus — be lacking. assist desum. elapse (time) interest (impersonal) — it concerns.1. command. be in excess IV. interfuturus — be between. afuturus — be away.

5.5. Imperative mood active voice Singular Plural —— —— IV. Infinitives Present Perfect Future posse potuisse —— IV. 66 Morphology and Grammar Review Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 potuero potuerimus 2 potueris potueritis 3 potuerit potuerint IV. Passive —— —— —— .b.2.3. Active potens —— —— IV. Participles Present Perfect Future IV.4. Subjunctive mood active voice Present active subjunctive Imperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 possim possimus possem possemus 2 possis possitis posses possetis 3 possit possint posset possent Perfect active subjunctive Pluperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 potuerim potuerīmus potuissem potuissemus 2 potuerīs potuerītis potuisses potuissetis 3 potuerit potuerint potuisset potuissent IV.a.5.

etc. nolo.3–10. volo. 10. etc. etc. malui 1. Pluperfect: volueram nolueram malueram volueras nolueras malueras etc. Supines —— —— —— —— V. etc. nolle. volui VI.IV.1 E. Active Indicatives Present: volo nolo malo vīs non vīs mavis vult non vult mavult volumus nolumus malumus vultis non vultis mavultis volunt nolunt malunt Imperfect: volebam nolebam malebam volebas nolebas malebas etc. velle. Gerunds and supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative IV. etc. Gerunds —— —— —— —— IV.6. Future: volam nolam malam voles noles males etc. Future perfect: voluero noluero maluero volueris nolueris malueris etc. Perfect: volui nolui malui voluisti noluisti maluisti etc. Verbs 67 IV.b.a. .6. etc. etc. malo. etc. etc. etc. malle. nolui VII.6.VII.

Pluperfect: voluissem noluissem maluissem voluisses noluisses maluisses etc. Gerunds and Supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative 6. etc. Active Subjunctives Present: velim nolim malim velis nolis malis velit nolit malit velimus nolimus malimus velitis nolitis malitis velint nolint malint Imperfect: vellem nollem mallem velles nolles malles etc. etc. Active Participles Present: volens nolens —— 6. Active Infinitives Present: velle nolle malle Perfect: voluisse noluisse maluisse 5.b. Supines —— —— —— —— . Perfect: voluerim noluerim maluerim voluerīs noluerīs maluerīs etc. Gerunds —— —— —— —— 6. etc. nolite —— 4. etc. Active Imperatives —— noli.a. etc. 68 Morphology and Grammar Review 2. etc. 3.

-ae. -um erit facti.2–10. -a. -a sumus 2 factus. -a sunt Pluperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 factus. -ae. -um est facti. -ae.1. -um ero facti. -um sum facti. F IO . -ae.1 E. -a. -ae. FAC TU S VIII. F I E R I. -a. -a. -a. -a. -a erunt . -ae. 10. -a estis 3 factus. -a eratis 3 factus. -um eras facti. -a. -a erimus 2 factus. -a eritis 3 factus. Verbs 69 VI I I. -ae.VIII. -ae. Indicative mood active voice Present active indicative Imperfect active indicative Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 fio fimus fiebam fiebamus 2 fis fitis fiebas fiebatis 3 fit fiunt fiebat fiebant Future active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 fiam fiemus 2 fies fietis 3 fiet fient Perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 factus. -um es facti. -um erat facti. -a. -um eram facti. -a eramus 2 factus. -ae. -a.VII. -a erant Future perfect active indicative Person Singular Plural 1 factus. -um eris facti.

Participles Present Perfect Future —— factus. 70 Morphology and Grammar Review VIII.4. -a. -a. -um esses facti. Infinitives Present Perfect Future fieri factus. -a. -a essetis 3 factus. -a sitis 3 factus. -a essent VIII. -um esse factum iri VIII. -um . Imperative mood active voice Singular Plural fi fite VIII. -a. -a. -a. -um essem facti. -ae. -um esset facti. -um sim facti. -ae. -a sint Pluperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 factus. -a. -a simus 2 factus. -um sit facti. -ae.2. -a essemus 2 factus.3. Subjunctive mood active voice Present active subjunctive Imperfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural Singular Plural 1 fiam fiamus fierem fieremus 2 fias fiatis fieres fieretis 3 fiat fiant fieret fierent Perfect active subjunctive Person Singular Plural 1 factus. -um faciendus. -a. -ae. -ae. -ae. -um sis facti. -a.5.

VIII.6. interfieri —pass away superfio. Supines —— —— factum factū VIII. 10. Verbs 71 VIII. Gerunds and supines Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative VIII. Common compounds of fio. fieri. defieri — fail interfio.6. Gerunds faciendi faciendo faciendum faciendo VIII.6. superfieri —be left over .a.7.2–10.VIII. be accomplished. factus include: confio. be completed.7 E. happen defio. confieri —be done.b.

be jealous of altercor. attain adipiscor. The following are the most common deponent verbs. flatter. -atus — foretell. -ari. -atus — try. testify aspernor. amplectus — embrace. indeptus — obtain. wrangle AMPLECTOR. rave. misrepresent causor. -atus — consult. gain. -atus — rival. encircle. jeer at comissor. carouse cunctor. linger. suppose convivor. compose. regain ARBITROR. get. -ari. -ari. Deponents are a distinctive class of Latin verbs whose forms are almost all passive but whose meanings are always active. -iri. plunder dignor. clasp. entice eblandior — coax out. copy. -ari. see. -ari. -ari. -ari. -atus — embezzle. think over. -atus — deem worthy. -atus — feast together. commentus — devise. -ari. aptus — catch. -atus — observe. Deponents. -ari. -ari. make an excuse of cavillor. acquire. attempt consilior. comprehend circumplector — embrace. -atus — think. rage perbacchor — carouse BLANDIOR. contrive recomminiscor — recollect reminiscor — (usually with genitive) remember. those in capitals are the very most common—learn them! aemulor. suppose. reject. -atus — reject. -ari. surmise. -ari. -atus — scoff at. -atus — study. invent comminiscor. attain indipiscor. deign dedignor — scorn. carouse commentor. catch sight of suspicor — suspect. -i. disdain auguror. be fond of APISCOR. -atus — revel. -ari. -atus — aid. -ari. comprehend. -ari. -i. Semideponents. please. -atus — delay. adeptus — gain. -i. -atus — slander. be angry at . obtain by flattery subblandior — (with dative) flirt with calumnior. -ari. surround complector — embrace. -ari. -itus — caress. and Fio I. -i. coax. call to mind CONOR. -atus — dispute. -ari. (with dative) advise conspicor. support bacchor. -atus — make merry. 72 Morphology and Grammar Review 11. write. -i. hesitate depeculor. think unworthy indignor — be displeased with. -atus — pretend. -ari. reach redipiscor — get back. predict auxilior.

fari. -ēri. commence introgredior — step inside praegredior — go before. -i. -ari. -atus — feast (on) expergiscor. come out. do defungor — (with ablative) discharge. -atus — talk. undergo furor. fructus — (with ablative) enjoy perfruor — (with ablative) enjoy to the full. advance. -i. -atus — make. forge fabulor. pride oneself in GRADIOR. -atus — deceive. undertake antegredior — precede circumgredior — surround congredior — meet. become exhausted defetiscor. march past.I– E. return. trick. promise. digress. have done with. -atus — steal. surpass progredior — go forward. walk. impersonate suffuror — filch glorior. fulfill frustror. -i. say in advance. expertus — test. -i. -atus — boast. -iri. build. split. dismount digredior — separate. discharge. march out. walk adgredior. profess. fatus — speak. predict profor — speak out. descend. Verbs 73 dominor. gressus — step. functus — (usually with ablative) perform. fight degredior — march down. go out regredior — go back. deviate egredior — go out. attempt fabricor. stir oneself EXPERIOR. come back. acknowledge. -ēri. march. reveal diffiteor — disown profiteor — declare. -ari. die perfungor — (with ablative) perform. surpass praetergredior — pass. -ari. experrectus — wake up. attack. utter interfor — interrupt praefor — preface. fassus — confess. adgressus — approach. -ari. pass. converse. part. reveal confiteor. utter FRUOR. retreat . confessus — confess. discuss famulor. engage in. -ari. defessus — grow weary FOR. -atus — rule. enter (upon). overstep ingredior — go in. disembark. acknowledge. -i. say confabulor — talk (to). -ari. 11. -ari. accost. thwart FUNGOR. -ari. -i. be master epulor. -i. discharge. make trial of. utter effor — speak. pillage. fessus — crack. volunteer fatiscor. -atus — serve as slave FATEOR.

glide into interlābor — slip between. -ari. -ari. exceed grassor. move forward. decay elābor — glide away. glide away subterlābor — flow past under. -ari. -atus — lie in ambush for. be glad lamentor. escape illābor — fall into. collapse delābor — fall down. -atus — joke irascor. flow into. glide. hurl. -atus — joke. imitate. sink. move on praelābor — move past. sink. -atus — interpret. come up close. -atus — throw. -ari. -atus — walk about. fall back. slip past praeterlābor — slide. -ari. -ari. aim at eiaculor — shoot out imaginor. -ari. -ari. lapsus — slip. fly down. -ari. -atus — urge. move toward. disdain. -atus — deny. disperse. fall. picture to oneself IMITOR. die adlābor — fall. move along. -ari. feel annoyed HORTOR. vanish. portray infitior. glide back sublābor — sink down. -atus — lament. discourage exhortor — encourage iaculor. prowl. urge dehortor — dissuade. -ari. -atus — object to. glide through. glide between perlābor — glide along. fall. iratus — become angry. explain. disintegrate. -ari. fade. slip away laetor. -ari. -ari. -atus — behave immaturely or indiscreetly LĀBOR. -i. encourage. urge cohortor — encourage. jest ioculor. -i. get furious subirascor — be rather angry iuvenor. -atus — copy. cross (over). plot against interpretor. -ari. -atus — rejoice. attack supergredior — surpass transgredior — step across. -ari. -atus — rejoice. slip off. exhort adhortor — encourage. repudiate insidior. congratulate gratulor. fail. -atus — imagine. sink into ruin relābor — sink back. come down dilābor — dissolve. slide. -atus — congratulate. weep (for). shoot. loiter grator. decline. translate iocor. 74 Morphology and Grammar Review subgredior — approach. come to collābor — fall in ruin. bewail delamentor — mourn bitterly for . give thanks congratulor — congratulate gravor.

talk. -atus — trade in. resist luxor. work out MENTIOR. -ari. struggle. pretend. pass over. -iri. go back over MINOR. bid for LOQUOR. -i. -ari. -atus — live luxuriously luxurior. reflect. purchase commercor — buy up emercor — purchase METIOR. mensus — measure (out). serve as a mercenary liceor. deceive. confer. talk to eloquor — speak out. locutus — speak. -atus — live luxuriously machinor. 11. contemplate. donate dilargior — give away generously latrocinor. plot. mention adloquor — speak to. remedy meditor. -atus — wrestle. -atus — devise. scheme medeor. -ēri. traverse remetior — measure again. address colloquor — converse (with). forbid threateningly . Verbs 75 largior. traverse. surmount obluctor — struggle against reluctor — struggle against. -ari. interrupt. -atus — think over. -atus — be a pirate. -itus — give freely. fabricate mercor. say. -iri. speak eloquently interloquor — interrupt obloquor — contradict. licitus — bid at an auction. fight deluctor — wrestle down eluctor — struggle out of.I– E. judge. -ari. acquire LUCTOR. -ēri. -atus — gain. traverse admetior — measure out commetior — measure demetior — measure out dimetior — measure out emetior — measure out. -atus — threaten comminor — threaten eminor — threaten interminor — threaten. abuse praeloquor — speak first proloquor — speak out lucror. bestow. feign ementior — tell lies. -ari. lavish. -ari. -itus — lie. -ari. -ari. live through permetior — measure out. -ari. estimate. contrive. study commeditor — practice praemeditor — think over. —— — (with dative) heal. -iri. win.

trade NITOR. find. be surprised (at) admiror — admire. -atus — (with dative) humor. (with accusative) guide. grow innascor — be born in. -atus — borrow NANCISCOR. exert oneself . defer muneror. admire. detain commoror — wait. heave. grow again. build. decay. reward mutuor. -ari. 76 Morphology and Grammar Review MIROR. -ari. -ari. -i. govern admoderor — restrain emoderor — give expression to modulor. wonder at. labor. -ari. -ari. -ari. -i. -itus — work at. waste away inemorior — die in intermorior — die suddenly praemorior — die too soon MOROR. -atus — wonder (at). nactus or nanctus — obtain. natus — be born. struggle. press forward. -ari. loiter. -atus — sing. deplore commiseror — bewail moderor. stay. pass away emorior — die. -atus — pity. reward remuneror — repay. originate enascor — sprout. nisus or nixus — rest on. grow up in renascor — be born again. -ari. detain remoror — linger. sojourn. grow. get. check. be produced. -atus — (with dative) restrain. spring up again negotior. manage. be surprised at demiror — marvel at. destroy emolior — accomplish obmolior — throw up as a defense praemolior — prepare thoroughly remolior — heave back morigeror. stay. -i. lean on. delay. fade demorior — die. -atus — delay. play music MOLIOR. stay behind. pass away immorior — die upon. gratify MORIOR. move. detain demoror — wait. come upon NASCOR. delay. -iri. -ari. -i. mortuus — die. -atus — present. -atus — do business. undertake amolior — remove commolior — set in motion demolior — pull down. wonder emiror — marvel at miseror. strive.

-ari. flatter suppalpor — coax gently PATIOR. experience. -i. -atus — (with dative) defend. compectus — come to an agreement depeciscor — bargain for. appear. struggle. come out. -ari. coax. -ari. resist nugor. -i. -ari. stand firm renitor — struggle. oppertus — wait (for) ORDIOR. search out ominor. appear. Verbs 77 adnitor — lean on. -ari. allow perpetior. cheat OBLIVISCOR. strive. -ari. be abroad. break out. allow patrocinor. agree. be in danger perplexor. orsus — begin. set about coorior — rise. -atus — talk nonsense. -atus — (with dative) help opperior.I– E. -i. -atus — work. prophesy abominor — deprecate. passus — suffer. -iri. struggle enitor — struggle up. start oborior — arise. -iri. inquire peregrinor. give birth to innitor — rest. -i. detest operor. -atus — philosophize . -ari. try. -ari. attempt. barter compeciscor. -iri. -ari. begin exorior — spring up. agree about palor. -ari. -ari. straggle palpor. pactus — make a bargain. -atus — test. be occupied. -atus — question. -ari. be idle paciscor. strive. -atus — think. -atus — smell (out). resist. -atus — wander about. submit to. -atus — cause confusion philosophor. ortus — rise. suppose. -atus — be on vacation. 11. perpessus — endure patiently. -i. -ari. spring up. -atus — stroke. lean on. risk. climb. exert oneself conitor — lean on. be a stranger periclitor. support percontor. -ari. depend obnitor — push against. -ari. -ari. oblitus — forget odoror. descend adorior — accost. imagine opitulor. -atus — kiss deosculor — kiss warmly exosculor — kiss fondly otior. spring up suborior — spring up in succession osculor. attack. -atus — forebode. -atus — travel. undertake exordior — begin ORIOR. take pains OPINOR. arise.

pursue. -atus — plunder. -ari. -atus — pray. -atus — (with dative) oppose. -ēri. pursue. intercede for imprecor — invoke proelior. join battle deproelior — fight it out PROFICISCOR. -ari. -atus — wait for. -ari. 78 Morphology and Grammar Review piscor. -ari. entreat apprecor — pray to comprecor — pray to. -ari. -atus — ravage. -iri. rictus — snarl subringor — make a wry face. -ari. hunt consector — follow. get possession of praedor. profectus — set out. criticize persector — investigate SEQUOR. favor REOR. aim at adsequor — overtake. -ari. -atus — (with dative) favor by collusion PRECOR. -i. examine. beg. rēri. squabble rusticor. -atus — tear open. -atus — fish expiscor. consult scrutor. -ari. examine thoroughly scurror. understand . -atus — follow. -ari. -ari. emulate insector — pursue. -ari. -atus — try to find out POLLICEOR. questus — complain. accompany. destroy. devastate. support. -atus — calculate. -atus — quarrel. -i. -atus — inquire. -atus — kiss dissavior — kiss passionately sciscitor. attend. examine ringor. secutus — follow. chase. chase. originate QUEROR. -ari. ruin depopulor — ravage. start. -ari. ensue. -ari. ponder over refragor. argue. -atus — search. -atus — recall. -atus — play the fool sector. thwart suffragor — vote for. attain. -ari. destroy perpopulor — ravage completely POTIOR. ratus — think. pray for deprecor — deprecate. attack. -i. bewail ratiocinor. brawl. plunder. profit praestolor. -ari. be rather vexed rixor. infer recordor. offer populor. go after. probe into. find out perscrutor — search. -i. -ari. -ari. remember. rob. -ari. question scitor. lament conqueror — complain bitterly of. -atus — live in the country savior. potitus — (with genitive or ablative) acquire. expect praevaricor. -ari. -atus — inquire. probe. suppose rimor. proceed. pollicitus — promise. search for. -atus — fight. consider.

-ari. keep contueor — look at. ultus — take vengeance on. -atus — wander. -ari. stipulate instipulor — bargain for restipulor — stipulate in return stomachor. be annoyed suppetior. console. observe perspeculor — reconnoiter prospeculor — look out. watch. experience abutor — (with ablative) use up.I– E. contemplate. possess. -atus — give evidence. -ari. observe. pursue. watch for. punish. -ari. look. -ari. play tricks TUEOR. misuse deutor — (with ablative) maltreat vador. chase. pursue. consider intueor — look at. avenge UTOR. yield to. -ari. result exsequor — follow. spread exspatior — go off course speculor. imitate sermocinor. curse. -i. vouch for. -atus — walk. vouch for. -ari. -atus — be vexed. -ari. share subsortior — choose as a substitute by lot spatior. -atus — writhe tricor. entreat tortor. pursue. 11. employ. reconnoiter. watch. see clearly tutor. comfort. persecute obsequor — comply with. pursue. -ari. allot. perform prosequor — attend. escort. pursue. -atus — converse solor. -ari. indulge persequor — follow all the way. relieve. rove. appeal to. consider obtueor — gaze at. reassure. attack resequor — answer subsequor — follow closely. -iri. make a will antestor — call a witness attestor — confirm contestor — call to witness detestor — invoke (against). -atus — testify. make public TESTOR. support. accomplish. -atus — bargain. copy. usus — (with ablative) use. go far afield. -itus — draw or case lots (for). guard. protect. -atus — watch. ease consolor — console. -ēri. -ari. tuitus or tutus — see. -ari. -atus — come to the aid of testificor. relieve sortior. -atus — comfort. Verbs 79 consequor — follow. -atus — spy out. -atus — make mischief. -ari. distribute. undergo insequor — follow. protect ULCISCOR. -atus — to bind over by bail vagor. prove. attack. spread . come after. watch for stipulor. deprecate obtestor — call to witness. guard. -i. -ari.

be situated. -atus — prophesy. its forms are active but its meanings are passive. hover tergiversor — hedge. shout II. and future perfect tenses). extend. respect. revere subvereor — be a little afraid versor. esuritus — be hungry fido. as it were. happen . feel shy VEREOR. eat. enjoy vociferor. be busy at adversor — oppose. is. -ere. be done. -ari. repulse. -atus — skirmish VENEROR. be made. revere. rave velitor. -i. -ēre. factus: become. avert by prayers venor. in the perfect system. chase pervenor — chase through. fear. spread. arise. The verb fio. stay as a guest obversor — move about before. -ire. be evasive vescor. be brave esurio. pray to. -ēre. venture. be pleased (at). hunt through verecundor. be. -atus — be bashful. 80 Morphology and Grammar Review evagor — wander off. respect revereor — stand in awe of. be engaged (in). -atus — cry out loud. ausus — dare. -ēri. rant. fisus — (with dative or ablative) trust. pluperfect. revere. -atus — hunt.VIII. -ari. resist aversor — turn away. respect deveneror — worship. -ari. decline deversor — lodge. —— — (usually with ablative) feed (on). honor. imperfect. delight (in) soleo. fio. rely on confido — (with dative) trust. -ari. -ari. solitus — be accustomed. a reverse semideponent: in the present system. -itus — be afraid (of). See 10. both its forms and its meanings are all passive. be sure (of) diffido — (with dative) distrust. despair subdiffido — be a little doubtful gaudeo. spread out pervagor — range. gavisus — rejoice. pervade vaticinor. -atus — live. fieri. be in the habit (of) III. -ari. rove about. Semideponents are typically regular verbs in the present system (present. -ēre. -ari. The following are common semideponents: audeo. rely (on). the irregular passive of facio. -atus — worship. and future tenses) but deponent in the perfect system (perfect.

I. having only three infinitives. Subjective infinitives errare est humanum. see 14.1. Active Passive Present: audire audiri to hear to be heard Perfect: audivisse auditus.c E.I. I. Deponent verbs. -um esse to be about to follow I. active and passive. -um esse to have heard to have been heard Future: auditurus. Infinitives and Participles I.3.3.c. -a.3. -a. active and passive.I. A normal Latin verb has six infinitives: two in the present tense. -um esse auditum iri to be about to hear to be about to be heard Of the six. Indirect statements often omit the esse of all perfect passive and future active infinitives.a. To err is human. I. An alternate form of the present passive infinitive ending in -er can be found in very old or archaizing Latin: audirier (= audiri) — to be heard amarier (= amari) — to be loved dicier (= dici) — to be said I. erat necesse loqui.b. use the future active infinitive instead of the future passive: Present: sequi to follow Perfect: secutus. -a.2. It is permitted to speak. and two in the future tense. . the future passive infinitive is by far the least common. The chief uses of the infinitive include: I. It was necessary to speak. We wanted to depart. two in the perfect tense. active and passive. -a. Verbs 81 12.3. With certain impersonal constructions (see 20. 11.III) licet loqui. -um esse to have followed Future: secuturus. Complementary infinitives desiderabamus discedere.3.II–12.

-a. Exclamatory infinitives vidēre patriam meam rursus! O.a).II). -a. -um audiendus. -a. -um about to hear (about) to be heard All of these are declined as 1st and 2nd declension adjectives (i. -a.4. -um. -a. the future active participle. but the perfect participle is usually translated as active: Present: sequens following Perfect: secutus.g. -um —— having been heard Future: auditurus. which is declined as a 1-termination 3rd declen- sion i-stem adjective (i. see 5. -a.. Prohibitions (see 19. like ingens. Historical infinitives (see 20. II. 82 Morphology and Grammar Review I. -a.I) I.I.e.e. Deponent verbs have four participles as well.2. and the future passive participle (also known as the gerundive). -um (about) to be followed . -um about to follow sequendus. see 5.d.1.I. Subjects of infinitives are always put in the accusative (the subjective accusative). II.3. like magnus. In indirect statements (see 14.3.II) I.e. ex- cept in the case of historical infinitives (see 20.. A normal Latin verb has four participles: the present active participle.III) I. the perfect passive participle.f. Active Passive Present: audiens —— hearing —— Perfect: —— auditus. to see my homeland again! I.1) except the present active participle.3.3. -um having followed Future: secuturus.

The most important uses of participles include: II. -a. Temporal.3. When functioning as a true adjective.3. -a. concessive.4. . . though watching.i. -um for audiendus.3. -a. .3. while watching. In ablative absolutes (see section 13) II. 12.b. Caesar. causal.a. When functioning as a verbal phrase. . and condi- tional senses can be found: Caesar spectans . -a. II. -a. .d–12.3.2. -a. -um dicundus. . -um and -iundus. . the ablative singular present active participle ends in -e: cum milite hostes interficiente with the soldier killing the enemy II. -um . Caesar. . . -a. depending on the context.d.i.II. Verbs 83 II. Alternate forms in -undus.b.I. -um for pariendus. . The semantic range of participles.3. Caesar.c.3. As true adjectives milites interfecti the killed soldiers II. for example: audiundus. -a. -um can be found for future pas- sive participles (gerundives) of the 3rd and 4th conjugations. .a. . can be considerably broader than the translations above suggest. -um for dicendus. since watching. the ablative singular present active participle ends in -i: cum milite interficienti with the killing soldier II. if watching. As nouns mea amata my beloved agenda things to be done II.3.4 E. . As verbal phrases milites ab hostibus interfecti the soldiers killed by the enemy II. Caesar. -um pariundus. .

a.3.” “as” III.1. T RA N SL AT I ON S III. an adverb. Causal: “since. 84 Morphology and Grammar Review 13.” “despite” III. -a. Conditional: “if ” IV. P OS S I B LE E X PA N S I ON S I N CON STRU C T I ON IV. . Noun (or pronoun) and adjective Rule: Participles and adjectives must agree with their nouns (or pronouns) in case. Present participle: common I. and gender.2. This explains why it is an absolute (absolutus.” “after.1. A noun may have a qualifying genitive.1. number. I I. I I I. M I N I M U M CON STRU C T I ON S All in the ablative case: II. -um means “gram- matically free or unbound”).1. Noun (or pronoun) and participle I.2. Perfect participle: most common I.2.” “because” III. Noun (or pronoun) and noun II. Temporal: “when. Concessive: “although.c. Ablative Absolutes I. Future participle: least common II. CARDINAL RULE The noun in the ablative absolute never denotes the same person or thing as the subject or object of the main verb.1.b. A participle may take an object.” “while.4. IV.3.1. or a prepositional phrase.

Verbs 85 EXAMPLES (keyed to information above): Section Ablative absolute Main clause II.a rege vulnerato nemo regnum occupare conatus est. Germany was very barbaric.1. II. II. III.2 E.3 Although the king is about to come.1.3 Though the king was wounded.2 Because the king was wounded. III.1 When Arminius was king. III.a rege vulnerato regina in suo cubiculo dormiebat. II.2 Caesare duce nos vincemus. III. II.IV. we are not buying the goods. II.4 If the king comes.3 mercatore improbo nos merces non emimus.b rege veniente principes manebunt.3 imperatore fesso exercitus profectus est. II.a rege vulnerato regina sola regnavit.I–13. the enemy refuse to leave. the queen was sleeping in her bedroom.1 When the king was wounded. the princes will stay. the princes will stay. III. nobody tried to seize the kingdom. II. III. III. .1 When the king comes.1. 13.1.2 Since the king is coming.2 Arminio rege Germania erat barbarissima.4 If Caesar is leader. the army set out. III. II. we will win. the queen ruled alone. III.1.3 Although the general was tired.2 Since the merchant is dishonest. III.c rege venturo hostes relinquere nolunt. the princes will stay. III.

regina. 86 Morphology and Grammar Review IV. it occurs after the main clause or its verb (e. coss. A CO M MON I D I O M U S I NG TH E AB L AT I VE AB S OLUT E Romans often identified years by naming the two consuls elected or appointed for that par- ticular year. When the signal was given to the sol- diers. If the princes come to the city. the queen ruled alone. In the year when Pompey and Crassus were consuls . . IV.] . rege vul- nerato. When the general gives the signal.2 imperatore signum dante milites in proelium incedunt.. more rarely.g.1 rege Germaniae vulnerato regina sola regnavit. rege vulnerato regina in suo cubiculo dormiebat) or after the subject of the main clause (e. V. IV. in suo cubiculo dormiebat). Gn. When parts of the house collapsed.g. rege vulnerato). Because the king of Germany was wounded. . we left as fast as possible.2 principibus ad urbem venientibus cives gaudebunt. the general mounted his horse. the citi- zens will rejoice. .2 signo militibus dato imperator equum suum conscendit. Pompeio M. VI. Crasso consulibus [or abbreviated. The formula for this kind of dating involves putting the consuls’ names in the ablative without a conjunction between.. . the soldiers march into battle.g.. NOT E O N TH E POS I T I ON OF AB L AT I VE AB S OLUT E S The absolute phrase is usually found before the main clause (e. regina in suo cubiculo dormiebat. IV.1 partibus villae collapsis nos quam celerrimē reliquimus. IV. .

The Latin grammar that the previous paragraph describes persists when the mind verb is in a secondary tense.IV. When the action that the infinitive expresses is prior to the action of the mind verb. We were thinking that Caesar would come. the English translation. 13.1. We think [today] that Caesar is coming [today]. requires some changes. . We were thinking that the stepmother would come. We think that Caesar is coming.3. putabamus Caesarem venire. a main verb of perception or cognition. We were thinking that the soldiers would come. the form must agree with the subjective accusative: putabamus Caesarem venturum [esse]. see below) + a subjective accusative (see 3. When the perfect passive infinitive or the future active infinitive is used.3 E. When the action that the infinitive expresses is roughly contemporaneous with the action of the mind verb.4) + an infinitive. putabamus milites venturos [esse]. putabamus Caesarem vēnisse. We think [today] that Caesar will come [tomorrow]. Any one of the six forms of infinitive may be used. Verbs 87 14. the future passive infinitive. though. either of the future infinitives is used: putamus Caesarem venturum [esse]. I.I. When the action that the infinitive expresses is subsequent to the action of the mind verb. Indirect Discourse I. putabamus novercam venturam [esse].2.V–14. putamus Caesarem venire. I N DI R EC T STAT E M E NT The minimum structure of an indirect statement is a “mind” verb (that is. is quite rare. however. putabamus Caesarem venturum [esse]. either of the present infinitives is used: putamus Caesarem venire. (subsequent) We were thinking [yesterday] that Caesar would come [today]. We think [today] that Caesar came [yesterday]. I. (contemporaneous) We were thinking [yesterday] that Caesar was coming [yesterday]. I. Indirect statements regularly omit the esse of all perfect passive and future active infinitives. (prior) We were thinking [yesterday] that Caesar had come [the day before]. either of the perfect infinitives is used: putamus Caesarem vēnisse.

scire. I. nuntiare. etc. To hope. III. I.4. etc. con- firmare. For indirect questions. believe. tell. learn. fingere. discere. suadēre. nescire. exspectare. defendere. II.: adfirmare. . promit- tere. The mind verbs that most commonly introduce an indirect statement are: I. IV. ducere. see 16. meminisse. cernere. censēre. confidere. threaten. existimare.d. ignorare. pollicēri. etc.XI.e. iudi- care.4.4. fatēri. For indirect commands. To perceive. sentire. see 16. iu- rare. or discover: audire. swear.c. probare. etc. To say. persuadēre. expect. referre.4. dicere. I.4. see 16. We were thinking that the auxiliaries would come. 88 Morphology and Grammar Review putabamus auxilia ventura [esse]. To know or remember: cognoscere. respondēre. fidere. etc. comperire. concedere. spe- rare.a. To think or decide: arbitrari. opinari. I. constituere. invenire. recordari. etc. reperire. negare. declarare. etc.V. narrare. demonstrare.4. putare.IV. statuere. confitēri. promise. suspicari. minari. I. vidēre.: credere.b. simulare. trust. pretend. For subordinate clauses in indirect statement.

The present subjunctive is used to express a wish or command: discedat! Let him leave! (jussive) discedamus! Let us leave! (hortatory) I. credas eum esse hominem magnum. You would (etc. You might (etc. J U S S IVE (3 R D PE R S ON) A N D HO RTATO RY ( 1 ST P E R S ON ) S U B J U N CT I V E S I. . The word non expresses the negative.1.2. P OT E N T I A L S U B J U NC T I VE II. The present subjunctive is used to express present or future potentialities: tu hoc putes. I I I. .) have thought this. which in this context may be translated as “although. could) think this. .I. .3. . . . . II. .1. A speaker or writer might employ a present or imperfect subjunctive to express deliberation or perplexity about a course of action.III. I might not . One would have .) not have trusted them. II. .1. The imperfect subjunctive indicates past potentialities: tu hoc putares.4–15. . . I would (etc. Independent Uses of the Subjunctive I. ego eis non fidam. A potential subjunctive may be introduced by the impersonal licet (it is permitted).) have believed he was a great man. A deliberative question anticipates .) believe that he is a great man.2. The word ne introduces the negative: ne hoc dicat! Let him not say this! ne dormiamus! Let us not sleep! I I. I would not trust them.4.1 E. 14. One could have . II. DE LI B E RAT I V E S U B J U NC T I VE III. One could believe . . You would (might. . Although you might think this.” licet hoc putes. You might (etc. One might think this. ego eis non fiderem. crederes eum esse hominem magnum. Verbs 89 15.

3. employed only for rhetorical effect). utinam discedat! If only he would leave! I wish he would leave! IV.2. it asks a rhetorical question.3. sometimes without any force of tense. Non expresses the negative: non respondeamus? Are we not to reply? Should we not reply? non respondēremus? Were we not to reply? Should we not have replied? IV. 18. . Note that many older textbooks use the archaic English “would that . utinam discesserit! If only he has left! I pray he has left! If only he leaves! I wish he would leave! IV. utinam discederet! If only he were leaving! I wish he were leaving! utinam discessisset! If only he had left! I wish he had left! IV.1.a. The imperfect subjunctive communicates a wish for the present that is unattainable (see present contrary-to-fact conditions. The perfect subjunctive expresses the wish for an action that has already been completed or a strongly emphasized wish. The pluperfect subjunctive commu- nicates an unattainable wish for the past (see past contrary-to-fact conditions. communicates an attainable wish for the future.1. 18. The present subjunctive. alone or introduced with utinam or ut. OP TAT IVE S U B J U NC T I VE IV.e. 90 Morphology and Grammar Review either an imperative or no response at all (i. .I.a.” to express optative subjunctives. the perfect subjunctive can express rhetorical empha- sis.I.2.a).b).1.4. Ne or utinam ne introduces the negative: (utinam) ne discedat! If only he would not leave! I wish he would not leave! IV. quid dixerim? What was I to have said? What am I to say? III. . Though this usage is rare. quid dicam? What am I to say? What should I say? quid dicerem? What was I to say? What should I have said? III.3..

we made an attack. . Past circumstantial: takes subjunctive. the general wrote letters.2. I am happy.b. we are defeating our enemy. Since we are fighting bravely. cum milites dormirent. cum ego te video. or “whenever” (generalizing). I. cum clauses use non. cum sint fessi. In poetry or archaic Latin.3. with only subtle differences in meaning. I.1. For negation. “although” (concessive).II. cum villam incenderemus. the present or future indicative is used: cum nos fiemus senes.a–16. CU M CL A U S E S Besides resembling a preposition meaning “with” (see 8. Although we were setting fire to the house. I. hostes nostros vincimus. When/while the soldiers were sleeping. cum also occurs as a subordi- nating conjunction meaning “since” or “because” (causal). If the action of the circumstantial clause is in the past.1).a. As you will soon see. non effūgerunt. I.3. discessimus. we will discuss some dependent clauses using the indicative mood too. impetum fecimus. cum dormirent. Because they were sleeping. the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive is used: cum villam incendissemus. When I see you. follows sequence of tenses. erimus divites.3. When/after we had set fire to the house. If the action of the circumstan- tial clause is in the present or future. When we (will) become old men. cum fortiter pugnemus. fortiter pugnant. Although they are tired. the subjunctive clauses and the indicative clauses can look very similar. Causal: takes subjunctive. laetus sum.b E. “when” (circumstantial or temporal). the conjunction can sometimes be spelled quom.I. follows sequence of tenses. Concessive: takes subjunctive. imperator epistulas scribebat. they did not flee. we will be rich. 15. I. I.1. Present or future circumstantial: takes indicative. they fight bravely. we departed.III. Dependent Uses of the Subjunctive Despite the title of this section. Circumstantial: stating the circumstances in which the action of the main verb takes place. Verbs 91 16.3.

If the cum clause merely fixes the time of the action of the main verb and the two clauses are strictly coordinate. I am happy. Generalizing: takes indicative. the verb in the cum clause is indicative: cum venies. it will be my birthday. (At the very time) when Caesar departed. 92 Morphology and Grammar Review I. To distinguish between circumstantial and temporal clauses. Whenever I see [literally. laetus eram. Temporal: takes indicative. we are going to bed now.” I. The perfect indicative is used to make a present generalization: cum ego te vīdi.c. erit meus dies natalis. I. The tense of the cum clause (perfect or pluperfect) indicates that the action of the generalization was prior to the action of the main verb. laetus sum.5.) I.a. I I.6. rex moriebatur. then it is a circumstantial clause. When the cum clause expresses a generalization.4. If futurity in a subjunctive cum clause is being emphasized. (Note: there is no connection between the departing and the dying except for the coincidence of time. The pluperfect indicative is used to make a past generalization: cum ego te vīderam.5. I was happy. have seen] you. .) cum Caesar discessit. Whenever I saw [literally.1. I. I. (Note: there is no connection between the coming and the birthday except for the coincidence of time. had seen] you.5. (At the very time) when you (will) come. ask yourself this: Would the statement of the main clause have been true regardless of the cum clause? If so.4. Result clauses (also known as consecutive clauses) are subordinate clauses that an- swer the question “To what extent or to what degree was the action or condition of the main clause carried to an outcome or effect?” They are introduced by ut (or ut non in negation). R E S U LT CL A U S E S II. the king was dying. I.VI) is employed: cum cras discessuri simus.5. nunc obdormimus. it is a temporal clause.b. the conjunction is translated as “whenever. If not necessarily so. the subjunctive future periphrastic (see 17.a. Since we will depart tomorrow. and their verbs are in the subjunctive.

If the verb in the main clause is imperfect. -um — so great tot (indeclinable) — so many II. Adjectives: talis.4–16. Adverbs: adeō — so (usually with adverbs and adjectives) ita — so (usually with verbs) sīc — in this way (usually with verbs) tam — so (usually with adverbs and adjectives) tantum — so much (usually with verbs) totiens — so often (usually with verbs) II. obliviscebatur totiens ut ei non fideremus. -a. the result clause uses the imperfect subjunctive: tanta erat tempestas ut reveniremus.4. or pluperfect.2. obliviscitur totiens ut ei non fidamus.I. The storm was so great that we came back. The storm was so great that we came back. If the verb in the main clause is in the present or future tense. I I I.a.4. 16.3. it employs the subjunctive future periphrastic: tanta erit tempestas ut cras reventuri simus. The use of one of several adjectives and adverbs of degree in the main clause often heralds a result clause. P U R P OS E C L A U S E S Purpose clauses answer the question “To what end or with what intention was the action of the main clause done?” A variety of conjunctions (or adverbs functioning as conjunctions) .2. a perfect subjunctive is used in this setting to emphasize that the action of the result is complete: tanta erat tempestas ut revēnerimus. II.a. II.5. If the result clause is emphasizing futurity. -e — such. perfect. Rarely. the result clause uses the present subjunctive: tanta est tempestas ut reveniamus. He used to forget so often that we didn’t trust him. The storm will be so great that we will return tomorrow.b.III E. The storm is so great that we are coming back. He forgets so often that we don’t trust him.2. II. of such a kind tantus. II. Verbs 93 II.

I am hurrying to the kitchen to find dinner there.1. We fight in order to conquer. We were advancing in front of the crowd to watch the parade better. III. the purpose clause uses the imperfect subjunctive: pugnabamus ne vinceremur. Relative pronouns: ego legatum mitto qui regem interroget. Ne typically negates them too.1. If the verb in the main clause is imperfect. Relative and adverbial clauses of purpose are introduced by words with antecedents in the main clause. III. The bailiff found a slave girl to care for the mistress.a. III. ut introduces the subjunctive verb of the purpose clause. vilicus ancillam invēnit quae dominam curaret. if the purpose is negated. quō (ablative. where I might find dinner. “by which [act]”) usually replaces ut: nos pro turbā adgrediebamur quō melius pompam aspectaremus. perfect. Clauses using ut and ne: if the purpose is affirmed.b. the purpose clause uses the present subjunctive: pugnamus ut vincamus. We fight that we may conquer. If the purpose clause contains a comparative adjective or adverb.2. or effort rather than purpose). If the verb in the main clause is in the present or future tense. III. We were fighting (in order) that we might not be conquered.1. The captives set fire to the prison to escape from there.2. and their verbs are in the subjunctive mood. III.2. ne (or neve or neu) is used. III. desire.c. I am hurrying to the kitchen.2. III.b. Always be careful to distin- guish purpose clauses from complementary infinitives (which express need. captivi carcerem incenderunt unde effugerent. We fight in order that we may conquer. We fight to conquer. or pluperfect. Adverbs of place or location: quō — (to) where ubi — where unde — from where ego ad culinam contendo ubi cenam inveniam. 94 Morphology and Grammar Review introduce them.a. . I am sending an envoy (in order) to question the king.

etc. warning. persuadēre.1. They urge us to conquer. Most verbs of begging. If an indirect command is emphasizing futurity.V E. which is subjunctive.” IV. pe- tere. Often. requesting. it employs the subjunctive future periphrastic: nunc discedimus ut cras reventuri simus. Either ut or ne introduces the verb of the indirect command.. an infinitive clause replaces this construction of ut or ne with the subjunctive. and typically negated by non. For example: Livia postulat ut ancillae sint diligentiores. IV. monēre. precari.a. Livia asks/wants the slaves to be more careful. Livia postulat ancillas esse diligentiores. require this construction. it employs the subjunctive future periphrastic: imperat nobis ut cras reventuri simus. asking. persuading. hortari.3. urging.2. IV. He commands us to return tomorrow. The general is setting out for Arabia to find bigger horses. (e.3.III. IV. expressed by the subjunctive. 16. censēre. advising. Verbs 95 imperator ad Arabiam proficiscitur quō maiores equos inveniat. especially in poetry. IV. . imperabat ne nos relinqueremus. imperare. V. cavēre.2. quaerere. The indirect question is introduced by an interrogative word or phrase. We depart now in order that we will return tomorrow. etc. I N DI R EC T Q U E ST I ON S An indirect question is a subordinate clause following a verb of knowing. postulare. ordering. instare. praecipere.g.1–16. I N DI R E C T CO MM A N D S In the sentence “They urge us to conquer. If a purpose clause is emphasizing futurity.” “to conquer” is the indirect command corre- sponding to a direct command—“They urge us: conquer!” Indirect commands are closely related to purpose clauses: “They urge us (in order) that we conquer. III. learning. hortantur nos ut vincamus. softening the meaning somewhat. rogare). He was ordering us not to leave. Livia demands that the slaves be more careful. orare.

unde. to negate the fear. 96 Morphology and Grammar Review Direct question Indirect question ubi erant? audivit ubi essent. whether. where. V. ut discedat! I am afraid.III. num. it is in fact the outcome of a fairly straightforward linguistic evolu- tion: when the Latin language was in its infancy.3. or ne. when. quandō. If only he would leave! timeo. . to what end. why. He asks how we will return tomorrow. Compare the previous examples. it employs the subjunctive future periphrastic: rogat quomodo cras reventuri simus. to affirm it. CL A U S E S OF F E A R I NG Verbs or phrases expressing fear introduce subjunctive clauses heralded by the conjunction ut. V. how. I am afraid that he is not leaving. quis. quō. it is logical that the objects of one’s fear and one’s wish would be opposites. If an indirect question is emphasizing futurity. quā. utrum. quid. Where were they? He heard where they were. From our perspective. as the language evolved. quārē. quis es? scimus quis sis. why. to where. However counterintuitive the deployment of these conjunctions may seem. I am afraid that he is leaving. this process meant simply the omission of punctuation: timeo ut discedat. quomodo. fear was communicated by means of a declarative sentence followed by an optative subjunc- tive (see 15. when. sentences were simple and consecutive. Who are you? We know who you are. ubi. by what way. see 21. fear was expressed paratactically (parataxis is the absence of grammatical subordination). V. Thus.4. whereby sentences became complex and comprised one or more dependent clauses) replaced parataxis. ne discedat! I am afraid. VI. who.1. hypotaxis (the use of grammatical subordination.IV): timeo. whether. If only he would not leave! Then.2. Indirect questions follow the complete rule for the sequence of tenses. quorsum. The most common interrogative adverbs and pronouns are: cur. utrumne. whether. from where. what. timeo ne discedat.

VI. VII. VI I. or an and operates as a simple indirect question. Again. I was afraid that he had not left. this is called a virtual or implied negative doubt. dubitavit num discederem. utrum. timeo ut discesserit.3 E. He doesn’t doubt (but) that I am departing. He doubted whether/that I was departing. CL A U S E S OF D OU BT I NG VII. To emphasize futurity. I’m not afraid that he isn’t leaving. non (a double negative) instead of ut. especially when the fearing verb is negated: non timeo ne non discedat. VII. Verbs 97 VI. . Fear clauses adhere to the complete rule for the sequence of tenses: see 21. a future periphrastic may occur to emphasize futurity: dubitat num discessurus sim. I am afraid that he has not left.1–16. Affirmed doubt: the subordinate clause is introduced by num. timui ut discessurus esset.2. the future periphrastic is used: timeo ut discessurus sit. the verb dubito means not “doubt” but “hesitate”: dubitat discedere. timeo ut discedat. He doubts whether/that I am departing. There was no doubt (but) that I had departed. 16.2. . Included in expressions of negated doubt are rhetorical questions such as: quis dubitat quin discedam? Who doubts that I am departing? Since the clear implication is that no one doubts that the speaker is departing. I was afraid that he would not leave. non dubium erat quin discessissem.1. I am afraid that he is not leaving.1. He hesitates to depart. I am afraid that he will not leave.III. Negated doubt: quin (but that) introduces the subjunctive clause: non dubitat quin discedam. He doubts whether/that I will depart. timui ut discessisset.1. VII.3. timui ut discederet. Note: when an infinitive follows it. Sometimes a negative clause of fearing uses ne .2.3. VII. I was afraid that he was not leaving.VII. dubitat an discedam.a. .V.4.a. VI.

2. IX. I prohibit you from departing. prohibitus (prohibit). vetitus (forbid) usually set up complementary infinitives: te veto discedere. veniant dum/modo/dummodo ne sint inimici. stand in the way of officio. He will come. the following verbs set up a subjunctive construction: deterreo. obstiti — hinder. . -ari.1. In a type of purpose clause. Affirmed prevention: quominus or ne introduces the subjunctive. CL A U S E S OF PROV I S O The conjunctions dum.” “so long as. obstiti. Tantum ut (negative: tantum ne) is also used in proviso clauses: veniant tantum ne sint inimici. Let them come. offeci. so long as they are not unfriendly. deterritus — deter. tardavi.” or “if only” and are used with present and imperfect subjunctives to express conditional wishes. -ere. so long as we will return tomorrow. The negative used is ne. I prevent you from departing. The verbs prohibeo. I forbid you to depart.1. moratus sum — deter. provided that he has finished his task. VIII. modo. hinder obsisto. IX. interdixi. te prohibeo discedere. -ere. deterrui. -are. 98 Morphology and Grammar Review VI I I. -ire. interdictus — ban moror. prohibui. impeditus — hinder interdico. obstruct IX. vetui.a. and dummodo all mean “provided that. it employs the subjunctive future periphrastic: nunc discedamus dum cras reventuri simus. tardo. Let’s depart now. CL A U S E S OF PR EV E NT I ON IX. -are. I hinder you from departing. so long as they are not unfriendly. Let them come. offectus — hinder. -are. prevent impedio.2. -ēre. veniet dum/modo/dummodo laborem confecerit. If a proviso clause is emphasizing futurity. (te) impedio ne discedas. (te) deterreo quominus discedas. -ere. and veto.2. VIII. tardatus (detain). impedivi (impedii). stand in the way of obsto. -ēre. obstitus — resist.

non deterret quin cras reventuri simus. He is the (actual) person who is departing quickly. I didn’t hinder your departing.c. G E N E R IC R E L AT I V E C L A U S E S (R E L AT I VE C L A U S E S O F   CH A RAC T E R I ST I C ) A form (usually in the nominative) of the relative pronoun (see 7. He is the sort (of man) who departs quickly. He is the (sort of) person to depart quickly.2 E.2. If a prevention clause is emphasizing futurity.1. non deterreo quin discedas. it employs the subjunctive future periphrastic: deterret ne cras reventuri simus. There is no one who did not hear this. 16. In this sentence the relative clause defines something specific. Verbs 99 IX.2. Negated prevention: quominus or quin introduces the subjunctive. He is a person who departs quickly. Quin (= qui ne) commonly introduces negative generic relative clauses: nemo est quin hoc audiverit. The most common introductory phrases for this construction are: sunt/erant qui there are/were those who/to est/erat qui he is/was one/the sort who/to quis est/erit qui? who is there/will there be who/to? quid est/erat quod? what is/was there that/to? solus est/erat qui he is/was the only one who/to nemo est/erit qui there is/will be no one who/to nihil est/erat quod there is/was nothing that/to X. I don’t prevent you from departing. specified group or class to which the antecedent belongs. non impedivi quominus discederes. He deters us from returning tomorrow. est homo qui cito discedat.V) introduces certain dependent subjunctive clauses.VIII–16. IX. Notice that the person is described in terms of his relation to a broader group. He isn’t deterring us from returning tomorrow. of which he is a member.X. Contrast: est homo qui cito discedit.2. These clauses describe their antecedent in some indefinite property or characteristic relative to a larger. X. . X. not generic.b.

If a generic clause is emphasizing futurity. used in a simple relative clause that expects an indicative. Nega- tion is with non unless the grammar requires a different negative. If the sentence had read effūgerant (indicative) instead of effūgissent (subjunctive). has been attracted into the subjunctive because of the proximity of the subjunctive puniremus. This use of the subjunctive follows good language logic. even though its grammar ordinarily calls for an indicative. “viri pugnant quod sunt irati. S U B O R DI N AT E C L A U S E S I N I N DI R E C T STAT E M E N TS When a subordinate clause is found in an indirect statement. We are the only ones of the sort to return tomorrow. puniremus. X I I. S U B J U NC T I VE BY AT TRAC T I ON Sometimes when a verb occurs in close context with a subjunctive verb. its verb is typically in the sub- junctive mood. We came in order to punish the prisoners who had fled.3. inasmuch as the claim of the sub- ordinate clause (about the men’s anger) is only assumed or alleged—not affirmed as fact. it is attracted into the subjunctive.” INDIRECT STATEMENT Main clause Principal clause Subordinate clause dicit viros pugnare quod sint irati. it would have been both grammatically correct and translated in the same way. X I. effūgissent. it employs the subjunctive future periphrastic: nos soli sumus qui cras reventuri simus. . He says that the men are fighting because they are angry. DIRECT STATEMENT Main clause Principal clause Subordinate clause dicit. In this sentence. 100 Morphology and Grammar Review X. qui effūgissent. “The men are fighting because they are angry. The tense of the subjunctive is determined by the tense of the verb of the main clause and follows the complete rule for the sequence of tenses (see section 21). For example: vēnimus ut captivos.” He says. He said that the men were fighting because they were angry. dixit viros pugnare quod essent irati.

d E.2. Conjunctions used only with the subjunctive in conformity with the rules for the sequence of subjunctive tenses (see section 21) XIII. even though XIII. although quamquam — although tametsi — even if. just as praeut — as compared with prout — according as.XIII.X.1. Causal: quandō — since quoniam — since. 16.c. so as. while XIII. while ut — when.2. W IT H VA R I OU S CON J U NC T I ON S XIII. Verbs 101 X I I I. just as .a. Concessive: etiamsi — even if etsi — even if. even as. Comparative: quasi — as if tamquam — as if velut or veluti — as if XIII.b.2. Temporal: cum primum — as soon as postquam — after quandō — when simul ac or simulac — as soon as simul atque or simulatque — as soon as ubi — when.3–16. Comparative: ceu — like as. Concessive: quamvis — although XIII.2. just as sı̄cut or sı̄cuti — just as ut or uti — as. Conjunctions usually used with the indicative XIII.2. because XIII.1. as.a. just as velut or veluti — as.2. after.1.d.b.

Note: The sentence does not indicate whether he did in fact come. I waited for you to speak.A.a.1.a. Certain conjunctions take either the indicative or the subjunctive depending largely on the implication of the sentence.i.i.3. it employs the subjunctive future periphrastic.3. while XIII. as long as. purpose. While I had my shop. XIII. The subjunctive mood is used with these conjunctions to express the notion of intent. XIII. 102 Morphology and Grammar Review XIII. as long as. Temporal XIII. XIII.a. I waited until he should come. exspectavi dum/donec/quoad locutus es.3.i.a. He remains until we (actually) leave. exspectavi dum/donec/quoad locutus esses. XIII. is typically employed with dum even when a continued past action is being indicated: dum tabernam habeo. I waited until you should speak. donec — until.ii.a.ii. as long as. while dum — until.3. When the subordinate clause refers simply to a particular time. manebat dum/donec/quoad cupiebat. or assumption: exspectavi dum/donec/quoad veniret.3.A.3. Remember: indicative is the mood of fact.3.B.a. while subjunctive is the mood of probability. If a subjunctive clause is emphasizing futurity. in the indicative. He was staying as long as he wanted. intention. The indicative mood is used with these whenever they refer to spe- cific times: . or assumption.a. while quamdiu — as long as quoad — until. I waited for him to come.A. I waited while/until you spoke. antequam — before priusquam — before XIII. it uses the indicative: manet dum/donec/quoad discedimus.3. uxor mortua est. The so-called historical present. my wife died.i.

3. In a rhetorical figure called tmesis.XIII.III.B.ii.I. I left before [literally. sooner than] he could come. exspecto quia/quippe qui/ quod veniat.C.3. since quippe (qui) — because quod — because. the present subjunctive): discedam priusquam/antequam vēnerit.a. I will leave before he will have come. that XIII. I will leave before he comes.3–16. if the conjunction in- volves or implies some intent. . XIII. the subjunctive mood is employed: discessi priusquam/antequam veniret. In secondary sequence (see section 21).2. XIV.i. Causal: quia — because.1. When the causal clause is factual.3.ii. 16. I’m waiting because he is (actually) coming. assumption. XIV.b. S U B J U NC T I VE I N CON D I T I ON A L S E N T E N C E S Certain types of conditional sentences use the subjunctive mood.XIV. I left before he came. Future-less-vivid conditions: see 18. Conditions in subordinate clauses: see 18. XIII.3. alleged.a.3. XIV.ii. or intended. X IV. Contrary-to-fact conditions: see 18.a. I left before he might/could come. or purpose. I’m waiting because he is (allegedly) coming/because he might/could come. XIII.D. Primary sequence (see section 21) typically employs the present or future perfect indicative (less often. XIII.3 E.3.I. when assumed. discedam priusquam venit/veniat.3. the conjunctions antequam and priusquam are often split: ante/prius discessi quam veniret.2. it uses the indicative. Verbs 103 discessi priusquam/antequam vēnit.b.b. since. it uses the subjunctive: exspecto quia/quippe qui/ quod venit.

utilis. He came to fight. This book is about speaking well. I’m in charge of fighting. facilis. haec amphora est facilis portatū. dignus.. and it occurs only in the accusative. hic liber est de bene loquendo. it occurs only in the accusative and abla- tive singular and is formed from the 4th principal part. praesum pugnando. He dreamed during sleeping. hic est liber de loquendo. SUPINE The supine is a verbal noun of the 4th declension.g. dative. iucundus. genitive. In translation. it corresponds to the English gerund ending in -ing.1.10). milites salutatum appropinquavit. He approached to greet the soldiers. and ablative cases. Gerundives. Supines. labor est pars discendi linguam. .V. I. difficilis. optimus) as an ablative of respect (see 3. The ablative supine is used with certain adjectives (e. and Periphrastics I. I I.2. The accusative supine is employed without a preposition after verbs of motion to express the purpose or end of that motion: vēnit pugnatum. mirabilis. This is a book about speaking.1. Work is part of learning. the supines of portare are: portatum (accusative) portatū (ablative) I. II. G E RU N D The gerund is a neuter singular verbal noun of the 2nd declension. in- dignus. honestus. turpis. incredibilis. labor est pars discendi. it is identical to the neuter singular of the gerundive. In form. For example. The gerunds of portare are: portandi (genitive) — of carrying portando (dative) — to/for carrying portandum (accusative) — carrying portando (ablative) — by/with/in carrying inter dormiendum somniabat. The gerund may exhibit its verbal quality by taking an object or by being modified by an adverb. gravis. 104 Morphology and Grammar Review 17. Work is part of learning a language. Gerunds. This wine jar is easy to carry.

vivendum erat. It was necessary to live.1. rex capiendus est. The king should be captured. villa videnda est. number. The house ought to be seen. use the auxiliaries must. urbes occupandae erunt. With an intransitive verb: the gerundive is in the neuter nominative singular. 17. G E RU N D I VE The gerundive is a verbal adjective (namely. The passive peri- phrastic consists of a gerundive (the future passive participle) and a form of to be. It will be necessary to come. and gender. Gerundive: vicit populum agris vastandis. obligation. servus interficiendus erit. It will be necessary to sleep. the future passive participle). work is part of a language to be learned) Gerund: vicit populum vastando agros. The cities will have to be seized. It is necessary to fight. The wine jar had to be carried. dormiendum erit. It was necessary to run. The slave will need to be killed. Gerund: labor est pars discendi linguam. amphora portanda erat. The thieves had to be punished. IV. Gerundive: labor est pars linguae discendae. PA S S IVE PE R I PH RA ST I C In Latin grammar. milites mittendi sunt. .2. should. pugnandum est. The soldiers must be sent. A gerundive phrase is often preferred to having the gerund take a direct object. IV. or anything expressing duty. (literally. or necessity. To trans- late a passive periphrastic.I–17. ought.2 E. he conquered the people by means of the fields to be devastated) IV. veniendum erit. It is necessary to flee. currendum erat. Verbs 105 I I I. periphrasis is the use of the verb to be as an auxiliary. With a transitive verb: the gerundive agrees with the subject in case. effugiendum est. (literally.IV. fures puniendi erant.

G E RU N DS A N D G E RU N D I V E S U S E D TO E XP R E S S P U R P OS E V. 106 Morphology and Grammar Review IV. urbem occupaturi fuerant. In ad + accusative: vēnit ad pugnandum.” effugituri sunt.1. V. He approached to greet the soldiers.3. VI.6). Translate future periphrastics with auxiliaries such as “going to. salutandi [gerund] milites causā/gratiā appropinquavit. The soldiers must be sent by the legate. . It was necessary for us to flee. V I. He is about to fight. You ought to see the house.” “about to. He departed to sleep. Since there is no future tense in the subjunctive mood. In the genitive followed by causā or gratiā (for the sake of): dormiendi causā/gratiā discessit.III. You should live. amphorae servis portandae sunt. future periphrastics using subjunctives of the verb to be are common for expressing futurity. They are going to flee. The dative of agent is used only with passive periphrastics (see 3. The gladiator will have to fight. ad salutandum [gerund] milites appropinquavit. He came to fight. She was on the point of sleeping. They had been about to seize the city. FUT U R E PE R I PH RA ST I C To express a verbal idea intermediate between the present and the future. pugnandum gladiatori erit. milites legato mittendi sunt. or militum salutandorum [gerundive] causā/gratiā appropinquavit. which consists of the future active participle and a form of the verb to be (the present and imperfect tenses are the most common).” or “on the point of.2. pugnaturus est. or ad milites salutandos [gerundive] appropinquavit. villa vobis videnda est. visurae eramus. He approached to greet the soldiers. dormitura erat. We were about to see. Latin employs a future periphrastic. V. vivendum tibi est. Wine jars should be carried by slaves.1. effugiendum nobis erat.

. the likelihood of whether they will be fulfilled. I. felix erit. were to . . Latin formula: present subjunctive in both clauses. Latin formula: indicative in both clauses.2. si (if) or nisi/ si non (if not. Conditional Sentences The sentence “If he works. . . felix erit. I. In Latin.2. and each is constructed according to a specific formula. the apodosis is future tense. . while in the future. Simple (or general) conditions Present: If (i. whenever) he worked. I. . he would be happy. . he works (will have worked) will he be happy. then .I. Verbs 107 18. he will be happy. would . si laborabit.a.e.2. then . English formula: the protasis is usually present tense. . .. English formula: If . . . If. It consists of two clauses: the if clause (called the protasis) and the concluding clause (called the apodosis). Or: If . .1. .IV.3–18.2. felix est. . unless) introduces the protasis. si laborat. or less certain of being fulfilled.. the protasis may use a future perfect indicative: si laboraverit. 17.a. Past: If (i. I. . whenever) he works. . would . If the nature of the condition is exceptionally emphatic. . There are three basic categories of conditional sentences in Latin. Future conditions are defined in terms of vividness. should . is conceived of as distinctly less vivid. .b E. that is. felix erat. he was happy. . Less vivid: If he should work. I.b. and only if. si laborabat.2. I. Latin formula: future indicative in both clauses. he is happy. More vivid: If he works. . Note that the condition. .e. he is happy” is conditional.i.

then . . For example: If he had (in the past) worked (but he did not). . Contrary-to-fact (contrafactual) conditions state something that is untrue and only supposed. of the protasis) is regarded as completed before that of the apodosis begins: si laboraverit. the protasis sometimes uses the per- fect instead of the present subjunctive. Note: For future-less-vivid conditions. It occurs when the act of the condition (i. Past contrary to fact: If he had (in the past) worked (but he did not). .. I. were ___ing. Latin formula: imperfect subjunctive in both clauses. then .3.3. he would have been happy. he would (now) be happy. felix fuisset. si laboravisset. had ___ed. . one frequently finds mixed conditions. . . Mixed conditions In addition to the strict formulae given above. I. . but the apodosis refers to the present time. while the verb of the apodosis will be imperfect subjunctive: si laboravisset.b.e. . I. . English formula: If . Latin formula: pluperfect subjunctive in both clauses. I.4. . . felix esset. English formula: If . Such conditions are constructed as logi- cal thought and grammatical rules require. The protasis is past contrafactual. . would . Present contrary to fact: If he were (now) working (but he is not). . he would be happy (today).a. but this is rare. felix esset.b. If he should have worked (yesterday). he would be happy. felix sit. If he should/were to work. . Consequently. si laboraret.2. with the protasis and the apodosis in different categories. felix sit. in Latin the protasis must have its verb in the plu- perfect subjunctive. .i. would have ___ed . 108 Morphology and Grammar Review si laboret.3. he would be happy. I.

we’ve also seen that in complex sentences using a subjunctive verb. the three basic categories of conditionals are only partially preserved when used in subordination: The distinction between future less vivid and future more vivid is lost. then.2. that conditions expressed within subordination rely on the subjunctive mood.I. For the protasis... Indicative Perf. but in other forms of subordination they are not always distinguishable by form. II. the apodosis will be cast as subjunctive. since all four tenses of the subjunctive are also employed for simple or general conditions. Perf. As expected.XI).III E.. Indicative Future Indicative more vivid Perf..b. Moreover.3. but the present (or perfect) subjunctive may be used for future conditions. Future Future Future/Fut. II. either the imperfect or the perfect tense is the norm.Present Imperfect Subjunctive Imperfect Subjunctive to-fact ——————————————————————————————— Past Pluperfect Subjunctive Pluperfect Subjunctive I I I. The tense of the subjunctive may appear to violate the rule for the sequence of tenses (see section 21). Simple/ Present Present Indicative Present Indicative General ——————————————————————————————— Past Imperf.1. for instance. Contrary. Contrary-to-fact conditions in indirect statement are distinguishable from other types of conditions by the use of the future active participle plus the word fuisse in the apodosis. and in a fearing or a doubting construction.a. The apodosis of the condition follows the grammar established by the type of subordina- tion. It should come as no sur- prise. the apodosis will be cast as an infinitive. Plupf. TA B LE OF CON D I T I ON A LS TYPE TIME PROTASIS APODOSIS Tense Mood Tense Mood II.2. in an indirect statement. Indicative Imperf.b. an- other verb may be “attracted” into the subjunctive (see 16. present contrary- to-fact uses imperfect subjunctive. 18. Plupf. CO N DI T I ON S I N S U BO R D I N AT E C L A U S E S We’ve learned that subordinate clauses in indirect statements typically have subjunctive verbs (see 16. Verbs 109 I I. while past contrary-to-fact uses pluperfect subjunctive.i–18.2. Future Future Present Subjunctive Present Subjunctive less vivid (Perfect) II. .XII).

The present imperative occurs in the 2nd person. except in the latter’s 2nd person passive.1.1. Most commands in Latin are expressed with the imperative mood. singular and plural. singular and plural. 3rd conjugation singular gere gerere plural gerite gerimini I. 2nd conjugation singular monē monēre plural monete monemini I. 1st conjugation singular nega negare plural negate negamini I.3. 3rd conjugation -io singular pare parere plural parite parimini II. 1st conjugation 2nd singular negato negator 2nd plural negatote —— 3rd singular negato negator 3rd plural neganto negantor II.2. 3rd conjugation 2nd singular gerito geritor 2nd plural geritote —— . Commands I. 110 Morphology and Grammar Review 19. Active Passive II.4.5.2. 2nd conjugation 2nd singular moneto monetor 2nd plural monetote —— 3rd singular moneto monetor 3rd plural monento monentor II.3. 4th conjugation singular sci scire plural scite scimini I. It occurs in the 2nd and 3rd persons. Active Passive I. Older Latin literature and legal writers occasionally employ a future imperative.

4.c. eo.b.6. 3rd conjugation -io 2nd singular parito paritor 2nd plural paritote —— 3rd singular parito paritor 3rd plural pariunto pariuntor II.6.d. 19.5.a. ire 2nd singular ito —— 2nd plural itote —— 3rd singular ito —— 3rd plural eunto —— II. sum.6.6.I–19. Irregulars II.6.d E. fero. nolle 2nd singular nolito —— 2nd plural nolitote —— 3rd singular nolito 3rd plural nolunto II.II. nolo. esse 2nd singular esto —— 2nd plural estote —— 3rd singular esto —— 3rd plural sunto —— II. 4th conjugation 2nd singular scito scitor 2nd plural scitote —— 3rd singular scito scitor 3rd plural sciunto sciuntor II. ferre 2nd singular ferto fertor 2nd plural fertote —— 3rd singular ferto fertor 3rd plural ferunto feruntor .6. Verbs 111 3rd singular gerito geritor 3rd plural gerunto geruntor II.

Jussive or hortatory subjunctives (see 15. or opta- tive subjunctives (see 15. a simple future can sometimes have the force of a command. however. a future imperative can be adequately translated as if it were a present im- perative. Just as in English. the easiest transla- tion employs the 3rd person jussive. Since English is largely unfamiliar with 3rd person imperatives.I). hoc temptaveris! You will try this! . .” II. A future perfect can be used in this context for emphasis. . hoc temptabis! You will try this! V. hoc temptes! You might try this! ne illud faciatis! If only you wouldn’t do that! V. Typically.7.1. you can add the phrase “in the future” or “for the future.1.8. if. Ne usually negates future imperatives.IV) express polite commands. nolite me sequi! Don’t (you [plural]) follow me! noli nos odisse! Don’t (you [singular]) hate us! III.II). 112 Morphology and Grammar Review II. !” copias dimittito! Let/Have him dismiss the troops [for the future]! III. Negative commands (or prohibitions) are most commonly expressed with noli (singu- lar) or nolite (plural) plus an infinitive. “Let/Have him/her/it/them . potential subjunctives (see 15. copias ne dimittito! Let him not dismiss the troops! IV. the futurity of the command is being emphasized.

Miscellaneous Verb Information I.are often shortened by dropping these elements: portasti for portavisti portarunt for portaverunt portarim for portaverim audisse for audivisse audissem for audivissem flerunt for fleverunt flessem for flevissem laudarat for laudaverat etc.VI. SY N COPAT E D (S HO RT E N E D ) V E R B FO R MS I. 19.3.7–20. which tend to highlight the specific action of the verb rather than its agent(s): . Passive 2nd person singular in the present system (see 9. T H E H I STO R I C A L I N F I N I T I VE Finite verbs in the perfect or imperfect tense are sometimes replaced in passages of historical narrative by present infinitives. perfect active indicative The usual form is -erunt.3) The usual personal ending is -ris.3) Forms of the perfect active system with -vi. but -re frequently occurs instead: portare for portaris portabare for portabaris capere for caperis capiere for capieris ducēre for ducēris ducare for ducaris etc. Perfect active system (see 9.1.VI. but in poetry and high prose style.II. -ēre often occurs instead: portavēre for portaverunt dixēre for dixerunt etc.2. I I. 3rd person plural. I.or -ve.II E. I. Verbs 113 20.

I I I.4. Neuter adjectives with the verb to be and infinitives: facile est dormire. it was fought curritur — there is (a) running ventum est — there was a coming . It will be convenient to sleep. . The subject of a historical infinitive.1. III. commodum erit dormire. It is resolved/decided . spoliari. . -are. . for the most part. -ere — it grows late III. It is necessary . -are — it dews tonat. necesse est . it is fought pugnatum est — there was fighting. pluit — it rains rorat. Operations of nature and time of day: fulgurat.1. . . Men fought hand to hand. . It will be necessary for us to come. It is necessary to run. . effugiendum erat. no subject): pugnatur — there is fighting. -ere. -ere. . simple and familiar. I M P E R SON A L CON STRU C T I ON S Such constructions are numerous and varied. viri comminus pugnare. -are — it hails lucescit or luciscit. The passive of intransitive verbs (3rd person singular. 114 Morphology and Grammar Review in regionibus provinciae tumultuari. It is proper . The passive periphrastic of intransitive verbs (see 17. ninguit — it snows pluit. . . II. tonuit — it thunders vesperascit. comminus pugnare. . decorum est . In the regions of the province. -ere — it gets light ningit. It is easy to sleep. there was rioting. III. there was looting. is in the nominative case. and there was hand-to-hand fighting.3. . It was difficult to sleep. -are — there is lightning grandinat.IV. veniendum nobis erit. Their grammar is. It was necessary to flee. as different from all other infinitives. difficile erat dormire. certum est . III.2.2): currendum est.

sympathize with paenitet. -ēre. This disgusted us. constitit — it is decided.1–20. With accusative and infinitive constat. me paenitet quod eum necavi.” “it is in the interest of. This is in the interest of the king. or by an infinitive serving as the grammatical subject of the verb: hoc nos piguit. cenare me taedet. Other impersonals III. piguit — disgust.III. puduit or puditum est — shame taedet. III. It is in your interest that you fight.6. The use of the ablative adjectives with interest is due to analogy with rēfert. It is in the interest of the king to fight.7. It is in our interest to fight.7. We pity this misfortune. Verbs of feeling: miseret. vestrā.a. annoy pudet. The person or thing prompting the feeling of these impersonal verbs is placed in the genitive case. The man was ashamed of his crime. Dining bores me. it is agreed decet. Interest and rēfert The impersonals interest and rēfert both mean “it concerns. an ut clause. The adjectives are in fact agreeing with the noun rē. by a quod causal clause (see 16. -ēre. taedetne te laboris? Are you bored of work? pudebat virum sceleris. III. -ēre. Verbs 115 III. bore III. hoc regis interest/rēfert.7.5. it is fitting .” “it is of interest to. tuā.a.5. the first element in the word rēfert. regret piget. it is known. This is in my interest. regis interest/rēfert pugnare. miseret nos huius casūs.a E.II.b). -ēre. or a demonstrative pronoun in the neuter singular to indicate the thing that is of interest or concern. paenituit — repent. However. in place of personal pronouns. In lieu of a genitive. miseruit — pity.b. III.5. taeduit or taesum est — weary. the cause or origin of the feeling is sometimes expressed by a neuter pronoun.3. decuit — it is becoming.” They are both construed with the genitive of the person concerned and an infini- tive. nostrā interest/rēfert pugnare. 20. -ēre.6. hoc meā interest/rēfert. regis interest/rēfert ut pugnas. -ēre. it is proper. I repent for killing him. -are. tuā interest/rēfert ut pugnas. the following adjectival forms in the ablative case are used: meā.a. suā. III. while the person affected goes into the accusative case. nostrā.XIII. It is in the interest of the king that you fight.

vacavit — there is time. contigit — it happens that. -ēre.7. IV. oportuit — it is necessary. 116 Morphology and Grammar Review iuvat. -ēre. dare. it is better oportet eum venire. It happens that we are leaving. it is the case that constat contingit. it is desirable licet placet superest. praestitit — it is preferable. licebat ut (is) veniret. esse. it is proper placet. It is necessary for him to come. dicere. praestat eum venire. and loqui. -ēre. . It turns out that we are not leaving. licebat ei venire. With subjunctive clause introduced by ut (or ne for negation) accidit contingit evenit. Ellipsis can occur with verbs as well as with nouns (see 3. licebat eum venire. facere. The verbs whose forms are most often omitted are agere. it turns out licet restat. it comes about. there is the opportunity superest mihi Italiam vincere. It was permitted for him to come. It remains for me to conquer Italy. -ere. With dative and infinitive accidit. -esse. It remains for me to conquer Italy. restitit — it remains. it is left superest evenit ne (nos) discedamus. II. -are. III. it is pleasing praestat.b. -are. iuvit — it benefits. -are.7. superest ut (ego) Italiam vincam. -ēre. -ire. placuit or placitum est — it pleases. accidit nobis discedere. superfuit — it remains vacat.X). It is better for him to come. evēnit — it happens. it delights licet.c. libuit or libitum est — it pleases. accidit — it happens that. it turns out that libet (or lubet). -are. licuit or licitum est — it is permitted oportet. It was permitted for him to come. -ere. It was permitted for him to come.

The following table illustrates the sequence of tenses in independent uses of the subjunctive: Subjunctive Present or Future Time Past Time Jussive or hortatory Present tense amet!  Let him love! ametur!  Let him be loved! Deliberative Present tense Imperfect tense quem amet? quem amaret? Whom is he to love? Whom was he to love? Whom should he love? Whom should he have loved? quis ametur? quis ameretur? Who is to be loved? Who was to be loved? Who should be loved? Who should have been loved? Optative —Factual Present tense utinam amet. II. utinam amavisset. For all participial phrases. a future participle describes an action subsequent to that of the main verb. A present participle signifies an action roughly contemporaneous with that of the main verb. the tense of the participle relates to the tense of the main verb. For simple nonindicative sentences that are not questions or statements of fact.7. utinam ametur. . including ablative absolutes (see section 13). (but he didn’t). II. —Contrafactual Imperfect tense Pluperfect tense utinam amaret. Verbs 117 21.II. Complete Rule for the Sequence of Tenses I. and a perfect participle defines action prior to that of the main verb.1 E. Latin uses the four tenses of the subjunctive plus the subjunctive of future periphrastics (see 17.b–21. If only he would love. If only he were loving If only he had loved (but he isn’t).1.1) to establish distinctions of time and vividness (see 18.II.2).I.VI. 20. If only he’d be loved.

2. In the second case. three tenses of the infinitive are available to address the three different time distinctions (see section 14). He would (could. Potential Present tense Imperfect tense eam amet. The following table il- lustrates the use of tenses in indirect statements: .1. perfect. He would never love her. III. perfect. III.” is a primary tense. “___ed” or “did ___ . The primary tenses are present. the aoristic perfect. utinam amatus esset. The actions of subordinate verbs can occur roughly contemporaneously with. (but he wasn’t). prior to. pluperfect. If only he were being If only he had been loved loved (but he isn’t). The perfective perfect. He would never be loved.1. sometimes.” is a secondary tense. might) have love her. been loved. amaretur. He would (could. might) He would (could. making the syntax quite straightforward (see section 18). might) be He would (could. “have/has ___ed. Latin has three main types of complex sentences: conditional sentences. The secondary tenses are imperfect.3. syntax and morphology will reflect these three distinctions. eam amaret. conditional sentences. or subsequent to the main verb. loved her. 118 Morphology and Grammar Review utinam amaretur. and sentences requiring the dependent uses of the subjunctive. indirect statements. indirect statements. In the first case. might) have loved. III. Note that the perfect subjunctive may be used instead of a present subjunctive to express an emphatic idea of potential: eam non amaverit. sometimes. II. In complex sentences. non amatus sit. The verb of the main clause is said to be in either a primary tense or a secondary tense. it is necessary both logically and semantically to establish the rela- tive times of the main verb and the subordinate verb(s). future. ametur. the protasis is always prior in time to the apodosis. and. future perfect. and.a. III.

. (eum amatum iri. eum amare. eum amavisse.b. future perfect.3. eum amari. that he was loved. eum amavisse. etc.a–21. eum amatum esse. . that he would love. I know . that he would be that he had been loved. III.III. .1. Verbs 119 Main verb Contemporary action Subsequent action Prior action Present infinitive and Future infinitive and Perfect infinitive and subjective accusative subjective accusative subjective accusative Primary tenses scio . that he loved. sit. Secondary tenses scivi . . Note that the use of the future passive infinitive is quite rare. a future periphrastic with sim.a. eum amari.4 E. III.II.) loved. contemporary with or later or perfective perfect than the action of the main verb Perfect: if the action is prior to the action of the main verb Secondary: imperfect.) that he was loved. esset. eum amatum esse. eum amare. aoristic Imperfect: if the action is contemporary perfect. . that he loved. I knew . or essem. (for primary sequence). Present: if the action is future. . Note also that the ellipsis of esse in the perfect passive and future active parti- ciples is very common. the four tenses of the subjunctive plus the subjunctive of future periphrastics (see section 16) can accommodate distinc- tions of time (and vividness). that he is loved. sis. . that he had loved.3. . etc. or pluperfect with or later than the action of the main verb Pluperfect: if the action is prior to the action of the main verb If the subsequence of the subordinate verb is to be emphasized. that he will love. In the case of dependent uses of the subjunctive. III. The basic scheme is as follows: Tense of main verb Tense of subjunctive Primary: present. eum amaturum esse. 21. eum amaturum esse. that he loves. (secondary). . is used. that he will be loved. esses. (eum amatum iri.4.

he loves. . .VIII). loved. amaturus sit. he would love. . would love. rogo eum ut . he has loved. Periphrastic Plupf. I ask him . . he will love. .VI). doubt- ing clauses (16. will love. . . I'm happy so long as . he loves. . He’s the sort who . he loved. see the follow- ing table: Primary Tenses Present Subjunctive Present Periphrastic est tam bonus ut . Subjunctive eram laetus cum . amavisset. he will love. . . I am happy since / I am happy although . amaverit.V). and characteristic clauses (16. amaret. .IX). I come to him . 120 Morphology and Grammar Review III. purpose clauses (16. I was happy since . to love. . amaturus sit. indirect commands (16. amet. amaturus sit. . Subjunctive Imperf.I). . (may) love. he had loved. Secondary Tenses Imperf. . and clauses of prevention (16. amet. amaverit. . I ask whether . . amaverit. sum laetus dum . . rogavi num . he was loving. he would love. . he will love. . . III. to love in the future.VII). .4. has loved. indirect questions (16. . . .III). amaturus sit. he loves. amaturus sit. . . .II). . is erat qui .X). . loves. He is so good . . amaturus esset. He was the sort who . . . see the following table: Primary Tenses Present Subjunctive Present Periphrastic Perfect Subjunctive sum laetus cum . For causal and concessive cum clauses (16. . that he will love. that he loves. amet. I asked whether . amavisset.IV). he had loved.a. amaturus esset. he loved. amet. .b. amaret. I doubted that . clauses of fearing (16. amaret. . . amaturus esset. amaturus esset. he had loved. amaverit. he was loving. amaturus sit. he would love. amaret. eram laetus dum . . is est qui .4. amaverit. . amet. had loved. . . amaturus sit. . he was loving. he had loved. dubito an . amaret. . in order that he in order that he will love. amavisset. . he loves. he has loved. amet. venio ad eum ut . . . amaturus sit. . I was happy so long as . . / I was happy although . . rogo num . clauses of proviso (16. dubitavi an . . . I doubt that . amavisset. amavisset. amet. . amet. he will love. amaturus esset. . he has loved. . . For result clauses (16. he would love.

amet.* amaturus esset. . Present Periphr. loving. rogavi eum ut . I asked him . . . . I hinder him from . he wouldn’t love. futurus esset malus. obstiti ne . that he loved. amaturus esset. I’m afraid that . III.i. . . . esset malus. he didn’t love. He was so good . . would love.III. . . . amaret. fuerit malus. I hindered him from .4. . vēni ad eum ut . . . III. loving. . result clauses may have a perfect subjunctive emphasizing the perfectiveness of the action. .4. amaturus esset. amaturus sit. Periphr. . sit malus. he won’t love. Subj. obsto ne .a–21. Subj. in order that he in order that he (might) love. He was so good that he has loved. . . amaturus sit. amet. . . For subordinate clauses in indirect statement (16. . .4. timebam ut . Secondary Tenses Imperfect Subjunctive Imperfect Periphrastic erat tam bonus ut . . he would be evil. 21. .b.4. Plupf. he was evil. negavi eum amare quod . he is evil.c.XI). . amaret. erat tam bonus ut amaverit. Imperf. . . he had been evil. . he was evil. I came to him . ego eum amare quod . futurus sit malus. . . amaret. to love. . amet. . to love in the future. I denied that he loved because . . amaret. loving in the future. I deny that he loves because . loving in the future. I was afraid that . he doesn’t love. . Perfect Subj. . *Note that after secondary tense verbs. amaturus esset. he will be evil. . amaturus esset.c E. fuisset malus. see the following table: Primary Tenses Present Subj.III. Secondary Tenses Imperf. that he would love. Verbs 121 timeo ut .

amaverit. see the following table: Primary Tenses Present Subj.d. he may love in he may have the future. eram laetus quia .1 and 16. . amaverit. he has loved. amaret. . . amaturus esset. I was happy because . he loves. . amaturus sit. sum laetus quasi . . For subjunctives used with other causal. . he loved.XIII. eram laetus donec . he might love. . he loved. . . Subj. I was happy although . sum laetus amet. amaret. he loves. antequam . . amavisset. amaturus sit. Subj. . . I am happy as if . amet. loved. sum laetus quia . . eram laetus amaret. he might love in he might have the future. . he will love. and tempo- ral conjunctions (16. I am happy while . Imperf. eram laetus quasi . amavisset. he might love. amavisset. he may love. amaturus sit. . . Periphrastic Plupf. loved. . . he would love. he has loved. . . he will love. he had loved. he might love in he might have the future. . . he will love. concessive. he had loved. amaturus sit. he would love. I was happy before . amaverit. . amaturus esset. . I am happy before . . . . I am happy because . amaturus esset. amet. amaret. . amaturus sit.4. . amavisset. Secondary Tenses Imperf. loved. I am happy although . amet. amaturus esset. Present Periphrastic Perfect Subjunctive sum laetus quamvis . amaverit. . . . amaturus esset. amavisset. he had loved. he may love. comparative. amet. he would love. . sum laetus donec . . . quamvis . he may love in he may have the future.3). loved. antequam . eram laetus amaret. 122 Morphology and Grammar Review III. . . .XIII. amaverit. I was happy as if . he loves. he has loved. . I was happy while . he loved. . .

1. Subordinate clause variety non. present or future indicative 16.4. ne.b. Result ut non subjunctive 16.I.IX.V.a.I. Cum causal cum non subjunctive 16. obsto. . past subjunctive b.I. quin subjunctive in indirect statement 16.2. veto 16.II. Verbs 123 22. —— non infinitive prohibeo.VII.III.IX. Cum circumstantial cum non a. Cum concessive cum non subjunctive 16. With conjunctions 16. Comparative quō ne subjunctive 16. Negated —— quin subjunctive 16.I.2. non subjunctive tamquam. obsisto.1.c.2. unde ne subjunctive 16. ne. Attraction variety non. Fearing ne ut.III. utrum.XII.III.1. Indirect command ut ne subjunctive 16.d–22 E. impedio. quin non subjunctive verbs negated 16. ne subjunctive dummodo 16. 21.IV. With the same quominus.I. Cum temporal cum non indicative 16.5. Adverbial quō.IX. Affirmed num.2.b.XI. Relative relatives ne subjunctive 16. ne non subjunctive deterreo. Indirect statement —— non infinitive 16.VIII. Cum generalizing cum non indicative 16. quamvis.III.XIII.VII. ubi. an —— subjunctive 16.VI. Doubting 16. Interdico.1.III.XIII. ne.1. Overview of Dependent Clauses Type of dependent clause Conjunction or Mood or (keyed to section) equivalent Negation equivalent 14.4. moror. Proviso dum. With quominus. ne non subjunctive 16. tardo. ne subjunctive 16. quin subjunctive 16.a.2.I.3. officio affirmed 16.VII. Generic relative relatives quin. modo.2.IX.X. Prevention 16. Purpose ut ne subjunctive 16. Indirect question interrogatives non subjunctive 16.2.

when).b.1. praeut. tametsi.2. si non subjunctive clauses 20. si non subjunctive vivid 18. quippe (qui) 18. si non indicative 18. quamquam.2. With impersonals —— non infinitive quod non indicative ut ne subjunctive . simul atque or simulatque. dum. quandō. velut or veluti 16.5–7. Contrafactual si nisi. quod. quoniam.I. etiamsi.I.III. Simple/general si nisi. simul ac or simulac.3.XIII. ut or uti non indicative (as. indicative quoad. postquam. antequam. cum primum.3. si non subjunctive 18. Conditions 18. Future more si nisi. Future less si nisi. In subordinate si nisi.a.I. velut or veluti.III. ne. quia. ceu 16.I. or quamdiu.I.XIII. 124 Morphology and Grammar Review Type of dependent clause Conjunction or Mood or (keyed to section) equivalent Negation equivalent quasi. non subjunctive donec. si non indicative vivid 18. sı̄cut or sı̄cuti.2. prout. ubi. priusquam. etsi.

Pa rt I I Exercises .

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cras nos ab exploratoribus inveniemur. hodie vos vincemus. 14. 24. victima sacrificatur. 15. noli effugere! hic canis te capiet. 4. 21. vos punimini a me quod a vobis verberabar. 11. tu a militibus audiebaris quod tu putaris esse callidus. noli effugere! tu capieris. Passive Voice 1. 16. parate hoc cubiculum nunc! 12. 20. 6. nos multa de illā tragoediā dicimus. 2. 3. ego hos gladios retinebo. 25. 23. 10. olim ego hanc puellam amavi. diu nos tenebamur captivi. hoc cubiculum heri parabatur. diu hostis nos tenebat captivos. turba e viā emovetur. 26. 22. A. 5. 19. hodie nos vincemur. 18. milites turbam e viā emovent. cras exploratores nos invenient. heri nos vos vicimus. multa de illā tragoediā dicuntur. olim haec puella a me amata est. tune cupis vitam longam aut pecuniam magnam? 8. hi gladii retinebuntur. vita longa ab hominum pluribus cupitur. 17. milites te audiebant quod putant te esse callidum. 13. . sacerdos victimam sacrificat. heri nos a vobis victi sumus. ego vos punio quod me verberabatis. 7. 9.

exite ex hac officinā aut verberamini his fustibus!” B. 41. regna! cives. sacerdotes mihi dixerunt. noli decipi! 39. 36. 46. “Arruns. 28. 34. omnibus perditis. parentes mei dicunt uxorem me relicturam esse. 29. . nos ab iuvene vituperati sumus quod pater eius necatus erat. 47. regnamini! imperatores. mater. 42. iuvenis nos vituperavit quod patrem necaveramus. 43. milites te non exspectaverunt quod imperator te ad urbem iam miserat. quamquam nulla aqua inventa erat et nulli hostes visi erant. adora deos! custodire ab eis!” 50. 30. interficite aut interficimini! 49. parentes mei dicunt me ab uxore relictum iri. 37. tu non exspectatus es quod ab imperatore ad urbem iam missus eras. infans per noctem dormire poterat. 32. nos exclamabamus. Romani templum suum sine auxilio refecerunt. 33. exercitus non profectus est. parentes mei dicunt me ab uxore relictum esse. “fures. 128 Exercises 27. ducite! exercitus. parentes mei dicunt uxorem me relinquere. ducere! 48. parentes mei dicunt uxorem me reliquisse. ego volo amari. rex. templum Romanorum sine auxilio refectum est. milites. parentes mei dicunt me ab uxore relinqui. 35. ego volo amare. non poteramus tenēre eum captivum. Ablative Absolutes 1. 31. itaque nos discessimus. 40. 2. 45. nutrice praesente. omnis cibus consumptus erat. cives tamen spem habebant. 44. nolite decipere matrem vestram! 38. ille captivus tenēri non poterat.

parentibus absentibus. Cicerone exsule. 15. cibo empto. 7. bello finituro. militibus tela tradituris. B. Laviniam in matrimonium duxit. iuvenes Athenaei. 29. nos vitam longam beatamque agemus. bellum geremus. sapientia dormit. senatores. cena parabitur. ancillā accusatā. omnibus paratis. 19. . Roma erit fortunata. navigare. 24. milites domum redire sperabant. Octaviano adveniente. principe Traiano. non difficile nautis erit. fures. 4. Pompeio M. 21. 28. bello contrā Parthicos confecto. 20. signo dato. 11. dux tamen signum non dedit. Caesare imperatore. domum nostram diripuerunt. 23. 12. legiones fortissimē pugnabant. nullo senatore adversante. 5. pater erat iratissimus. effugere coeperunt. 8. 14. leges scelestas proponit. labyrinthum intraverunt et Minotaurum vicerunt. Theseo duce. Aeneas. manibus extentis. quis fiet princeps. exercitus victoriā potietur. Tiberio mortuo? 22. seditio orta erat in castris. viri scelesti non prosperabantur. 16. omnes nautae domum revēnerunt. tranquillo mare. 13. invidiā crescente. 25. Perusiam occupaverunt. Crasso consulibus. urbe capturā. 30. omnes Romam amantes lacrimant. vivo Scipione. nos tamen adgressi sumus. Turno interfecto. auxilia oppidum cito oppugnaverunt. Caesare ipso ducente. 6. Ablative Absolutes 129 3. 17. 27. 18. copiae Romanorum ad flumen contendebant. urbe a barbaris oppugnatā. 10. hostes pacem petebant. deo volente. Gn. 9. 26. ara nova Fortunae Athenis aedificata est. Liviā puellā. cives. mea familia ad urbem profecta est. periculis gravibus. Nero. navibus deligatis.

. Sarmillus exclamat Arruntem mox rem prosperē acturum esse. sed eum id negaturum esse. 3. Ballio dixit Tranionem bibisse vinum. 8. 4. Marcus ad nos scripsit Arruntem officinam (had repaired). 1. 6. 2. Quinctius commemoravit illam cladem interfecisse suum patrem matremque. 130 Exercises C. 1. 15. 18. servi respondebant regem non posse nos nunc vidēre. 20. nos diximus facile futurum esse dormire. sed Tranio id negavit. Supply the correct Latin form(s) of the word(s) in parentheses and translate each sentence. 10. Domitilla non putat (that the slave girl) confecturam esse rem. Marcus dicit Arruntem tabernam renovare. 19. di immortales signum mittunt montem mox erupturum esse. 11. uxor Calvii postulat ancillas esse diligentiores. vosne speratis tempestatem naves obruisse? 9. 2. vilicus expostulavit servos non laboraturos esse post cenam. 3. noli tuae matri narrare nos fregisse hanc sellam! 14. Give precise translations of the following sentences. II. nos diximus facile fuisse dormire. 13. 16. ego scio Marcum (is better) quam Lucium. Indirect Statement I. 7. 5. Ballio dixit Tranionem bibisse vinum. placet mihi scire meos inimicos esse mortuos. 17. cras militibus nuntiabo eos accepturos esse nullos aureos. meus pater scripsit matrem advēnisse salvam. iratus pauper clamavit esse diviti Sarmillo multas villas et pecuniam. nos credimus Arruntem esse probum et honestum. ego putavi Arruntem tabernam renovaturum esse. 12. nos diximus facile esse dormire.

I–II 1.I) 19. 15. ne mentiamur! ne patrem decipiamus! conemur esse probi! (15. (16. (16.I–IV and 16. (15. Uses of the Subjunctive 131 4. (16.II) 8.I) 16. tanta erat difficultas ut villas nostras relinquere nollemus. 5. D. deus virtutem mihi det! ego hac virtute optimē utar.II) 13. ex urbe proficiscor. meus dominus appellavit me ignavum et furem.I) 21. cives regi tot dona tulerant ut totum palatium complērent. (16.II) 14.I) 18. conarer fieri poeta.II) 6. pueri tam celeriter cucurrerunt—crederes eos esse equos—ut a militibus capi non possent. (15.III. urbs nostra est tam pulchra ut multi homines ad eam visitent. amor vincit omnia: et igitur nos cedamus amori! (15. milites adeō fortiter pugnabant ut facile vincerent. (16. cum periculum timērem. ex urbe proficiscebar. ex urbe proficiscor. ex urbe profectus sum. (16. (16. 16.I) 3. quid ei dicerem? quomodo me gererem? (15.II) 15. hic servus est tam ebrius ut stultissimē loquatur.III) 22. sacra serpens erat tam mansueta ut Tullia eam tangere posset.II) 4. (15. 16.IV) . (15. cum periculum timuissem. (16.II) 7. cum periculum timuerim. tali voce locutus sum ut non audirer. cum periculum timeam.I.II) 9. sed scribere et legere nescio. mater non vult nos Romam venire.I) 5. (16. (16. exploratores nuntiaverunt regem regionem mox (would leave).II) 11. (16.II.I) 12.II) 2. (16. cur patrem nostrum non visitemus? utinam mater ne sit tam crudelis! (15.II) 10.I) 20. illa puella me amet! ego eam tantum amo ut insanus fiam. gaudeamus quod hodiē est dies natalis imperatoris nostri! (15. D. 15. necesse est tibi intellegere (that a brave man) esse rarum. turba est tanta ut meam sororem invenire non possimus. Uses of the Subjunctive I. legatus periculum tam diu timebat ut tandem exercitum relinqueret.II) 17. (16.

VII) 14.I. (16. ne Ciceronem populus laudet.VIII) 8. cum Minotaurus sit terribilis. temporal.IV. populus non timebit. 25–29). o miseros nos! utinam nostri ne oblitus esset! urbem nostram hostibus tradidimus. monte Vesuvio erupto. operae Titio appropinquabant qui necarent.I) 26. Caesar ad Italiam hieme semper revēnit tantum ne esset aut aeger aut occupatus. cum Romam vēni. dubium non erat quin Antonius esset carus Caesari.VIII) 5.I) 30. (15. (16.VIII) 6.III) 3. (16. (16. magnopere terrebantur. (16.III) 24.I) 29.III–IX 1. (16.VI) 12. (16. For all the cum clauses above (17–20. (16. e Campaniā effūgit ne interficeretur.VI) 10. II. maximam clementiam demonstrabat. (16. or generalizing).VII) 15. 15. formidasne ne finis omnium rerum sit proximus? (16. (16. cum mater mortua est. contendo semper ad forum. metuo ne mea uxor ante me non moritura sit. 15. dubitare voluit cum hostes nostrum oppidum vicissent.IV. identify the type (causal. metuo ne mea uxor ante me moritura sit. utinam Caesar hac nocte adveniat! magnum exercitum ducat! quid aliud dicam? utinam Caesar nos timore solvat! (15. (16.VII) .I. (16. manēre constituimus dummodo tempestas esset tam saeva. 132 Exercises 23. (16.VIII) 7. (16. modo consilia eius capiat. Statius. cum Cyclops apparuisset. (16. nautae. (16. Scipio.I) 27.I) 16. dubitare voluit num hostes nostrum oppidum vicissent. Theseus tamen labyrinthum intrare vult. (16.III) 25. 15. circumstantial.VI) 13. timebamus ut iuvenes legibus novis parērent. cum Hannibal se traderet. Caesar non advēnit.III) 2. dum Cicero Romae sit. dubito tibi dicere tuum fratrem ab hostibus interfectum esse. quid aliud ageremus? (15.VI) 9. 16. concessive.I) 28.VI) 11. verebamur ut milites urbem nostram cum celeritate defenderent. in Syriā militabam. (16. (16. 16.VIII) 4. Antonius erit fidelis Caesari tantum ut Caesar sit liberalior hostibus suis.

III) III. vos vetare non possum amicas vestras visere. Uses of the Subjunctive 133 17.IV) 31. Cicero erat solus quin rem publicam hostibus traderet. pete ne invenias quendam candidatum meliorem Caesare. dum amicam meam amabam. pudor me deterret ne facta impia Neronis enumerem. (16.X) 3. dubitavi an Cicero fuisset optimus orator illo tempore.X) 5. in Germaniā nihil est quod dices esse elegans.IX) 25.IX) 21. D.X) 6. (16. ego tamen eam amavi. 16.VII) 20. quod estis non diutius pueri. (16. (16.IX) 24. (16.IX) 23. (16. (16. (16. estne nemo qui amicitiam et fidem miretur? (16.VII) 19. si vultis. (16. nunc date mihi illam pecuniam ne amittatis.V) 32. (16. quis est quin Caesarem et exercitum eius timeat? (16. Cicero Catilinae obstitit quominus rem publicam delēret. non dubitandum est quin Homerus ante Sophoclem vixerit. magister discipulis imperabit ut saepius studeant. estne dubium ullum quin Caesar fuerit magnus imperator? (16. quamvis amica alium amaret.X) 4. amica alium amabat.X–XIII 1. Orpheus ad infernos iit quō plus dierum cum uxore precaretur.X) 2. (16.III) 33. Caesar Ciceronem non impedivit quin multos et magnos honores sibi caperet.X) 7. (16. (16. mercatores multa loca visitant unde metalla importent. (16. (16. avus noster non certē scit quo anno natus sit. domina nos prohibuit vinum bibere et cibum consumere. (16.III) 29.IX) 22.IV) 27. (16. non diutius praevaricari potes.XIII) . mater tua quem ames scit.V) 26. (16.XIII) 8. (16. (16. Medea Iasonem hortata est ut Argonautae Colchidem quam celerrimē relinquerent.IV) 28. (16. hae feminae sunt quae poeticis et musicis artibus faveant. (16. Livia nobis narrabat quomodo Romani Gallicas gentes superavissent.V) 30.VII) 18. illi sunt qui Homerum fuisse meliorem poetam Vergilio arbitrentur.

I. (16. (16. (16. (16.XIII) 11. amica lacrimavit quia me amaret. 16.XII) 22. (16. ut discedebam. inquisiverunt quibus occurrissem postquam in Hispaniam pervēnissem. postquam orationes contra Antonium capite suo composuerat atque manibus suis exscripserat. (16. Cicero. iter periculosum Epidaurum fecimus.XIII) 23.XIII) 26.XIII) 28. sed quia rem publicam servavit. magnā cum ignominiā mortuus est. (16.XIII) 24.XIII) 21.XI) 16.XI) 14. suā linguā elocutus est.XIII) 25. o felicem diem! stetimus taciti tamquam miraculum vīdissemus.XIII) 17. (16. urbs tot hominibus complebatur ut ad forum ire non possem ubi pater laboraret. audivimus sacram serpentem esse in hōc templo. (16.XII) 15.XI) 27.II. ad templum Aesculapii contendimus. Cicero maximus omnium Romanorum vixit.XIII) 12. senatores laudaverunt Ciceronem quoniam optimus consul erat. prius ab amicā discessi quam me odisse inciperet. turba Ciceronem laudavit. (16. (16. dum manetis quattuor dies Athenis. (16. (16. (16.V. etiam crudeliora erga corpus eius ille fecit. 134 Exercises 9. cum primum ad templum vēnimus. 16. Antonius corpus Ciceronis tractavit sı̄cut lanius bovem trucidat.XIII) 18. corpus caput et manūs amputatum est. (16.XIII) . quippe quae essent partes corporis quibus Cicero iniuriam Antonio intulisset. (16. etsi populus senatusque Ciceronem laudaverunt. 16.XIII) 20.XII) 13. (16. postquam hic mortuus erat.XIII) 10. spectavimus quoad sacerdotes sacrificia faciebant. credimus nos salvos fore simulatque portum conspiciamus. non quod hostem superavisset. 16. (16.XIII) 19. amicam aliam numquam habebo donec aliquam fidelem inveniam. (16. Medusa sentit Perseum appropinquare qui velit eam necare. subitō illa serpens apparuit.XIII. quamquam nemo eam diū vīdisset. simulac Epidaurum advēnimus. (16. Antonius crudelia facta erga Ciceronem vivum et. sed mortuus est veluti fuisset pessimus hostis Romae.

inquam. historicus Philo quietam vitam vivere vult ut annales scribat. (16. 16. sed mater nescit ab quo nisi a Parmenione vinum ablatum sit. (16. matri tamen dico eum esse innocentem qui semper fuerit fidelis familiae nostrae. ubi Athenas revēnimus. (16.II) 11. (16. (16.XI) 5.I. amici Charitae sunt causidici et orationes semper habent. 16. amphoram vini abstulisse. filia Philonis.V. (16. praeter nos serpens placidē lapsa est prout multi angues solent.XIII) 32. 16. tot amicas ad villam semper invitat ut Philo vexetur et scribere non possit. 16. mater videt amphoram vini e cellā deficere ubi omnis cibus vinumque serventur. Potidea. mater autem rogat utrum certa indicia innocentiae eius habeam. 16. (16. (16.I.II) .VIII. uxor Philonis.XIII) 31. tametsi serpentem diū non spectavimus.XIII) 30. quae sit ornatrix. nemo credebat nos serpentem vīdisse. “mater cara.I) 3. eramus fortunati quandō rarissimam omnium bestiarum conspexeramus. (16. mater constituit se graviter punituram Parmenionem esse quod sit nocens. Charita. (16. sed dum vivam. (16. cum negem me habēre. serpentis sacrae numquam obliviscar quamvis totae Athenae me mendacem appellent. (16. (16.V) 4. (16.V) 2. et quaerit quis eam abstulerit. ceu apparuerat.” (16. Uses of the Subjunctive 135 29.V) 7.III) 12. cum ego cogitam Parmenionem amphoram probabiliter cēpisse quod bibendum amet.III) 10.XIII) 33.XI) 8. interea aperitur ancillam. Parmenio negat se amphoram cepisse.XI) ———— 9. cum meus paedagogus senex Parmenio sit praecipuē bibulosus. sed hi iuvenes sunt adeō mali causidici ut Philo saepe fiat iratus aut quasi aeger. amicos quoque invitat qui ad villam veniant. mater eum vini ablati accusat. (16.XIII) IV. scis quotiens Parmenio me fideliter custodiverit ubi essem parvus. (16. D. 15–16 1.XII) 6.XI. serpens subitō vanuit antequam sacerdotes eam tenēre conarentur.

sed mediā nocte.II) 14. simulatque virtutem receperat.” (16. cubitum iit contentus. dicas illos amicos Charitae esse caudices.V) 29. (16.I. iuvenis.XIII) 20. ubi obdormiverat. post diem illum. ———— 19. causidici inter se totiens iurgant ut expellendi sint e villā. quam stultus es! scis certissimē hoc: si uxorem et liberos pulchros habes. (16. “quamvis multos et bonos discipulos habērem. dum tunicam induit. iuvenis clamore insolito excitatus est. (16. e cubiculo exiit et tablinum intravit quod putavit clamorem inde exortum esse. quia novam domum emere volebat. 16. tamquam esset vivus. senem rogavit cur lacrimaret. uxor Potidea verba ultima offert: “senex care. erat unus discipulus pessimus mihi qui meam vitam semper perdebat.XIII.XIII) 26.III) 15. 16. Philone etiam polito. non causidici. itaque iuvenis eam emit et gaudebat quasi palatium opulentum adeptus esset. in pace vivere numquam potes. Philo conatur esse politus ne filia sua offendatur. in angulo tablini iuvenis larvam vīdit.VI. postquam omnes res suas in eam moverat.” (16. (15. larva erat senex qui vestimenta pannosa et cruenta gestabat et lacrimabat. (16. (16.XIII) 25. larva respondit. (16. iuvenis non erat perterritus tametsi credidit larvas non esse nihil. “olim eram clarus philosophus. (16. iuvenibus orationes habentibus.XIII) 30.XIII) 27. (16.III) 17. etiamsi villa erat paene ruinosa.XIII) . (16. 136 Exercises 13. 15. Philo orat ut causidici pessimi ei quietem dent: “liceat mihi vivere in pace! scribam meas annales ut ego proelia iuvenum in libris meis solum cogitem!” (16. primā nocte in hac villā.” 18. quietem tamen in silentio suo inveniebat. Philo annales scribere non rursus temptavit. sine bonā causā iuveni placuit. 28.XIII) 24. iuvenis quidam.XIII) 22. iuvenis veritus est ne fur esset in villā. 16. (16.XIII) 21. veterem villam inspexit quae multos annos deserta erat.IV.II) 16.XIII) 23. (16.

(16.IV) 40. Marco apud meos parentes manente. (16. Marco hortato. viri Ciceronem tantum verberaverunt ut ambulare vix posset. (16. coniuratio talis inter servos fiebat ut periculum esset magnum. Cicero oravit ne viri se verberarent. (16.XI) 47. itaque iuvenis.XIII) 35. pater erat benevolens in servos quo diligentius laborarent.III) 44.V) 48.III) 45. (15. “laboremus! omnis servus opere suo fungatur! omnis ancilla sit occupata!” (15. Antonius his viris dixerat Ciceronem verberandum eis esse ut Cicero pecuniam suam traderet. (16. quippe ego meos optimos libros sibi non dedissem. (16. Uses of the Subjunctive 137 31.” 33.XIII) ———— 38. crederes illos viros esse bestias. “quodam die iste discipulus dixit mihi se me necaturum esse.II) .XIII) 37.I) 42. Rutulius tamen servis non persuasit ut laborarent. “postquam discipulus hanc villam diripuerat et quia nihil invēnisset. Rutulius loquebatur.” (16. dum in illā villā habitat. (16. quamquam nemo scivit eum me interfecisse.XIII) 34. eos post villam sepelivit.IV) ———— 43.” (16. “sepelivit meum corpus post villam et ex hac urbe effūgit. (16.XI) 36. (16.II) 39. Cicero mirabatur cur hi viri essent adeō inimici. post illud tempus iuvenis larvam numquam iterum aut vīdit aut audivit. (16. cum primum libros in cubiculo invēnerat.XI) 32.II) 49. negavit se verberandum viris esse quod esset bonus homo. (16.” (16.III) 41. “posteā ego meos optimos libros sub pavimento in cubiculo meo celavi. me necavit. (16. larva dixit se non laetum multos annos fuisse quia libri sui secum non sepulti essent. (16. Marcus meum patrem matremque hortatus est ut essent benigniores in servos. D.IV) 46. Antonius quosdam viros miserat qui Ciceronem verberarent et necarent.

identify the various uses of the subjunctive and translate accordingly: 57. cum viri Ciceronem verberarent. E. putes infantem esse callidiorem quam nos. “te maledicente.XI) 53. Cicero viris dixit. Gerundives.V) ———— For the following sentences. 61. Octaviano adveniente.” (16. (16. viri non diutius Ciceronem verberaverunt. Gorgona admonet ne Praxinoa marito maledicat. and Periphrastics 1. 7. 2. (16. 60. 6. infans omnia verba intellegit. cum Praxinoae infans curandus sit. Cicero negavit viros se verberaturos esse cum Octavianus apparēret. Gorgona rogat cur Eunoa ad pompam adire non possit. 58. Supines. festinant ut pompam spectent.I) 51. cum feminae discedere incipiunt. discedunt e villā unde ad pompam festinent.I) 56.I) 54. . est nobis spes habendi pecuniam. discipuli dona tulerunt blandiendi magistro causā. “cum Octavianus apparebit. 64. hoc opus erat difficile factū. Gorgona Praxinoaque. festinantes pompam visuri eramus. cum Octavianus apparuit. 4. de suis maritis loquuntur. duae Alexandrinae feminae. 3. nos pompam visum festinabamus. servus eius auxilium petebat. 62. (16. ancilla Eunoa ad pompam adire non potest. 5. Praxinoa dicit maritum suum esse tam stultum ut ēmerit tunicas sordidas. 55. cum constituant non diutius loqui. cum Octavianus advēnisset. (16. viri Ciceronem verberabant.I) 52. Herodas est rex potens et optimus rectū. Gorgona dicit. 59. Cicero iterum miratus est cur viri fuissent adeō inimici. 138 Exercises 50. viri Ciceronem verberabant. Praxinoa respondet manendum Eunoae esse quod infans fuerit aeger. coram eo ne diutius loquamur!” 65. Gerunds. nos ad pompam videndam festinabamus. vos me non verberabitis. 63. (16.

imperator Germaniam in pace mittendo plures militum retinuit. 12. 22. licuit ut Caesar iter faceret si praestabat se non esse solum. 18. mitte ad me brevem epistulam! 4. viri scelesti ad pecuniam postulandam vēnerunt. si certum est cras nos discessuros esse. et Octavianus erat discessurus. 15. ancilla erat anxia de cantando. . 17. 21. si accidit ut pecuniae meae domi obliviscar. remitte servum qui eam afferat. 8. iuvenes ad bestias interficiendas profecti erant. 9. si senatui iam persuaserat. iuvenes ad bestias interficiendas profecturi erant. Antonius iam discesserat. 5. 7. ille imperator de bello gerendo bene scivit. F. 2. 23. Hercules ad palatium visitandi regem Admetum causā adgrediebatur. 6. Conditional Sentences I 1. necesse est mihi nunc valedicere meis parentibus. servi relinquendi erant quod satis cibi reperiri non poterat. 16. descendebat de equo et iacebat sub arbore. si tuā rēfert Romam venire. hic imperator de bello gerendo bene sciturus est. haec fabula est nimis incredibilis dictū. est difficile agricolis bene vivere. nisi pluit. erit vobis discendum de Caesare et exercitū eius. si currendum nobis erat. 13. 14. 19. viri scelesti ad pecuniam postulandam venturi sunt. superfuit tamen Ciceroni populo persuadēre. pater meam sororem parvam portabat. 11. cotidiē ad amphitheatrum cum Gaio veniebam nisi eum taedebat spectacula spectare. F. fortasse maritus uxorque artem amandi cognituri sunt. 10. 9. omnes mariti uxoresque artem amandi scire debent. si oportebat medicum dormire. 3. Conditional Sentences I 139 8. 20. remanendum Tiberio est in quo loco exploratores aquam reppererunt.

restat ut Aemilia et Ioanna Graecam linguam discant. 26. indecorum matronis non sit maritos relinquere.” 4. si Augustus mox morietur. nisi ego ipse serpentem sacram conspexissem. . si ningat. “si Caesar non esset Romae. si placebit tibi Romam cras advenire. 16. 12. 25. populum gavisurus fuisse. 15. putaret ducem nostrum esse caudicem. si Alexandriae mansisset et fuisset sacerdos in templo Isidis. si cupiant esse callidissimae omnium discipulorum in ludo suo. Conditional Sentences II 1.” 2. 18. eveniet ut Tiberius fiat imperator. si sit Quartae aufugiendum. omne frumentum agricolarum deleatur. si evenisset ut Antonius veniret. 23. 140 Exercises 10. Cicero putavit si Caesar non esset Romae. 19. Paulus erat fortis et fidelis miles nisi tonabat atque fulgurabat. 24. si Antonius filiam eius in matrimonium ducere cupiet. si eveniat ut Antonius Ciceronem necet. ego mortem illius statim postulem. G. 14. 30. nisi Caesar sit liberalis et iustus. Caesar multos annos vixisset nisi tam neglegens fuisset. si nautae essent probi. id Caesari intererit. 21. populum gavisurum esse. si nostrā rēferret vendere tabernam. populus gaudeat. nisi ningeret et si viae essent meliores. nisi mox lucescet. nunc discedendum nobis erit. tantum pecuniae non poscerent. 11. 3. sola domi maneat. 22. numquam eris laetus. “nisi Caesar sit Romae. 27. vobis numquam credidissem. 20. senatores fuissent iratissimi. libebit civibus effugere et tradere urbem. 13. meus pater esset pauper. iter Romam faceremus. si tu esses callidus. 28. regem interficeres atque reginam in matrimonium duceres. populus gaudēret. Cicero sibi putavit. id statim agerem. si hi iniurias illis inferant. si Caesar esset vivus hodiē. Cicero putat si Caesar non sit Romae. 29. 17. in viis Romae pugnetur. Cicero sibi putat. si pudebit te quod pater fuerit fur.

Augustus promittit se rem publicam restituturum esse. ego iubeo si tuus pater loquatur. nos scivimus si rex dormiret. Conditional Sentences II 141 5.” 18. si cives consentient. 9. parendum est. si bellum confectum esset. 6. regina alios conducet. Tiberius dicit si fuisset benignior. provincias non rebellaturas fuisse. 7. regina alios conducit.” 16. 26.” 20. Tiberius dicit si sit benignior. “ego rem republicam restituam.” 24. ego iubeo si tuus pater locutus esset. reginam alios conducturam esse. ego iubeo. cognovimus Caesarem auxilium laturum fuisse. “si tuus pater loquitur. reginam saltare. 30. senatores senserunt si Antonius discessisset. si rex dormiebat. Tiberius dicit. Caesar auxilium tulisset. urbem pacem habuisse. “si sim benignior. 23. regina saltavit. si Antonius discedat. si nautae maiorem partem praedae postulant. “si fuissem benignior. ego iubeo si tuus pater loqueretur. 15. ego iubeo. urbs pacem habebat. 19. ego iubeo. legatus nuntiat si nautae maiorem partem praedae postulent. 17. Augustus promittit. si nautae maiorem partem praedae postulabunt. 10. si bellum conficeretur. provincias non rebellaturas esse. 27. si Antonius discessit. si bellum conficeretur. 29. audi!” 12. si cives consentiant. 28. provinciae non rebellent. urbem pacem habituram esse. si cives consenserint. urbs pacem habeat. senatores senserunt si Antonius discesserit. 13. 11. 31. audiendus tibi sit. eum a te auditum iri. 8. 25. cognovimus Caesarem auxilium laturum fuisse. “si tuus pater locutus est. parendum esse. si cives consentient. te audire. . si bellum confectum esset. 21.” 22. “ego rem republicam restituam. Tiberius dicit. Caesar auxilium ferret. Augustus promiserat se rem publicam restituturum esse.” 14. “si tuus pater loquatur. Augustus promiserat. provinciae non rebellavissent. G.

34. legatus nuntiat si nautae maiorem partem praedae postularent. reginam alios conducere. 45. si nautae maiorem partem praedae postularent. 41. fabulas in theatro videamus. . si Caesar Germaniam invadat. detisne cibum bonum si Cicero sit in carcere? 40. evenit ut. legatus nuntiat si nautae maiorem praedae postularent. rogamus utrum detis cibum bonum si Cicero esset in carcere. fabulas in theatro vidēremus. Vergilius carmina peiora composuisset. regina alios conduceret. 36. 33. si nos Romam veniamus. 43. 44. si Caesar Germaniam invadet. respondendum est Vergilium carmina peiora compositurum fuisse nisi in Graeciā doctus esset. 35. nisi in Graeciā doctus esset. 46. non dubitavimus quin si Romam vēnerīmus. 39. rogamus utrum detis cibum bonum si Cicero sit in carcere. 142 Exercises 32. Germani vincant. daretisne cibum bonum si Cicero esset in carcere? 42. rogamus utrum daretis cibum bonum si Cicero esset in carcere. Germani vincent. datisne cibum bonum si Cicero est in carcere? 38. reginam alios conducturam fuisse. 37.

Pa rt I I I Annotated Readings .

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V. . -are — recall moribundus. Super hōc equo: 3. vulneribus altis in 13. what did he do for Alexander? 3.2 Indico et facinora faciens fortia. Tum rex Alexander. partā . -i — Greek talent facinus. oppidum in isdem locis condidit idque ob equi 13.V. -icis — neck superstes. . . cuneus. -a — three immitto. After Bucephalas had suffered many wounds. ilicō concidit et.a proelium. A. what did Bucephalas refuse to allow? 2.14 cervice atque in latere equus perfossus esset. -e — weak from sestertium. After he was decked out for battle. -are — perish memoro. -ere — pierce exspiro. -i — battle wedge blood loss sand sesterces provideo.” Reading for Information 1.I.i de isto equo memoratum est. solacio: 3. donatum esse: quidam scriptor scripsit talentis tredecim et regi Philippo donatum esse.V. -ere — mount latus.3.XIII.b. -ēre — look out for vivax. animam exspiravit. -are — decorate cervix.1 honores “Bucephalon” appellavit.III. moribundus tamen ac prope ubi: 16.XIII. domini iam superstitis securus. -ere — collapse orno. -eris — flank solacium. coniectisque undique in Alexandrum telis. ubi eum extra tela extulerat. Bucephalas. How did Alexander memorialize Bucephalas for his faithful service? capite: 3.XIII.7 Equus Alexandri regis capite “Bucephalas” fuit appellatus. haud umquam inscendi sese ab alio nisi ab rege passus sit. -ēre — sit on about to die ob — for the sake of . quod. cum insidens in eo Alexander bello cum: 16. -a. Animals and Nature Prose Readings 1. -ae.II hoc autem aeris nostri summa est sestertia trecenta duodecim. Id etiam passus sit: 16. telis: immisisset. 14. in hostium cuneum non satis sibi providens coniectis . talentum. -ere — drive into ilicō — on the spot hundred conicio.2. victoriā: partā eius belli victoriā.2. quod. -i — relief passus sit < patior perfodio. -um — parta < pario insideo.16 ubi: 16. Emptum esse emptum esse.V.III. -oris — deed exsanguis. whose name means “bull head.3 quasi cum sensūs humani solacio.3 vulneribus: 3. .20 equo dignum memoriā est visum. -acis — lively trecenti. -stitis — surviving inscendo. This story is told about the extraordinary horse of Alexander the Great.a iam exsanguis e mediis hostibus regem vivacissimo cursū retulit atque. -ere — hurl concido.V. ubi ornatus erat armatusque ad memoriā: 3. -i — one thou.

V. This story narrates an incident early in the reign (14–37 CE) of the emperor Tiberius. Who killed the raven? Why did he do it? 3.I. Reading for Information 1. Tiberium. -are — fly down from evolo.V. when a story also involves someone famous.V. -i — young bird maturē — from an early age emperor’s nephew . -um — the gods devolo.2 consternatione: mox interemptus sit. tantā plebei consternatione.V.17 iracundiā subitā. Why. calceis: 3.III. etiam religione commendatus officinae religione: 3. Hunc sive aemulatione vicinitatis manceps proximae sutrinae sive iracundiā: 5.III. According to the story. exanimavit.7 evolans. It involves a raven that became something of a neighborhood celebrity. ut primo pulsus ex eā regione.7 officinae: 3. . -ūs — brood appono. Is corvus maturē sermoni adsuefactus.V. dein Germanicum et matutinis: 3.V. -ere — train supra — above sutrina. are always very touching. 146 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. -ere — place nearby adsuefacio. Do you suppose these traits became exaggerated? Why? 3.000 sesterces) was astoundingly high. funusque aliti innumeris celebratum sit exsequiis. .II constratus sit lectus super Aethiopum duorum umeros.2 Drusum Caesares nominatim. -i — morning Castores. or should he have been cheap and of no evident value? 2. .1 ex fetū: 3. is it a better tale that the horse was very expensive. coronis: 3. -orum = the forum genitus < gigno officina. posteā ad tabernam remeans. maculā: 13. The amount paid for Bucephalas (13 talents. ex fetū cornicum supra Castorum aedem genito pullus 13. From the standpoint of storytelling. Stories of animal loyalty. mirus. ut voluit vidēri.7 impositā .V.14 tibicine et coronis omnium generum ad rogum usque. What happened to the killer in the aftermath? What happened to the raven? Tiberio principe: Tiberio principe. omnibus matutinis domino: 3. Ingenium avis adeō satis iusta causa populo Romano visum est exsequiarum aut supplicii de cive Romano.III. is it even more popular? Why do the animal rights and animal welfare organizations in our culture rely so heavily on celebrities? 2. plurium annorum adsiduo officio officio: 5. Bucephalas’s protective- ness of one who verged on the reckless also seems legendary.7 ut: 16.III. 3. which three Romans did the raven greet by name? 2.18 in appositam sutrinam devolavit. or 312.6 domino. especially those that end in death. .6 versus: 3. in rostra in forum versus. until it met a heinous death.II.V. -ae — shoe store matutinum.3 sermoni: 3. fetus. Alexander the Great’s courage in the face of battle was legendary. excrementis eius impositā calceis maculā. -are — entrust rostra.III. -are — fly out Castor and Pollux commendo.7 aemulatione. mox transeuntem populum Romanum plurium: genitive plural salutabat. praecedente praecedente . -ae — shop Germanicus Caesar — the pullus.7 excrementis: 3.

spread unwavering exanimo. Reading for Information 1.III.V.3 se irrito labore fatigat. -ere — kill Reading for Understanding 1.7 indulgentiam expertus. celerius tradiderit victoriam quam occupaverit.i. he knew the weaknesses of Roman legions.XIII. ac deinde equi validi caudam ab imbecillo sene obtemperatum est: 20. cuius partes caudae: 3.V. caudam infirmi a iuvene eximiarum virium universam labore: 3. Sed dum adulescentis dextera 16. quam utilitatem auribus respuerat.II.a. Would the story seem less remarkable if it didn’t involve members of the imperial family? 3. -i — countless nominatim — by name droppings exsequiae. To illustrate his point. As a former Roman officer. -ae — stain consterno.A.XI aliquis adgrediens opprimere possit.III.V. -um — peror’s son excrementum.1 oculis pervīdit. How does this fact help explain the attention paid to this story’s raven. a: 3. -ere — precede aemulatio.1 oratione: 3.I regi difficilis.V. Ita gens barbara.I. -a.V.III. corporis robore atque animi consilio parem naturae 3. convelli: 14.2 duos enim in conspectū eorum constituit equos. -a. carpi. cum eos oratione flectere non posset ne cum Romanis universā ne: 16.1 ab. -arum — funeral remeo. -ere — lay.2 tradiderit. senio confecta manus ministerium exsecuta est. vafro consilio ad suam sententiam perduxit: consilio: 3.XI regi: 12. manceps.V. According to the author.3. Why not? 2. -inis — flute player vicinitas.III.V. -onis — dismay tibicens. -ipitis — owner innumerus.1 acie confligere vellent. validissimum alterum. The Romans commonly practiced augury and auspicy (divination from the flight and behav- ior of birds). universum conatus prosternere celerius: 6. cognoscere: 12. proscriptione Sullanā dux Lusitanorum fieri cum: 16.7 fatigat: convelli iussit. in exitium suum ruens.II imperio: 3.b subicit equi caudae consimilem esse Romanum exercitum.7 tenderet: 16. contioni: 3.V Tunc barbarae contioni. -i — execution neighborhood interimo. oculis: 3.1 acie: 3. -um — macula. quorsum ea res tenderet cognoscere cupienti.I. -are — return calceus.V.4 paulatim carpi.5 alterum infirmissimum. -i — shoe rites adsiduus.1 senio: 3.2 possit: 16.III. aspera et occupaverit: 16. Sertorius used which four figures? 3. The renegade Sertorius (1st century BCE) fomented a dangerous uprising against the Romans on the Iberian Peninsula. How did the Lusitanians want to fight the Romans? Did Sertorius agree with this strategy? 2. -onis — jealousy consternatio. consilio: Sertorius verō. why was this illustration effective after argument had failed? robore. Obtemperatum imperio est.1 coactus.10 proscriptione: 3. -are — kill praecedo. auribus.3. The means of death were related for neither the bird nor the rival cobbler. both in life and in death? 3. . Animals and Nature 147 Drusus Caesar — the em.III. A. -tatis — pulsus < pello supplicium.

-a.10 Eum Arionem rex Corinthi Periander amicum amatumque habuit gratiā: 8. is recounted here. -ere — force ministerium. -a. convello. -i — task respuo. -ere — attack proscription exceptional prosterno. terrā. seeking—and making—his fortune. “Vetus.V. He became famous in what Greek city? Who was his royal patron there? 3.V. Reading for Information 1.3.III artis gratiā. What two lands did Arion then visit. cupiens terras inclutas Siciliam atque Italiam visere. 148 Annotated Readings robur. terrā atque insulā omni Lesbius fuit. -are — seize. tend expertus. What regard was given to the pain inflicted on the horses? 2. -um — vafer. The value of utilitas (last sentence) seems to characterize this entire passage. -are — obey asper. -um — opprimo. -e — like proscriptio. Sulla obtempero. -frum — clever barbarian Reading for Understanding 1. to make a greater name and more money for himself? 4. -ere — aim. But then his life takes a dangerous turn. -ere — reject flecto. Arion was from what Greek island? 2. Arion travels the ancient Mediterranean. -i — ruin Portuguese conficio. -um — weak contio. -orum — the irritus. -i — complete pervideo. Is inde a rege proficiscitur. “et nobilis Arion cantator fidibus fuit. oppido: 3. Ubi eō vēnit auresque omnium mentesque in .V.b Elocutione tereti et candidā fabulam scripsit Herodotus super fidicine fidibus: 3. -ae — cauda. -onis — assembly indulgentia. The story of the musician Arion. -ere — answer experienced carpo. -onis — eximius. -ere — lay low Sullanus. made famous by the Greek historian Herodotus. -um — Sullan. -ae — tail quorsum — to what end endowment imbecillus. Is loco. -oris — strength infirmus. -a. -ere — sway exsequor. -a. -um — feeble tendo. As his story begins.” inquit. -a. -um — useless exitium. -tatis — usefulness cogo. -ere — attack barbarus. -ere — pluck consimilis. Do you suppose Sertorius would have given up his own horse for this illustration? Why or why not? 4. -ēre — perceive confligo. -a. -fra. -ere — wear out utilitas. -um — having paulatim — gradually subicio. insulā: 3.10 loco et oppido Methymnaeus. -ere — yank off occupo. What practical uses were horses put to in ancient warfare? Were they counted among war’s casualties? 3. attain by L. What did the Corinthian sailors plan for him? elocutione: 3. -erum — savage Lusitani. -era. -a.V.10 illo Arione.

tenuerunt.” inquit Herodotus.3 sui: 7. -is — lyre copiosus.2 ut: 16. -ēre — it pities cantator. iecit sese procul in profundum. -are — refrain from Methymnaeus.I. -etis — polished demulceo. vitam modo sibi ut parcerent.1.3 cantavit.6. -a.7 dorso: 3.II.1 praedae.1 ornatus stansque in summae puppis foro. quem facere coeperant. death teres.1 harum commiseritum esse illactenus. id unum spe perditā: 13.I. pecuniam ceteraque sua.III.II. -ris — singer grandis.4 pernicie intellectā: illum ibi.I.VII delphinum: 3. Navitae.V. A. choose desilio. did the sailors wait around to observe his fate? 4.II.V. 13. -ere — pick.III. oravisse.III pecuniaeque cupidos cepisse consilium de necando Arione. Why did the sailors permit him to sing and play? 3. -a. -um — wealthy tempero. Arion then plunges overboard into the sea. ut navi: 1.XIII. haudquaquam quin: 16.2 ut: 16.ii sibi sua omnia indumenta et fides capere et canere carmen casūs illius casūs: 3.5 manibus temperarent.6 subit. -ere — transport The sailors spare Arion’s life and grant him one final request: to wear his robes and perform one last concert. amictus. -onis — style inclutus.4 multā copiosus Corinthum instituit redire.III sui consolabile. subdidisse: 14.IV.II Sed novum et mirum et pium facinus contigit. Animals and Nature 149 pecuniā. “ibi territus.V posteā oravit. -e — vast illactenus — so far as fides.II.II.III.III. cursum.” Sed Herodotus narrat 13.b homine . praedae 3. leap Lesbius.b dedisse.IV. Corinthios delegit. ut: 16.III. ut haberent. navem igitur et navitas. Feros et immanes navitas prolubium tamen audiendi audiendi: 17. Navitas precum eius sibi: 3. in quaestibus istic et voluptatibus Corinthum: 4. . After Arion jumped overboard.IV.II manibus: 3.c necando: 17. ut. -a. Arion’s last shipboard song was on what subject? 2.3. precis — prayer fidicens. -ire — jump.a. sīcut stabat canebatque. pernicie intellectā.V. Reading for Information 1.” Delphinum repente homini: 3. -um — of in coram — before their eyes Methymne delego. re: 3. . carmen voce sublatissimā sublatissimā: 6. Is tum posteā grandi pecuniā et re bonā 6. homine accepto navique in altum provectā.IV.1 elocutio.1 inter undas adnavisse fluitantique sese homini subdidisse et dorso super .II.4 dubitantes quin perisset. and is miraculously rescued. -i — the deep (sea) Lesbos proveho.8 “Homo. How was Arion rescued? vitae: 3. -um — famous pernicies. Ad postrema cantūs cum fidibus ornatūque omni. -a.10 utriusque terrae urbibus demulsit. induere permitterent priusquam: 16.III. ut ei necem adferre per vim suis commiseritum esse: 14.V. 20.1 praeceps in mare. amiciores: amoribusque hominum fuit.IV. -ei — ruin. impetrat. Tum illum: 3.III.2.3 ut: 16. adnavisse. spe omni vitae perditā. provectā: notiores amicioresque sibi. ut iam statim coram desiliret ut: 16. sed imperavisse. priusquam mortem oppeteret. -um — from altum. quod oraverat.2 Corinthios: 3. robes and all. -ūs — profit commiseret.2 notiores. voce: 3. pecuniae: eos Corinthios. Atque ibi mox de more cinctus. 3.III. -inis — lyre player quaestus. -ēre — delight prex.

V. quasi: 16. -ere — seek out ecqui — what if anything optulisse < offero ablego.4 Tum Arionem prorsus ex eo loco Corinthum petivisse talemque Periandro petivisse: 14. 12. How did Periander prove the sailors’ guilt? 3. -e — savage pius. Taenarum: 4. cum inde irent. incolumique eum corpore et ornatū Taenarum in corpore. Tum cum: 16. 12.1 regi.IV. send off agito. -are — convey immanis. -ere — meet postremus. 16. ecquid audissent in his locis. -are — float about Laconicus. atque esse 3.IV. exstitisse. narravisse: and that he presented himself to a surprised King Periander just as he had been carried by the dolphin. -a.I oppeto.d quasi falleret. 13.XI inter haec eorum verba Arionem cum fidibus et indumentis. fare .14 terram Laconicam devexisse.1.I fluctūs edito vectavisse. custodiri iussisse.II. prorsus — in a hurry parum — not fully dissimulanter — hiding one’s inopinans. -ere — present consolabilis.XIII. optulisse.4 irent: 16.XI fabulae argumentum. who sets a trap for the sailors. . -ūs — wave indumentum. ablegato Arione. narravisse.b ablegato Arione: dissimulanter interrogasse. -are — swim up to in southern Greece amicio. -um — last dorsum.IV. What did Periander do to Arion in response to his story? 2. How was Arion’s rescue memorialized at Taenarum? Arionem: 3. sīcuti acciderat.III. -ire — clothe fluito. -tis — caught by fallo. -e — consoling haudquaquam — not at all vecto. -ere — deceive true intent surprise requiro. -is — stern subdo. -i — back induo. -i — promontory cingo. -um — Spartan puppis. delphinus vehens et homo insidens. and he told him the story exactly as it happened.4 viserentur: 16. . -i — robe (sea) edo. 150 Annotated Readings vectavisse: 12.XIII.3. narravisse: 14.V eumque illīc bene agitare et studiis delectationibusque urbium florēre vēnissent: 16. Regem istaec parum credidisse. -i — dolphin Taenarum. -a.I.V.3 super Arione.I delphino: 3. -a. in terrā Italiā fuisse audissent: 20.I. eos dixisse hominem. -e — safe prolubium. 1–3. Eam fabulam dicere Lesbios et Corinthios. quod simulacra duo aenea ad Taenarum viserentur. navitas stupefactos convictosque ire Lesbios.1 interrogasse: 20.I. -are — dismiss. -ere — transport Arion returns to Corinth and King Periander. -i — the deep fluctus.I sı̄cuti: 16. talemque . navitas requisitos. -i — desire delphinus. -ere — put on profundum. -ere — place under deveho. -um — pious incolumis. inopinanti sese optulisse eique rem. cum quibus se in salum eiaculaverat. unde vēnissent.II. qualis fuerat delphino vectus.4 atque in gratiā pecuniāque magnā opulentum fortunatumque esse. -are — do. Reading for Information 1.I.2 devexisse: 12.2. Arionem. Corinthios: infitias non quisse. ornatū: 3.XII eos: 3. -ere — gird adno.

9 populus universus consurgeret. How did the elephants finally gain the sympathy of the crowd? consulatū: 3. -um — detected simulacrum. tanto spectantium dolore. -i — the sea ire infitias — to deny aeneus. misericordiam vulgi inenarrabili habitū quaerentes supplicavēre spectantium: 12.1 temptavēre: 20.2 fuit uno ictū. flens munificentiae: 3. Gaetulis ex adverso Gaetulis .2 iaculantibus. dirasque Pompeio.III.III. mirabili unius dimicatione.II.V. Why.V. abrepta scuta iaciens in sublime.b furore beluae. -i — evidence opulentus. Reading for Information 1.d circo aut. .V. amissā fugae habitū: 3. The author here describes a gladiatorial display. velut arte. The sponsor of the display. fugae: 3. -ēre — be able insideo. -are — jump queo. iacerentur.d dolore: 3. -a. -um — rich convictus.2 ut: 16. quae decidentia 13. non sine vexatione populi. did the dolphin rescue the musician? 2. viginti elephanti pugnavēre in pugnavēre: 20.6 Pompei quoque altero consulatū.I. -a. that went horribly wrong (55 BCE). .3 imprecaretur.II imperatoris: 3. Pompeio: 3. What might have been the reasons behind Periander’s distrust of Arion? 5. A.V. spe: 13.9 voluptati spectantibus erant in orbem circumacta.2 circumdatis claustris ferreis.XIII.III.1. Magnum et in altero occiso miraculum uno ictū: 3. -a. -um — amazed argumentum.II. the former called him a fraud.3. septendecim. non spectantibus: 3.2. Pompey the Great. Periander and Arion were said to have been friends. experienced a significant drop in public opinion as a result of these events. iaculantibus: 13.7 supplicavēre: 20. What “kill shot” was demonstrated with another elephant? 4.III. Sed elephanti Pompeiani.III.II.2 voluptati: 3. .3 velut: 16. . How many elephants were involved in the incident? 2. -i — likeness salum.I. What did one elephant do after being wounded in the feet? 3. -ēre — sit on Reading for Understanding 1. .II.6 honori: 3.III.XIII.2 spe.III. quas ille mox luit.II. Animals and Nature 151 delectatio.III. -a.6 ut oblitus imperatoris ac munificentiae honori suo exquisitae. Does the dolphin’s behavior seem believable? 3. Universi eruptionem temptavēre.I. qui pedibus confossis repsit unius: 5.14 quādam sese lamentatione complorantes. ut quidam tradunt. ut: 16.6 amissa . but after the latter returned to Corinth.3 vēnerat. presumably.1 pedibus confossis: genibus in catervas. pilum autem sub oculo adactum in vitalia capitis circumdatis claustris: 13. involving elephants. -um — bronze eiaculo. Why do crimes against artists seem particularly heinous? 4. -nis — pleasure stupefactus.

-ere — pay out repo. quae mirifica in Aegypto visuntur audiunturque.II praedicandis: 17. -are — beg. -ae — confodio. historia audisse: 20. -are — implore iaculor. -ae — beast together dimicatio. -ere — rise up caterva. studio: 3. quibus omnium fermē. fleo. If the spectators hadn’t been shocked into fear by the elephants’ attempted escape.4 neque legisse.VIII oculis: 3.10 Apion litteris homo multis praeditus rerumque Graecarum plurimā scientiā: 3. quae vel audisse vel legisse sese dicit. -ere — atone for sublimis. on altars. Was Apion considered a good authority? On what subjects was he knowledgeable? On what subject did he publish? 2. In a society that routinely observed animals being slaughtered in the arena. -nis — circus. -nis — breakout exquiro.V. Apion.3 comprehenditur. -ere — pierce vitalia.V. Were the Roman spectators right to blame Pompey over a display that he sponsored for their entertainment? 2.1 “In Circo Maximo.5 atque variā scientiā fuit. -ere — arrange lamentation Gaetulus. -nis — alarm. -e — aloft. what did it take to trigger compassion for such victims? 6. airborne supplico. -ae — herd.I. -ūs — knee disturbance consurgo. -ari — invoke Reading for Understanding 1. -ere — snatch away misercordia.” inquit.III quam in praedicandis doctrinis sui venditator—hoc autem neque audisse sese: 3. Sed in his. The author gives scrupulous at- tention to citing his authority. What setting is introduced for the story? litteris: 3. “venationis amplissimae pugna populo . -ae — dirae. -arum — curses scutum — shield compassion luo. would the subsequent sympathy for them have been possible? 3. Where did the incident that Apion (and our author) related take place? Why should Apion’s account be trusted? 3. -ēre — weep genu. -ari — throw javelins belua. and throughout marketplaces.IV. sed ipsum sese in urbe Romā vīdisse oculis suis confirmat. -nis — conflict adigo. -ere — fall down lamentatio. vitio. before starting the narrative. 152 Annotated Readings consulatus. -ere — drive in munificentia. Eius libri non incelebres feruntur. crowd claustrum.7 fortassean vitio studioque ostentationis sit loquacior—est enim sanē sit: 15. Romā: 3. -i — barrier together abripio. -i — circus circumago. -ium — vitals lavishness through eruptio. -ere — crawl vexatio. pray imprecor.V. Reading for Information 1.V. -i — North African about comploro. The well-known story of Androclus and the lion is recounted here. -ūs — consulship decido.

-inis — number unrenowned sanē — obviously excellens.V.XIII. -nis — display saevio.I.V. Animals and Nature 153 Romae: 4. magnitudines bestiarum excellentes. -are — relate. ei servo: 3. fortassean . -i — muscle complures.V.2. -ere — endow fortassean — probably venatio. Eius rei.6 clementer et blandē movet hominisque se corpori adiungit cruraque metū: 3. Homo Androclus inter illa tam atrocis ferae blandimenta amissum animum contuendum: 17.” 5.b omnīs ceteros unus. omniumque invisitata aut forma erat aut ferocia. -bre — loquax. manūs: 3. -um — mirificus.III. -a. -acis — verbose magnitudo. Is unus leo corporis impetū et vastitudine impetū.4 servo Androclus nomen fuit.” immanitas. -um — deep introduco.a admirans stetit ac deinde sensim atque placidē. in the context of a public execution. quasi: 16.b mutuā . -ūs — roar fluctuo. fremitū.III. -tatis — enormity fremitus. -ae — learning ostentatio.9 “Sed praeter alia omnia leonum immanitas admirationi fuit praeterque omnı̄s: 1. comis: 3. Romae cum forte essem. paulatim oculos ad contuendum leonem refert.2 leonem. A. his behavior was like that of what animal? 4. Hunc ille leo ubi vīdit procul. toris comisque cervicum fluctuantibus. After the lion recognized Androclus.IV. -ere — lead in terrificus. -ae — ferocity comprehendo. -nis — staged hunt scientia. laetos et gratulabundos vidēres hominem et 13. invisitatus.1 recuperat. linguā leniter demulcet. is described.7 eius et manūs. . -ire — rage inceleber.1. The largest lion received comment because of what four characteristics? 3. either as a defect or out of a desire for self-display. .3 dabatur. prope iam exanimati metū.2. -a. -are — affirm encompass The reunion of Androclus and the lion. -a. ad hominem accedit.III. . Tum caudam more atque ritū adulantium canum crura.3.a saevientes ferae. -bris.III. Why was Androclus slower to recognize the lion? admirationi: 3. Tum quasi. -inis — vastness sonorus. toris. loquacior: perhaps he may be too verbose. repente quasi ubi: 16. Which animals at the display commanded the most attention? 2. spectator fui. vastitudine. Multae ibi cum: 16. Reading for Information 1. terrificoque fremitū et sonoro.I. -are — ripple vastitudo. -tis — surpassing fermē — almost praedico. -a. .XIII. -ere — confirmo. tamquam noscitabundus.5 animos oculosque omnium in sese converterat. -um — terrifying torus. -um — commend unfamiliar marvelous venditator — salesperson ferocia. praedo. factā: mutuā recognitione factā. Introductus erat inter complures ceteros ad pugnam bestiarum datos servus viri consularis. -ium — several .

-um — ritus. Reading for Information 1. latebra.3.III mihi: 3.” inquit. . gemitūs edens et murmura dolorem 3. -a. fail cruentus. -ae — hiding place penetro. -a.III. Why did Androclus run away from his master? 2. How did he imagine he would hide in Africa? 3. clementer — gently blandimentum. -are — recover sensim — gradually crus. -ere — inquire desum. -i — take . Neque multō post ad eandem specum venit debili . . -ēre — stroke almost congratulating each adulo. -ere — rub up attention admiror. 154 Annotated Readings consularis. flagranti: 3. “Africam proconsulari cum: 16. -nis — almost recognizing faint recognition cauda. consilium fuit mortem aliquo pacto quaerere. ego ibi iniquis eius et cotidianis verberibus: 3. Tum sole medio sole . -ere — hide accerso. illi . “Cum provinciam. si defuisset forent: 10.3 forent. -um — recognitio.I. in multō: 3.5 parsisset: 16.IV. -a. -ae — tail leniter — softly gratulabundus.III. -i — kind ously served as consul adiungo. -um — bloodied mirificus.V. in camporum et arenarum solitudines concessi ac. -are — enter incite arena. -ae — desert recondo. .V. -e — maddening cruciatus. -trocis — savage other The proceedings are stopped.I. -ūs — custom demulceo. -ūs — torment proconsular flagro.III. -ari — be surprised against recupero. -a. -ēri — study noscitabundus. -um — murmur.a imperio meus dominus obtinēret. -e — having previ. -a. pede: hic leo. -a. -are — fawn atrox. cruris — leg contueor.V cur illi atrocissimus leo uni parsisset. -ēre — receive nanciscor. -e — wounded quaero.III atque admirandam. -i — manner edo. -ere — summon solitudo. -um — raise. accersitumque a Caesare Androclum esse quaesitamque causam.1 verberibus ad fugam sum coactus et.4 cibus. -um — pactum. -a.V. . debili uno et cruento pede. Androclus begins to narrate their past encounter. The emperor (probably Gaius Caligula) inquires why the lion didn’t attack Androclus.4 dicit. -is — murmur proconsularis. -um — shady excitatus.14 rabido et flagranti specum quandam nanctus remotam latebrosamque. Ibi Androclus rem mirificam narrat admirandam: 17. -um — exanimatus.a si: 18. -ere — issue. -um — unjust latebrosus. .” prorsus — utterly iniquus.9 eam penetro et me recondo. -esse — lack.V. -ari — bewail obtineo.7.5 cruciatumque vulneris commiserantia. uni: 3. ut mihi a domino tutiores latebrae ut: 16. -a. -a. -dinis — isolation debilis. Why did he enter the cave? Eā re prorsus tam admirabili maximos populi clamores excitatos esse Apion Androclum: 3. -are — blazing commiseror. let out remarkable rabidus. .

-um — choice. Why did the lion enter the cave? 2. What two things were wrong with the lion’s paw? 3. A. By what means did the man make his food edible? sibi: 3.2.18 pedis eius haerentem.” inquit. in habitaculum suum.V. quae ego. pavefactus. ignis copiam non habens. Reading for Information 1. -ari — hunt delitesco. Animals and Nature 155 Androclus tells how he helped the lion. convicted. What became of Androclus and his lion? . -ēre — wash out subgero. medelā: detersi cruorem. -ere — lie down torreo. -a. is then related. -are — dry opimus. edere or esse — eat sanies.III. and condemned to the arena. -ere — bring accedo. revelli conceptamque saniem vulnere intimo accuratius: 6. -um — porrigo. Ibi ego stirpem ingentem. -a. -ēre — bake revello. -um — deep triennium. -i — three-year stricken exprimo. -ere — squeeze out period introgredior. Illā tunc meā operā et medelā levatus. meridiano sole torrens edebam.II expressi accuratiusque sine magnā iam formidine siccavi penitus atque operā. -e — mild penitus — completely best mansues.2 vı̄ctū: 3. videt me procul delitescentem.III vulnere: 3. -um — panic intimus.V. What three things happened because of the vote of the people? 3. mitis. -ere — reach out levo.1 in eādem specū eodemque et vı̄ctū viximus. vestigio gratiā: 8. -are — relieve noonday stirps. mitis et mansues accessit et sublatum pedem ostendere mihi et porrigere petendae: 17. -rpis — splinter recumbo. “Sed postquam introgressus. -ūs — food habitaculum.III quasi opis petendae gratiā visus est. -ere — rest edo. uti: 16. The epilogue to the story. -is — infection Finally. .d uti re ipsā apparuit. how they lived together for a time.1 pede . Nam. -i — lair formido. -suetis — gentle detergeo.3 Atque illīc primo quidem conspectū advenientis leonis territum sibi et pavefactum animum esse dixit. -a. recubuit et quievit. Reading for Information 1. -ere — pull out quiesco. “leo. -ere — try to hide sicco. pede in manibus 3. -i — enter accuratē — carefully vı̄ctus. . posito: meis posito. -a. -ae — treatment meridianus. -dinis — fear venor. membra opimiora ad specum mihi subgerebat.III. quas venabatur feras. we learn how Androclus left the lion and was captured.V.XIII. the ultimate fate of Androclus and the lion. How did Androclus get away from the lion? 2. atque ex eo die triennium totum ego et leo 13. How long did Androclus and the lion live together? 4. and on what food he survived. -ere — approach medela.

it traverse lorum.III.V. vitis: 13.2 sum. defecto palmite. -ere — it tires.1 ante oculos stabat.5. . -a. -i — leash wearies apprehendo. donari aere Androclum.III gratiam mihi nunc beneficii et medicinae referre.a “Sed ubi me vitae illius ferinae iam pertaesum est. atque hiemem tepidis spectabat Phoebus habenis. -i — vote pertaedet. rich children’s birthday parties.III.II. floribus spargi leonem.5 profecto.6 Androclum tradit. suffragium. -a. how were the circumstances of the pair similar? 2. Is me statim rei capitalis esse damnandum dandumque ad bestias rei capitalis: 3. 156 Annotated Readings me vitae: 20.’” ferinus. iam platanus iactare comas. How do you imagine the later fate of Androclus and the lion: making a little money off store grand openings. in the circus and in the cave. -iri — travel. reliqui specum et viam fermē tridui permensus a militibus visus leone . “videbamus Androclum loro: 3.II. If it has one.I. -ire — restrain venatus. atque ideō cunctis populo: 3.” Haec Apion dixisse beneficii. . “Posteā. -um — triduum.II. -i — three-day declaro. quidquid promiserat annus. leonemque suffragiis: 3. This pretty little poem on autumn captures that perfect moment when the season is at its height and the harvest has just been completed. hic est homo medicus leonis. -ere — seize revincio. profecto: 13.6.1 poenā: 3.III.III.V. -pitis — host Reading for Understanding 1. -are — declare encountering period ideō — for this reason hospes. medicinae: 3. -ere — lead back ubique — everywhere fermē — almost res capitalis — death penalty obvius.III. the Roman equivalent of late-night community-access TV? Verse Readings 1. 5 . et ad dominum ex Africā Romam deductus tridui: 3. At the two major encounters of Androclus and the lion.V. leone in venatum pertaesum est: 20. Which elements of the story strike you as credible? Which seem incredible? 3. -ūs — a hunt deduco. iam coeperat uvas defecto palmite: adnumerare suas. et poenā solutum esse.1 sum apprehensusque sum.” inquit.7 ei suffragiis populi donatum esse.1 et leonem. eaque omnia populo declarata esse. Intellego autem hunc quoque leonem me tunc separato captum dandumque: 17.8 Romam: 4. omnes ubique obvios dicere: ‘Hic est leo hospes hominis. what is the moral of this tale? 4. urbe totā circum tabernas ire. -um — uncivilized permetior.b esse damnandum curavit. loro tenui revinctum.19 petentibus dimissum esse Androclum. Iam nunc algentes autumnus fecerat umbras.

-a. The poet here lauds the joys of spring. sentio. folios sese induit arbor. Tempea: 3. Per cava saxa sonat pecudum mugitibus Echo. Zephyrisque animantibus orbem iam tepet Eurus aquis. Ityn impia mater accusative mensis: 3.III. 15 fronde maritatā vitea musta tument. iugis: 3. -i — sycamore tepidus. nōta tigilla linit. Laeta virecta tument.V.V. How does this poem remind the reader of summer and foreshadow winter? 2. -um — god) adnumero. A. -itis — foliage Reading for Understanding 1. fugit hiems. Sub platano viridi iucundat somnus in umbrā. Nōta tigilla linit iam garrula luce chelidon: dum recolit nidos. Sentio.10 Ityn: Greek Iam Philomela gemit modulis.19 voxque repulsa iugis per cava saxa sonat. et latē resonat monte tumultus aquae. sertaque texuntur sub platano viridi. -i — Sol (the sun platanus. Vitea musta tument vicinas iuncta per ulmos.7 or vallibus apricis laeta virecta tument. 3. Which of the images presented here best epitomizes for you the season of fall? 2. Animals and Nature 157 algeo. 20 . -ae — rein palmes.1 Tempeaque exhalant floribus innumeris. 10 Eoi: Greek genitive Floribus innumeris pingit sola flatus Eoi. 5 vallibus: 3. germinibusque novis parturit omnis ager.V. no less welcome in Mediterranean climes than farther north.I. persentit terra calores. -are — count lukewarm habena. fugit hiems.V. Parturit omnis ager. -ēre — chill Phoebus.9 oblatum mensis iam Philomela gemit. monte: 3.18 Monte tumultus aquae properat per levia saxa.

and death in lines 19–22). This poem describes the natural effects that time has on all things.V. -ere — unravel Itys. the first two.VI inter et amplexūs tunc quoque dulce mori. -onis — swallow. -e — green induo. fusis: 3. three. 158 Annotated Readings dulce (est): 20.IV fila: 3. -ūs — rush. even those we consider strong and stable. twig Eurus. or four words. usū: 3.7 tempore ac longo fragile et caducum solvitur usū. The subject of this poem is poetically pretty familiar. -um — sunny viteus. what makes this poem succeed. To your think- ing.III. . embraces. -i — measure. -i — grape skin filum. labascit: tempore. The human presence in this idyllic scene is not very prominent (notice the 1st person singu- lars in lines 1 and 2 and the references to sleep.3. -i — elm fusus. and the diction and grammar are rather straightforward and unremarkable. -i — sycamore folius. swell maritatus. In form. -ūs — lowing viridis. videas: 15. -ae = the nightingale mustum. -i — greenery mugitus.19 Zephyrus. -inis — seed Greece platanus. frondis — foliage animo. tunc fila recurrite fusis— 20. if in fact it does? 3. and dying in the springtime of one’s life be- long more properly to Romantic than to Greco-Roman literature. Is this a virtue of the poem? 4. -ūs — breeze garrulus. -ere — don. tune iungo. Tunc quoque dulce mori. -a. -are — resound tigillum. -um — wedded tepeo. -a. three. -i — branch. spool killed and served as a meal to his father Reading for Understanding 1. -i — southeast wind flatus. this is an echoic poem: that is. -i — shuttle. put on repello.II quamlibet firmum videas. -ire — feel Eos. -um — of the vine sertum.V. calor. -a. Omne quod Natura parens creavit. -are — delight apricus. Poetic connections between lovemaking. -i — garland Philomela. -ēre — grow warm resono. -i — west wind oblatum < offero frons. -ere — reverberate iucundo. -i — thread (of life) modulus. the descriptions are also fairly standard. -ris — warmth Tempea. or four words of each couplet also serve as its last two. -a. ulmus. Eoi — Dawn chelidon. Does the sensibility of this poem strike you as typically Roman? Can you think of anything to compare this poem to in the Latin you’ve read so far? 3. -are — bring to life tumultus. -yos — son of Philomela. -um — chatty persentio. sleep. -ere — entwine recurro. Does this contribute to the attractiveness of the poem or is it merely a technical virtuosity? 2. -orum — valley in swift germen.

-i — bud perago.V. 5 mutat et rectos via certa cursūs. -a. cum: 16.V. A. accusative plural nodo: 3. I. -ere — decline fluentum. -um — of iron Reading for Understanding 1. Per veris amoeni ingenium una dies ostendit spicula florum. -a. How do the exempla of the third stanza differ from those in the second? 3. pyramidas: Greek altera pyramidas nodo maiore tumentes.11 Amnis insuetā solet ire valle.1 anulus auro. wear caducus. for once spiculum. -i — tufa (soft volcanic attero. -a. Animals and Nature 159 valle: 3.V. -are — thin. -um — short scaber.a rupta cum cedit male pertinaci ripa fluento.3. -um — stone) anulus. -ere — complete . -idis — cone cup pleasant nodus.a splendet attrito digitos honorans auro: 3. Why does the poet describe only the destructive effects of time? Can you write a poem of comparable length describing time’s positive and constructive effects? 4. quamlibet — however much pertinax. ferreus vomis tenuatur agris. This section presents four engaging little poems on the subject of roses. What artful play with juxtaposition and word order do you see in lines 5 and 6? 4. Decidens scabrum cavat unda tofum. 10 digitos: 3. -ere — grind down insuetus.IV. -brum — rough down lived tofus. -i — thorn calathus. -a. -i — calix. -i — ring unaccustomed ferreus. totum lux quarta peregit floris opus. -eris — plow blade labasco. flood tenuo. -i — river. Pereunt hodiē nisi māne leguntur. -acis — unyielding vomis.18 tertia iam calathos. -um — pyramis. Vēnerunt aliquandō rosae. 5 aliquandō — now. flower amoenus.I. What is the structure of this poem and its three quatrains? 2.1. -bra.

dum: 16. A. Floris color et cruor unum est!” 10 libo. Prima papillatos ducebat tecta corymbos. -are — thrust out papillatus.1 et velare comas.3. -um — teeth marble bloodied defero. -rre — relate attingo. -a. mater. -ere — gnash one’s marmoreus. roseis circumdatus herbis. -ae — complaint . -inis — seed pod III.2 Dum puer hic passim properat decerpere flores dum: 16. -icis — tip germen. spinā libavit acutā marmoreos digitos.V. a — ah umbo. -um — nippled patefacio. 160 Annotated Readings II.III. affect tingo.III. tinxit sua lumina gutta. -ium — spines. -i — rose hip niteo.5 purpureis Aurora comis. aut hoc de pectine traxit sentibus: 3. -i — bud procedo. 5 quarta simul nituit nudati germine floris.III. -onis — swelling nodus. -a. -um — of sanguineus.a.V. dum virgineus pudor exsinuatur amictū. amictū: 3. coeperunt esse nocentes? latentibus armis: Unde tui flores pugnare latentibus armis? 3. -ere — touch. -ae — thorn IV.2 Nascebantur adhūc neque erat par omnibus aetas.III. defertque querellas: “Unde rosae. -ūs — limb frendo.2 gratus ager dominae.V. -ere — settle on sentes. -a. quem qui vīdisset amaret.i Dum levat una caput dumque explicat altera nodum.19 sīc. dominae: 3.i spinā: 3. -are — graze artus. -inis — comb Cypris.1 Bella gerunt mecum. tertia iam totum calathi patefecerat orbem. -ere — progress calathus.XIII. -ūs — covering corymbus. -ere — grow old puniceus. -i — flower cup.III. -um — exposed apex. pecten. Hortus erat Veneris.18 altera puniceos apices umbone levabat.II. Aut hoc risit Amor. lege māne rosas: cito virgo senescit. virgineus. -ere — open amictus. pereant: 16.XII amaret: 15.3. aut sentibus haesit spinis: 3. -a.1 ne pereant. -um — red nudatus. Mox ut dolor attigit artūs 5 sanguineamque manum.V. -ere — tinge querella. thorns spina.a. Pervēnit ad matrem frendens. quales ego māne rosas procedere vīdi! omnibus: 3. -um — virginal adhūc — already calyx exsinuo. -ēre — gleam senesco. vı̄disset: 16.XIII. -a.7 Cypris et hic spinis insedit sanguis acutis. -idis — Venus insido. -a. umbone: 3.

V. How many different kinds of flower does this poem name? 2. amnis. subter autem molle gramen flore adulto creverat: 5 et croco solum rubebat et lucebat liliis. flore pictus herbido. moverat: by which the voiced muse of the west wind’s breeze had pro- duced songs . putes: 15. Caerulas supernē laurūs et virecta myrtea sibilo: 3.V. Besides the red cultivars. Animals and Nature 161 Reading for Understanding 1. amnis: 3. At what point are human beings introduced into this natural setting? Are they accorded any description? valle: 3. 20 18.II Has per umbras omnis ales plus canora quam putes 15 cantibus vernis strepebat et susurris dulcibus. This poem describes in great natural detail a riverside scene of charm and beauty. . Inter ista dona veris gemmeasque gratias omnium regina odorum vel colorum Lucifer flamma: 3. . Reading for Information 1. flamma Diones. quā fluenta labibunda guttis ibant lucidis.1 hīc loquentis murmur amnis concinebat frondibus.V.1 quīs melos vocalis aurae musa Zephyri moverat. odora et musica ales. lucus.VIII auriflora praeminebat.II. rosa. 10 Diones: Greek genitive Roscidum nemus rigebat inter uda gramina.V. quı̄s: 7. What symbolic significance do you observe for thorns in some of these poems? Why don’t all of these poems mention thorns? 5. luce: 3. The effects rather than the functions of rose thorns are sometimes emphasized here.7 luce ridens calculorum. melos: Greek accusative Sīc euntem per virecta pulchra. imagine red whenever we think of roses? 3.14 Amnis ibat inter arva valle fusus frigidā. like the Romans.14 leniter motabat aura blandiente sibilo. et umbra iuverat. fonte crebro murmurabant hinc et inde rivuli. Why do we. antra muscus et virentes intus hederae vinxerant. Romans also had yellow and flame-colored roses. flos. A. What evidence can you find that in these poems roses have an erotic significance? Do they seem more of a female symbol or a male symbol? 2. quīs . et nemus fragrabat omne violarum sub spiritū. aura. How many different kinds of wild animal does this poem name? 3.

-are — wave.I. 162 Annotated Readings calculus. 10 novēre: 20. Dant rami cerasos. missura: 12. Of all the images that the poet has created in this poem. -i — cave lucus. -um — golden lucidus.2 hos tantum novēre dolos mea sordida rura. 5 mihi: 3. -a. The locus amoenus (attractive place) is a common topos in ancient literature. -um — shiny myrteus. -are — murmur vocalis. -a. -um — jeweled fluentum. -e — voiced adultus. -um — supernē — above Lucifer. -are — be fragrant intus — within Reading for Understanding 1. Does the riverside described in this poem seem like it could be real? 2. et vitae fugientis tempora vende .III. move Dione. -i — grove lilium. -ere — sound leniter — gently praemineo.III. -i — river stone viola. Sometimes it is a realistic place and sometimes rather utopian. -i — moss fragro. -i — crocus antrum. -a. somnos: 3. securo: 3.V. -a.3 Corycium mihi surgit olus malvaeque supinae. -ae — violet hedera. -um — dewy frons. -i — west wind crocus. libuit: 20. Palladiumque nemus pingui se vertice frangit. -i — song gramen.5 seu magis imbelles libuit circumdare cervos. Why does the poem end as abruptly as it does? 3. -a. -iri — coax roscidus. In the appreciation of this place. dant mala rubentia silvae. -i — river caerulus. -ndis — leafage sibilus. -a. mero: 3. -i — lily muscus. -a. -i — whisper rigeo. -i — laurel tree auriflorus. -um — leafy gemmeus.II et non sollicitos missura papavera somnos. -um — azure odor. -i — morning star gliding laurus.10 uvaque plena mero fecundā pendet ab ulmo.IV. -i — whisper moto. -um — grown rivulus. Iam quā diductos potat levis area fontes.1 aut tereti lino pavidum subducere piscem. This charming little poem is about the happiness that comes from living out a simple life amid the fruits of nature. I nunc. -es — mother of Venus concino. -ēre — stand erect melos. -um — myrtled flowered strepo. -a. -ae — ivy herbidus. -ēre — loom over susurrus. Does the poet give equal and/or appropriate attention to all four? 4.a alitibus: 3.V. -inis — grass murmuro. -ris — scent labibundus. which is your favorite? 6.1.3 Praetereā sive alitibus contexere fraudem. four of the five senses are called on. -i — rivulet Zephyrus. -ere — resound blandior.IX Parvula securo tegitur mihi culmine sedes. lino: 3. -a.III.

-i — branch malva.1 hīc. -i — apple papaverum. Animals and Nature 163 divitibus cenis: divitibus cenis! Me si manet exitus īdem. -i — fish line ulmus.V. -i — elm Corycium olus = kale subduco. sibi: 3. Then. .I. Why does the poet call hunting.18 Venator saltūs canibus quatit.7 atque exundantes profuso sanguine campos. Oppida bello 5 qui quatit et flammis miserandas eruit urbes. Qui causas orare solent. Is that a fair and complete picture? 7. 3.1 Somnia. in a sense. -um — Minerva’s fraus. -ae — courtyard linum. How is the space that the poet here creates bounded? What things manage to cross those boundaries? 3.V.1 urget membra quies. -ere — catch ramus. sleeplike. fishing. A. a continuation of our waking lives. tela videt versasque acies et funera regum sanguine: 3. -ere — draw teres. tenebris: 3. -a. deum: 1. -i — poppy Palladius. undis: 3. -inis — roof pinguis. quae mentes ludunt volitantibus umbris. -e — peaceful sedes.10 et pavidi cernunt inclusum chorte tribunal.V. precor. -ūs — end malum. legesque forumque chorte: 3. umbris: 3.V. Eripit undis periturus: 12. -ere — break cervus.I.III.V. -a.II.II aut premit eversam periturus navita puppem. -is — house frango.V. et canis in somnis leporis vestigia lustrat: 15 in noctis spatium miserorum vulnera durant. -dis — trap Reading for Understanding 1.1. -ae — mallow piscis.I culmen. -um — fertile area.3 sed sibi quisque facit. inveniat: 15.12 si: 18. dat adultera munus. -etis — smooth fecundus. -a. defossumque invenit aurum. -e — rich imbellis. -i — wine diduco. and birding doli? 2. tenebris agit. -um — drooping exitus. -i — deer merum. It observes how our dreams are. inveniat consumptaque tempora poscat.V. The only aspect of life outside its cozy.1 quidquid luce fuit.c non delubra deum nec ab aethere numina mittunt. the poem breaks off abruptly.b sopore: 3. Scribit amatori meretrix. 10 Condit avarus opes. -i — cherry supinus. Nam cum prostrata sopore cum: 16. This fascinating poem offers an almost psychological study of dreams.3. et mens sine pondere ludit. -is — fish cerasus. bounded world that the poem mentions is the divites cenae of others.

164 Annotated Readings somnium. -ris — deep sleep includo. The conventional wisdom in Greco-Roman times was that dreams were divinely inspired. -ari — pity defodio. a position this poem contradicts. intriguing in a variety of ways. What does Favonius. wouldn’t it be more comforting to imagine that dreams are god sent? 8. Given this. orbis: 3. -ere — turn aside everto. ver iam canorum. -eris — weight tribunal. Do you believe that sometimes a dream can be externally inspired? 3. -ere — surround lepus. Reading for Information 1.I. -i — miser duro. -a. vere nubunt alites. -um — profuse meretrix. The poem ends on a rather pessimistic note. -icis — prostitute prosterno. do? amet: 15. -ere — wreck volito. -is — stern (of a ship) delubrum. -ere — smash avarus. ver renatus orbis est. -ris — lover aether. -are — be awash amator. -is — heaven profusus. -are — track pondus. simply enough. vere concordant amores. -are — flit acies. -ei — battle line puppis. could be categorized as a love poem or as a poem on religion. Whom will Venus lead in the forests tomorrow? 2. In what respect do dreams “play with the mind” (mentes ludunt)? 2.I Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. -i — dream verto. -ēre — press chorte = cohorte lustro. -ere — perceive adultera. -is — hunter Reading for Understanding 1. -oris — hare urgeo. 5 * * * Cras amorum copulatrix inter umbras arborum . It opens. -i — span. interval quatio. et nemus comam resolvit de maritis imbribus. -is — jury panel spatium. -ere — dig up eruo. This poem. As it progresses. the west wind. -ae — adulteress sopor. -ere — lay out cerno. -ere — destroy venator. What will Venus do from her throne? 3. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. in praise of spring and then introduces the goddess Venus—who will hold a festival—with a tactful allusion to the myth of her birth. -are — persevere miseror. -i — sanctuary exundo. Does the poem provide a realistic balance between phobic dreams and wish-fulfillment dreams? Why does it make no mention of surreal or fantastical dreams? 4. a kind of poetic biology emerges.2 Ver novum.

-a.1 cras Dione iura dicit fulta sublimi throno. chorus gemma. 20 * * * canorus. -um — spumeus. -um — shiny casa. What has Venus ordered the roses to do? 2. tunc cruore de superno spumeo et ponti globo. -i — bud. -are — weave caterva. -a. -um — flowery together in harmony thronus. -ēre — press imber.I. -a. -i — sprig undo. -a. Who will accompany the nymphs in the myrtle grove? 3. -ere — let down supernum. pergola bipes equus = seahorse umeo. -um — azure tepeo. -i — be reborn fultus. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. -um — tuneful Dione. Next Venus orders nymphs to commence the festival. -i — sea urgeo. ipsa turgentes papillas de Favoni spiritū urget in nodos tepentes. Animals and Nature 165 implicat casas virentes de flagello myrteo: cras canoris feriatos ducit in silvis choros. -ēre — grow warm implico. -ae — bud. How is it known whether or not Cupid is on vacation from his duties? . -are — come up on floridus. fecit undantem Dionem de maritis imbribus. belt knot copulatrix. -um — propped purple concordo. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. -i — west wind husbandlike pontus. nipple maritus. -ae — arbor. A. spargit umentes aquas. ipsa roris lucidi. throno: 3. -es = Venus purpuro. caerulas inter catervas. -a. -i — a round mass nodus.4 Cras erit cum primum Aether copulavit nuptias. -ae — throng lucidus. 15 * * * Ipsa gemmis purpurantem pingit annum floridis. -a. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. -tricis — coupler caerulus.V. noctis aura quem relinquit. -um — frothy Favonius. -are — surge chorus. -are — grow red or renascor. inter et bipedes equos. -ēre — swell resolvo. Reading for Information 1. -bri — rain globus. -ae — gem The poet describes how the dew helps the rosebuds to open. 10 * * * cum: 16. exposing their brilliant color. -i — heaven papilla. -i — choir. -i — throne turgeo. -ēre — dampen flagellum. -a.

Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. 25 * * * En pudorem florulentae prodiderunt purpurae. -ere — produce marita. posuit arma. -um — calm emico. -ere — shimmer florulentus. -ēre — moisten recens. -mitis — companion roro. si sagittas vexerit. -um — moist umor.V. -um — fiery caducus.V. 166 Annotated Readings Emicant lacrimae trementes de caduco pondere: orbe: 3. nodis: 3. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. ut: 16. 30 * * * Facta Cypridis de cruore deque Amoris osculo. -i — gown rubor. -um — igneus. virgines: 3. -ae — arrow umeo.19 uvido marita nodo non pudebit solvere.6 Umor ille.18 gutta praeceps orbe parvo sustinet casūs suos. Nymphae. -a.I esse Amorem feriatum.1 ut recenti māne nudae virgines nubant rosae. qui latebat veste tectus igneā. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. -ris — dampness prodo. Ipsa iussit diva vestem de papillis solvere. -a. -are — bedew tepeo. -um — falling blooming uvidus.3 it puer comes puellis: nec tamen credi potest credi: 12. What does Venus want from the goddess Diana? For how long will she want it? 3. nodo: 3.19 māne virgineas papillas solvit umenti peplo. noctibus: 3. -ntis — fresh peplum. -a.V. feriatus est Amor. Reading for Information 1.III. What other gods will be present at the festival? . cras ruborem. -a. -ēre — grow warm sagitta. 35 * * * Ipsa Nymphas diva luco iussit ire myrteo: puellis: 3. -ris — pinkness Next we learn about other gods and whether or not they will attend Venus’s festival.III.VIII Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. -ae — bride serenus. -a.18 et rosarum flamma nodis emicat tepentibus.V. Why does Venus order Cupid to come naked to the festival? 2. 40 * * * tremo. peplo: 3. quem serenis astra rorant noctibus. deque gemmis deque flammis deque Solis purpuris. -are — flash comes. Ite.V.

Reading for Information 1. pergola arcus. -um — saltus. -a. -i — song (a Greek island) caterva. 60 * * * inermis.IV Detenenda tota nox est. A.1 neu quid arcū.III. Who “grafted” Trojans onto Latins and mated Sabines with Romans? . -are — reign incruentus.1. 55 * * * Floreas inter coronas. 45 * * * pudore: 5. 50 * * * si: 18. perviglanda canticis: canticis: 3.V. -a.I. -is — slaughter pervig(i)lo. nudus ire iussus est. chorus awake Delius.IV ut nemus sit incruentum de ferinis stragibus floribus: 3. -um — wild casa. -um — flowery The poem now shifts from Venus’s festival to her function as the procreative force in all living things. virgo Delia. Delia! Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet.V.3 et recentibus virentes ducat umbras floribus. What does Venus tell the nymphs about trusting Cupid? 3. -um — of Delos congrex. quid: 7. neu sagittā.a ipsa vellet ut venires. si pudicam flecteret.a Sed tamen.II. Which gods will flank Venus as she presides over the festival? 2. myrteas inter casas.7. -ūs — grove unbloodied floreus. decēret: 20. neu quid igne laederet. -a. -i — choir.2 Iam tribus choros vidēres feriatos noctibus noctibus: 4.III.III. si decēret virginem.3 Ipsa vellet te rogare.III or 16. neu: 16.1 regnet: 15. Venus becomes a divine abstraction as well as a force of nature and an agent in history. quandō nudus est Amor.I regnet in silvis Dione: tu recede. vidēres: 15. perviglanda: 17. -e — unarmed ferinus.VI. -is — similar chorus. -gregis — assembled canticum. -are — stay compar. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet.1 congreges inter catervas ire per saltūs tuos. cavete. nec Ceres. ut: 16. quod Cupido pulcher est: totus est in armis īdem. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. -ae — arbor. Una res est quam rogamus: cede. Animals and Nature 167 Iussus est inermis ire. nec poetarum deus. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet.5 Compari Venus pudore mittit ad te virgines. Nymphae. nec Bacchus absunt.II. -a. -ūs — bow strages. -ae — throng regno.

Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. quantus Ennae campus est. 70 * * * ut: 16. nourish adsideo.V. -ere — proceed praeses. -sedis — chief Enna. praeses ipsa iura dicet. Hybla. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet.b unde fetūs perque pontum perque caelum pergeret corpore: 3. Hybla.5 iussit et nudo puellas nil Amori credere. -a.V.3 imbuit. 168 Annotated Readings floribus: 3. quidquid annus attulit. -rre — bring pergo. -um — nurturing guberno.III. -ere — inhabit vena.V. Amori: 3. 75 * * * Ipsa venas atque mentem permeanti spiritū intus occultis gubernat procreatrix viribus.7 ipsa duxit.III. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet.1 perque terras mixtus omnes alere magno corpore. 85 * * * Hyblaeus. nascendi: 17. florum sume vestem. adsidebunt Gratiae. -ae — field in Sicily alo. nubibus: 3. quaeque silvas. -are — guide. -a. 65 * * * Ruris hīc erunt puellae vel puellae montium. Iussit omnes adsidere pueri mater alitis. ipsa venis procreantem spiritum nosse: 20. Romuleas ipsa fecit cum Sabinis nuptias. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet.III Pervium sui tenorem seminali tramite tramite: 3.18 in sinum maritus imber fluxit almae coniugis.III Ut pater totum crearet vernis annum nubibus. pergeret: 16. totos funde flores. 80 * * * sui: 7. -i — sea govern .2. -ēre — sit in incolo. -are — permeate Hybla.I.II Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. quaeque lucos. -ae — mountain in almus.17 Iussit Hyblaeis tribunal stare diva floribus. quaeque fontes incolunt. Ipsa Troianos nepotes in Latinos transtulit. Greece pontus.V. -ere — flow permeo. -ae — vein attendance fluo. -ere — feed. iussitque mundum nosse nascendi vias.III.1 perque caelum perque terras perque pontum subditum venis: 3. -um — of Hybla adfero.

a osculis: 3. ut tacēre desinam? .III. Animals and Nature 169 procreatrix. coniugali foedere. ut: 16. 20.V. -ere — set beneath pervius. what does the poet claim that she or he is experiencing? Ipsa Laurentem puellam coniugem nato dedit. queri: 12. -a.IV Hunc.1 Iam loquaces ore rauco stagna cygni perstrepunt: adsonat Terei puella subter umbram pōpuli. -are — procreate As the poem wraps up. -ris — course. 95 * * * Ecce.d et neges queri sororem de marito barbaro. it briefly touches on Venus’s role in history. Quandō ver venit meum? ut: 16. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet.3. quisque tutus. ipsa suscepit sinū. et canoras non tacēre diva iussit alites.2. 100 * * * ore: 3. -e — seed strewn procreo. -um — accessible seminalis.III Quandō fiam uti chelidon. iam super genestas explicant tauri latus. dici. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet.c Romuli. rure natus dicitur.1. ager cum parturiret.V. nature. In the last quatrain. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. nos tacemus. A. balantum gregem. 105 * * * Illa cantat.II. 90 * * * Rura fecundat voluptas. and mythology again. quo tenetur. patrem crearet et nepotem Caesarem. and then in the final stanza the poet speaks up in the first person. trames.I ipse Amor. puer Dionae. Reading for Information 1.b unde Ramnes et Quirites proque prole posterum posterum: 1. Subter umbras cum maritis.I.3. cum: 16. moxque Marti de sacello dat pudicam virginem: unde: 16. -ricis — tenor. -mitis — path procreatrix movement subdo. ecce.14 ipsa florum delicatis educavit osculis. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. natus (esse): 12.I. after more than a hundred lines of poetry. What creatures of nature does the poet now mention? 3. rura Venerem sentiunt.II ut putes motūs amoris ore dici musico. rure: 4.I. What other Roman matings and offspring was Venus responsible for? 2.

How effectively does this poem work as a creative fusion of biological imperatives. What different forms does the concept of love take on in this poem? Are there some forms of love conspicuously absent here? 2. -acis — noisy respicio. -a. cum tacērent.7 Perdidi Musam tacendo. -arum — town in fecundo. In our culture. alliance motus. -eris — flank Terei puella = nightingale Ramnes — an early Roman coniugalis. flock swift patrem = Julius Caesar loquax. -i — shrine genesta. How does this poem show us nature in a very personal light? 3. -ūs — motion Quirites — early Romans subter — beneath queror. posterus. They were. -e — conjugal pōpulus. -a. -i — complain proles. however. What role does the sense of hearing have in this poem? Supplemental Readings 1. cum: 16. -eris — bond. religious awe. -are — make fertile stagnum. Cras amet qui numquam amavit quique amavit cras amet. -i — lake Greece suscipio. -egis — herd. -are — raise over sacellum. The Romans were not especially good natural scientists. and primal love as figured in the goddess Venus? 4. -is — offspring balo. -ere — sound natus = Aeneas educo. -are — call out virgo = Rhea Silvia latus.II. -nis — swallow. -ere — regard nepotem = Augustus raucus. perdidit silentium. -a. 170 Annotated Readings tacendo: 17.I. -ere — take cygnus. -um — delicate perstrepo. -i — swan Reading for Understanding 1. Reading for Information 1. What past pleasure had the narrator experienced on these shores? O litus vitā mihi dulcius! O mare felix cui licet ad terras ire subinde meas! O formosa dies! Hōc quondam rure solebam Naiadas alternā sollicitare manū! Hīc fontis lacus est. -i — poplar tree tribe foedus. nec me Phoebus respicit. quite good re- ligionists and poets. -are — bleat chelidon. The delight of landfall at one’s home after a long voyage is the subject of this poem. illīc sinus egerit algas: 5 . we tend to view nature rather impersonally. -ae — broom grass adsono. 3.1 Sīc Amyclas. -um — later grex. -um — raucous Amyclae. 110 Laurens puella = Lavinia delicatus.V.

or that after all his experiences. 5 et rauco trahitur lubrica concha sono. he has lived a full life? 2. -i — mussel attrita < attero Reading for Understanding 1. discolor attritā calculus exit humo. -ere — flow back mytilus. hactenus iratum mare nōverit. Pervixi. This poem offers a distinctively Roman appreciation of beachcombing. does he mean that now. -ere — wash. Ecological and environmental studies have informed us much. subinde — presently statio. Animals and Nature 171 haec statio est tacitis fida cupidinibus. we have benefited from the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. neque enim Fortuna malignior umquam eripiet nobis quod prior hora dedit. . does this depiction capture all the appropriate sensations. -ae — sea snail refundo. A. 10 hactenus — up to this point abluo. Haec quisquis calcare potest. The contrast here between seafaring and being a beach bum is very attractive. he has survived his ordeal. Ecce recurrentes quā versat fluctus arenas. And when it comes to human nature. on making landfall. nec cogere fata mollia praecipiti rumpere fila manū. When the poet writes pervixi (line 7). -um — unkind Nais. securos abluit unda pedes. Naiadis — water nymph pervivo. -a. Ecce inter virides iactatur mytilus algas. -nis — harbor malignus. Is the poet’s description of swimming (Naiadas alternā sollicitare manū) effective or a little too precious? 2. in litore tuto ludat et hoc solum iudicet esse mare. Ecce refuso gurgite. but is it realistic? 2. Compared with your impressions of the seashore or the lakeshore. Qui non vult properare mori. The following aphorisms reveal that the Romans had some notions about nature very different from ours. lave concha. or would you add others? 3. -ere — survive Reading for Understanding 1. both bad and good.

homini: use of dative? nulli magis parcendum quam homini. cum indignum roges. cum: type? Cum tibi proponas animalia bruta timore. dative? Omnes infantes terra nudos excipit: pudet: type of verb? non te pudet sordidius vivere quam nasci? sordidius: adjective or adverb? possis: use of Morieris: stultum est timēre. scito: what form? tibi: use of dative? esse: use of infinitive? Dat legem natura tibi. quā nascimur et tumulamur. subjunctive? cum: type? ducas: use of Nihil proprium ducas quicquid mutari potest. Virum bonum natura. subjunctive? Nil non aut lenit aut domat diuturnitas. what verb? laedas: use of Ingenuitatem laedas. ablative? Imago animi sermo est: qualis est vir. Ingenuitas non recipit contumeliam. Spina etiam grata est. talis oratio. nisi animus magna despiciens. quod gaudet intellegi. ne iterum quaeratur rosa. quaeratur: use of subjunctive? si: type of Si fatum est. timendum: gerund or gerundive? Terra omnis patria est. arte: use of ablative? Nullum morosius est animal maioreque arte tractandum quam homo: et nulli. timore: use of ablative? unum hominem scito tibi praecipuē esse timendum. quod vitare non possis. quid times quod certum est? condition? homini: use of Quid est homini inimicissimum? Alter homo. manū: use of Omne manū factum consumit longa vetustas. subjunctive? Nihil magnum est in rebus humanis. facit. 172 Annotated Readings dii deos: ellipsis of Natura vincit naturam et dii deos. defloruerit: tense? Quae defloruerit. non accipit ipsa. non ordo. . quae non vult praedicari. Mira ratio est. ex qua spectatur rosa.

-um — childbirth Apollonian . parit. cum protulit. somno: use of ablative? Stultum est somno delectari et mortem horrēre. In our culture. -tatis — length vetustas. Sīc format linguā fetum. -is — bee protulit < profero Lucina. What evidence do you see for that ideology in these maxims? 2. -are — give shape to chelys. Sīc sine concubitū textis apis excita ceris fervet. 10 formo. quae sanari ratione non poterant. -ēre — fill Phoebeus. sanata sunt tempore. -nis — likeness Reading for Understanding 1. ratione: use of ablative? tempore: use of Saepe ea. Non uno contenta valet natura tenore. nullo iunctus amore. A description of zoological diversity. -ēre — deflower delecto. -are — delight brutus. A. et audaci milite castra replet. -ae — goddess of repleo. we have the ideology that nature and humanity are interdependent and func- tion in partnership. sed permutatas gaudet habēre vices. What views about human nature do you find expressed here? Do you share these views? 3. ablative? ingenuitas. -a. -tatis — diuturnitas. this poem offers a glimpse of the Romans’ general knowledge of natural science. -lis — turtle apis. -are — praise imitatio. Unlike other birds. -are — bury generositas. Reading for Information 1. -tatis — posterity generosity of time defloreo. nixū resolutā favente 5 Lucinā. How do bear cubs take their form? 3. Sīc Phoebea chelys. -tatis — nobility tumulo. where do the gods seem to belong in the “ecosystem” that the Romans un- derstood? Are the intersections between theology and ecology like those identified in our culture? 4. corvus maturis frugibus ōva refert. -a. -um — brute praedico. How do tortoises keep their eggs warm? Sīc contrā rerum naturae munera nōta. tepidis naribus ōva fovet. et piscis. Animals and Nature 173 generositas: subject or complement? Nobilitas animi generositas sensus. ursa. From what you see here. when do crows supposedly lay their eggs? 2. cum somnus adsiduus sit cum: type? mortis imitatio.

nec tantum aestivos hiemisve propinquus ad ortūs. -um — exsupero. a mythical animal. Reading for Information 1. 5 nec tumulus crescit nec cava vallis hiat. per bis sex ulnas imminet ille locus. oriens. Which calamities. both human and natural. Hīc Solis nemus est: et consitus arbore multā lucus perpetuae frondis honore virens. -ei — plain (would-be charioteer Deucalion (the Greco- tractus. What is unique about the tree found in this grove? . -um — of planities. -are — rise above scatter untouched Phaetontaeus. What two mythological events did the grove remain untouched by? Est locus in primo felix oriente remotus. et cum diluvium mersisset fluctibus orbem Deucalionaeas exsuperavit aquas. opens with a description of the bird’s “natural” habitat. Without rain. This poem. 10 Cum Phaetontaeis flagrasset ab ignibus axis. -i — deluge Next. quorum iuga celsa putantur. diluvium. The grove of Sol is found in which direction? 2. sed nostros montes. sed quā Sol verno fundit ab axe diem. Illīc planities tractūs diffundit apertos. ille locus flammis inviolatus erat. Reading for Information 1. quā patet aeterni maxima porta poli. -a. about the Phoenix. we see just how unique the Phoenix is. -a. -ūs — region of the sun) Roman Noah) consero. 174 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. Does the depiction of nature being flexible and dynamic strike you as accurate (despite the dubious illustrative examples)? 5. are absent from the grove? 2. we learn of some of the utopian features of the Phoenix’s habitat. -ere — inviolatus. -a. The first line and the last couplet of the poem offer the most interesting propositions. how is the plain watered? 3. -tis — east -um — of Phaeton Deucalionaeus. At what altitude is the grove? Is it mountainous or flat? 3. From the very start of this account.

-um — arboreal vesanus. A. quater e vivo gurgite libat aquam. 35 cum primum roseā sidera luce fugat. -um — clear stipes. -um — pannus. . -are — water unspeakable insomnis. Lutea cum primum surgens Aurora rubescit. lenis. Nulla super campos tendit sua vellera nubes nec cadit ex alto turbidus umor aquae. What does the Phoenix do each day at the start of dawn? 3. -a. -itis — trunk obsero. Animals and Nature 175 Non hunc exsangues Morbi. -a. -e — sleepless arboreus. 30 infandus. -i — rag irrigo. Ter. -tatis — need perspicuus. -ere — cover in duodeciens — twelve times The Phoenix spends each morning in a variety of activities. Reading for Information 1. 40 et conversa novos Phoebi nascentis ad ortūs exspectat radios et iubar exoriens. Luctus acerbus abest et Egestas obsita pannis et Curae insomnes et violenta Fames. -a. Ast ubi Sol pepulit fulgentis limina portae et primi emicuit luminis aura levis. Hīc genus arboreum procero stipite surgens non lapsura solo mitia poma gerit. To whom does the Phoenix sing? How is her song distinctive? Hoc nemus. -um — mad turbidus. -a. ter. Qui semel erumpens per singula tempora mensum duodeciens undis irrigat omne nemus. unica. quater illa pias immergit corpus in undas. 20 Non ibi tempestas nec vis furit horrida venti nec gelido terram rore pruina tegit. -um — swollen procerus. -a. dulcibus uber aquis. quae totum despicit una nemus. -a. quem vivum nomine dicunt. sed fons in medio est. Paret et obsequitur Phoebo memoranda satelles: hoc Natura parens munus habēre dedit. To which god is the Phoenix sacred? 2. Tollitur ac summo considit in arboris altae vertice. hos lucos avis incolit unica Phoenix. -um — tall egestas. 25 perspicuus. si vivit morte refecta suā. non aegra Senectus 15 nec Mors crudelis nec Metus asper adest nec Scelus infandum nec opum vesana Cupido aut Pavor aut ardens caedis amore Furor.

176 Annotated Readings incipit illa sacri modulamina fundere cantūs 45 et mirā lucem voce ciēre novam. Tum legit aerio sublimem vertice palmam. Cumque renascendi studio loca sancta reliquit. . Mors ubi regna tenet. Reading for Information 1. 60 ut reparet lapsum spatiis vergentibus aevum. as is the evening of her life. hīc ubi per saltūs silva remota latet. -are — imitate satelles. tunc petit hunc orbem. -i — yield modulamen. Phoebe. lubricus aut serpens aut avis ulla rapax. Derigit in Syriam celeres longaeva volatūs. Atque eadem celeres etiam discriminat horas 55 innarrabilibus nocte dieque sonis. when she leaves the grove of Sol. -a. -minis — melody adsimulo. -um — Delphic. At the end of her life. adsueti nemoris dulce cubile fugit. -itis — attendant aedonius. antistes luci nemorumque verenda sacerdos et sola arcanis conscia. 70 in quam nulla nocens animans prorepere possit. What does the Phoenix do at day’s end? 2. -a. 65 Phoenicen nomen cui dedit ipsa vetus. Mercury’s quater — four times Apollonian The evening of the Phoenix’s day is now described. -are — banish Cirrheus. -um — olor. Quae postquam vitae iam mille peregerit annos at sibi reddiderint tempora longa gravem. -um — fugo. 50 obsequor. -ris — swan rubesco. quae Graium Phoenix ex ave nomen habet. sed neque olor moriens imitari posse putetur nec Cylleneae fila canorae lyrae. -ere — grow red nightingale’s Cylleneus. What is the Phoenix’s natural life span? 3. when she starts her final migration. where does she fly to? On what kind of tree does she settle? Postquam Phoebus equos in aperta effudit Olympi atque orbem totum protulit usque illa ter alarum repetito verbere plaudit igniferumque caput ter venerata silet. tuis. -a. Securosque petit deserta per avia lucos. Quam nec aedoniae voces nec tibia possit musica Cirrheis adsimilare modis.

80 quos aut Pygmeae gentes aut India carpit aut molli generat terra Sabaea sinū. Animals and Nature 177 ignifer. -e — adsuetus. -ere — stalk indescribable derigo. -esse — harm. obsum. -ere — bend. Cinnamon hic auramque procul spirantis amomi congerit et mixto balsama cum folio. -um — Greek innarrabilis. Construit inde sibi seu nidum sive sepulcrum: nam perit ut vivat. -i — god of winds Notus. -orum — gusts. nec . se tamen ipsa creat. nubes: a cloud mass condensed by the south wind 86. -um — secret aerius. -i — south wind Assyrius. tunc inter varios animam commendat odores. . what does she do with the things she has accumulated? Tum ventos claudit pendentibus Aeolus antris. Panachaea. -a. Reading for Information 1. non olentis vimen acanthi 85 nec turis lacrimae guttaque pinguis abest. -um — familiar prorepo. the Phoenix finally gives herself up to death. -a. -um — Assyrian flabra. 75. turn Graius. Pygmeus. A. ne violent flabris āera purpurum. -acis — predatory antistes. depositi tanti nec timet illa finem. . -a. -um — fiery arcanus. -a. -ūs — flight Building her last nest and filling it with special substances. Protinus instructo corpus mutabile nido vitalique toro membra vieta locat. After she settles back in her nest. neu concreta Noto nubes per inania caeli 75 submoveat radios solis et obsit avi. 90 Ore dehinc sucos membris circumque suprāque inicit exsequiis immoritura suis. -um — thick. -ēre — drive off Arabs. -um — lofty discrimino. Non casiae mitis. -are — mark off vergo. blasts submoveo. -um — of condensed hinder Pygmies . pinguis: nor tears of incense but [there was] a fat drop [of it] Aeolus. -bis — Arabian concretus. -a. In what sense is the Phoenix’s last nest both a casket and a cradle? 2. -stitis — master. -a. quos opulentus Arabs. Colligit huic sucos et odores divite silvā. quos legit Assyrius. -ere — direct rapax. volatus. What are some of the things she brings to her nest? What do they all have in common? 3. tuae. -a. concreta . -a. . . His addit teneras nardi pubentis aristas et sociat myrrae vim.

-ae — mythical Sabaeus. -um — starry . -ere — extinguish instar — like papilio. -a. ablative? proferat: use of donec maturam proferat effigiem. -i — balsam arista. -um — Arabian (plant) island in the Arabian Sea cinnamon. -ae — India acanthus. -is — cinnamon nardum. -is — worm implumis. ablative? cum: type? ac velut agrestes. -i — balsam shrub pubens. What change does her body now undergo? 2. -um — milky feathers massa. where does she long to fly? morte: use of Intereā corpus genitali morte peremptum 95 ablative? aestuat et flammam parturit ipse calor. -a. -i — nard balsam vietus. As she matures. 115 ablative? reditura: what evolat ad patrias iam reditura domos. -are — breathe on pullulo. filo: use of ablative? papilione: use of mutari tineae papilione solent. 100 Hinc animal primum sine membris fertur oriri. and the Phoenix is reborn. -ntis — flourishing dehinc — from here balsamum. -a. -nis — butterfly aetherius. -e — reproductive effectus. 178 Annotated Readings India. -are — reform ambrosius. 110 nectare: use of ablative? Ambrosios libat caelesti nectare rores. -a. his mediis alitur in odoribus ales. form? genitalis. -a. -ae — caterpillar perimo. -i — die casia. -e — without ambustus. what is her first food? 4. et effectum seminis instar habet. -um — withered amomum. -ūs — effect tinea. subjunctive? iuventā: use of Ast ubi primaevā coepit florēre iuventā. umore: use of Quos velut in massam cineres umore coactos ablative? conflat. vermi: use of sed fertur vermi lacteus esse color: dative? creverit immensum subitō cum tempore certo seque ovi teretis colligit in speciem. -um — ambrosial conflo. -ae — wild cinnamon Miraculous transformations now touch her remains. -ae — crest. -a. -i — bear’s-foot Panachaea. -um — burned lactaeus. What first grows from the ash? What does it metamorphose into? 3. -ae — heap reformo. -a. figurā: use of Inde reformatur quali fuit ante figurā 105 ablative? exuviis: use of et Phoenix ruptis pullulat exuviis. ablative? Non illi cibus est nostro consuetus in orbe cuiquam: use of dative? nec cuiquam implumem pascere cura subest. beard immorior. Reading for Information 1. -are — hatch stellifer. cum filo ad saxa tenentur. cecidēre: syncopation of stellifero tenues qui cecidēre polo. -um — ethereal vermis. After her rebirth. what? polo: use of Hos legit. aetherioque procul de lumine concipit ignem: flagrat et ambustum solvitur in cineres.

-ere — open balsamic corium. Animals and Nature 179 Before making a pilgrimage to Egyptian Heliopolis. Reading for Information 1. How is the color of the Phoenix described? 3. What does her tail look like? Ante tamen. the Phoenix cleans up her nest. -um — magenta balsameus. -inis — ointment conglobo. Reading for Information 1. proprio quicquid de corpore restat. -um — ball pando. Albicat insignis mixto viridante smaragdo 135 et puro cornū gemmea cuspis hiat. How are her legs described? 3. 126. 120 Quam pedibus gestans contendit Solis ad urbem inque arā residens ponit in aede sacrā. To what other birds is she compared? Alarum pennas lux pingit discolor. Principio color est qualis sub sidere caeli 125 mitia quem corio punica grana tegunt. -a. Iris pingere ceu nubes desuper acta solet. What does her beak look like? 2. tegunt: which tender pomegranates protect with their rind unguen. Hoc umeri pectusque decens velamine fulget. ossaque vel cineres exuviasque suas. unguine balsameo myrrāque et ture soluto condit et in formam conglobat ore pio. . Mirandam sese praestat praebetque videnti: tantus avi decor est. The poet now begins a physical description of the bird. What does the Phoenix do with the “afterbirth” of her regeneration? 2. cum pandit vestes Flora rubente polo. quae fert agreste papaver. in cuius maculis purpura mixta rubet. hoc caput. -i — skin velamen. tantus abundat honor. -a. A. -minis — veil The poet’s description of the Phoenix’s marvelous appearance continues. Qualis inest foliis. hoc cervix summaque terga nitent. . -are — roll into a punicus. mitia . . 130 caudaque porrigitur fulvo distincta metallo.

-bis — Arabian viridor. In what ways does Egypt greet her arrival? 2. mox redit. Contrahit in coetum sese genus omne volantum: 155 nec praedae memor est ulla nec ulla metūs. Sed postquam puri pervenit ad aetheris auras. ast ungues roseo tingit honore color. -ari — shine green Apollonian incessus. quorum de medio lucida flamma micat. -ūs — gait cuspis. Non tamen est tarda. Magna itidem terris Arabum quae gignitur ales 145 vix aequare potest. -um — glittering magna ales = ostrich albico. What kind of escort is she given? 3. seu fera seu fit avis. 180 Annotated Readings Ingentes oculos credas geminosque hyacinthos. Reading for Information 1. head squama. -pidis — peak. regali plena decore: talis in aspectū se tenet usque hominum. As the poet brings the poem to a close. ista suis conditur inde locis. Sed levis ac velox. 160 A fortunatae sortis finisque volucrem. Effigies inter pavonis mixta figuram cernitur et pictam Phasidis inter avem. -a. What do we learn about her gender and sexuality at the poem’s end? Are these things consid- ered good? 4. -a. Aptata est toto capiti radiata corona Phoebei referens verticis alta decus. -i — hyacinth Phasidis avis = pheasant desuper — from above radiatus. What is the paradox of the Phoenix’s immortality? Hūc venit Aegyptus tanti ad miracula visūs et raram volucrem turba salutat ovans. cui de se nasci praestitit ipse deus! . -ae — scale Heliopolis receives the Phoenix with pomp and pageantry. -um — Arabs. 150 Iris — goddess of rainbows hyacinthus. -are — whiten Phoebeus. Protinus exsculpunt sacrato in marmore formam et signant titulo remque diemque novo. it presents the bird’s biology. ut volucres quae corpore magno incessūs pigros per grave pondus habent. Alituum stipata choro volat illa per altum turbaque prosequitur munere laeta pio. 140 Crura tegunt squamae fulvo distincta metallo.

A. Animals and Nature 181

Femina vel mas haec, seu neutrum, seu sit utrumque,
felix quae Veneris foedera nulla colit;
mors illi venus est, sola est in morte voluptas: 165
ut possit nasci, appetit ante mori.
Ipsa sibi proles, suus est pater et suus heres,
nutrix ipsa sui, semper alumna sibi:
ipsa quidem, sed non eadem quia et ipsa nec ipsa est,
aeternam vitam mortis adepta bono. 170

Aegyptus, -i — Egypt exsculpo, -ere — sculpt stipo, -are — crowd together

Reading for Understanding
1. Explain the logic of the biology of the Phoenix. Why does it make sense that she is without
gender and asexual?
2. There are many versions of the Phoenix story in Greco-Roman literature and many other
versions throughout world mythologies. How would you explain the popularity of this myth?
3. The myth was also very popular in the early Christian era. Which of its details would have
appealed to the early church?

182 Annotated Readings

B. Religion

Prose Readings

Here we have a story about King Tarquin the Proud (traditionally second half of the 6th century
BCE), a mysterious old woman, and the collected prophecies about Rome that came to be called
the Sibylline Books.
Reading for Information
1. How many volumes did the old woman have to sell?
2. From the start, what was Tarquin’s attitude toward her? Why?
3. How many volumes did Tarquin end up buying?
4. What became of the old woman?

In antiquis annalibus memoria super libris Sibyllinis haec prodita est:
anus hospita atque incognita ad Tarquinium Superbum regem adiit,
esse: 14.II novem libros ferens, quos esse dicebat divina oracula; eos velle vendere.
velle: 14.II
Tarquinius pretium percontatus est. Mulier nimium atque immensum
aetate: 3.V.7 poposcit; rex, quasi anus aetate desiperet, derisit. Tum illa foculum
16.XIII.1.b coram cum igni apponit, tres libros ex novem deurit et, ecquid reliquos
cum: 16.I.3.b
vellet: 16.V sex eodem pretio emere vellet, regem interrogavit. Sed enim Tarquinius id
multō: 3.V.9
delirare: 14.II multō risit magis, dixitque anum iam procul dubio delirare. Mulier ibidem
statim tres alios libros exussit atque id ipsum denuō placidē rogat, ut tres
emat: 16.V reliquos eodem illo pretio emat. Tarquinius ore iam serio atque attentiore
ore, animo: 3.V.5
habendam esse: animo fit, eam constantiam confidentiamque non insuper habendam esse
17.IV; 14.I
nihilo: 3.V.9 intellegit, libros tres reliquos mercatur nihilo minore pretio, quam quod
pretio: 3.V.12
erat petitum pro omnibus. Sed eam mulierem tunc a Tarquinio digressam
loci: 3.II.2 posteā nusquam loci visam esse constitit. Libri tres, in sacrarium conditi,
“Sibyllini” sunt appellati; ad eos quasi ad oraculum quindecimviri adeunt,
cum: 16.I.3.b cum di immortales publicē consulendi sunt.
consulendi: 17.IV

annales, -ium — annals desipio, -ere — be silly ibidem — at the very moment
prodo, -ere — publish derideo, -ēre — ridicule exuro, -ere — burn
hospitus, -a, -um — strange foculus, -i — fireplace denuō — once again
incognitus, -a, -um — coram — right in front of him serius, -a, -um — serious
unknown deuro, -ere — burn attentus, -a, -um — attentive
percontor, -ari — inquire ecquid — whether insuper — besides, moreover
immensus, -a, -um — absurd deliro, -are — be insane mercor, -ari — purchase

B. Religion 183

digredior, -i — depart nusquam — nowhere quindecimviri — panel of
constitit < constat sacrarium, -i — shrine, chapel minor priests

1. The Romans revered their Sibylline Books, but at the time when Tarquin bought them, how
would they have known the books’ worth?
2. The Sibyl of Cumae, a famous prophetess of extraordinary old age, isn’t named here as the
seller of the books, but she is the first to come to mind as the mysterious old woman. Why
doesn’t the author do more than hint at the identity of the old woman?
3. Imagine how the Roman government was benefited by the ability to consult books of “divine
prophecy” each time a serious crisis befell it.

The Romans had a profound ambivalence about all things Greek. This incident, dated to 181
BCE, reflects a strong impulse to preserve Roman cultural purity at the expense of superior Greek
Reading for Information
1. How were the two stone chests discovered?
2. What did each of them contain?
3. How were the Greek contents treated differently from the Roman?

conservandae: Magna conservandae religionis etiam apud maiores nostros, P. Cornelio
17.III; 3.II.6
P. Cornelio . . . Baebio Tamphilo consulibus, cura acta est. Siquidem cultoribus in agro L.
consulibus: 13.VI
cultoribus . . . Petili scribae sub Ianiculo terram altius versantibus, duabus arcis lapideis
13.III.2 repertis, quarum in alterā scriptura indicabat corpus Numae Pompilii
altius: 6.II
duabus . . . repertis: fuisse, in alterā libri reconditi erant Latini septem de iure pontificum
diligentiā: 3.V.3 totidemque Graeci de disciplinā sapientiae, Latinos magnā diligentiā
adservandos: 17.III adservandos curaverunt, Grecos, quia aliquā ex parte ad solvendam
solvendam: 17.III
religionem pertinēre existimabantur, praetor urbanus ex auctoritate
senatūs per victimarios, facto igni in conspectū populi, cremavit: noluerunt
enim prisci viri quicquam in hac adservari civitate, quo animi hominum a
deorum cultū avocarentur.

conservo, -are — preserve Ianiculum, -i — Roman hill pertineo, -ēre — pertain
etiam — especially arca, -ae — strongbox praetor urbanus — police
maiores — ancestors lapideus, -a, -um — of stone commissioner
siquidem — since, when recondo, -ere — bury victimarius, -i — subordinate
cultor, -is — plowman totidem — same number of cremo, -are — burn
scriba, -ae — scribe adservo, -are — preserve avoco, -are — divert

184 Annotated Readings

Reading for Understanding
1. What is the significance in the difference between Roman ius pontificum and Greek disci-
plina sapientiae?
2. Does the introduction of something innovatory in religion necessarily contribute to religion’s
3. Why would some people, including Romans, argue this point?

Set in 390 BCE, this story stresses the importance of the piety of ordinary Roman citizens. It re-
counts how sacred objects were transferred to a nearby town when Rome was in peril.
Reading for Information
1. Whom did Albanius discover fleeing Rome? Why were they doing so?
2. With whom was Albanius traveling?
3. What (false) etymology does the author provide for the Latin word caerimonia?

urbe . . . captā: Urbe enim a Gallis captā, cum flamen Quirinalis virginesque Vestales
cum: 16.I.3.a sacra, onere partito, ferrent, easque Pontem Sublicium transgressas et
onere partito:
13.III.1 clivum, qui ducit ad Ianiculum, ascendere incipientes L. Albanius plaustro
religioni, caritati: coniugem et liberos vehens aspexisset, propior publicae religioni quam
descenderent: privatae caritati suis ut plaustro descenderent imperavit, atque in id
omisso . . . itinere: virgines et sacra imposita, omisso coepto itinere, Caere oppidum pervexit,
Caere oppidum: 4.I ubi cum summā veneratione recepta sunt. Grata memoria ad hoc usque
ubi: 16.XIII.2.a
veneratione: 3.V.3 tempus hospitalem humanitatem testatur: inde enim institutum est sacra
infracto . . . statū: caerimonias vocari, quia Caeretani ea, infracto rei publicae statū perinde ac
sordidius: 6.I florente, sanctē coluerunt. Illud agreste et sordidius plaustrum tempestivē
aequaverit, capax cuiuslibet fulgentissimi triumphalis currūs vel aequaverit gloriam
future perfects vel antecesserit.
flamen Quirinalis — high plaustrum, -i — wagon, cart infringo, -ere — weaken
priest of the deified Romulus privatus, -a, -um — private perinde — exactly as
sacra, -orum — sacred objects omitto, -ere — discontinue tempestivē — appropriately
partio, -ire — distribute perveho, -ere — transport capax, -acis — suitable
Pons Sublicius — bridge veneratio, -nis — reverence fulgens, -ntis — shiny
across the Tiber hospitalis, -e — hospitable currus, -ūs — chariot
Ianiculum, -i — Roman hill humanitas, -tatis — kindness aequo, -are — equal
ascendo, -ere — climb testor, -ari — attest to antecedo, -ere — surpass

Reading for Understanding
1. According to this story, is piety toward religion or loyalty to family more praiseworthy?
2. Do you think our value system would regard Albanius’s choice as equally praiseworthy?
3. Why is a display of private piety significant in a time of—and in the face of—public crisis?

B. Religion 185

Rome suffered one of its worst military losses in 53 BCE, when the Parthians destroyed the tri-
umvir M. Licinius Crassus and seven legions at Carrhae, in eastern Syria. This story relates how
signs indicated that the campaign was thoroughly doomed. These signs, according to the author,
expressed great divine displeasure.
Reading for Information
1. Generals’ cloaks can be found in what colors? What colors are typically worn on entering
into battle?
2. How do soldiers usually greet their general before battle?
3. What is the author’s attitude toward Crassus’s loss of seven Roman legions?

Non sinit nos M. Crassus, inter gravissimas Romani imperii iacturas
numerandus: 17.III numerandus, hōc loco de se silentium agere, plurimis et evidentissimis
ictibus: 3.V.1 ante tantam ruinam monstrorum pulsatus ictibus. Ducturus erat a Carrhis
ducturus erat: 17.VI
adversus Parthos exercitum. Pullum ei traditum est paludamentum,
cum: 16.I.2 cum in proelium exeuntibus album aut purpureum dari soleat. Maesti et
exeuntibus: 3.III.1
vetere instituto: taciti milites ad principia convēnerunt, qui vetere instituto cum clamore
alacri accurrere debebant. Aquilarum altera vix convelli a primo pilo
potuit, altera aegerrimē extracta in contrariam ac ferebatur partem se ipsa
convertit. Magna haec prodigia, sed illae clades aliquantō maiores, tot
pulcherrimarum legionum interitus, tam multa signa hostilibus manibus
intercepta, tantum Romanae militiae decus barbarorum obtritum equitatū,
indolis: 3.II.3 optimae indolis filii cruore paterni respersi oculi, corpus imperatoris inter
cruore: 3.V.1
laniatibus: 3.III.9 promiscuas cadaverum strues avium ferarumque laniatibus obiectum.
vellem: 15.II.2 Vellem quidem placidius, sed quod relatum verum est. Sı̄c deorum spreti
ubi: 16.XIII.2.a monitūs excandescunt, sı̄c humana consilia castigantur, ubi se caelestibus
caelestibus: 3.III.7

iactura, -ae — loss alacer, -cris, -cre — swift equitatus, -ūs — cavalry
numero, -are — count accurro, -ere — run up to indoles, -is — talent
evidens, -ntis — obvious aquila, -ae — battle standard paternus, -a, -um — fatherly
ruina, -ae — ruin primus pilus — chief respergo, -ere — splatter
monstrum, -i — omen, sign centurion promiscuus, -a, -um — mixed
pulso, -are — beat extraho, -ere — extract cadaverum, -i — corpse
pullus, -a, -um — gray prodigium, -i — prodigy strues, -is — heap
paludamentum, -i — cloak clades, -is — disaster laniatus, -ūs — tearing
principia, -orum — aliquantō — rather obicio, -ere — toss about
headquarters interitus, -ūs — destruction sperno, -ere — scorn
convenio, -ire — meet intercipio, -ere — intercept monitus, -ūs — warning
institutum, -i — practice, militia, -ae — military excandesco, -ere — grow hot
custom obtero, -ere — trample castigo, -are — belittle

186 Annotated Readings

Reading for Understanding
1. What seems to be the difference between an omen and a prodigy?
2. At what point did the gods begin to disfavor Crassus’s campaign against the Parthians—
before or after it started?
3. According to this account, could Crassus’s campaign ever have succeeded? If it had suc-
ceeded, would the occurrences described in this story as prodigies have been so described?
What would the role of the gods have been in Crassus’s putative success?

The origins of Rome’s Secular Games, a festival of great antiquity, are given here. The story, more
fancy than actual history, narrates a father’s desperate efforts to see his sick children cured. Guided
by a divine voice, they undertake a journey to find restorative water from a particular place.
Reading for Information
1. What was Valesius doing when he began to pray to his household gods?
2. What does he ask the gods to do? Do they do it?
3. Why is Valesius so eager to find or make fire?

cum: 16.I.1 Cum ingenti pestilentiā urbs agrique vastarentur, Valesius, vir locuples
vitae: 3.II.3 rusticae vitae, duobus filiis et filiā ad desperationem usque medicorum
filiis . . .
laborantibus: laborantibus, aquam calidam eis a foco petens, genibus nixus lares familiares
eis: 3.III.3 ut puerorum periculum in ipsius caput transferrent oravit. Orta deinde vox
genibus: 3.V.1
ut: 16.IV est, habiturum esse eos salvos, si continuō flumine Tiberi devectos Tarentum
habiturum esse:
12.I.3.d portasset, ibique ex Ditis patris et Proserpinae arā petita aqua recreasset.
flumine: 3.V.2
Tarentum: 4.I.2 Eo praedicto magnopere confusus, quod et longa et periculosa navigatio
recreasset: 16.XI; imperabatur, spe tamen dubiā praesentem metum vincente, pueros ad
praedicto: 3.V.7 ripam Tiberis protinus detulit ac, lintre Ostiam petens, nocte concubia ad
quod: 16.XIII.3.b
spe . . . vincente: Martium campum appulit; sitientibusque aegris succurrere cupiens, igne
lintre: 3.V.1 in navigio non suppetente, ex gubernatore cognōvit haud procul apparēre
aegris: 3.III.7 fumum; et ab eo iussus egredi Tarentum—id nomen ei loco est—cupidē
igne . . .
suppetente: adrepto calice, aquam flumine haustam eo, unde fumus erat obortus, iam
Tarentum: 4.I.2 laetior pertulit, divinitus dati remedii quasi vestigia quaedam in propinquo
adrepto calice:
13.III.1 nanctum esse se existimans; inque solo magis fumante quam ullas ignis
dum: habente reliquias, dum tenacius omen apprehendit, contractis levibus
tenacius: 6.II et quae fors obtulerat nutrimentis pertinaci spiritū flammam evocavit,
nutrimentis: 3.V.1
spiritū: 3.V.7 calefactamque aquam pueris bibendam dedit.
bibendam: 17.III

pestilentia, -ae — plague calidus, -a, -um — warm lar, -is — tutelary household
vasto, -are — lay waste to focus, -i — hearth god
locuples, -letis — wealthy genu, -ūs — knee familiaris, -e — of the family
desperatio, -nis — desperation nitor, -i — poise flumen, -inis — river

B. Religion 187

recreo, -are — recover navigium, -i — ship remedium, -i — remedy
praedictum, -i — omen suppeto, -ere — be available nanciscor, -i — get hold of
magnopere — greatly gubernator, -ris — fumo, -are — smoke
confusus, -a, -um — confused steersman tenax, -acis — persistent
navigatio, -nis — voyage fumus, -i — smoke apprehendo, -ere — grasp
ripa, -ae — riverbank egredior, -i — disembark contraho, -ere — pull
defero, -rre — carry adripio, -ere — grab up together
linter, -tri — small boat calix, -licis — drinking cup levis, -e — light, flammable
concubium, -i — night’s sleep haurio, -ire — drink nutrimentum, -i — tinder
sitio, -ire — be thirsty oborior, -iri — arise evoco, -are — evoke
succurro, -ere — relieve divinitus — divinely calefacio, -ere — heat

As the story continues, the children have a marvelous dream, telling them how to properly offer
thanks to the gods. After some difficulty, the rite is performed and the gods are satisfied. Many years
later, the consul Publicola repeats the rite in the hopes that Rome might benefit from its healing

Reading for Information
1. According to the cured children, to which gods should sacrifices be made? What other
thanksgivings should be offered?
2. After Valesius left to purchase an altar, what did his slaves discover while they were
3. What did the consul Publicola do to the altar after he repeated the rites of Valesius?

quā pōtatā: 13.III.2 Quā pōtatā salutari quiete sopiti diutinā vi morbi repente sunt liberati,
quiete: 3.V.3
sopiti: 12.II patrique indicaverunt vı̄disse se in somnis a nescio quo deorum spongeā
vi: 3.V.19
vı̄disse: 12.I.3.d corpora sua pertergēri et praecipi ut ad Ditis patris et Proserpinae aram, a
a: 3.V.6
ut: 16.IV qua potio ipsis fuerat adlata, furvae hostiae immolarentur lectisterniaque
hostiae: 3.I
loci: 3.II.2 ac ludi nocturni fierent. Is, quod eo loci nullam aram vı̄derat, desiderari
ut: 16.III.1 credens ut a se constitueretur, aram empturus in urbem perrexit,
empturus: 12.II
relictis viris: 13.III.1 relictis viris qui fundamentorum constituendorum gratiā terram ad
qui: 16.III.2.a
constituendorum: 17.V.2 solidum foderent. Hi viri domini imperium exsequentes, cum ad
cum: 16.I.3.a
pedum: 3.II.8 viginti pedum altitudinem humo egestā pervēnissent, animadverterunt
hoc: 3.IV.1
nuntiante servo: 13.III.1 aram Diti patri Proserpinaeque inscriptam. Hoc postquam Valesius
emendae: 17.III
omisso . . . proposito: nuntiante servo accepit, omisso emendae arae proposito, hostias
Tarenti: 4.I.3 nigras, quae antiquitus furvae dicebantur, Tarenti immolavit, ludosque
noctibus: 4.II.2
periculo: 3.V.19 et lectisternia continuis tribus noctibus, quia totidem filii periculo
studio: 3.V.7
succurrendi: 17.II liberati erant, fecit. Cuius exemplum Valerius Publicola, qui primus
civibus: 3.III.7
nuncupatis votis, caesis consul fuit, studio succurrendi civibus secutus, apud eandem aram
. . . bubus: 13.III.1;
bubus: 2.V publicē, nuncupatis votis caesisque atris bubus, Diti maribus, feminis
Diti, Proserpinae: 3.III.3
maribus, feminis: 3.VIII Proserpinae lectisternioque ac ludis trinoctio factis, aram terrā, ut ante
trinoctio: 4.II.2
lectisternio . . . factis: fuerat, obruit.

188 Annotated Readings

salutaris, -e — restorative immolo, -are — immolate egero, -ere — remove
sopio, -ire — doze, sleep lectisternium, -i — religious inscribo, -ere — inscribe
diutinus, -a, -um — long feast omitto, -ere — drop, leave off
nescioquis — some(one) nocturnus, -a, -um — by night propositum, -i — plan
unknown perrego, -ere — set out antiquitus — in antiquity
spongea, -ae — sponge fundamentum, -i — succurro, -ere — relieve
pertergeo, -ēre — cleanse foundation nuncupo, -are — utter
praecipio, -ere — instruct solidus, -a, -um — solid ater, -tra, -trum — dark, black
adlata < adfero fodio, -ere — dig trinoctium, -i — a three-night
furvus, -a, -um — dark, black exsequor, -i — carry out period
hostia, -ae — sacrificial animal altitudo, -dinis — depth obruo, -ere — bury

Reading for Understanding
1. Why were the gods Dis Pater and Proserpina honored after the children were healed? What
was the significance of the black sacrificial victims?
2. What do the symbols of water, fire, and earth mean in this story? The number 3? The male/
female distinction?
3. To achieve his desired end, Valesius must undergo a considerable ordeal and then undertake
an elaborate thanksgiving. What seems to be the theological message behind this story?

This anecdote is offered in support of the notion that the Roman gods looked out for the Roman
state even in emergencies. A conspicuous omen provides “evidence” that the gods favor Rome as
Rome. The scene is set in 390 BCE.
Reading for Information
1. If omens aren’t accidents of nature, what are they?
2. Where and under what circumstances did the omen in this story occur?
3. From a Roman viewpoint, what was the major difference between the city of Rome and the
city of Veii?

Ominum etiam observatio aliquo contactū religioni innexa est,
motū, providentiā: 3.V.7 quoniam non fortuito motū, sed divinā providentiā constare creduntur.
quae: 7.V.2
ut: 16.II Quae effecit ut, urbe a Gallis disiectā, deliberantibus patribus
deliberantibus . . .
conscriptis: 13.III.2 conscriptis utrum Veios migrarent an sua moenia restituerent, forte
migrarent, restituerent:
16.V eo tempore e praesidio cohortibus redeuntibus, centurio in comitio
cohortibus redeuntibus:
13.III.1 exclamaret, “Signifer, statue signum, hı̄c optimē manebimus”: eā
vestigio: 3.V.19 enim voce auditā, senatus accipere se omen respondit, e vestigioque
Veios: 4.I.2 Veios transeundi consilium omisit. Quam paucis verbis de domicilio
transeundi: 17.II
futuri summi imperii confirmata est condicio! Credo indignum esse,
diis existimantibus: diis existimantibus Romanum nomen prosperrimis auspiciis ortum,
auspiciis: 3.V.14

B. Religion 189

appellatione: 3.V.1 Veientanae urbis appellatione mutari, inclitaeque victoriae decus modo
mutari, infundi:
12.I.3.c abiectae urbis ruinis infundi.
ruinis: 3.III.3

observatio, -nis — moenia, -ium — city walls domicilium, -i — home
observation restituo, -ere — rebuild confirmo, -are — confirm
contactus, -ūs — connection praesidium, -i — garrison prosperus, -a, -um —
innecto, -ere — involve cohors, -rtis — cohort, unit favorable
fortuitus, -a, -um — random centurio, -onis — centurion auspicium, -i — auspice
providentia, -ae — comitium, -i — senate house appellatio, -nis — name
providence exclamo, -are — shout out inclitus, -a, -um — glorious
consto, -are — exist signifer, -i — standard bearer abicio, -ere — raze
disicio, -ere — ransack statuo, -ere — set, fix ruina, -ae — ruin
patres conscripti — senators transeo, -ire — transfer, move infundo, -ere — mingle
migro, -are — emigrate omitto, -ere — drop, abandon

Reading for Understanding
1. Why do omens seem more significant in a time of crisis, especially if they occur in important
places or contexts?
2. What makes an accident or a random occurrence meaningful?
3. What are the implications if a culture can see the potential for omens in virtually anything?

Here a summary description of the organization and the scrupulousness of Roman religion is pro-
vided. The author also articulates a commonly held view, that the greatness of Rome’s empire was
directly related to Rome’s religious piety.
Reading for Information
1. What were the respective duties of pontiffs, augurs, prophets, and haruspices?
2. What is the function of prayer? Of vow? Of thanksgiving? Of sacrifice?
3. Why has Rome grown and prospered?
caerimonias: 3.IV.4
scientiā: 3.V.1
gerendarum: 17.III Maiores nostri statas sollemnesque caerimonias pontificum scientiā,
auctoritates: 3.IV.4
observatione: 3.V.1 bene gerendarum rerum auctoritates augurum observatione,
praedictiones: 3.IV.4
libris: 3.V.1 Apollinis praedictiones vatum libris, portentorum depulsiones
depulsiones: 3.IV.4
disciplinā: 3.V.1 Etruscā disciplinā explicari voluerunt. Prisco etiam instituto rebus
instituto: 3.V.7
rebus: 3.III.1 divinis opera datur: cum aliquid commendandum est, precatione;
commendandum est: 17.IV cum exposcendum est, voto; cum solvendum est, gratulatione; cum
precatione: 3.V.1
exposcendum est: 17.IV inquirendum est vel extis vel sortibus, impetrito; cum sollemni
voto: 3.V.1
solvendum est: 17.IV ritū peragendum est, sacrificio, quo etiam ostentorum ac fulgurum
gratulatione: 3.V.1
inquirendum est: 17.IV denuntiationes procurantur. Tantum autem studium antiquis non
extis, sortibus: 3.V.1
impetrito: 19.II.4 solum servandae sed etiam amplificandae religionis fuit. Non mirum
antiquis: 3.III.4
servandae, amplifi­candae:

-is — augur exta. -inis — control precatio. se . -nis — prediction impetritum. -nis — exactus. -um — tiny vates. 18–19.III. -ere — inquire scrupulosus. existimantia: thinking that they will be the controller of human affairs status. -acis — persistent famulor. -nis — averting denuntiatio. etiam in quibus summae dubitaverunt: 16. -i — good omen parvulus. What authority does the author cite for the information he relates here? . -i — prodigy momentum.IV. -nis — thanksgiving excubo. -um — established gratulatio. -is — lightning examino. -are — examine depulsio.5 fuissent: 16. -i — influence portentum.a existimantia. . -a. Reading for Information 1. -ae — power exposco. What is the significance for the Romans of a religious system that their ancestors handed down to them? 3. -is — prophet ostentum. ita se humanarum rerum futura esse regimen se: 3. what are the benefits of promoting religion? 2. -um — precise priscus. -a. quō tam scrupulosā curā parvula quōque momenta religionis examinari videntur.5 imperia: 3. For a Roman priest or magistrate. This passage describes the odd taboos and conventions surrounding the high priest of Jupiter (fla- men Dialis) and even his wife (flaminica Dialis).4.III. si divinae potentiae bene atque constanter fuissent potentiae: 3. How is the orderly division and classification of religious duties and observances characteris- tically Roman? 8. Quapropter non dubitaverunt sacris: 3. -i — portent fulgur.VII. -nis — prayer augeo. -orum — entrails scrupulous praedictio.XI famulata.3 maiestatis conspici decus voluit. . -i — custom. -a. procuro. -ēre — increase potentia.IV. -are — expand regimen. -ere — keep watch scientia.IV.4 sacris imperia servire. 190 Annotated Readings augendo. -a. -ari — serve Reading for Understanding 1. si pro eo imperio augendo custodiendoque pertinax deorum custodiendo: 17. quia numquam remotos ab exactissimo cultū caerimoniarum oculos habuisse nostra civitas existimanda est.III indulgentia semper excubuit. -ae — knowledge inquiro.4 regimen: 3. Omnia namque post religionem ponenda esse semper nostra civitas duxit. -a. -ere — request pertinax. -are — procure imperia — “powers that be” practice amplifico. -um — ancient indication quapropter — for this reason institutum. -um — augur. igitur est.

4 Si quis ad verberandum ducatur.1 detondet.3 Caerimoniae impositae flamini Diali sunt multae.a verberandum: die verberari piaculum est. apicis — priestly hat commemini.3 de eo lecto trinoctium continuum non decubat neque in eo lecto cubare alium: 3. cum: 16.IV. -a. The flamen must not sleep away from his own bed for how many nights in a row? 2. luto tenui circumlitos esse oportet et trinoctium: 4. -ae — roof tile The account continues with more taboos and superstitions. Unde equo: 3.V. in quo cubat.4 alium fas est. -i — city limits impluvium. -ere — fall outside introeo. nisi qui liber homo est. -ēre — trim idcircō — for this reason atrium rarenter — rarely tegula. vincula: efferri ius non est.V. quos in libris. -ere — lower fermē — mostly perforations apex. lēgimus. -ire — enter before pomerium. Propagines e vitibus altius praetentas non succedit. cum bella consulibus anulo: 3. -i — opening in piaculum.1 haec fermē sunt.V.4 idcircō rarenter flamen Dialis creatus consul est.III.13 mandabantur. -are — entrust subduco. -um — armed the roof above a Roman detondeo. Vinctum. si ad pedes eius supplex procubuerit. Nodum in apice neque in cinctū neque aliā in parte ullum habet. non 17. Pedes lecti. Religion 191 2. -a. 3. some quite bizarre. B. eo quis: 7.II. Reading for Information 1. item religio est extrā pomerium exercitum armatum vidēre. Apud eius lecti fulcrum capsulam esse cum strue atque ferto oportet. item castūs multiplices.3 Capram et carnem incoctam et hederam et fabam neque tangere Diali mos est neque nominare. -ere — lead over multiplex.4 si: 18. -plicis — manifold pervius.VI. si: 18.I. Unguium Dialis et capilli segmina subter arborem felicem . solvi necessum est. -um — not solid cinctus. quae commeminimus: equo Dialem flaminem vehi religio est.I. What modification did the pontiffs recently make concerning the flamen’s hat-wearing requirements? 3. si aedes eius introierit. item iurare Dialem fas numquam est. castus.I. -ūs — belt extrā — (with accusative) vinctum < vincio procubo.IV. nisi sacrum vinctum. -um — having demitto.III. What explanation is given for the taboo against the flamen taking off his tunic outdoors? Diali: 3. Ignem e flaminis Dialis domo.4 et vincula per impluvium in tegulas subduci atque inde foras in viam introierit: future perfect demitti. qui de sacerdotibus publicis compositi sunt. -i — sacrilege armatus. What happens if someone condemned to corporal punishment appeals to the flamen Dialis? flamini: 3. item anulo uti nisi pervio cassoque fas non est. -isse — recount cassus. Why has a flamen Dialis only seldom served as consul? 3.1. Capillum Dialis. -a. -ūs — taboo mando.

” oporteat: 20.V. -is — sacrificial cake fermentum. quod neque comit caput neque capillum depectit.V. remissa esse: et alia quaedam remissa esse. -ae — she-goat trinoctium.1 terrā operiuntur. -ae — box farina. -um — fertum. Verba praetoris ex edicto perpetuo de flamine Diali (et de sacerdote Vestae) adscripsi: “Sacerdotem Vestalem et flaminem Dialem in omni meā iurisdictione iurare non cogam. -i — sacred cake imbuo. Tunicā intimā. nisi rex sacrificulus. -a. cum it ad Argeos.III. Locum. -iri — be covered Information concerning the flamen’s marriage. sub tecto uti liceret. quod venenato operitur. ne sub caelo.3.4 fieri oporteat. Matrimonium flaminis nisi morte morte: 3. -ginis — shoot strues. Sine apice sub divo esse licitum uti: 16. Super flaminem Dialem in convivio. -is — fingernail intimus. Eaedem fermē caerimoniae sunt flaminicae Dialis. Is a flamen allowed to divorce or to attend funerals? 2. nudus sit.7 dirimi ius non est.19 ne: 16.d facta esse: 12.3.V. tamquam sub oculis Iovis. Dialis cotidiē feriatus est. -i — period of apex.7. Varronis super flamine Diali haec sunt: “Is solum album habet galerum. funus tamen exsequi non est religio. -um — under- succedo.III.3.V.” Verba M. why does the flamen wear a white cap? flamonio: 3. -ae — bean capsula. -um — uncooked decubo.3 vel quod maximus sacerdos sit. carnis — meat three nights divum. -inis — clipping exuo.b Iovi: 3. tunicā: 3. in quo bustum est. et quod scalas escendere ei plus tribus gradibus cum: 16. numquam ingreditur.I. mortuum numquam attingit.XIII. gratiaque aliquot caerimoniarum facta esse 12.19 Uxorem si amisit.V. -a. -ere — smear beneath of sacrifices around operior.V. his wife’s duties and taboos. capra.I.7 id: 3. -ae — grain propago. Varro. alias seorsum aiunt venenato: 3. vel quod Iovi immolatā hostiā albā id hostiā: 3.8 de arbore felici habet. and some final random details close the account. 192 Annotated Readings terrā: 3. Reading for Information 1. flamonio decedit. et quod in ricā surculum gradibus: 3. According to M.1 observitare.b religiosum est atque etiam. -i — bedpost aliquot — some faba. sit: 16. -ere — soak extended unguis.II non est. -i — mud subter — (with accusative) rex sacrificulus — high priest circumlino. non pridem a pontificibus constitutum est. -a. -i — open air incoctus. What does a flaminica have in her headwear? 3. Farinam fermento imbutam attingere ei fas non est. veluti est.a .IV.I. -ere — pass under segmen.3. -ae — ivy fulcrum. -ere — take off lutum.1 nisi in locis tectis. -i — yeast praetentus.III.d dicitur. apicis — priestly hat caro. non exuit se. -are — sleep pridem — long ago hedera.V. haut quisquam alius accumbit.

IV .I. it was generally quite a spectacle and he was paid much respect. the prestigious priestesses of the goddess Vesta. -i — a cutting galerus.III Qui de virgine Vestali capiendā scripserunt. item cuius parentes servierunt: 20. Sed eam: 3.III. -orum — a district in hostia. The flamen Dialis usually came from one of the most prominent families of Rome.IV. excusationem merēri aiunt. throughout the history of this priesthood.3 alter ambove servitutem servierunt aut in negotiis sordidis versantur. -i — office of seorsum — separately como.3 emancipatus sit. -eris — funeral surculum. -ere — dissolve operior. et excusandam esse eius.4 et eam. etiamsi vivo patre in avi potestate sit. Religion 193 flamonium. Nonetheless.1 tubicinis sacrorum filiae vacatio a sacerdotio isto tribui solet. 10. Praeterea legendam esse: scriptor quidam reliquit neque eius legendam esse filiam.IV habēret: 16. When might a father’s situation automatically exempt a girl from selection? capiendā: 17. negaverunt capi fas esse. adorn flamen observito. -i — dyed clothing edictum. Within what age range are Vestals first chosen? 2. -iri — be covered iurisdictio. -ere — dress. -ere — retire venenatum. minorem quam annos sex.XI Italiā non habēret. qui liberos tres habēret. it was sometimes difficult to find Ro- mans willing to hold it. What parts of the flamen’s life seem enjoyable to you? 2.III. excusandam esse: 17. B. cuius soror ad id sacerdotium lecta est. What physical conditions exclude a girl from selection? 3. Sponsae quoque pontificis et filiae: 3. This account describes many of the conventions and taboos associated with the Vestal Virgins. item quae linguā debili sensūve aurium insignita sit: 16. -i — cap procession scala. qui domicilium in 17. -i — edict dirimo. -ae — priestly hat jurisdiction funus. How do you account for this? 3. item quae ipsa aut cuius pater vivo patre: 13. -i — follow Argei. maiorem quam annos decem natam.III. and when he was seen in public. item quae sit: 16. -ae — victim fermē — approximately Rome Reading for Understanding 1. -are — sacrifice exsequor. -are — observe depecto. -nis — bustum. -i — tomb rica. item cuius pater flamen aut augur aut quindecimvirum sacris faciundis sponsae: 3.XI deminuta aliāve qua corporis labe insignita sit. Reading for Information 1. -ere — comb out decedo. The passage opens with some of the priesthood’s exemp- tions and exclusions. -ae — ladder immolo. Compare some of the more bizarre taboos or superstitions in this account with taboos and superstitions in our culture.1 aut septemvirum epulonum aut Salius est.XI non sit patrima et matrima.

the pontifex chooses a Vestal from a pool of how many eligible girls? 3. Sed quandem legem invēnimus.1 capiat eaque Vestae fiat. Reading for Information 1. eo statim tempore sine emancipatione ac faciundi: 12. -a.IV captam. -i — domicile insignitus. Nam si quis honesto loco natus adeat pontificem maximum quis: 7. -nis — decrease sortitio.I. -ere — escort minutio. ut eam pontifex maximus Vestae: 3. -nis — selection by emancipatio. De more autem ritūque capiundae virginis litterae quidem antiquiores: 6. -are — engage Salii — midlevel priests of debilis.VI. -um — with a emancipo.4 vidēri solet. Sed ea sortitio ex lege illā non necessaria nunc si: 18. -nis — assembly caput.II. ut pontificis maximi arbitratū virgines e populo viginti legantur sortitioque in contione ex eo ut: 16. -e — impaired excusatio.2 antiquiores non exstant. -pitis — status arbitratus.4 adipiscitur.II. -um — quindecimviri sacris tubicen.1 numero fiat et. cuius dumtaxat salvis possit:16. gratia Papiae legis per fit: 10. simul est capta atque in atrium Vestae est deducta tempore: 4. -ūs — decision dumtaxat — so long as . -um — with a servitus. -inis — trumpeter diminished faciundis — midlevel vacatio.a atque offerat ad sacerdotium filiam suam. -a. How does the senate get involved if the legal procedure isn’t followed? Virgo autem Vestalis.III. quae capta prima est. nisi. -nis — exsto.1.4 sine capitis minutione e patris potestate exit et ius testamenti faciundi capiundae: 12. -are — emancipate septemviri epulonum — living father etiamsi — even if midlevel priests responsible matrimus. deduco.I. -a. -a. -nis — exemption labes. How is the legal status of Vestals different from that of other young women? 2. cuius sors virginis ducta erit. -is — weakness priests responsible for domicilium. -are — excuse distinguished We next learn about the legal status of Vestals and the ancient law that prescribes the formal method of their selection.1 et pontificibus tradita est.II.VIII religionum observationibus ratio habēri possit. 194 Annotated Readings patrimus. -are — survive lot emancipation Numa — Rome’s second king contio. According to the law.VIII senatum fit. -um — sacrifices excuso. -nis — exemption Mars and Hercules deminutus. a Numā rege esse ut: 16. The author describes an alternate procedure more often followed in his time. -tutis — slavery for public feasts living mother verso.II. quā cavetur.

b “Capi” autem virgo proptereā dici videtur. ita scriptum est: “Virgo cuiquam: 3. What becomes of a Vestal’s estate if she dies without a will? 4. quae verba pontificem maximum dicere oporteat.1 bello: 3. Praetereā in commentariis ad Duodecim Tabulas compositis. Reading for Information 1. -um — prehendo.V.a faciat.3. Amata.XIII. Why is the willingness or unwillingness of candidates to serve not discussed here? 3. does it seem that finding candidates for the Vestal Virgins would have been easy? 2.” capiendum: 17. item pontifices et augures “capi” dicebantur. siet: 10. Religion 195 The author discusses how a peculiar verb is used in reference to the selection of Vestals. He adds some details about them and about bequests and ends with an explanation of why Vestals are called Beloved. What other priests.III.V heres est.VIII Quiritibus. -ere — grasp commentarium. -ere — lead away commentrary redigo. abducitur. are said to be captured? 3. From what you’ve read. or surrogate husband? .c.2.b capiat: 16.II “Amata” inter capiendum a pontifice maximo appellatur. surrogate father. quoniam illius virginis. -ium — annals Duodecim Tabulae — quaeritur = is unknown Quirites. capio. Sed flamines quoque Diales.3. quaeritur. in cuius potestate est.XI annalibus.III. ita te. hoc fuisse nomen traditum est.V.I. veluti bello capta. -a.III.III. 16.XII Quiritibus: 5.7. quae sacra faciat: 16. besides Vestals. cum virginem cum: 16. quia pontificis maximi manū manū: 3. scriptum est. quae prima capta est. In oporteat: 16. Why is a Vestal said to be captured and not selected? 2. -ere — redirect annales. proptereā — moreover plerique — some intestatus. B. Id quo iure fiat. why is a captured Vestal called Beloved? quia: 16. Does the Pontifex Maximus sound to you like the Vestal Virgins’ boss.XII capiat. -i — intestate abduco.7 prensa ab eo parente. Ea verba haec sunt: “Sacerdotem Vestalem. According to this account.10 autem “capi” virginem Vestalem solam debēre dici putant.” Plerique lege: 3.3 fiat: 16.3 Vestalis neque heres est cuiquam intestato. neque ei intestatae quisquam ei: 3. quae ius siet sacerdotem Vestalem facere pro populo Romano. -ium — Roman Rome’s basic laws civilians Reading for Understanding 1. uti virgo quae optima lege fuit. sed bona eius in publicum redigi aiunt.V.

rebus: 3.III. -um — sluggish stimulus. -ere — join pergo.4 Disce tamen pigris non flecti numina votis. -itis — pool rest rota.V. . -ēre — render Reading for Understanding 1.3.3 cum: 16. after having sized up the situation. depositis . -i — young bull gurges. “God Helps Those Who . votis: 3. linquo.V.III.d ferre suis rebus. opem. “Heaven help me!”? What would you do next? 2. -i — face.1 cum: 16. cart rector Tirynthius = Hercules congredior.2 Cui rector summis Tirynthius infit ab astris. deos. . do gods help those who help themselves? What’s the underlying theology? 3.3. 10 animis: 3. Why.IV. cum residēret.1 et manibus pigras disce iuvare rotas. -ere — abandon infit — (defective) starts out encounter necto. -um — muddy resideo. viribus: 3. -i — whiplash concilio.III. cum facis ipse. -is — axle. In what condition did the farmer abandon his oxen and cart? 2. 5 nam vocat hunc supplex in sua vota deum: stimulis: 3. Instead of trying a more hands-on approach. -are — win over confido.V.I.” luteus. what did the farmer do? 3.1 “Perge laborantes stimulis agitare iuvencos.V. . -orum — the gods tardus. -a. do you suppose.I. -ēre — sit back and iuvencus. -are — drive adhibeo.1 Tunc quoque congressum maioraque viribus ausum fas (est): 20. -ere — trust agito. -ae — wheel axis. 196 Annotated Readings Verse Readings 1. . -ere — continue superi.I. votis: frustrā depositis confidens numina votis 13. Can you picture yourself.3 numina: 3. -a.”: The Farmer and His Oxen Reading for Information 1. sitting along the side of the road and saying. Why do you think it was the god Hercules who responded to the farmer? .b praesentesque adhibē. Imagine yourself getting a flat tire at night on an infrequently traveled road. manibus: 3.IV fas superos animis conciliare tuis. Hercules informed the farmer that prayers of what type fail to move the gods? Haerentem luteo sub gurgite rusticus axem liquerat et nexos ad iuga tarda boves.2 ferre: 12.

. -ere — go through Cybele. -i — pursue baiulo. -is — hide.7.III. labore. -are — tote. -ūs — panhandling pellis.III. How did the thief light his lamp? 2.V. delicio suo fecissent: 16. verum post obitum quoque persequitur illum dura fati miseria.18 detractā pelle sibi fecerunt tympana.V quidnam fecissent. B. What did they use it for after it died? 3. does that excuse these priests’ callousness to any degree? 3. -ae — misery sarcina. Cybeles: Greek Galli Cybeles circum in quaestūs ducere genitive asinum solebant. -es — Magna Mater detraho. “Guilt by Association . Who addressed him? 3.7 pelle: 3. What did the priests use the donkey for when it was alive? 2. -i — pet Galli — priests of Magna Mater plaga. non vitam modo tristem decurrit. -ūs — death quaestus. .V.a Is cum labore et plagis esset mortuus. -ere — remove obitus. What taboos are placed on the use of sacred fires? Lucernam fur accendit ex arā Iovis. skin persequor. plagis: 3. and Illumination”: The Thief in the Temple This tale. How was the donkey’s condition unchanged by death? Qui natus est infelix.b “Putabat se post mortem securum fore: 10 mortuo: 3.I. simple in the telling. -ae — pack. When you consider that priests in antiquity routinely participated in animal sacrifices. . is quite sophisticated in its explication. -ae — blow Reading for Understanding 1.V.10 Rogati mox a quodam. “One Sorry Ass”: The Priests and the Donkey Reading for Information 1. delicio: 3. Religion 197 2. Reading for Information 1. hoc locuti sunt modo: fore: 10. bag delicium. Do you feel any sympathy for the donkey? 2.3 ecce aliae plagae congeruntur mortuo!” decurro. When will the thief supposedly pay the price for his crime? 4. -i — tambourine miseria. baiulantem sarcinas.3. What evidence do you find that the poet intends for you to feel sympathy? 3. 5 cum:16. ipsumque compilavit ad lumen suum. lug tympanum.

1 ne: 16.” deum: 1. tempore: 3. 2.1 Sed ne ignis noster facinori praeluceat. Does this story seem to you to be written out of deep and reverent religious sentiment? 4. -ere — atone for significo.7 verendos: 17. -a. -a.III.a “Malorum quamvis ista fuerint munera 5 ut non: 16.3. irā: 3.1 deum: 1. -are — mean onustus. fault argumentum. plunder luo. ut non offendar subripi.1. -i — trade. spiritū culpam lues. -ere — steal exchange link Reading for Understanding 1. Slow to Repent”: The Faults of Humankind Reading for Information 1. tamen. -are — associate.4 usum bonus consociet ullius rei.1.XIII.II. -are — rob. cum: 16. The poet states that three lessons are to be derived from this story. -um — hated commercium.V Quot res contineat hoc argumentum utiles non explicabit alius quam qui repperit.II mihique invisa. -um — loaded facinus. -ae — sin. -um — wicked invisus.c Fatorum dicto sed puniri tempore. -ere — nurture down praeluceo.V. “Quick to Judge. -a.a Onustus qui sacrilegio cum discederet.XI Significat primum saepe quos ipse aluerı̄s tibi inveniri maximē contrarios. Explain this claim and its significance. repente vocem sancta misit Religio: quamvis: 16.III. Where is each knapsack carried? . ne: 16.I. scelera: 3. -ae — lamp culpa.I. lucerna. Explain how the story il- lustrates each. 198 Annotated Readings cum: 16. 10 veto esse tale luminis commercium. 15 aluerı̄s: 16. -ere — give worship interdico.1. -ēre — illuminate secundum — secondly sacrilegium.IV. 3. -noris — crime alo. -i — theft of excolo. subripio. consocio. -i — theme compilo.3.V.II.IV novissimē interdicit ne cum malefico 20 malefico: 3. sceleste. Religio acknowledges that most of the temple plunder that the thief stole had been given by people no better than him. -ere — forbid sacred things to maleficus.III per quem verendos excolit pietas deos.c Itaque hodiē nec lucernam de flammā deum nec de lucernā fas est accendi sacrum. contineat: 16.V.4 secundum ostendit scelera non irā deum.b olim cum adscriptus vēnerit poenae dies. facinori: 3.

-ae — knapsack delinquo. adytis: 3. 5 numine: 3. furens profectō. bonis: 3. natos. subdolis: 3. 17. mugit adytis Religio. castas coniuges armis: 3.1 malos cavete. -a. .10 Hac re vidēre nostra mala non possumus. parentes. . alienis (vitiis): alienis ante pectus suspendit gravem. tremuntque lauri et ipse pallescit dies. obsecro. 5 pera.V. subdolis ite obviam.1 nulli: 3. miseris parcite. What is the best solution to the human fault that this fable describes. What does each knapsack contain? 3. 10 ferro: 3.I miseris: 3. Religion 199 2. sacratae: 3.5. Delii monitūs dei: superis: 3. 3. . vota superis reddite.5 bonis favete.V. nam quae dixit perdidit. (homines) qui: 3. . the oracle at Delphi issues its instructions for right.10 propriis repletam vitiis post tergum dedit.3 Peras imposuit Iuppiter nobis duas: vitiis: 3.5 amicos sublevate. patriam.V. What human trait does this arrangement explain? nobis: 3. -ere — make repletus.III. proper.V. -um — filled mistakes Reading for Understanding 1. censores sumus.18 tripodes moventur.III. B.7 Voces resolvit icta Pytho numine: “Audite. particularly if wearing the knapsacks is a divine requirement? 5. 5. and ethical behavior. sit: 16. What significance is there to the fact that the poet calls one knapsack repleta and the other gravis? 2. “The Thirteen Commandments”: Apollo Speaks In this poem. nulli nimium credite.1 Haec elocuta concidit virgo furens.V. perdidit: what she said she completely squandered .V Utilius nobis quid sit dic. corripite impios.III. thalamos . qui Delphos et formosum Parnasum incolis.1 pietatem colite.III. Phoebe. hostem ferro pellite.1 defendite armis.III.V.” 15 stupro: 3. gentes.II.IX Subitō sacratae vatis horrescunt comae.3 delicta vindicate. quae .IV. alii simul delinquunt. violant: 3.VIII punite turpi thalamos qui violant stupro.III.V.

qui iterum naufragium facit. -i — deceit Delphi. This poem is rather ambiguous as to who issues these commands: is it Phoebus. -i — sanctuary subdolus. cura: 19. Stultitia est insectari. -um — impious haunt of Apollo in Pytho. quae sunt mortalia cura. -i — sexual incolo. -ere — quiver obvius. -i — mistake. -ūs — warning concido. -a. -i — bedchamber Greece Apollo stuprum.I. This poem ends on a somewhat pessimistic note. multi cogitant. -are — consecrate island of Delos eloquor. -orum — famous tremo. How do these commands compare with the Judeo-Christian Ten Commandments? With the Catonian “Fifty-Eight Commandments” (see section D. -are — beg adytum. -i — laurel tree delictum. -ntis — raving tripus. regant: 16.V Improbē Neptunum accusat.IV An di sint caelumque regant. donet: 16. Contrā hominem iustum pravē contendere noli. verse reading 3)? 3. How do you explain it? 6.5 Paucorum est intellegere. -a. -is — prophetess monitus. -ere — release impius. -um — head-on oracle of Apollo in laurus. Unus deus poenam adfert. -i — mountain resolvo. semper enim deus iniustas ulciscitur iras. -ire — bellow aid of Reading for Understanding 1. -ere — inhabit Delius. the oracle. sint. Religio? What is the effect of the ambiguity? 2.I paucorum: 3. . -orum — the gods furens. Greece pallesco. -ere — grow pale crime Parnassus. ne quaere docēri. quid donet deus. -a. Contrā felicem vix deus vires habet. the priestess.II. Roman religion is decidedly not characterized by theological depth or great speculation. -um — of the deviance sacro. -nis — priestess of thalamus. -podis — tripod sublevo. cum: 16. -are — come to the profectō — indeed mugio. -i — utter vates.1 cum sis mortalis. -ere — bristle superi. -ere — collapse horresco. quem di diligunt. The following sententiae reveal fairly conventional reflections on the Romans’ pantheon and worship. 200 Annotated Readings obsecro.

IV.4 coram: 8. Religion 201 cum: 16. -ere — inquire insector.I. Puras deus. cum felix vocat.1 statuat: 16.1 proximus ille deo est.d videto: 19. -um — unjust intendo.3 Domi manēre virum fortunatum decet.III. stultitia.II Quod sequitur specta. -ari — persecute navigo. partem qui spectat utramque.3. colendus: 17.III.IV.1 Benefactis proximē ad deos accedimus. Quid est beneficium dare? Imitari deum.I illum imitare deum.V Quid deus intendat.IV benefactis: 3.III.4 decet: 20. sorte: 3.1 virtutem: 3. -ere — intend ille deus = Janus . laudaveris.V.2. quodque imminet ante videto.1 Stultitia est morte alterius sperare salutem.V. -are — bestow (favor) vimen.2 dicere: 12.4 Deo favente naviges vel vimine. non plenas aspicit manūs.V.IV.V. -inis — twig front of naufragium.I. -are — sail coram — (with ablative) in dono.a Si deus est animus.IV. nobis ut carmina dicunt. cum: 16. ut: 16. qui scit ratione tacēre.1 semper puta te coram diis testimonium dicere.3. intendat: 16. noli perquirere sorte.7 similem: 3.II.6 hic tibi praecipuē sit purā mente colendus. -i — shipwreck compesco. -i — testimony pravē — perversely plerumque — commonly imitor.XIII.I.3.V. -i — good deed perquiro. -ae — stupidity benefactum.4 Virtutem primam esse puto compescere linguam: esse: 12. imitare: 19.d linguam: 3. Tutissima res est timēre nil praeter deum.2 ratione: 3.III.b Deos ridēre credo. tibi: 3. virum: 3. Neminem cito laudaveris. te: 3. -a. B.2 Cum sis ipse nocens.V quid statuat de te. deo favente: 13. deo: 3. moritur cur victima pro te? morte: 3. neminem cito accusaveris: accusaveris: 19.I.V. -ere — control testimonium. sine te deliberat ille. Optimus animus pulcherrimus dei cultus est.1 Plerumque similem ducit ad similem deus. naviges: 15.I.IV.7 domi: 4. -ari — imitate iniustus.II vimine: 3.

-are — take part in vomis.III. -inis — grass participo. indignam se quoque ture dolens: ture: 3. -a.14 Mox indigna animo properante reliquit aratra. surrepto . -ere — take away thesaurus.V. Which of these aphorisms strike you as the most anti-intellectual? 3. -i — treasure chest construo. a Force to Be Reckoned With”: The Farmer and the Treasure Reading for Information 1.V. 10 cum: 16.IV.V. auro: 13. rebus: 3.14 imprimo. Do you suppose that a worshiper in a polytheistic religion is frequently uncertain which god to pray or make thanksgiving to? How is this uncertainty best handled? 3. What god did he make thanksgiving to? 3. sulcis: 3. -i — furrow sponte — willingly inops — impoverished prosilio.3 Continuō supplex Telluri construit aras.19 animo: 3. -um — observing Reading for Understanding 1.V.4 atque alios mavis participare deos. -ire — jump out from providus. 202 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. -are — annoy sulcus.4 thesaurum sulcis prosiluisse videt.3. “Lady Luck.16 “Nunc inventa meis non prodis munera templis deos: 3. -ere — push against aratrum. What do you think of Fortuna’s point that we often underestimate the role of luck (consider the phrase dumb luck) when good things befall us but overestimate its role when bad things happen? . What did the farmer do for his oxen after his discovery? 2. malle — prefer molior. gramina compellens ad meliora boves. -eris — plow blade compello.4 admonet. What evidence do you find in these adages that worship of the gods for the Romans is—or should be—a personal experience? 7. -ere — build sollicito.V. and how are the gods most easily alienated? 2. .7 Hunc Fortuna novis gaudentem provida rebus (esse) se: 3.” lacrimis: 3.V.I. Telluri: 3. .IV.b sed cum surrepto fueris tristissimus auro.1 Rusticus impresso molitus vomere terram thesaurum: 3.IV. how do humans best approximate the gods. Does the farmer strike you as having been conscientious after his discovery of the treasure? 2. -i — plow malo. 5 quae sibi depositas sponte dedisset opes. -iri — work gramen. According to these aphorisms. Fortuna predicts that what will happen to his new-found wealth? vomere: 3.2 me primam lacrimis sollicitabis inops. -ere — drive surripio.III.

cum: 16. Plures tegit Fortuna quam tutos facit. Conceptions of the deity. nisi quod et dedit. a divinized abstraction as much as a goddess.10 cum: 16. Fortunam innocens. Religion 203 8.3. mancipio: Fortuna usū dat multa.I Saepe Fortuna innocentem. quod dedit.5 indulget Fortuna malis. nulli satis. successū: 3.III.III.1 Legem nocens veretur.1 Fortuna multis dat nimis. cum minimum dedit.V. innocens: 3.1 Fortuna quō se.V.IV. stultum facit.III. quae non est. Nil eripit Fortuna. Fortuna aliud cogitat. eōdem et inclinat favor. nulli: 3. captatum venit. Fortunam: 3. ut: 16. numquam spes bona deserit. multis.b Fortuna cum blanditur.5 Minimum eripit Fortuna. Fortuna nimium quem fovet.I.16 Successū indignos noli tu ferre molestē.II Ex hominum quaestū facta Fortuna est dea. ratione: 3. retineas: 15. mancipio nihil. Stultum facit Fortuna. quem vult perdere. as the following aph- orisms illustrate.1 Homo saepe aliud.II Fortunam citius reperias quam retineas. B. dicere caecam. ut laedere possit.1 noli Fortunam.V. . Levis est Fortuna: cito reposcit. and concern.1 Cum sis incautus nec rem ratione gubernes.I. reveal more subtlety and complexity than observed for most of the traditional pantheon.I. usū. cum: 16. malis: 3.I. consciousness. Fortuna. captatum: 17. became an increasingly important fig- ure in Roman cult. 3. reperias: 15.

mores: 3. -ēre — remain Reading for Understanding 1. quae cuncta generas et regeneras in dies. -ūs — profit mancipium. throwing salt over the shoulder.III. Fortunae: 3.19 Aberrare a Fortunā tuā non potes. etc.) and cultically? What do you think of the baseball player who makes the sign of the cross as he steps into the batter’s box? 9. and storms? 3. -a. -ūs — success caecus. -a. ius. si quis immeritō miser. What evidence do you find that Fortuna was more “personal” than other Roman gods? Is this evidence also contradicted? 2. -are — hunt down inclino. What is the semantic range of the Latin word fortuna? Do you observe the same range il- lustrated in the depictions of Fortuna? 3. -um — reckless from reposco. quis: 7. What does Earth do when life ceases? Dea sancta Tellus. This poem adopts the form of a prayer to Mother Earth. a: 3. -are — wander away foveo.I. What does Earth do with respect to winds. mores non habet.a Virtuti melius quam Fortunae creditur. -are — incline immeritō — undeservedly quaestus.V.5 Disce aliquid. and the speaker is portrayed as a doctor or some other practitioner of herbal healing. cum: 16. -ēre — besiege successus.4 Fortunae invidia est.1 Fortuna ius in homines. nam cum subitō Fortuna recessit ars remanet vitamque hominis non deserit umquam. Fortuna quod fecit tuum. -ere — demand back guberno. -um — blind molestē — with annoyance remaneo.1. . -i — ownership aberro. 204 Annotated Readings Non est tuum.IV. Magnam Fortunam magnus animus decet. -are — control obsideo. rerum naturae parens. What is Earth’s function vis-à-vis the Underworld? 2. Reading for Information 1. The first half of the poem describes Earth in terms of her natural attributes and functions. obsidet te. capto. rains. avoiding sidewalk cracks.VI. What are the differences between treating luck superstitiously (knocking on wood. -ēre — coddle incautus.

quascumque generat maiestas tua. dimittis et misces freta fugasque soles et procellas concitas.IV mihi: 3. -are — regenerate fugo.IV facilisque praestes hoc mihi quod te rogo. divom: 1.3.4 Exaudi me.b et. B.III. cum vis. caeli ac maris diva arbitra rerumque omnium.10 pietate quia vicisti divom numina.5 praesta: 19.V. exaudi: 19. -are — restore procella.I. dea.I.IV.1 hoc quod peto a te.III.IV hanc nunc mihi permittas medicinam tuam. -ae — judge attineo.I quidque ex his fecero.3. mihi praesta volens. -ae — gale storm recido.1. If Earth grants the prayer. Reading for Information 1. Denique nunc. -e — bright vitalia. quaeso. adoro tuumque ego numen invoco.3. diva. -ium — essentials chaos. Religion 205 gentibus: 3. hilarem promittis diem. Herbas.II. hoc mihi praestes: 19. et fave coeptis meis. abyss alimentum. in tete refugimus: ita. Why is Earth rightly called Magna Mater? 2. regenero. 5 itemque lucem reparas et noctem fugas: tu Ditis umbras tegis et immensum chaos ventosque et imbres tempestatesque attines cum: 16. tu es magna tuque divom regina es.V.I Veniat medicina cum tuis virtutibus: habeat: 15. -ere — flee back reparo.1 maiestas praestet tua.III. 25 causā: 8.I. cum: 16. veniat: 15.II. coeptis: 3. diva.7 referamque grates. quod te supplex rogo. fide: 3. in te cuncta recidunt. diva. what will the speaker do? deum: 1.c Meritō vocaris Magna tu Mater deum.4 sanos eos praestes.b itemque.I. -i — nourishment arbitra. 10 cum: 16. habeat eventum bonum. -ēre — be silent fretum. What specific request does the prayer contain? 3. .IV eos: 3.1 permittas: 19. Te.a et. cum libet.III. -are — banish hilaris. 30 sanos (esse): 20. -i — strait refugio. Tu alimenta vitae tribuis perpetuā fide. cum recesserit anima. -i — chaos. diva. quicquid tribuis.1. per quam silet natura et somnos concipit.III salutis causā tribuis cunctis gentibus: gentibus: 3.3 quod sola praestas gentibus vitalia. -ere — retire The second half of the poem contains the prayer and represents the concerns of the speaker. 20 praestes: 19.I. 15 pietate: 3. tibi meritā fide. cuique easdem dedero quique easdem a me acceperint. -ēre — hold back -te — suffix signifying emphasis sileo.d tuque illa vera es gentium et divom parens. sine qua nil maturatur nec nasci potest.

-are — adore exaudio. -ris — shepherd fingo. Lunaeque senectus reparatus (est). Cereri: 3. This poem takes a distinctly irreligious view of the origins and worship of the gods. After humans observed some order and routine in nature. what did he or she imagine? caelo: 3. -are — traverse Pales — god of flocks competition reparo. -um — healthy invoco.V.III. -ere — demergo.18 Primus in orbe deos fecit timor. discussaque moenia flammis. Pallasque tabernas voti: 3. How did humans respond after benefiting from some modest windfall of nature? 4. Finally.II.1 palmitibus plenis Bacchum vincire. -a. If you were an ancient Roman. discussa (essent): 20. -inis — lustro. Natat obrutus.IV et permutatis distinctus mensibus annus. arduus. Et voti reus. -ūs — outcome adoro. omni 10 aquā: 3.3. -are — swim completely obruo. -ere — succeed a vow Athos — mountain in Greece palmes.a fulmina cum caderent. -i — undertaking Reading for Understanding 1.V. -are — ripen grates. Reading for Information 1. -ire — listen to sanus.V.V. Palemque palmitibus: 3.6 vindicat. hinc signa effusa per orbem. ardua caelo cum: 16.1 manū: 3.4 agricolas primos Cereri dare messis honores. et reparatus honos. iamque error iussit inanis agricolas: 3. 5 distinctus (est): 20. -ere — shipwreck .7 pastorum gaudēre manū. -a. -ere — immerse fulmen.I. lustratā devectus humo.V. flammis: 3.1 Neptuni demersus aquā. mox Phoebus ad ortūs.V. -mitis — leafage certamen. effusa (sunt).1 messis: 3. et qui vendidit urbem.V.1 devectus (est). would you believe more in the efficacy of medicinal herbs after reading this poem? 10. -ere — make up permuto.1 Profecit vitium.IV. -um — high distinguo. What is the purpose of the praise and the description in the poem’s first half? 2. -ere — shake proficio. What emotion first prompted belief in gods? What triggered that emotion? 2.3 iam sibi quisque deos avido certamine fingit. 206 Annotated Readings maturo. -are — change nato. mensibus: 3.II. certamine: 3. -are — restore pastor. -inis — thunderbolt differentiate reus voti — one indebted by discutio. -ium — thanks eventus. How is Earth’s godhead increased by reference to her as a force and power of nature? 3. if a person experienced a great or repeated windfall. what happened next? 3. -are — invoke coeptum.IV atque ictus flagraret Athos.

-a.3.X omnipotens — omnipotent adfor. ignoto (nomine): 3. quod partubus haustus partubus: 1.3 quod: 7.IV. -a. What are some of the divine paradoxes that the poem’s first fourteen lines present? 3.a nunc esto adfatus. -binis — swirl annosus. -cis — brought back polus.1 quo. Explain how this creation is completely anthropocentric. and sentiment? 11. -a. -ere — wrap up in lived intremo. an intriguing fusion of religious and philosophic thought. tui: 7. tu multus item. highlighted most of all by a pronounced monotheistic perspective. -ae — a thousand vagus. 3.V. -ari — invoke turbo. ignoto gaudes. annosa poli quem suspicit aetas. -i — vault suspicio.II.3. -um — long quom = cum involvo.4 postremus mediusque simul. What difficulty does the speaker have in addressing the god who is the subject of this poem? 2. -i — eternity .4 involvier: 12. -um — refluent penso. -ere — quake redux.IV. -i — axis of heaven sisto. 3.I.IV.IV intremit et sistunt rapidos vaga sidera cursūs.7.I. could there be a deific response to every human emotion.I. -i — slip. refluumque iterum per tempora fiat. desire for order.V.1 atque iterum reduces supera in convexa referri. mundo: 3. si quo te nomine dignum est.1 ut:16. in the form of a prayer. B.2 rerum fata rapi vitasque involvier aevo aevo: 3. -ere — honor rapidus. . tu primus et ı̄dem 3.4 rapi: 12. 3. Tu solus. quom maxima tellus 5 dignum est (adfari): 20. -um — swift scilicet — obviously milleni. Reading for Information 1. mundique superstes. quem sub millenis semper virtutibus unum numero. gratitude.7 perdiderit.I altus ab aeterno spectas fera turbine certo 10 vitas: 3. The following poem offers.V. greed) are not by any means exhaustive.III. quo . impulse.1. 20.V. Explain how this poem is sort of a reverse creation myth. What does this poem say about cyclical rebirth? Omnipotens.V. -a. The human affects at the heart of this poem (fear.6. pass refluus. -ire — wear out each lābor. -are — compare aeternum.X quom: 16.2 turbine: 3. .III.VI. Religion 207 Reading for Understanding 1.10 esto: 19.V. quo: 7. -ere — stop convexum. aevo: nec numero quisquam poterit pensare nec aevo. fata: 3. sacer.III.a nomine: 3.V scilicet ut mundo redeat.1 Nam sine fine tui lābentia tempora finis. -um — wandering haurio. If the logic of this poem holds. haustus (mundus): 3. 2.

V 30–32. 3. .II. most mighty that you are. it was especially important to address the god by the proper and correct epithet. once wove life and whatever that animated something is that thrives throughout active bodies -met — suffix expressing flammifluus.3 mundanas olim moles quo foedere rerum (mihi) volenti: 3. -are — help emphasis flowing mundanus.V. . sit . deus innumerabilis unus. vivit: in what light relation.III. -ēre — shine vegetus.V. creatus: 16.1 et speciem temptare sacram. What does the speaker request of the god? Tu (si quidem fas est in temet tendere sensum 15 quā: 3. quod per cita corpora vivit.10 lucens. -ris — brilliance earthly cingo. factusve: 16. animamque .1 ipse vides nostrumque premis solemque diemque. -is — mass. -e — dissimilar thundering luceo. -um — starry Reading for Understanding 1. Pater. augusto stellatus flore iuventae. flore: 3. 208 Annotated Readings The poem now presents the speaker’s prayer request of the god. -a.c hı̄c deus. 25 quem (mundum): Quem (precor. -gregis — akin fulmineus.1. qua sit ratione creatus. -um — sexus.3 deum: 1.III. which is. tu rerum causa vigorque. What is the gender of the god? How are the god and the world distinct? 3.7 sustulerı̄s: 16.V. rather abstract. Reading for Information 1. 20 deum: 1. quo congrege dissimilique. What physical features does the speaker ascribe to the god? 2. tibi nascitur olim tibi: 3.10 sit: 16.1 moles: 3. domus hı̄c hominumque deumque.1 texuerı̄s numero.I. How does the speaker satisfy the requirement technically and religiously? . quo cuncta coruscans cuncta: 3.16 tu sexū plenus toto. -um — flame aspiro. -a.V (sit) genitus Da.X aspires: 19. In Greco-Roman prayer formulae. da nosse volenti. -ere — surround corusco.V.1. -ae — atmosphere countless congrex. -are — glitter moles. sexū: 3. matter complector. in what dissimilar and akin relation you.IV. -e — sustulerīs < tollo aethra. -a.V quidque id sit vegetum. tu natura omnis. -ūs — gender dissimilis. -um — species.V nosse: 20.X.IV.1 flammifluum quoddam iubar es. . -a.V. animamque levi quo maximus olim 30 ut: 16. . texuerı̄s: 16. 3. augustas ut possim noscere causas.II. -i — embrace innumerabilis. -um — animated forsan — perhaps stellatus. hı̄c mundus.V.V numero: 3. aspires).IV quo genitus factusve modo.1 sustulerı̄s.III.c Tu genus omne deum. -ei — appearance iubar. like the god. quā sidera cingis immensus longamque simul complecteris aethram fulmineis forsan rapidā sub imagine membris) quo: 3. foedere: 3. -a.

ignifer.17. 3.b sumere fasque esset calamos tractare deorum. invadunt furtō. noctis hic rumpit tenebras. but this poet views the gods in a different light. -i — sun ray prosero. sed pro carminibus male dissona sibila reddit.1.V. 3.V. Sīc Apollo.4 cum Pan venatū fessus recubare sub ulmo venatū: 3.V. 3. -i — fire bringer radius.1 torrentem patulā vitabant ilice solem. Sed nec resonare canorem. hic tenebras pectoris.3. What was Pan doing when the boys came upon him and his pipes? 2.b sonitū: 3. quem super ex tereti pendebat fistula ramo.7 cum Pan excussus sonitū stridentis avenae . What was Pan’s reaction on discovering the boys with his pipes? Nyctilus atque Micon nec non et pulcher Amyntas ilice: 3.18 vite. fistula quem suerat.V. or 3. tamquam praedam pro carmine possent 16.V.7 somno: 3. -ere — beget Reading for Understanding 1.I.V. Many people have supposed that Apollo and Bacchus were contrary and oppositional forces in Greco-Roman antiquity. 5 tamquam: Hanc pueri. nec vult contexere carmen.V. biology. Point out places where monotheistic thinking is most prominent. Religion 209 2. The poem’s end seems more scientific than religious.1. deinde Liber sīc videtur ignifer: flammis: 3.7 coeperat et somno laxatus sumere vires. The scene of this engaging poem is the god Pan entertaining three shepherd boys with a song in praise of the god Bacchus. This poem moves comfortably between the literal and the metaphorical. Reading for Information 1. The scene is introduced with the boys trying to make music with Pan’s pipes. radio: 3. vite et radio.XIII. ambo sunt flammis creati prosatique ex ignibus. What sort of music did the pipes produce when the boys tried to play them? 3.7. cum: 16.I. Explain the kind of physics. Is it too facile in that respect? 13.VIII ambo de donis calorem. B. conferunt. and archaeology that the speaker seeks through study and prayer.V. 10 cum: 16. 12.

20 capillis: 3.4 vera Iovis proles.IV.III. 25 Nysae: 4. si carmina poscitis.1 vitea serta plicas quique udo palmite tigres colla: 3. -ūs — hunting canor. cerā: 3. -are — sound cicuta. -ere — create in southern Greece laxo. nulli: 5. qui gravidis hederatā fronte corymbis palmite: 3. -are — blow into ilex. aevi: 3.10 ordine detexam: debemus carmina Baccho. -ae — pipes sibila.II.II. -um — wide tracto. Quin et Silenus parvum veteranus alumnum gremio: 3.V.1 evocat aut risum digito motūve quietem palmis: 3. Who takes care of and raises the baby Bacchus? 3. -ūs — noise patulus. -are — recline suo. -i — branch excutio. ulnis: 3.18 aut gremio fovet aut resupinis sustinet ulnis. -ēre — torrid calamus. Reading for Information 1. -ere — compose on Pan narrates the birth. Hunc Nymphae Faunique senes Satyrique procaces. -ae — reed vito.V. Iamque ortūs. Nulli fas est inflare cicutas. Nam cum post sidera caeli ora: 3. origin ramus. -um — per- recubo.” inquit. 210 Annotated Readings si: 18. -ae — shepherd’s pipe venatus.V.V. -a. -ere — shake from detexo. -ere — rush upon avena.V. -ris — tune Maenalius.3 nosque etiam Nysae viridi nutrimus in antro. -ere — weave together taining to a mountain range ulmus.1. -tis — high pitched branching invado. -icis — holm oak resono.I. -i — reed. pipes sonitus. -retis — smooth dissonant Lenaeus = Bacchus fistula.1 adlicit aut tremulis quassat crepitacula palmis. -are — relax dissonus.IV. -a.I. What details are provided about the interactions between the satyr Silenus and the infant Bacchus? Haec fatus coepit calamis sı̄c montivagus Pan: “Te cano. 30 . Lenaee. What details are given about the conception and birth of Bacchus? 2. infancy. -orum — hissing semen. and adolescence of the god Bacchus in this section of the poem. childhood. -inis — seed. pertulit et iusto produxit tempore partūs.V.1 “ipse canam. -a.V.I. -are — avoid furtō — furtively inflo.1 quas ego Maenaliis cerā coniungo sub antris. venturi providus aevi.5 cum: 16.” Baccho: 3. -are — handle stridens.3 torreo.6 hunc pater omnipotens.4 iamque videns: “Pueri. tuos et semina vitis 15 ordine: 3. -i — elm contexo.6 ducis odoratis perfusus colla capillis.b sola Iovem Semele vı̄dit Iovis ora professum. -ae — wax teres. -um — cera.

-ae — elbow flavus. ‘et ignotos primi calcate racemos. -i — baby pomum.V. -ere — squash corymbus. Which steps does the poet describe in the making of the wine? 2. -ndis — foliage providus. -a. -um — of the vine foveo. -cacis — rowdy vellico. -i — chin gravidus. -rre — gestate horreo. -are — weave reclining pubes. -um — pug nosed hederatus. -ēri — openly trembling uva. Religion 211 pectore: 3. -a. -a. -ae — grape cluster display quasso. -ere — blossom plico. crebro pede rumpitur uva . -is — nostril sertum. -a. -i — reed Nysa. decerpunt vitibus uvas calathis: 3. -um — pampinus. -i — foster child collido. -um — ivied alumnus. pollice: 3. -um — crepitaculum. they make the wine. -i — vine tendril profiteor.’” 40 calamus. adstringo. -ēre — coddle naris. -um — wet ulna.IV concava saxa super properant: vindemia fervet pede: 3. -a.V. maturos carpite fetūs. raise mentum.V. -ere — perfume tremulus. Reading for Information 1.1 Cui deus adridens horrentes pectore saetas digitis: 3. What attention does this section of the poem pay to Bacchus? vitibus: 3. -i — bunch After Bacchus bids the satyrs to help him. -ire — nurture. -um — pregnant veteranus. pube: 3.V.V. -a. -a. -um — birthplace of Bacchus mutilus. -is — manhood udus. -a. -i — garland resupinus. -are — trample procax. -mitis — vine branch adlicio. -um — ugly mountain-wandering nutrio.V.1 vellicat aut digitis aures adstringit acutas applauditve manū mutilum caput aut breve mentum.I super: 8. Tum deus: ‘O Satyri.1 collibus in summis. -ēre — bristle fetus.10 flavaque maturo tumuerunt tempora cornū. -ae — city in India. -ere — tug at montivagus. -i — lap together viteus. What are the various vessels or means that the satyrs use to sample the wine? 3. -ūs — delivery saeta.19 “Vix haec ediderat. try the product. -are — shake frons.V. -a.V.’ dixit.V. -are — pluck out racemus. B. -a. and even become drunk. -ere — coax tumeo. -um — old simus. -ūs — fruit partus. -i — fruit provident rattle Lyaeus = Bacchus perfero. -um — floresco. -ae — stiff hair calco.1 et simas tenero collidit pollice nares.10 Intereā pueri florescit pube iuventus 35 cornū: 3. -a. -a. -um — blond palmes. -i — ivy berry gremium. -ēre — swell perfundo.1 et portant calathis celerique elidere plantā plantā: 3. Tum primum laetas extendit pampinus uvas: mirantur Satyri frondes et poma Lyaei.

V.” edo. deus Iove prosatus ipso. the satyrs engage in riotous behaviors.19 pronus at ille lacū bibit et crepitantibus haurit 50 labris: 3. 45 cohors: 3. -a. 212 Annotated Readings musto: 3. alius vocalia cymbala mergit atque alius latices pressis resupinus ab uvis ore: 3. lasciva cohors. Once Pan’s song is finished.V.V. -um — drunk elido. -a. -ae — grape ground evomo. -are — smack defluo.V. -um — lying on uva. -um — curved salio. inque umeros et pectora defluit umor. -ire — dance.V.18 Cantharon hic retinet.1 et plantis uvas premit et de vitibus hastas integit et lynci praebet cratera bibenti. concavat ille manūs palmasque in pocula vertit. Silenus’s blood contains what? His belly contains what? 3.16 Tum primum roseo Silenus cymbia musto plena senex avidē non aequis viribus hausit. -icis — liquid decerpo.VIII Tum Satyri. -um — on the out vindemia. lacū: 3.18 Quin etiam deus ille.1 musta labris.V. adripit usus. -a. -i — grape skin cymbalum. -ere — crush aduncus.10 concubitū Satyri fugientes iungere Nymphas. And Bacchus even offers wine to wild creatures.2 obvia corripiunt: quae fors dedit. the shepherd boys resume their pressing duties. -i — wicker basket cantharon. -ae — grape cluster hand the back calathus. veste: 3. -a. -ere — order lascivus. After wine. cornū bibit alter adunco. -a.V. What three chores did the shepherd boys perform after Pan completed his song? “Omnia ludus habet cantusque chorique licentes. -a. at pōtus (saliens liquor ore resultat) evomit. the satyrs’ minds turn to what? 2. 55 et venerem iam vina movent: raptantur amantes concubitū: 3.IV. -i — cymbal Now drunk. Iove: 3. cornū: 3. Reading for Information 1. -um — concave pronus.III. -um — ready to resupinus. crine.7 hesternoque gravis semper ridetur Iaccho. sibi pocula quisque sibi: 3. 60 venas: 3. -ere — flow down ferveo.1 nudaque purpureo sparguntur pectora musto. -a. -are — jump back concavus.7 Iaccho: 3.V. -i — pot pōtus.V. hic veste retentat. -ere — pluck obvius. -ae — sole of the foot concavo. -e — noisy umor. -um — lusty latex.” 65 .6 Ex illo venas inflatus nectare dulci nectare: 3. Silenus adopts the role of the habitual old souse.V. -ēre — be busy vocalis.1 iam iamque elapsas.19 excipit.V.V. song. plantis: 3. -ere — vomit harvest crepito. -are — cup resulto. hic crine. and dance. -ris — liquid mustum. musto: 3. slosh planta.

-i — slip away. -are — try to hold Iacchus = Bacchus suadeo. regnante: use of ablative? Servio Tullio regnante. -um — rosy hasta. cuidam patri familiae in agro Sabino patri: use of dative? magnitudinis.V. Pan and the satyrs are gods of what sort of territory? Is Bacchus a god of the same territory over which these other gods range? 2. elude yesterday’s together retento. “wild” gods are also rendered somewhat harmless and impotent when drunk. -a. The following story. -ris — nectar craterum. -i — wine bowl concubitus. -ris — flow cymbium. Religion 213 Haec Pan Maenaliā pueros in valle docebat. (Note how drunk satyrs always pursue but never catch nymphs.19 nox iubet. -i — cup Bacchic wand) niveus. Why did it matter who sacrificed the cow? Servio . -ere — lead elābor. donec: 16. ut quisquis eam Aventinensi Dianae immolasset. -ere — cover adstringo. -ae — vein intego. . -ae — cheese curd Reading for Understanding 1. formae: use praecipuae magnitudinis et eximiae formae vacca nata est. licens. -ncis — lynx glaeba. -ntis — unrestrained nectar.i sparsas donec oves campo conducere in unum campo: 3.3. eius immolasset: syncopation of what? . -ae — thyrsus (ritual fluor. Reading for Information 1. Why do “wild” gods so much love a “cultivated” god? 3. -a. -um — conduco. -ere — squeeze inflo. -um — snow white vena. How was the cow’s owner put off? 4. -ere — beget sicco. -are — drain roseus.19 uberibus: 3. -a.XIII.V. -are — inspire lynx. Besides becoming rather ridiculous. Quam of genitive? quam: use of relative? oraculorum certissimi auctores in hōc a dis immortalibus editam esse ut: introducing what subjunctive? responderunt. is an excellent illustration that Roman religious piety didn’t necessarily require a degree of ethical behavior. set during the reign of King Servius Tullius (traditionally 578–535 BCE). The priest at the temple was of what locality? 3. B.) What is the significance of this? Supplemental Readings 1. -ēre — urge back prosero. .a. uberibus suadens siccare fluorem lactis et in niveas adstrictum cogere glaebas. -ūs — sex hesternus. The cow belonged to a man of what locality? 2.

quia domestici interpretes deerant. The victory was based on a prodigy that could have benefited either side. . petente: use of urbem nostram tot civitatium. -titis — chief alveus. quam: tmesis of ? intulit. ne prius victimam caederet quam proximi amnis se aquā abluisset: use of abluisset. eaque mora non minus obsidentibus quam obsessis intolerabilis vidēretur. -ere — cleanse Aventinensis. which can be a dangerous way of thinking. . . Whom did the Romans consult about the prodigy? Whom did the Veientians consult? 3. Who ultimately ordered the Romans to act according to divine command? Cum bello acri et diutino Veientes a Romanis intrā moenia compulsi capi non possent. et subjunctive? eo . haruspex Veientium a milite nostro. What prodigy occurred in the Alban Lake? 2. exoptatae victoriae iter miro prodigio di immortales patefecerunt: subitō enim Albanus lacus. Do you suppose that this mind-set was more dan- gerous or less because the Romans also believed that gods favored them for world dominion? 2. The implication of this story seems to be that world dominion takes precedence over ethics. neque caelestibus auctus imbribus neque inundatione ullius amnis adiutus. Reading for Information 1. Laetus eō dominus subjunctive? festinatione: use of bovem summā cum festinatione Romam actam in Aventino ante ablative? sacrificio: use of ablative? aram Dianae constituit. This tale tells how Rome finally captured the town of Veii after a long siege (396 BCE). De qua re antistes templi certior factus religionem hospiti prius . Ergo senatus. eodem paene tempore et religioni paruit et hostium urbe potitus est. . 214 Annotated Readings obtinēret: use of patria totius terrarum orbis imperium obtinēret. Why does the author believe the validity of the oracles in this story? 2. raptus et in castra perlatus futurum esse dixerat. Quod priusquam legati renuntiarent. Is there any suggestion here that the goddess Diana was offended that her temple and priest participated in a gross deception? 3. . -i — riverbank Aventine hill priest Reading for Understanding 1. sacrificio Sabinis regimen humani generis daturus: what form? daturus. -e — on the antistes. -nis — haste abluo. solitum stagni modum excessit. duplici praedictione monitus. -ae — cow festinatio. eoque alveum Tiberis petente vaccam ipse immolavit. tot gentium dominam pio sacrificii ablative? furto: use of ablative? furto reddidit. Cuius rei explorandae gratiā legati ad Delphicum oraculum missi rettulerunt praecipi sortibus ut aquam eius lacūs emissam per agros diffunderent: sı̄c enim Veios venturos esse in potestatem populi Romani. vacca.

-ae — Samnite fallacia. -ntis — favorable exanimis. -nis — flood exploro. -ere — guide strenuus. What role does deliberation play in this tale? 3. -a. -a. -i — tender of expio. Egit virum severum. quemadmodum violata religio expianda foret. -are — report back intolerabilis. -ire — enter quemadmodum — how pullarius. ut habērent di eum cuius capite. Most Roman field commanders kept a stock of sacred chickens with them. Did the chicken tender report favorable or unfavorable auspices? Was he telling the truth? 2. -ae — deception pactum. spei viam uno mentis impetū rapiendo. Tam cito animadvertit quo pacto iniuria imperatoris vindicari debēret. Where did the consul marshal his chicken tender on the battlefield? 3. -ere — be confident . -pretis — exopto. qua ratione victoria apprehendi posset. for the purposes of tak- ing auspices and sacrificing. si quid irae conceperant. what distinguished Rome from Veii for victory? 3. pullariusque non prosperantibus avibus optimum ei auspicium renuntiasset. -are — examine perlatus < perfero Reading for Understanding 1. -ere — exceed soothsayer inundatio. poenae genus. Id ut cognōvit consul. fidente animo et invasit Aquiloniam et cepit. de fallaciā illius factus certior. quod primum e contrariā parte missum erat telum in ipsum pullarii pectus. -um — vigorous prosperans. What role does luck play in this tale? 2. What role does action play in this tale? 4. By implication. Reading for Information 1. eumque exanimem prostravit. This incident from 293 BCE involved a general who took issue with his chicken tender and the consequence for a particular battle. -i — manner town southeast of Rome ineo. -i — pool interpres. -are — report fido. -e — unbearable stagnum. Aquilonia. cum Aquiloniam oppugnans proelium vellet committere. timoris modum. -are — make good severus. -e — dead renuntio. -um — long adiutus < adiuvo renuntio. expiarent. ceterum mendacem ante ipsam aciem constituit. consulem religiosum. -um — stern sacred chickens dirego. sibi quidem et exercitui bonum omen datum credidit ac pugnam iniit. -a. What became of the chicken tender? Papirius Cursor consul. Religion 215 diutinus. imperatorem strenuum. Sive autem casū sive etiam caelestis numinis providentiā directum est. -are — desire excedo. B.

after a long plague. What animal exhibited the power and will of the god Aesculapius? urbi: use of dative? Ut ceterorum quoque deorum propensum huic urbi numen exsequamur. in modum Aesculapii syncopation of? sumerent: use of venerati erant. cura sacerdotum inspectis Sibyllinis libris animadvertit non aliter cum: type? misericordiā: use of pristinam recuperari salubritatem posse quam si ab Epidauro Aesculapius ablative? auxilio: use of esset accersitus. How would this story be different if the chicken tender had been not a humble figure but a high priest instead? 4. which option does he seem to prefer? 2. How long did the plague last before the Romans acted? 2. This narrative tells the famous story of how. cum finem tanti et triennio: use of ablative? tam diutini mali neque divinā misericordiā neque humano auxilio imponi pestilentiā: use of ablative? vidēret. quae iam in terris erat amplissima. Although the author states that the outcome was the result of either chance or divine provi- dence. . Reading for Information 1. . . unicam fatalis remedii opem ablative? inspectis . ablative? Epidauri: case? oculis: use of ablative? 11–12. legatis missis: use of ablative? perductos ut quidquid inde salubre patriae laturos se existimassent pro impetraturam esse: use of infinitive? suo iure sumerent benignissimē invitaverunt. . ut . exsequamur: use of subjunctive? triennio continuo vexata est pestilentiā civitas nostra. should they bring it. impetraturam esse use of ablative? salubritatem: use of se credidit. The author here credits the consul with many virtues. Itaque eō legatis missis. quod ab eorum urbe quinque milia passuum distat. libris: auctoritate suā. Rome introduced the Greek god Asclepius (Aesculapius) into its pantheon (292 BCE). 216 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. The embassy that the Romans sent to the Greek cult center of Epidaurus received a favorable welcome. if the outcome of the incident had been different. e vestigioque Epidaurii Romanorum legatos in use of subjunctive? templum Aesculapii. per urbis celeberrimas partes mitibus oculis et leni tractū subjunctive? obsequio: use of lābi coepit. Quorum tam promptam se: use of accusative? indulgentiam numen ipsius dei subsecutum verba mortalium caelesti studio: use of ablative? obsequio comprobavit: si quidem is anguis. What national resource did they consult in this crisis? 3. Neque eam opinio decepit: pari namque studio petitum ac accusative? esset accersitus: promissum est praesidium. sumerent: to take whatever they thought that. what would be the judgment(s) against the consul? 3. quem Epidauri rarō sed existimassent: use of subjunctive? numquam sine magno ipsorum bono visum. tractū: use of ablative? would be helpful to their state .

-ntis — inusitatus. 9–10. When the Romans reembarked on their ship. paventibusque inusitato spectaculo nautis eo conscendit. -are — be distant anguis. -a. what joined them? What was the reaction of the ship’s crew? 2. -um — anguis. dispulit. anguis. B. -i — atrium pergo. traverse sedes. -i — myrtle for sion of superimminens. -e — predetermined comprobo. -e — healthy tractus. -i — tent emetior. -a. non sine magno metū legatorum ne inde in triremem reverti nollet. -i — eat. -a. laeti inde solverunt. prolapsus in vestibulo aedis Aesculapii myrto frequentibus ramis diffusae superimminentem excelsae altitudinis palmam circumdedit. palmam: a palm tree of lofty height that overhung a myrtle tree spread out with dense branches triduum. ubi templum dicatum est. -dinis — height conscendo. ac prosperam emensi navigationem postquam Antium appulerunt. positis quibus vesci solebat. Reading for Information 1. Tum legati. After a brief stay in Antium. -a. atque in ripam Tiberis egressis legatis in insulam. -ūs — course salubritas. feed on . qui ubique in navigio remanserat. -is — snake overhanging unaccustomed peritus. tranavit adventūque suo tempestatem. -nis — voyage triremis. -otis — in posses. myrtus. -is — locale convolvo. -is — snake pristinus. -um — fatalis. perinde atque exoptatae rei compotes expletā gratiarum actione. What effect did the passenger have on its eventual arrival in Rome? Τriduoque inter religiosam omnium admirationem conspectus haud dubiam prae se appetitae clarioris sedis alacritatem ferens ad triremem Romanam perrexit. What happened with the ship’s passenger when landfall was made at Antium? 3. cultūque anguis a peritis excepto. perque tres dies. -a. -tatis — public laturos < fero health promptus. -ere — board knowledgeable vescor. -iri — pass. -ere — make straight compos. -um — ready As the story resumes. . inque multiplicem orbem per summam quietem est convolutus. -is — trireme exopto. they made their way to Rome and Aesculapius’s new temple. Religion 217 propensus. -are — desire vestibulum. -um — former salubris. -um — altitudo. Antiensis templi hospitio usus. -ere — coil together navigatio. myrto . the Romans experience religious celebrations and wonders in Epidaurus be- fore setting off to return to Italy. urbi se nostrae advehendum esse restituit. -are — approve inclined disto. cui remedio quaesitus erat. -i — three days’ time tabernaculum. ubi Q. Ogulni legati tabernaculum erat. .

“bonae et magnae sunt: itaque precor ut eas perpetuō incolumes servent. -are — emend lapis. -i — increase lustrum. a sheep. -um — seventh of census taking emendo. Who read the prayer formula that Scipio changed? 3. Throughout this story. Is the plague that prompted this incident represented as god sent or totally unrelated to the gods? 3. quod obtinebat. Qua votorum verecundiā deinceps censores in condendis lustris usi sunt: prudenter enim sensit tunc incrementum Romano imperio petendum fuisse. and a bull prudenter — prudently Reading for Understanding 1. -ere — dispel Reading for Understanding 1. -i — hospitality dico. -are — swim across dispello.” ac protinus in publicis tabulis ad hunc modum carmen emendari iussit. Rome necessarily experienced a significant change of mind-set as it transitioned from an Italian to a Mediterranean power. What is the logic behind a snake serving as Aesculapius’s sacred animal? 5. amitteret.” inquit. posterior. ita abundē felix. The following anecdote describes how the younger Scipio Africanus altered religious ritual to reflect a new global reality (circa 141 BCE). -ūs — arrival adveho. -idis — milestone solitaurilia. -ium — sacrifice deinceps — successively abundē — sufficiently of a pig. Explain the religious significance of the change from “bigger and greater” to “securer and more lasting. -i — five-year period praeeo. cum intrā septimum lapidem triumphi quaerebantur. -ere — convey trano. -a. The Greeks and Romans believed that one or more animal species (theriomorphs) repre- sented each god. cum lustrum conderet inque solitaurilium sacrificio scriba ex publicis tabulis sollemne ei precationis carmen praeiret. -ire — preview septimus. -are — dedicate adventus. What office did Scipio occupy when he changed the prayer formula? 2. Reading for Information 1.” . What kind of greediness was Scipio trying to avoid? Ne Africanus quidem posterior nos de se tacēre patitur. quo di immortales ut populi Romani res meliores amplioresque facerent rogabantur. -ius — later scriba. maiorem autem totius terrarum orbis partem possidenti ut avidum esse quicquam ultrā appetere. si nihil ex eo. Qui censor. -ae — scribe incrementum. what seems to be the divine disposition toward Rome? 2. “Satis. 218 Annotated Readings hospitium.

The talents and promise of others aren’t readily evident except to a few and only later. inhaereo. B. Although the author doesn’t necessarily say so. nemo fuit qui non illi tamquam dis immortalibus apud sacra mensae suae libaverit. Marii consulatūs ac duo amplissimi triumphi: ad rogum enim usque gaudio exsultavit. Reading for Information 1. -e — equestrian nimirum — doubtless Reading for Understanding 1. Is there something sacrilegious in that suggestion? . overcame many obstacles to achieve greatness. -i — announcement Spain perpendo.” dixerit. -orum — Germanic exsulto. -a. The story is set in Africa around 134 BCE. si quid illi accidisset. et forte inter cenam quidam Scipionem interrogasset. Religion 219 2. quemnam res publica aequē magnum habitura esset imperatorem. Was Scipio wise for recognizing that Rome was at a critical time in one of those transitions? 6. quod. what did the people do? Inhaerent uni voci posterioris Africani septem C. -ari — presage posterior. Who made this prediction about Gaius Marius? Did Marius like it? 2. Where was the prediction made? Was Marius present? 3. -ae — town in efficaciter — productively nuntius. Illa nimirum cena militaris speciosissimas totā in urbe Mario futuras cenas ominata est: postquam enim Cimbros ab eo deletos esse initio noctis nuntius pervēnit. -i — term of ominor. cum apud Numantiam sub eo duce equestria stipendia merēret. “Vel hunc. Would you rather be a wunderkind or a late bloomer? Why? 2. -ere — adjudge equestris. -ius — later service Cimbri. -ēre — pertain stipendium. Some people seem destined for greatness from an early age. States often undergo lengthy transitions from survival to growth to maintenance to sur- vival again. he hints that Marius’s existential status was something greater than human. The night after Marius’s victory over the Cimbrians was announced at Rome. Did Scipio’s pronouncement predict Marius’s future or alter it? 3. -um — excellent tribe Numantia. prose reading 3). as we’ll see elsewhere (section D. This charming anecdote recounts the prediction of one famous Roman about a soon to be famous Roman. Quo augurio perfectissima virtus maximam orientem virtutem vı̄deritne certius an efficacius accenderit perpendi vix potest. Does the author seem to commend Scipio’s modification out of religious principle or out of political pragmatism? 3. -are — boast perfectus. respiciens se suprā ipsum cubantem. Marius.

“Ecquid scis Idūs iam Martias vēnisse?” At is. This anecdote involves a famous soothsayer. What was Spurinna’s response when Caesar said his “deadline” was already up? Spurinnae in coniectandis deorum monitis efficacior scientia apparuit quam urbs Romana voluit. Utinam haruspicem potius augurium quam patriae parentem securitas fefellisset! coniecto. Does the author have a favorable view of Caesar? On what is his view based? 2. Caesar Spurinnae dixit. -acis — effective or fifteenth day of a month carelessness praedico. Reading for Information 1. Caesari ut proximos triginta dies quasi fatales cavēret. -ere — complete. For how long a period did Spurinna predict that Caesar’s life was in danger? 2. Eō cum forte māne uterque in domum Calvini Domitii ad officium convēnisset. -are — surmise fatalis. At whose home did Spurinna and Caesar both come to call on the Ides of March? 3. -e — fatal exigo. 220 Annotated Readings 7. “Ecquid scis illas nondum praeterisse?” Abiecerat alter timorem. -ere — predict ecquid — at all. Praedixerat C. -uum — the thirteenth securitas. -i — warning Idūs. Do you agree with this? 3. who predicted that Julius Caesar’s life was in peril. tamquam exacto tempore suspecto. the prophet was. The worldview expressed here is very deterministic. of course Reading for Understanding 1. right (44 BCE). alter ne extremam quidem eius partem periculo vacuam esse arbitratus est. pass monitum. quorum ultimus erat Idūs Martiae. Despite Caesar’s dismissals. that is. what is previously destined will necessarily occur. What is the role of free will in a deterministic universe? Can a decision of an individual alter the dictates of destiny? . -tatis — efficax. in fact.

III.1.II quasi inventuri mortuam postridiē. 1.3 illis revertor hostis qui me laeserunt.” hostis: 3.III. C. 15 ferae: 3.1 veloci saltū foveā sese liberat.a At illa. regardless of culture.I. domum: 4. -ere — intervene . What or whom did the panther kill? What or whom did the panther spare? referri: 12. -ocis — quick fovea. petierit: 20.1 alii onerant saxis.3 At illa: “Memini quis me saxo petierit.II. What did most of the people assume would happen when they went home at nightfall? 3. sibi: 3.III.5 damnum haut recusant: tantum pro vitā rogant. saltus. jump fustis. abeunt securi domum.V. -a.V quis panem dederit. diebus interpositis: Paucis diebus interpositis provolat. Fables 221 C. 5 3. .19 et in cubile concito properat gradū.2 ut: 16.I. -um — weak interpono. illis: 3.6 quamvis: 16.3 Tum sibi timentes qui ferae pepercerant. -a. -um — disturbed misereor. -ae — pit insequor. ipsos pastores necat. vires ut refecit languidas. alii fustes congerunt.I. -are — weigh down postridiē — on the next day concitus.1 pecus trucidat. Panthera imprudens olim in foveam decidit.V.2 imprudens. -ntis — careless panis.”: The Panther and the Shepherds Reading for Information 1. -is — bread velox. periturae quippe. vı̄dēre: 20.XIII. period. et cuncta vastans saevit irato impetū. -ēri — take pity languidus. The precept embraces a powerful truth.V. 13.I Solet a despectis par referri gratia.a misēre panem ut sustinēret spiritum.III. misēre: 20.II. “What Goes Around . -i — come on. dederit: 16. -ūs — leap. -is — club follow libero.2.2 inventuri: 12. What three things did the countrypeople bring for or against the panther? 2. .I.III. quidam contra miseriti periturae:12. saltū: 3. saxis: 3.2 Vı̄dēre agrestes. the early Christians had no copyright on the so-called Golden Rule (“Do unto others as you would have others do unto you”). Fables Verse Readings “Do unto Others” As these fables show. quamvis nemo laederet. ut: 16.1 Nox insecuta est. or faith. vos timēre absistite.XIII. -are — free onero.I. 10 foveā: 3.

d sonare citharam quos putes Apollinis. 12.2. The people who were merciful toward the panther didn’t begrudge their loss of livestock (see line 16).1 nuper donavit.3 Sı̄c.7 Humanitati qui se non accommodat plerumque poenas oppetit superbiae. What commends compassion for animals. tribuit mortua.III. if direct or immedi- ate rewards do not? 2. Considering Roman culture.I. -are — denounce trucido.” Illa. ut vı̄dit sibi esse.3. -ris — shepherd damnum. negarat: 20. . “Rewards for the Inconsiderate”: The Owl and the Cicada Reading for Information 1. noctuae: 3.II pōtare est animus nectar. sonare: 12. Noctua. contemni: nullum esse auxilium et verba contemni sua. 15 vocem: 3. veni.I. Though the idea that compassion toward wild animals will be rewarded is attractive.2 ut: 16. -i — loss. there are remarkably few anecdotes. quod Pallas mihi pōtare: 12. -are — lay waste to recuso.IV. obsepto cavo: cupidē advolavit. 13.3 Cicada acerbum noctuae convicium faciebat. Noctua. quae arebat siti.9 admotā prece: clamare occepit. such as this one.XIII. -are — dash out vasto.d hac est adgressa garrulam fallaciā: 10 “Dormire quia me non sinunt cantūs tui. Why not? 3. citharam: 3. -ire — rage absisto. 222 Annotated Readings provolo.IV.III. 5 tacēret: 16. how would you explain this paucity? 2. the truth is more often otherwise. In all of Roman literature.III. praising compassion for vulnerable animals. si non fastidis.a accensa magis est.III. damage Reading for Understanding 1.4 putes: 15. viva quod negarat.3. Rursus admotā prece 13.I. -are — slaughter saevio. Multō validius multō: 3.3.I. -ere — cease pastor.1 trepidantem consectata est et leto dedit.IV Rogata est ut tacēret. obsepto cavo.I. What happened to the cicada? humanitati: 3. How was the cicada annoying the owl? 2. veni: 19.I bibamus: 5.I unā bibamus. solitae vı̄ctum in tenebris quaerere cavoque ramo capere somnum interdiū.V.b si: 18. What liquid did the owl invite the cicada to drink with it? 3.4 simul gaudebat vocem laudari suam.

What did the stork serve the fox? How did she serve it? nulli: 3. quam nullo modo 5 posuisse: 12. -ari — chase noctua. In your view. C. nocendum (est): 17. Does the deceptive use of gods’ names (Apollo and Minerva) in the owl’s ruse strike you as blasphemous in any way? 3.I.16 huic: 3.IV animo: 3. Fables 223 humanitas.1 Quae cum lagonae collum frustrā lamberet. -um — liquid marmor.a Ad cenam vulpes dicitur ciconiam multandum (esse): 17. 10 locutam (esse): peregrinam sı̄c locutam volucrem accepimus: 20.V. -are — daytime sitis. -ire — disdain Reading for Understanding 1.I. -ae — deceitfulness cavum. -ae — arrogance sono. -are — sound trepido. si quis verō laeserit.1. -ēre — be parched accommodo.3 “Sua quisque exempla debet aequo animo pati. was the deception that the owl employed suitably justified? 3.III.3. open fabella.VI.3. -ae — owl nectar. -are — punish ciconia. -ūs — food fastidio. What did the fox serve the stork? How did he serve it? 2. block oppeto. -a. -i — spat nuper — recently vı̄ctus. “You Get What You Give”: The Fox and the Stork Reading for Information 1. intrito cibo cibo: 3. -aris — nectar letum.I.V. potuerit: 16.6 Nulli nocendum. did the owl give the cicada due warnings? 2. si: 18. In your view. -tatis — ramus. -i — branch unā — together thoughtfulness interdiū — during the areo. -ere — meet with fallacia. -are — be afraid cicada.3 invitasse: 20. -ae — stork patulus.b gustare esuriens potuerit ciconia. -um — flat.V. -i — hollow superbia. huic rostrum inserens fame: 3. -ae — cicada cithara. cum: 16. -is — thirst accommodate occipio.IV multandum simili iure fabella admonet.4 quis: 7.III. -are — fly to plerumque — often garrulus. -ae — fable liquidus.d gustare: 12.I.3 posuisse sorbitionem. -ae — lute consector.V.1 Quae. -a.b multo. -ere — seal. -ere — begin advolo. -ris — slab of marble . -um — talkative obsepio.10 satiatur ipsa et torquet convivam fame.I.I.7 plenam lagonam posuit. vulpem cum revocasset. et liquidam in patulo marmore iure: 3.3.I.IV prior invitasse. -i — death convicium.XI cum: 16. -a.” pati: 12.

-um — guest- revoco. What happened to the young crab that prompted his mother to try to give him advice? 2. way proceed wandering sisto. table fellowship is about as intimate as humans routinely get with one another. -i — word.IV. sideways forward procedo.I.I velis: 19.d tibi: 3. -ēre — advise harmless saxosus.1 alterius censor si vitiosa notas.I.1.2.V.3 adloquiis: 3. -ari — eat one’s fill intero. -ere — insert peregrinus. set . “Practice What You Preach!”: A Young Crab and His Mother Reading for Information 1.a “rectaque monstrantem certior ipse sequar.V.” siste: 19. -itis — path.XIII. What does the young crab propose to his mother? dum: Curva retrō cedens dum fert vestigia cancer.I.IV rursus in obliquos neu velis ire pedes. -a.a. -um — deviant. way obliquus. pronus. retrō — backward adloquium. indirect cancer. -um — pointing relido.IV. trames.V. -ere — move. Short of the bedroom. -ere — lick esurio. -ere — plant. -are — taste rostrum. -a.I si: 18. cum tu pravissima temptes. -a. 10 cum: 16.III. How would you characterize the hospitality the fox and the stork show each other? 2.1 si: 18.5 “Ne tibi transverso placeant haec devia. -a. recta: 3. devius. Can this concept be reconciled with the principle underlying the Golden Rule? 3.1 Nam stultum nimis est. In what ways can we offend others at table and foreclose that intimacy? 4.1 curvus. -um — rocky transversus. -a. 5 placeant: 15.” vitiosa: 3. -a.a. -a.10 sed nisū contenta ferens vestigia recto tramite: 3. procedere: 12. -onis — soup lagona. -um — faultless. -a. nate. nisū: 3. The fable suggests that eye-for-an eye justice is acceptable. -ere — scrape verse. -eris — crab discussion innocuus. -i — beak lambo. -um — winding gressus. -ūs — course. -um — prickly emoneo.I. si me praecesseris. -ae — dinner guest gusto.1 talibus adloquiis emonuisse datur: emonuisse: 12.V.A.3. -ēre — torment Reading for Understanding 1.b Hunc genetrix facili cupiens procedere gressū gressū: 3. -um — oblique. -ire — be hungry insero. 16. -ere — grind torqueo.3. -are — invite in turn satior. 224 Annotated Readings sorbitio. hispidus.” inquit. pravissima: 3. -a.I. -um — trans.1 hispida saxosis terga relisit aquis.i.IV.3. -ae — bottle conviva.i Cui natus: “Faciam.2 innocuos prono tramite siste gradūs.

III.3 Hi cum cepissent cervum vasti corporis. tum. What booty have the four captured? 3. -um — flawed Reading for Understanding 1. to observe a fault in another than to notice the same fault in one- self. Testatur haec fabella propositum meum. stag adficio. -ae — goat consors. was the booty shared equally by all four members? Numquam est fidelis cum potente societas.I. -rtis — partner testor.6 Vacca et capella et patiens ovis iniuriae fuēre: 20. -tatis — affiliation capella. which one is described as patiens iniuriae? 2. 5 partibus factis: sı̄c est locutus.a corporis: 3.V. -ere — go ahead of pravus.2. societas. -um — crooked monstro.1 malo adficietur si quis quartam tetigerit.10 “Ego primam tollo nomine hōc quia rex cluo. cum: 16. What happens emotionally.II. -are — show vitiosus. It is easier. partibus factis. -um — huge improbitas. -i — a bad thing fabella. -ae — fable cervus. C.VI. -a. leo: 13.1 nomine: 3. Fables 225 praecedo. -ūs — glade. Being weaker but wary is a perfectly fine condition. secundam. -ere — do. me sequetur tertia. Of the four members of the societas.a Sı̄c totam praedam sola improbitas abstulit. when we see a shared fault in a parent or an offspring? 3. -i — buck.I. to be sure. glen malum.1.V. Divided into quarters.a quis: 7.3. malo: 3. -ae — cow cluo. -a. iniuriae: 3. though. In what ways does the response of the son seem more strident and disrespectful than the advice of the mother? 2. How is the maxim “Practice what you preach” just a variation on the Golden Rule? ———— “Be Careful Whom You Trust” The following fables remind us that our superiors in power and intelligence are not always to be trusted. -ari — attest to saltus.2 socii fuēre cum leone in saltibus.” 10 si: 18. face with propositum. -tatis — wickedness vacca. quia sum consors. -i — premise vastus. -ere — be called abstulit < aufero .I. “The Lion’s Share”: A Four-Way Partnership Reading for Information 1. quia plus valeo.II. -a. tribuetis mihi. 5.

3. -arum — threats deludo. “cunctis ut victima templis morte: 3.3.3 quam rabido fauces exsaturare lupo. -ere — remove persistent vilis.1 temptat compositis sollicitare dolis: ut: 16.10 Forte lupum melior cursū deluserat haedus.V.1 proxima vicinis dum petit arva casis. campo: 3.1 inde fugam recto tendens in moenia cursū inter lanigeros adstitit ille greges.V.” casū: 3.1 mihi: 3.4 Quod nisi securo valeas te reddere campo.I.III. elude sollicito. -ium — town walls regemo. -gra. faucis — throat haedus. glut casa. Where does the wolf claim that the kid will die if it doesn’t leave the city? 3. Sı̄c . kid nonne — surely? exsaturo. . exime: 19.A.V. -ēre — be worthy adsto. fronte: 3.i. -ire — it is useful bearing heu — alas! promereo. improbe.I divis: 3. 12.14 Ille refert: “Modo quam metuis. -are — harry faux.3. -grum — eximo.IV “Nonne vides. would that be a preferable death? cursū: 3. -are — make bloody expedit.” 10 vittatā .8 heu mihi!. according to the kid.V. 226 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. -e — worthless . dum: 16.c 15. -ere — trick. . Impiger hunc raptor mediamque secutus in urbem.I. casis: 3.1.a. -a. Why.2 cursū: 3. exime curam.5 Sı̄c quotiens duplici subeuntur tristia casū. vittatā tu quoque fronte cades.V.III. fudisse: 12.” inquit.III. Why does the poet say that improbitas carried off the booty? 2. -ere — bellow ambiguous laniger. moenia. 15 promeruisse: expedit insignem promeruisse necem. casū: so whenever certain sorrows present themselves with two possible outcomes lupus. Where does the kid seek refuge from the wolf? 2. -are — stand amid vittatus.1 immitem regemens morte cruentet humum? nisi: 18. 5 dolis: 3.III. -era. -ae — house. .b lupo: 3. . -e — cruel duplex. tolle: 19. -plicis — twofold. Does this partnership between three herbivores and a carnivore—and the fact that their bone of contention is over meat—distract you from the fable’s message in any way? 6. -i — wolf raptor.XIII.III.V. cottage immitis.I.a et tecum viles. -um — garlanded of impiger. -ris — predator minae.II. -erum — wool cruento. “Taking the High Road (to Avoid the Lowlifes)”: The Kid and the Wolf Reading for Information 1. precor.3 nam sat erit sacrum divis fudisse cruorem. tolle minas. -are — fill.I tecum: 8. -i — young goat.

II ut simul emissos nullus divelleret error. -i — young bull coniuro.1 et coniuratos horret adire boves. What was the nature of the original relationship among these four oxen? 2.10 viribus: 3.XIII. divello.A.3.b collisum cupiens dissociare pecus.I deserat: 15. all sacrificial victims should go will- ingly to sacrifice. quamvis: 16.a Et quamvis audax factisque immanior esset. .6 fuisse: 12.1 Protinus adgreditur pravis insistere verbis. dum: dum metus oblatam prohibet temptare rapinam.b qui cupit. How does this fable support that belief? 2. -a. -ere — dash upon impleo.b Tunc quidam ex illis. C. -are — scatter. How did the lion change this relationship? iuvencis: 3.II.3. “Divide and Conquer”: The Oxen and the Lion Reading for Information 1.I. invasit miserum diripuitque gregem.” iuvencus. aut veterem deserat ante fidem.V.1. -acis — deceitful fear much collido. join dissocio. -e — mighty disiungo.XIII.I. -ere — attack collatis < confero pravus.III. -ere — press fallax. -ere — ravage pertimeo. Which death do you think would be preferable. ex nostrā discere morte potest. rursus et e pastū turba rediret amans.4 Quattuor immensis quondam per prata iuvencis amicitiae: 3. servare: 12.I. ut: 16. -ere — separate together divide error. -ris — wandering immanis. -ūs — pasture impar — unequal invado.3.2 tantorum solus viribus impar erat.d fertur amicitiae tanta fuisse fides. one in support of a noble cause or one in pursuit of a personal goal? 7. dissociare: 12. 16. Sı̄c postquam dictis animos disiunxit acerbis. Hos quoque collatis inter se cornibus ingens 5 cornibus: 13.3. -um — sinister diripio. 10 verbis: 3.2 dicitur in silvis pertimuisse leo. -ēre — fill . collatis .III.a. The ancients believed that to be acceptable to the gods.I.3.V.I impleat. Neve cito admotas verbis fallacibus aures impleat: 15.III. “Vitam servare quietam 15 discere: 12. factis: 3.i. -ēre — insisto. . -ere — disunite pastus. Fables 227 Reading for Understanding 1. -are — unite.

sed cythisi croceum per prata virentia florem 5 et glaucas salices et thyma grata pete. -ris — praeruptus. Which dilemma have you found more difficult to deal with. Why did the oxen’s original relationship intimidate the lion? 2.” inquit. browse hirsutus. nec hirsutis pascua quaere iugis. securam (me): 3. -a.V. -ere — feed. instimulare: 12.V. quamvis: 16. closer croceus. -are — correspond esurio. -orum — food instimulo. say. cum: 16. Would the fable be more interesting or more effective if.I. -ae — she-goat cythisus.” excelsus.1. fallaciter. -um — yellow consto.XIII.10 Nam quamvis rectis constet sententia verbis.V.III.19 linque. 228 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. dolis: 3. -a.X “securam placidis instimulare dolis. -ire — be hungry glaucus. -um — sheer thymum. -um — thicketed fallaciter — deceitfully rupes. The predator/prey aspect of this fable is pretty obvious.” inquit. -ere — abandon desisto. maiora pericula tollas.1 moneas: 15. a fox or a large snake replaced the lion? ———— . -are — goad capella. good advice from a person you didn’t trust or respect. 10 tollas: 15. -orum — heights gemo. One (the last?) of the oxen provides the moral of the fable. -a. “praeruptis ardua saxis iugis: 3.” Illa gemens: “Desiste. -i — clover licet — although comminus — close. -i — thyme counselor ardua. -is — crag pascua. How is this more effective than if the poet had simply declared the moral in his own voice? 8.1. “Always Workin’ an Angle”: The Lion and the She-Goat Reading for Information 1. -a.3. The lion advises the she-goat not to graze where? Why? 2.a verbis: 3.b Vera licet moneas. Does the she-goat consider the advice sound in any way? V ı̄ derat excelsā pascentem rupe capellam.7 suspectam hanc rabidus consiliator habet. precor. -icis — willow conciliator.II dictis: 3.II tu tamen his dictis non facis esse fidem. -a. Et prior: “Heus. -ere — suspect heus — hey! salix. or bad advice from a person you did? 2.III. -ere — bleat Reading for Understanding 1. -um — lofty linquo. -um — gray suspicio.a comminus esuriens cum leo ferret iter. -ere — cease pasco.

-ēre — mock pluma.V.d auribus: 3.III.I. magnitudine: 3.b. The peacock emulates the voice of what other bird? 2. -a. laeva cornici omina. -ere — deceive smaragdus.III.V. the fates allotted what attributes to what other birds? 3. -um — mute deludo. indignē ferens quod: 16.” inquit.7 tibi. vincis magnitudine.III.IV “Quo mi. -ae — feather augurium. C. -um — unfavorable magnitudo. -i — judgment luscinius. -ae — complaint .1 delusa ne spes ad querelam decidat.” noli: 19.1 (dedisti): 20. aquilae. -ae — eagle mirabilis. 12. Fables 229 “Just Tell Yourself.V.V. 15 pavo. social. Juno affirms that to wish for the impossible produces what effect? Pavo ad Iunonem vēnit.I. cornici: 3. economic.3. -ēre — shine arbitrium.3 se deridēri simul ac vocem miserit. The message of these fables is that true happiness and well-being rest with a basic decision.III. vires aquilae. 10 arbitrio: 3. esse. -i — augury consolor. tibi forma. -e — marvelous pictis < pingo melos. -a. So many pressures—cultural. “The Grass Is Always Greener”: Juno and the Peacock Reading for Information 1. luscinio melos.3.V. dotibus: 3. corvo. -onis — peacock praefulgeo. 9. You’re Really Quite Lucky!” It isn’t always easy to be content with who one is or what one has. deridēri: illum esse cunctis auribus mirabilem. -ari — console gemmeus. and personal—vex simple contentment.18 plumis: 3. -a.10 pictisque plumis gemmeam caudam explicas. -i — song derideo. -ris — glitter. According to Juno.I. Ducky.III Noli adfectare quod tibi non est datum. sheen mutus. -dinis — size begemmed cornix. collo: 3. “Sed formā vincis.III formā.1 augurium corvo. -um — laevus.i cantūs luscinii quod sibi non tribuerit. -icis — crow nitor.2 Tunc consolandi gratiā dixit dea: 5 gratiā: 8. ne: 16.” mi: 7.1 sono: 3. -ei — appearance querela.V. -i — nightingale forth aquila. miserit: 16.XI consolandi: 17. -i — emerald species. luscinio.10 “Fatorum arbitrio partes sunt vobis datae. si vincor sono?” si: 18.10 nitor smaragdi collo praefulget tuo.10 omnesque propriis sunt contentae dotibus.V. “mutam speciem.

III. non rem mutant pauperes.5 ne: 16.7 Is hostium clamore subito territus 5 asino: 3.3. say. ne possent capi. quid rēfert meā serviam: 16. Being beautiful is a great gift. -ere — put to pasture num — whether unicus.3.I.” that is. -ae — pack saddle fabella.d victorem: 3. Asellum in prato timidus pascebat senex. -a.III In principatū commutando civium nil praeter dominum. We usually prize the latter more than the former. all three. num binas mihi (esse): 12.III. -ūs — leadership suadeo.I. What is the donkey doing as this fable opens? 2. -are — change lentus.4 clitellas impositurum victorem putas?” rēfert meā: 20.III. -a — doubled commuto. being able to do something beautiful is also a great gift. How can you explain or reconcile the coex- istence of these seemingly contradictory views? 10. The fact that the fates allotted each species of bird a particular attribute or function suggests that the poet believed in an ancient equivalent of “intelligent design. But the peacock’s complaint to Juno suggests that the “architecture” can be altered (through adaptation? evolution?). clamore: 3. Why does the old man suddenly become afraid? 3. a beautiful pristine mountain that could produce many beautiful things through strip mining? 3.5 Senex negavit. What is the donkey’s basic point to the old man? commutando: 17.d Id esse verum. -a. 230 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. -ēre — persuade bini. -um — single .III.V.1 suadebat asino fugere.V dum: 16.VIII cui serviam. esse: 12.III. So how would you argue for the preservation of. and hands. clitellas dum portem unicas?” 10 principatus. What factors lead to this widespread sort of self-dissatisfaction? 2.3 impositurum At ille lentus: “Quaeso. -ae. “Ergo. -um — slow clitella. parva haec fabella indicat. -ris — winner pasco. -ae — fable quaeso.6 cui: 3. pray victor. -ere — beg. teeth.IV. mihi: 3. “Some Things Never Change”: The Donkey and the Old Man Reading for Information 1. a providential architect for all creation. A survey once conducted by one of the American fashion magazines (our great cul- tural authorities!) revealed that only a very small percentage of the population like their hair.

apart from the peacock’s tail.V. cum: 16. -tatis — greediness caro. -i — reflection Reading for Understanding 1. then would the dog have gotten what it deserved? 12. per fluvium carnem cum ferret. According to the fable. what is the most salient difference be- tween cranes and peacocks? . The socioeconomic status of the old man in this fable isn’t given. natans lympharum in speculo vı̄dit simulacrum suum. The significance of this fable is circumscribed to pauperes and their circumstances (res.a Canis. carnis — meat speculum. appeto. . despair. verum decepta aviditas 5 ore: 3.3. nec quem petebat adeō potuit tangere. Do you suppose that a person can sink to a point of poverty where even fear is lost and abandoned? 3. is it true that the poorest of the poor don’t care about changes of government and political regimes? 2.”: The Dog in the River Reading for Information 1. C. and recklessness as a result of their poverty? 11. .d aliamque praedam ab altero ferri putans eripere voluit. -i — likeness fluvium. Fables 231 Reading for Understanding 1.I et quem tenebat ore dimisit cibum. ferri: 12. -are — swim simulacrum.3. -i — river lympha. -ae — water aviditas. however. “One in the Hand Is Worth . “Pretty Is as Pretty Does”: The Peacock and the Crane Reading for Information 1.I. that he is timidus. While it might matter to a donkey who its master is (because of the different treat- ment it might receive). we are told.I. When did the crane and the peacock come into conflict? 2. What concerns should the powers that be and society as a whole have if a significant number of citizens fall into apathy. If the fable had gone on to relate that the dog next drowned in the river. What did the dog see in the river? Amittit meritō proprium qui alienum appetit. What did the dog have in its mouth? 2. Did the dog get what it deserved? 2. line 2). -ere — desire nato.

-are — compete socia.1 namque inter varias fuerat discordia formas. -um — light blue licet — although bird = crane lividus. -e — ugly Reading for Understanding 1.1 ast ego deformi sublimis in āera pennā.V.” 3. gruis — crane certo.V.10 vocibus: 3.XIII. doing something great) and endowment (i. The aphorism “Pretty is as pretty does” has long been current in North America.II. -a. sideribus numinibusque: proxima sideribus numinibusque feror. .b. -um — flowery variegated iubar. sparserat arcatum sursus in astra iubar. which one do you foster and promote more? 13. magnaque de facili iurgia lite trahunt. -um — arched mergo.e. -are — insult contero.II. 232 Annotated Readings Thraciam volucrem fertur Iunonius ales conteruisse: communi sociam conteruisse cibo.2 Iuppiter in toto quondam quaesiverat orbe. -aris — splendor deformis. -minis — cover vario. certet: 15.V munera natorum quı̄s meliora daret. -ae — partner erigo. -um — sursus — upward floridus. What is its significance for this fable? 3.V. humi: 4. bury multimodus.I.XIII.III. quı̄s: 7.6 et simul erectae circumdans tegmina caudae. being something great) are both wonderful assets. “Beauty’s in the Eye of the Beholder”: Jupiter and the Monkey Reading for Information 1.V. honore: 3. -a.a “Quamvis innumerus plumas variaverit ordo. caudae: 3. -ere — sink. what two species are specifically said to have participated in this competition? 2. Empowerment (i. -ere — belittle tegmen. -are — vary discordia.II Illa licet nullo pennarum certet honore..i quod sibi multimodo fulgērent membra decore. Besides the monkey. quod: 16. 5 caeruleam facerent livida terga gruem.1. -ere — raise up insulto.e. -um — gray penna.3 mersus humi semper florida terga geris: pennā: 3. like this author.13 his tamen insultans vocibus usa datur: 10 usa (esse): 12.3. -ae — discord arcatus. -a.. 12. What was Jupiter’s reaction when the monkey presented her baby? natorum: 3.2 Thracia volucris — Thracian caeruleus. What does he mean? 2. -a.V. If you’re a teacher.I.3.d quamvis: 16. -ae — feather communis — joint grus.3. -a.I.1 daret: 16.d cibo: 3. The poet tells us that this competition is a facilis lis.

1 nosse: 20.7 permixtumque homini cogitur ire pecus. maneat victoria si quem.VI. -a. Inter quos trepidae ducebant pignora matres.III. -ere — scrutinize aboleo.V.1. .I. -esse — surpass desum.a Tunc brevis informem traheret cum simia natum. How does the ox react? Why does he react that way? 3. ipsum etiam in risum compulit ire Iovem. What is the ultimate fate of the calf? cervice: 3.2 et nemorum liceat rursus opaca sequi?” verbis: 3. 10 Hanc tamen ante alios rupit turpissima vocem.II. -is — fish compello. do you think. -ēre — abolish scale bearing informis. -ae — monkey Reading for Understanding 1. Sed nec squamigeri desunt ad iurgia pisces. Why don’t we have beauty pageants for adult males in our culture? 2. of a supreme god who wants to know which species in all of creation has the best offspring? 14. How does the calf reproach the ox? 2.1 vertebat solitam vomere fessus humum.I. .III. 5 volucrum: 3.7 certatim — competitively piscis.3 ferre nec haec positis otia nosse iugis. vomere: 3.III cum: 16.” inquit.V.2 vel quicquid volucrum purior aura vehit. Fables 233 Certatim ad regem currit genus omne ferarum. iugis: 13.V.5 “Non pudet. . nullam verbis compulsus in iram.4 “Iuppiter hoc nōrit. positis . -erum — discutio. -era. -e — ugly supersum. -esse — be missing simia.III.I.7 At senior. heus.V. discutienda: 17. C.3.10 iudicio superest omnibus iste meo.” omnibus: 3. What’s the significance.1 cum mihi subiectas pateat discursus in herbas 5 cum: 16.V.a iudicio: 3. “Living the Charmed Life?”: The Ox and the Calf Reading for Information 1. “longaevo vincula collo collo: 3. iudicio: 3.V.1 iudicio tanti discutienda dei.3 si: 18.III. dum generis crimen sı̄c abolēre cupit: nōrit: 20. -ere — compel permisceo.5 Pulcher et intactā vitulus cervice resultans scindentem adsiduē vı̄derat arva bovem. -ēre — mix trepidus. -inis — stigma squamiger.I. homini: 3.I. -um — trembling crimen. quem: 7. Was the mother monkey wrong for promoting her offspring as the most beautiful? 3. pudet: 20.

B deposito . 15 peritura: 12. -ūs — free-run garland Reading for Understanding 1.2. aratro: molliter herboso procubuisse toro.XIII.XIII. 3.i Fama est quod geminum profundens simia partum. amore: 3. -a.III.X sit cita. -are — scamper vomer.3. -um — grassy attendant longaevus.IV.II.6 expertem nostri quae facit esse iugi. (te) expertem: 3.III. -ēre — be available innecto.V. . How did the mother feel about her two offspring? 2.III. 234 Annotated Readings donec: donec deposito per prata licēret aratro 19. 5 condicione: 3.3 dissimili natos condicione rapit: manibus. pectore: dilectum manibus vel pectore gestat amico. partum: 3. “Hanc tibi tristis.a Coeperit ut fetam gravior terrēre tumultus. “Mom Always Liked You Best”: The Monkey Twins Reading for Information 1. -a.7 ut: 16. or a long life of considerable effort but only modest satisfaction? 15.I. -ere — regard vitulus.X iugi: 3.3 (mortem): 3. intactus. alterius: 3. -a. magis felicibus ut mors miseris: 3. Do you think the moral of the fable (lines 17–18) accurately reflects the fable’s meaning? 3.4 Est hominum sors ista.X Proderit ergo graves quamvis perferre labores.V. -um — shady respicio.1 toro: 3. What is that value? 2. This fable suggests that work has value beyond its immediate product or result. cum miseris vita diurna negat. -ae — religious heus — hey! herbosus. -ere — weave.a (te) tenerum: 3.6 alterius odiis exsaturata tumet.3. -um — untouched opacus.1 . -ere — lie out expers. “dedit indulgentia mortem.II cum: 16.V. -i — plow popa. What became of the less favored one? quod: 16.a. diurnus.1. -ere — compel cultrum.7 Mox vitulum sacris innexum respicit aris aris: 3.XIII. -a.3 otia quam tenerum mox peritura pati. quamvis: 16. 10 13. -eris — plow blade comminus — close scindo.1.” ut: 16.XIII.V.7 cultro: 3. Which option sounds preferable to you: a short life of little effort or accomplishment. odiis: 3. -um — day-to-day discursus.3 namque unum caro genetrix educit amore. -um — aged procumbo.b.” ait.V. -a. -rtis — free from pateo.10 admotum cultro comminus ire popae.III.a dividat in varias pignora nata vices.i. .II felicibus: 3. What happened to the favored twin? 3. -i — knife resulto. -i — young bull compello. -ere — split aratrum.II.III.

3 seri dant poenas turpi paenitentiā. -a.V. -ae — monkey dorsum.IV. -are — fill consisto. -a. -um — shaggy ——. profundo. -e — lowly Reading for Understanding 1. -a.I. -a. atque. paenitentiā: 3. 15 13. -a.III.I. Do you agree? 2. Fables 235 dorso: 3. wanted the fox to praise what? verbis: 3.V. -ere — place opposite humilis.1 spes humiles rursus in meliora refert. Mox quoque dilecti succedit in oscula fratris. plantis: 3. -ae — foot unicus. -i — back onus. heres: 3. -ēre — be unable succedo. -um — ancient feta. The crow.2 servatus vetulis unicus heres avis.1 Sed cum lassatis nequeat consistere plantis. cum: 16. What parts of the crow’s body did the fox praise? 3.V. cum: 16. -um — sole tumultus.I. Does the surviving monkey twin exhibit any signs of that condition? Why does he react to the loss of his twin as he does? ———— “Vanity of Vanities! All Is Vanity” The age-old fault of vanity makes us overvalue things that aren’t important and undervalue things that are—specifically when these things are our own! Can you see any of your behaviors in the following fables? 16.1 Qui se laudari gaudent verbis subdolis. -ere — support hirsutus. vicis — position. -ere — issue dissimilis. -um — wearied invitus. C. 10 collo: 3. in his vanity. This fable suggests that luck plays a greater role than parental love and provision in survival and success.7 Alter at hirsuto circumdans bracchia collo haeret. -ere — distinguish suscipio. Define the condition known as survivor’s guilt.1 contemptum dorso suscipiente levat.3 ordine verso: Sı̄c multos neglecta iuvant. et invitā cum genetrice fugit. -e — differing sponte — of one’s own accord simia. burden divido. -ūs — disturbance oppono. status lassatus. -ere — raise nequeo.3.III. -um — reluctant educo.1 oppositum fugiens sponte remittit onus. “A Fool and His Cheese Are Soon Parted”: The Fox and the Crow Reading for Information 1. -ere — become heir exsaturo. avis: 3.V.III.a Cum de fenestrā corvus raptum caseum . ordine verso.1 humiles: 3. Where did the crow get the cheese? 2. -ere — persist vetulus. -ae — mother planta. -eris — load.

dum vult vocem ostendere. sheen stupor.i.A. Having read this fable.XI saepe inveniri testis haec narratio est.1 crurumque nimiam tenuitatem vituperat. pinnarum est nitor! decoris: 3. dum: 16. What was the buck doing before he gazed at his reflection? 2. What was his assessment of his legs? 3.I.III. comesse — eat dolosus.I.II. quem celeriter 10 dentibus: 3. cornibus: 3.a At ille stultus. restitit. sigh caseus.2 Quantum decoris corpore et vultū geris! corpore. vulpes invı̄dit.V.V.10 Si vocem habēres. do you praise the fox for being clever or condemn him for being manipulative? 2.V.A. -ae — window pinna. celsā residens arbore.V. -ae — regret celsus. or don’t be gulled by verba subdola? 17.a Ad fontem cervus. -um — high avidus.2 cum: 16. 236 Annotated Readings comesse vellet. -ae — feather ingemo. -ris — luster. Tum demum ingemuit corvi deceptus stupor.7 in qua retentis impeditus cornibus 10 .a. vultū: 3. -a. -um — deceptive comedo. -i — cheese nitor. Does the fact that the cheese was already stolen figure in your answer to the previous ques- tion? Should it? 3.1 dolosa vulpes avidis rapuit dentibus.3 foret: 10. et cursū levi canes elusit.1 ore: 3. -a.a. cum bibisset. corve.7.19 lato ore emisit caseum. testis: 3.3.3.XIII. utiliora: 3. -a. nulla prior ales foret.XIII. -a. “A Lesson Learned Too Late”: The Buck at the Pool Reading for Information 1.3.4 contempserı̄s: 16.” si: 18. venantum subitō vocibus conterritus. deinde sı̄c coepit loqui: 5 “O qui tuarum.i. -um — tricky paenitentia.I. -ris — stupidity Reading for Understanding 1. et in liquore vı̄dit effigiem suam. what was the takeaway message here: don’t take pleasure in being praised (which is vanity). -um — greedy fenestra. For the crow. subdolus.IV. -ere — groan.V. per campum fugere coepit. Where did he meet his end? laudatis: 3. Silva tum excepit ferum. dum: Ibi dum ramosa mirans laudat cornua 5 16.8 Laudatis utiliora quae contempserı̄s.

liquid venor. will there be no fall if there is no pride? 2. if pride comes before a fall.V.III ferri: 12. stag vitupero.2 “O me infelicem. -i — buck.III. -are — tear apart cervus. seem pretty unrealistic (whatever that means for a fable!).I. Does that lack of realism diminish the credibility of the fable’s message? 18. biting liquor. dente: 3. -ēre — frighten edo. -ei — image conterreo.V laudaram: 20.VI. -onis — story tenuitas.2 habuerint: 16. How does the dog misinterpret the owner’s response? latratibus: 3. -um — branching eludo.1 concitus audaci vulnera dente dabat.5 mihi: 3.I.III. Could the buck have avoided the outcome of this fable if he had never admired his reflection? That is.” 15 testis. Is vanity learned or a natural attribute. fuerint: 16.1 mollia sed pavidae submittens verbera caudae. -tatis — thinness lacero.3. -a. quae: 16.1. -are — curse morsus. rictibus: 3.II.d Haec tamen ille sibi credebat praemia ferri.V. “All Bite.II. like the buck’s fleetness of foot? 3. ne quem probitas simulata latēret. faucibus: 3. What does the dog’s owner do in response? 3.3 utilia mihi quam fuerint quae despexeram. Fables 237 morsibus: 3. cruris — leg impedio.a iusserat in rabido gutture ferre nolam. -is — witness crus. The buck’s final words.5 nec patulis primum rictibus ora trahens. 10 Tunc insultantem senior de plebe superbum adgreditur tali singula voce monens: . No Bark”: The Dog and His Bell Reading for Information 1.V et.V. -ere — issue ramosus.7 lacerari coepit morsibus saevis canum. et similem turbam despiciebat ovans. Tum moriens edidisse vocem hanc dicitur: me: 3.III.2.a quae facili motū signa cavenda darent. ne: 16.III.1 Hunc dominus. quantum luctūs habuerint.V.3 Forte canis quondam. -ire — hinder narratio. -ūs — grief Reading for Understanding 1. -ris — water. What is unusual about the dog in this fable? 2.IV. caudae: 3. cavenda: 17. quae laudaram.7 Faucibus innexis crepitantia subligat aera. -ere — escape luctus. -a. luctūs: 3. nullis latratibus horrens. uttered while dogs were ripping him apart. C. qui nunc demum intellego. -ari — hunt saevus. 5 quem: 7. -ūs — bite. -um — savage effigies.

XIII. Did the dog’s owner in this fable act responsibly? Why do you think that? 2. feris: 3. tinkle display dens. -a — several. ubi: 16. -i — prize. -ūs — jaw faux. -a.V. -tatis — forthrightness praemium. or merely trying to cope with their vulnerabilities? 19. or scars proudly? Are these people oblivious to their disgrace. patulus. -a. -um — open nola. postquam: 16. as the second dog of the fable suggests.II. -are — tie under nequitia.19 et simul abstracto denudans corpora tergo.1 et miserum tanto pressit honore caput. 15 nequitiae: 3.V. -ae — madness submitto. -ae — wickedness probitas. How did the farmer react to the donkey? Exuvias asinus Gaetuli iam forte leonis spoliis: 3. -a. attach ostento. Have you ever known people who wear their faults. -ere — join.IV. -ūs — barking guttur. “Once an Ass.3 Aptavitque suis incongrua tegmina membris. -ntis — tooth subligo. -are — ring. 5 mimo: 3.a Rusticus hunc magnā postquam deprendit ab aure. quae tanta rapit dementia sensum. honore: 3.2. -ae. shortcomings. -ris — throat.1 repperit et spoliis induit ora novis. 238 Annotated Readings “Infelix. munera pro meritis si capis ista dari? Non hoc virtutis decus ostentatur in aere. 10 3.1 tergo: 3.2. -are — show off.2 mitibus ille feris communia pabula calcans turbabat pavidas per sua rura boves. faucis — throat dementia.XIII. neck singuli. badge testis. .V. concitus.1 membris: 3. What effect did the lion skin have on the donkey? 2. -is — testimony. Always an Ass”: The Donkey and the Farmer Reading for Information 1. -are — be abusive witness pretended Reading for Understanding 1.V. would you expect it to be ornery and snappish? 3. vinclis verberibusque: correptum vinclis verberibusque domat. -ae — bell individual rictus. simulatus.III.” latratus.III. If you saw a dog with a bell around its neck. How did the livestock react to the donkey? 3. -ere — lower innecto. -um — excited crepito. ora: 3.III.6 nequitiae testem sed geris inde sonum. -um — insulto.a Ast ubi terribilis mimo circumstetit horror.7 pigraque praesumptus vēnit in ossa vigor.

condition? fruaris: use of gratum esset et dedissem veniam supplici. experience. dupe Reading for Understanding 1. According to the man. “What Have You Done for Me Lately?”: The Weasel and the Man Reading for Information 1. false vanity is even worse! But was the farmer justified in beating the donkey? 2. -i — farmer spolium. what does the man do to the weasel? cum: type? Mustela ab homine prensa. why should the man spare his life? 2. is that a form of vanity? 3.1 “Forsitan ignotos imitato murmure fallas. According to the weasel. “mihi. -arum — pelt. ablative? . -ris — roar covering calco. or sensibility. Imagine trading places with a president or a prime minister but without getting their knowl- edge. -are — rebuke suited communis. -ere — seize induo. -are — make fit vigor.8 at mihi. -ris — vigor abstraho. the weasel was in competition with what animal for food? 3. -ere — trick. -um — North mimus. -ere — drag off incongruus. -ere — don. Vanity is bad enough. muribus: use of ablative? quae tibi molestis muribus purgo domum. -are — surround rusticus. semper asellus eris. -are — throw into Gaetulus. How long would the fantasy be fun or good for: Ten minutes? An hour? A day? A week? Supplemental Readings 1. -e — mild increpo. -are — trample fallo. quaeso. -i — pasture mumur. -i — booty. cum instantem necem mihi: use of dative? tibi: use of dative? effugere vellet. qui quondam. -inis — cover. “Faceres si causā meā.II mihi: 3.” si: type of Respondit ille. pabulum. -i — farce. In the end. -are — beat apto. -ris — horror deprendo. 5 subjunctive? reliquiis: use of Nunc quia laboras ut fruaris reliquiis. -a.” exuviae. -e — common forsitan — perhaps tegmen. -a. hide terribilis.V.1 increpat his miserum vocibus ille pecus: murmure: 3. plunder horror.V.III.” inquit. “Parce. -ere — assume domo. C. fallas: 15. put on praesumo. -um — ill mitis. When we wear a costume for a Halloween party and get into character. Fables 239 vocibus: 3. -e — frightful turbo. mimicry panic African circumsto.

that we owe no gratitude to a person who benefits us out of self- interest? Could you argue that everyone operates out of self-interest and therefore we owe nobody any gratitude? 3. .” . Whom did the dog offend by digging up the treasure? 3. -ere — capture rodo. Probably the hardest part of translating this fable is picking just the right English word(s) for imprudentibus in the last line. . -ae — weasel insto. 10 trivio conceptus. Quem stans vulturius super fertur locutus. was he justified in treating the creature as he did? 2. Is it true. imprudentibus: use et meritum inane iactant imprudentibus. How did the dog perish? Haec res avaris esse conveniens potest. qui concupisti subitō regales opes. educatus stercore. Humana effodiens ossa thesaurum canis invēnit. 5 poenas ut sanctae religioni pendēret. violarat quia Manes deos. What can you come up with? 2. simul . -are — press devoro. -ere — recognize Reading for Understanding 1. do you think. Even if the man’s assertions about the weasel were all true. According to the author. dici locupletes student. Itaque. of dative? 7. devores: use of subjunctive? noli imputare vanum beneficium mihi. et qui. 240 Annotated Readings rosuri: what form? quas sunt rosuri. fame est consumptus. meritō iaces. devores: and at the same time you eat [the mice] them[selves] mustela. who should take to heart the message of this fable? 2. humiles nati. Hoc in se dictum debent illi agnoscere. et. -ere — gnaw on agnosco. “Wealth Wasted in Worry”: The Dog and the Vulture Reading for Information 1. “O canis.” imputare: use of infinitive? Atque ita locutus improbam leto dedit. aurum dum custodit oblitus cibi. iniecta est illi divitiarum cupiditas. 10 sibi: use of dative? quorum privata servit utilitas sibi. -are — gobble up prehendo. simul et ipsos devores.

C. Why is it appropriate that a vulture utter the final verdict over the dog? 2. 5 adscribere hoc debebunt exemplum sibi. -i — crossroad stercus. -ere — dig up trivium. -coris — dung vulturius. a possum—had been cast in the vixen’s role? 4. nolo acerbam sumere. -ae — vineyard acerbus. What was its first strategy to reach the water? 3. Should the dog have followed a different course of action regarding the treasure? Would his fate have been any different? 3. -are — minimize Reading for Understanding 1. summis saliens viribus. -i — vulture Reading for Understanding 1. discedens ait: “Nondum matura es. -a. What is the effect of having the vixen address the grapes in the 2nd person? 2. Fables 241 effodio. “Sour Grapes”: The Vixen in the Vineyard Reading for Information 1. Quam tangere ut non potuit. vinea. “Brain Power Does It!”: The Crow Reading for Information 1. Why does the fox want to eat the grapes? 2. What is supposedly wrong with the grapes? Fame coacta vulpes altā in vineā uvam appetebat. facere quae non possunt. -um — sour elevo. Why couldn’t the crow get to the water? 2. What are your thoughts on the nouveaux riches? Are they entitled to their wealth? Should they behave differently with it from those who were born to wealth? 3. Did she give up the effort to reach the grapes too soon? 3. Would this fable have a different impact if a different animal—say. verbis elevant.” Qui. What strategy finally worked? .

maturas cum tunderet area messes. -i — bottom indignant Reading for Understanding 1. How did the ant spend the winter? 3. corpore: use of pigra nimis tantos non aequans corpore nimbos. -ere — catch enitor. -ae — pitcher indignatus. one we admire more. Nam brevis immersis accrescens sponte lapillis pōtandi facilem praebuit unda viam. The Romans tended to be far more impressed than we are with the intelligence of crows and ravens (see section A. -ere — increase sight of scilicet — obviously lapillus. admovet omnes 5 indignata novā calliditate dolos. In what different ways did the ant and the grasshopper spend their summers? 2. What attitude did the grasshopper assume when it approached the ant? solibus: use of Solibus ereptos hiemi formica labores ablative? hiemi: use of distulit. prose reading 2). -i — pebble urna. precibus: use of Discolor hanc precibus supplex alimenta rogabat. et brevibus condidit ante cavis. 242 Annotated Readings Ingentem sitiens cornix aspexerat urnam. ablative? sono: use of quae quondam querulo ruperat arva sono: ablative? cum: type? se quoque. 5 ablative? in laribus propriis humida grana lēgit. Can you name other elegant solutions that illustrate this principle? 2. -i — struggle accresco. Can you suggest a different animal. Hanc enisa diū planis effundere campis. 10 adspicio. -um — fundus. . This fable celebrates the principle that sometimes the best solution is the simplest solution. “Dancing Your Life Away”: The Ant and the Grasshopper Reading for Information 1. Can you provide a two-line moral for this fable? Can you put it in Latin? 5. Viribus haec docuit quam sit prudentia maior. -a. quae minimam fundo continuisset aquam. scilicet ut nimiam pelleret inde sitim. qua coeptum cornix explicuisset opus. for this fable? 3. dative? cavis: use of Verum ubi candentes suscepit terra pruinas ablative? arvaque sub rigido delituēre gelū. postquam nulla viam virtus dedit.

-ere — beat salto. How does that detail affect your understanding of this fable? . tibi: use of dative? saltandi: gerund or At tibi saltandi nunc ultima tempora restant. Fables 243 cantibus: use of cantibus aestivos explicuisse dies. C. -a. -ae — frost complaining parta . 15 gerundive? cantibus: use of cantibus est quoniam vita peracta prior. Line 12 points out that ants and grasshoppers are usually equally short lived. frigoribus: use of ablative? frigoribus mediis otia longa traho. -um — stiff tundo. 3. -ntis — glistening querulus. -ae — livelihood pruina. . est < pario rigidus. -i — hole. . 10 ablative? Parvula tunc ridens sı̄c est adfata cicadam. -ae — ant gelu. -ūs — chill cicada. mi: alternate form of? nam vitam pariter continuare solent: labore: use of ablative? “Mi quoniam summo substantia parta labore est. -um — substantia.” ablative? formica. -a. -um — damp continuo. -a. Explain the ant’s logic that rest was its reward for labor but dancing was the grasshopper’s reward for singing. -are — finish candens. Which do you defend. the grasshopper’s request or the ant’s response? 2. nest humidus. -are — dance Reading for Understanding 1. -ae — grasshopper cavum.

“abis? faucibus: 3.” inquit. Reading for Information 1.” Et manibus quidem unum militem. lābentemque belli fortunam divino animi ardore eo: listing for a general. in contrariam partem ineundae: 17. cum innumerabili multitudine et feroci impetū Nerviorum multitudine.II eoque tectus acerrimē proeliari coepit.V.V. vinci: 12. were it written by ancient Romans? . -ere — reverse tectus < tego fauces. How did he react to the fleeing standard bearer? 3.1 manibus.7 inclinari aciem suam vidēret. dexteramque ad hostem tendens.V. -ari — do battle comprehendo. These two incidents from the career of Julius Caesar. What other desirable traits would that job listing advertise. inire — pursue corrigo. Illı̄c sunt cum quibus dimicamus. -ere — pull from ineo. adhortatione: 3. Quo facto fortitudinem per totum pugnanti militi: 3.3. illustrate the commander’s great bravery and leadership on the battlefield.1 quo: 7. -ei — battle line of Mars encouragement scutum. ı̄dem alio proelio legionis Martiae aquiliferum. -e — countless proelior. -ere — restore dimico.III.b vincique paratas vincere docuit.2 restituit.I. -orum — Belgic Gauls restituo.IV. -ocis — fierce diffundo. -ere — inspire quorsum — where to Nervi. -nis — fear detraho. “Quorsum tu.III gratiā: 8. What are the greatest challenges for field generals of armies who enter every battle expecting to win? 2.7 ardore: 3. innumerabilis.V. -i — standard bearer trepidatio.V. -are — fight inclino. -ium — throat Reading for Understanding 1.V.a Divus Iulius. ineundae fugae facto: 3. Caesar seems to exhibit more anger with the standard bearer than with the soldier in the first incident. the first dated to 57 BCE and the second to 47 or 46 BCE. -i — shield aquilifer. impetū: 3. Where do we get evidence from this passage that Caesar was not just a rearguard general? cum: 16.4 timidius: 6. -dinis — multitude fortitudo.3 exercitum diffudit.1 adhortatione verō tam acri omnium legionum trepidationem correxit. -ere — drag back ferox. 244 Annotated Readings D.I retraxit. Is this greater anger justified? 3.3. -um — Martial.V. -a. What was Caesar’s intention in seizing a shield from one soldier and fighting amid others? 2. adhortatio.I. aciem: 3. -nis — acies. timidius pugnanti militi scutum detraxit. Preeminence Prose Readings 1. -are — repulse Martius. Teaching troops prepared to be prevailed over to prevail (vinci paratas vincere docēre) seems like a line from a job description in a Monster. -dinis — bravery retraho.7 gratiā iam conversum faucibus comprehensum. -ere — seize multitudo.

quartum. -e — well known ambigo.2. -are — recite ferē — usually minax. both personally and politically. tres omninō libros recitavit. . react when she heard her son eulogized? Augustus verō—nam forte expeditione Cantabricā aberat—supplicibus efflagitarat: 20.2. What place did Marius come in when he ran for the praetorship? . which would you prefer to hear.” Cui tamen multō post perfectāque demum materiā multō: 3.c quo magis iudicium hominum experiretur. a polished composition or a work in progress? 3. quo magis: 16.V.1 ut: 16. Octavia. quae cum recitationi interesset.9 perfectā . -um — of materia. Rome’s greatest poet and the author of the Aeneid. Reading for Information 1. is the subject of this passage.d ut ipsius verba sunt.V.III. Vergil.III. -nis — recitation Cantabricus. -a. “tu Marcellus eris. “vel primum carminis exemplum vel quodlibet cui: 7.2 excerptum mitteretur. -i — excerpt recitatio. sed neque frequenter et ea ferē de quibus ambigebat. Vergil was a notoriously slow and fastidious composer. ad illos de filio suo versūs. Reading for Information 1.” ut: 16. -nis — emotion experior. which provides some in- formation about the production and performance of the epic. What was Vergil’s motive in giving recitations? What was he actually testing? 2. et sextum. ut “sibi de Aeneide. What books did Augustus hear recited? 3. -ae — material focilo. D. What tension do you imagine existed between this reclusive writer and his rulers? 3. -acis — menacing notabilis. -iri — test Reading for Understanding 1. Recitavit et pluribus. What two rhetorical means did Augustus Caesar employ to get a preview of the Aeneid? 2.1 notabili Octaviae adfectione. sed hunc materiā: 13. -ere — hesitate efflagito.” defecisse fertur atque aegrē focilata est. How did Augustus’s sister.XIII.III. -are — revive Cantabria (a region in omninō — entirely frequenter — frequently Spain) recito.I.I. The struggles of Gaius Marius. expeditio. -nis — expedition excerptum. Preeminence 245 2.3 atque etiam minacibus per iocum litteris efflagitarat. secundum.1 cum: 16. -are — insist adfectio. The Romans devoted remarkably little attention to the notion of creative greatness. a famous novus homo (political newcomer) of the late 2nd century and early 1st century BCE. . to achieve political prominence are described here. If you could have a private audience with your favorite musician. Augustus and Octavia had a lot riding on the publication of the Aeneid.

expertus: having experienced a similar disgrace of the poll booth luctatio. -a — both quaestorship absolutio. -ire — scorn. Quid huius condicione inconstantius aut condicione: 3. -i — exile aedilitas. si: 18. Against whom were his three most famous military victories? Fortunae: 3. -ae. loss humilis. -ntis — unstable petitio.2. -oris — strength supremus.a.I.I.III. maxima Fortunae luctatio: omnes enim eius impetūs honoribus: 3. -e — lowly commemorative irrumpo. -orum — Germanic Arpinas. What does the author mean by saying that Marius was Fortuna’s greatest wrestling match (maxima Fortunae luctatio)? 2. -ūs — tribunate evado.3 Iam est C.I.7. -ēre — destroy quaestura. . mutabilius? Quem si inter miseros posueris. Patientiā deinde repulsarum irrupit magis in curiam quam vēnit. -ae — praetorship tribe robur. experior. quaesturam Romae petere ausus est. fastidiendo: 17. si inter felices. Was he well regarded in his hometown of Arpinum? 3.II quem: 7. . -i — victory repulsa. -ae — rebel king of mutabilis. -are — judge obtineo.b contigit: 20.3 iudicatus inferior. -tis — of Arpinum adhaereo. -orum — state records curia. -ēre — cling to tribe iudico. quem tamen non sine periculo ambitūs: 3. qui Africam subegit. -ere — emerge exsilium.V.3 iudicibus impetravit. cuius septem in cui. -nis — acquittal tropaeum. -e — changeable consimilis. -nis — pursuit Iugurtha. -ēre — achieve deleo. What qualities of Marius does the narrative commend? What allowed or caused him to achieve preeminence? . -ae — ambitus. -nis — contest. Arpinatibus honoribus Romae: 4. cui post exsilium consulem creari proscriptoque 20. -ūs — consulship tribunatus. -tatis — aedileship subigo.III. -ere — subjugate inconstans. In tribunatūs quoque et aedilitatis petitione consimilem campi notam expertus. praeturae candidatus supremo in loco adhaesit. -iri — experience Teutoni. disdain consulatus. Ex illo Mario. consimilem .III qui Iugurtham regem ante currum egit.III. -a.i 5. On the whole. cuius bina tropaea in urbe spectantur. vix atque aegrē absolutionem ab Arpini: 4. -orum — Germanic wrestling praetura.I. proscripto: fastis consulatūs leguntur.7 facere proscriptionem contigit.V.II. -e — undistinguished fasti. does the author seem to approve of the career of Marius? 3.6 obtinuit: ambitūs enim accusatus. -ae — senate house fastidio.III.8 inconstantius.2 quā corporis quā animi robore fortissimē sustinuit.2 felicissimus reperietur. -e — similar North Africa Reading for Understanding 1. mutabilius: 6. miserrimus. tam fastidiendo candidato. -um — last Cimbri. tam ignobili Romae: 4. -ae — rejection. Marius. tam humili Arpini. -ūs — vote buying bini. 246 Annotated Readings 2.3 Romae. -ere — burst onto ignobilis. qui Teutonorum Cimbrorumque exercitūs delevit. ille Marius evasit.

10 quod: 7. -are — consecrate praedo. Haec postquam domestici ne: 16. -are — trouble admiratio. -ium — several congressus. -are — unbolt spectaculum. donis: venerati.III. Preeminence 247 4.II.7.V. -are — station intromitto.V.III.XIII.2 armis.I.2 amplius non recipiant.I. quid etiam iucundius? Hostis iram admiratione: 3. -ris — admirer vestibulum. -i — guard gravo. . dimissis militibus abiectisque 3.3 collocavit.1 se novis spectandum praebere ne gravetur. quae deorum immortalium numini consecrari contigisset: 20. armis: eius hostes.I.1 ianuae: 3. -ire — be eager apparatus. -i — sight colloco. -um — gestio. positis 13. -ūs — meeting consecro. postes eos: 3. D.IV. -i — fall from abicio.III spectaculo: 3. -ere — let in praesentia. -ūs — preparation hallowed delābor. Literninus.V. quod Scipionem vı̄disse contigisset.III.1 oculos vı̄dit.a dimissis . -are — approach osculor. repellendis: 17.4 qui: 7.V.1 duces videndum eodem tempore forte confluxerunt.II. -a. -um — delightful praesidium.1 admiratione sui placavit.3. venerationis si: 18. -ere — drop apprehendo.III. fores reserari eosque intromitti iussit. fructū: 3. ad naves reverterunt.1 vim faciendam venire existimasset.i ante vestibulum donis. eratque in his repellendis et animo et apparatū occupatus. laeti. sed virtutis admiratores vēnisse. .V. -ere — seek out excelsus. This fascinating little tale tells how the great Scipio Africanus entertained some rather disreputable (and starstruck) visitors at his country villa after he had retired from public life (early 2nd century BCE). -nis — pirate caelestis. -ari — kiss Campanian Liternum admirator. -nis — veneration . Quos cum ad quos: 7.IV.b venerationis: 3. -a. cupidē Scipionis dexteram apprehenderunt ac diu osculati. -ere — come expeto.V.1 novis: 3.V. -are — soothe slave resero.III. -a.1 existimasset: 20. Scipio thought that the pirates appeared in order to do what? 2. praesidium domesticorum in tecto faciendam: 17. .2.7 tanti viri quasi caeleste aliquod beneficium expetentes: proinde securum voce: 3. ianuae appropinquant. -ere — drive off religiosus.III animo et apparatū: Quod ut praedones animadverterunt. -ūs — enjoyment confluo. Delapsa caelo sidera. In what ways did the pirates regard Scipio Africanus as a living god? Ad Africanum in Literninā villā se continentem complures praedonum videndum: 17.V.4 Scipioni retulerunt.b solent. conspectum et congressum 13. -e — divine fructus.V.2 cum: 16. -is — door placo. -ae — presence repello.1 quod: 16.2 ianuae tamquam aliquam religiosissimam aram sanctumque templum positis . Qui.III.2. hominibus si se offerant. Reading for Information 1. -ere — seize veneratio.XIII. et clarā voce nuntiant Scipioni non vitae ut: 16. -um — of appropinquo. -a. -i — vestibule complures.III. spectaculo praesentiae suae latronum gestientes sui: 7.1 fores: 3. -um — lofty together proinde — then iucundus.1 Quid hōc fructū maiestatis excelsius.8 hostis: 3. What did the pirates do after they were granted an audience with Scipio? 3.b. . -i — household foris. -nis — admiration domesticus.

origo. tot incunabula. -um — of a commander cumulus. speciosissimi triumphi praetextum largita est. contemplare: 19.V. What are some of the advantages that Fortuna conferred on Metellus? 2. adiecit animi rarissimas ut: 16.1 dotes et corporis vires. -ere — be sufficient over praetextus.IV. Reading for Information 1. -i — addition conspicuous speciosus. nullus gemitus. 248 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. ultimae senectutis spatio defunctum genere: 3. uxorem pudicitiā pudicitiā et fecunditate: et fecunditate conspicuam conciliavit.10 ut: 16. Q. the concept of a living god was considerably less alien to Romans. omnis denique gratulationis cum: 16.3 lenique genere mortis inter oscula complexūsque carissimorum pignorum rogo: 3. -a.V. What were some of the accomplishments of his children? 3. cum interim esset nullum funus. Nasci eum in urbe terrarum eum: 3. nuptum: 17. imperiorum. utque tres filias nuptum daret earumque sinū: 3. parentes ei nobilissimos dedit. tot viriles togae.14 originis die ad ultimum usque fati tempus numquam cessante indulgentiā perduxerit: 16. ut sufficere laboribus posset. unum etiam censorium et triumphalem.I nulla causa tristitiae. How would you describe Scipio’s response to his fans? Did he react responsibly and admirably? 5. Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus (2nd century BCE) is represented here as having received the constant and complete support of Fortuna throughout his long life. -a. Tot partūs. honorum.1 potestatem.I quartum praetorium vidēret.III. -are — win spectacular sufficio. -um — cesso. Metellum a primo gradibus: 3. -a. -tatis — fertility imperatorius.V ad summum beatae vitae cumulum perduxerit.3 indulgentiā: 3. -are — cease conspicuus. -ūs — robe .13 finis excepit: namque Metellum. quoniam quidem luctūs et dolores deorum quoque pectoribus a maximis vatibus adsignari videmus. fecit ut eodem tempore tres filios consulares.I Videamus quot gradibus beneficiorum Fortuna Q.7 exstinctum.III. -ere — attend concilio. -inis — birth fecunditas. tam multae nuptiales faces. filii et generi umeris suis per urbem latum rogo imposuerunt. Is the adulation that the pirates show Scipio a mark of ignorance or lack of education? Can intelligent and sophisticated people be starstruck as these pirates were? 3.2 summa abundantia.4 principe voluit.III.V.V. Caelum contemplare. -um — perduco. What kind of death did Metellus meet? videamus: 15. vix tamen ibi talem statum reperies. After Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar. Hunc actum consentaneus vitae eius spatio: 3. consulatūs decus.V. Do you see any resistance to the concept in this passage? 2.1 subolem sinū suo exciperet.V. imperatoriam 3.I.

totum in meam domum converteretur.III.V abundaverat. -i — span ex-triumphator hardship defungor.IV. reliquit: he left ambiguous to no one .3 sibi: 3. indolis: repraesentatio.2 cum: 16.II. in some sense.III adnuendo: 17.III.II habet: adnuendo enim votis meis id egerunt.2 sustinuerit: 16. -iri — bestow gratulatio. Quapropter bene imminēret: 18.7 doleatis quam ego vestro ingemiscerem. -is — offspring status. timērem ne: 16.VI.1. In your opinion. -ūs — grief latum < fero nuptialis. -a. What prayer to the gods had Paullus made on behalf of the Roman people? Aemilius Paulus. -ūs — groaning.II ambiguum: 3.VI. ambiguum . fortunate life that the author has omitted? 3. ut vos potius meo casū ut: 16. .a ne quid mali Fortuna moliretur. does Metellus seem to rise to the status of true greatness? 6. Reading for Information 1.III.VI quid: 7. spatium. ex quattuor filiis formae insignis.II. -e — gentle suboles. Preeminence 249 largior. egregiae indolis duos iure 3. ei: 3. . -i — cradle luctus. D. Within the span of a week. si quid adversi populo Romano quid: 7. This anecdote relates the misfortunes that befell the famous L. alter in triumphali currū conspectus donandos: 17.3 duos alteros ei Fortuna abstulit. According to the values of this author. fortunate life? 2.a adversi: 3. in orbitate subitō destitutus est. are there any constituent parts of a happy. Itaque qui ad donandos usque liberos quem: 7. -ūs — status complexus.1.2 ut: 16. -i — complete praetorius. -are — attribute consularis. what three events occurred in the life of Paullus? 3. Quorum alter triumphum patris funere suo quartum ante diem praecessit. -e — wedding.1 adoptionis in Corneliam Fabiamque gentem translatos sibi ipse denegavit. Aemilius Paullus (consul in 168 BCE) and how he regarded his loss as.1 animi sustinuerit.I. vates.III post diem tertium exspiravit.V.II. Quirites. -i — ex-censor interim — all the while fitting triumphalis. -um — censorius. nunc felicissimi. -ari — ponder lenis.1 reliquit: “Cum in maximo proventū felicitatis nostrae.2 imminēret. -nis — rejoicing adsigno.V. -is — poet Reading for Understanding 1. -ae — abundance consentaneus.1 casū: 3. orationi adiciendo hanc clausulam ambiguum nulli nulli: 3. -is — ex-consul abundantia. By Roman standards. Rome’s gain. What happened to the first two of Paullus’s four sons? 2. -ūs — embrace incunabulum. what things contribute to a happy. -is — gemitus. nunc miserrimi patris clarissima formae.III. Iovem Optimum Maximum Iunonemque mali: 3.” 8–9.IV Reginam et Minervam precatus sum ut. Quem casum quo robore adiciendo: 17. -i — ex-praetor contemplor.

-tatis — childlessness Quirites. -nis — adoption clausula. -ere — agree to praecedo.1 retinērent et plebi ad fortius sustinendos casūs suos exemplum novitate: 3. -are — deny ambiguus.III. Romani Gallorum exercitū: 3. commotis: 3. ut: 16. even hostile universe. This story narrates the behavior of those Romans too old to contribute to the military defense of the city. The notion that Fortuna contrives something evil whenever a state or a person has expe- rienced considerable success posits a pessimistic. necessarium consilium in planā relinquendorum: parte urbis relinquendorum seniorum ceperunt.3.6 luctuoso tempore civitas nostra virtutis suae oblita est: defuncti enim honoribus: 3.7 exercitū pulsi. -is — talent robur. quō facilius iuventus 17. cum se in Capitolium et in arcem conferrent. do we commonly think the same thing? 3. Reading for Information 1.14 quos gesserant.3 ictū: 3. -ere — precede ambiguous ingemisco. -iri — contrive adoptio. inque his cum: 16. quae adepti erant.7 genere: 3.V.III. -are — die proventus.1 scipionem vehementi ictū capiti inflixit. ianuis: 3. What did Marcus Atilius do when a Gaul stroked his beard? Magnum fortitudinis exemplum antiquitas offert.I.7 . -um — adnuo. Do we regard Lady Luck in a similar light? 7. how did the older men behave? What did they do? 3.VI iniuriae maturitatem M. After their exclusion.2. -ere — bewail exspiro.2 quin: 16.1 ut et ipsi in occasū suo splendorem et ornamenta praeteritae vitae sustinendos: 17.2 dubitaret quin et Galli et victores illam admirationem mox in risum et in dubitaret: 15. In the Roman worldview. sacerdotiorumque. Sed quis hostibus . consederunt.VII omne contumeliae genus conversuri essent? Non exspectavit igitur hanc conversuri essent: 17.III. -ae — conclusion quapropter — for this reason denego.II. -ium — Roman exemplar destituo. -ūs — success Reading for Understanding 1.V.III.V. 250 Annotated Readings repraesentatio. In 390 BCE.V.III quō: 15.V. In a culture that prized sons highly. Venerabilis eorum aspectus primō hostibus fuit et novitate magnificentiā: 3.13 honoribus apertis ianuis in curulibus sellis cum insignibus magistratuum.7 rei et magnificentiā cultūs et ipso audaciae genere commotis.a collibus morari omnes non possent. -a.7 praebērent.V. Why were older Roman men excluded from the Capitoline and the Arx? 2. -ere — abandon citizens indoles. In our worldview. -oris — strength molior. Ceterum ne illo quidem tam misero tamque virtutis: 3. -nis — orbitas.II. .c reliquias imperii tuēretur. .V. eique propter dolorem ad se capiti: 3.V. why did Paullus give up two of his sons for adoption? 2. Atilius: verum barbam suam permulcenti Gallo Gallo: 3.III. Gauls unexpectedly stormed and ravaged Rome. preeminence usually exacts a steep price in personal sacrifice.

Reading for Information 1. -ire — die Reading for Understanding 1. Why does the author regard this gesture as one of mockery and contempt? 3.III. -um — mournful venerabilis.1 etiam anulo. -ris — splendor infligo. -ae — insult intereo. Why did the elder men don their former insignia and symbols of authority? 2. -um — struck interitus. -ire — pass dedecus. -um — level splendor.1 commutatā veste.I dedecus: 3.. -ūs — decline. se autem in cubiculum ac lectulum . dominum proscriptum occidendum. -ae — grandeur spectacular curulis sella — chair of civic commotus. -um — apertus. . -ēri — keep watch over praetereo. -nis — admiration excogito. qui sı̄c exstinguitur! 18. -tatis — antiquity adepti sunt < adipiscor permulceo. -ere — succumb defungor. How did the master memorialize his loyal slave? fidei: 3. -ere — strike tueor. -ūs — magistracy maturitas. In many cultures (e. -i — perform novitas. illum postico clam emisit.I. -ari — stay occasus. Preeminence 251 occidendum: 17. -tatis — moment antiquitas. capi: 12.3 indicio: 3. commutatā cum eo veste. fortunae succumbere omni fato tristius ducit.7 fato: 3. -ūs — death office admiratio. -oris — disgrace luctuosus. -nis — dagger moror. What events does the author imagine without narrating? 3.3 cum: 16. -dinis — courage magistratus.1 patientiae dedecus ignorat. fortunae: 3. In what ways did the slave impersonate his master? 2. -ūs — appearance succumbo. D. -a.IV. arcis — citadel consedeo. -are — disregard oblita est < obliviscor aspectus. -a.V.V. permutato permutato anulo: 13.V. -ēre — stroke arx. -e — venerable ignoro. What was the usual fate of elderly prisoners of war in the ancient world? 8. quam admirabilis fidei! Cum cognosset milites cognosset: 20. -tatis — novelty speciosus. ducit: it considers succumbing to a fortune sadder than any fate fortitudo. -a. -ium — insignia contumelia.7 indicio domesticorum certiores factos vēnisse in Reatinam villam ad occidendum: 17.8 nova et speciosa genera interitūs excogitat—si quisquam interit.V. who sacrifices his own life.1 Urbini Panapionis servus. -a. death vehemens — violent planus.g.III. stroking an old man’s beard is a gesture of respect and self-subordination.1 occidendum ruenti cupidius corpus obtulit.I. -um — open magnificentia. fortunae .II. In this story. -a. -are — ponder insignia. a master proscribed by the Second Triumvirate is rescued by his slave. ancient Greece). -ēre — be seated scipio. . which almost has a fairy-tale feel. Capi ergō virtus nescit.

does a person imagine.IV.V. . With this passage. What practice did youths follow at dinner parties? 3.V. . What did youths used to do on days when the senate was in session? 2. Why do you suppose the author only imagines the events of the slave’s last moments rather than narrating them? 3. Of all the traits that constitute preeminence. as quickly as it is said that someone was willing to die for another. The view expressed here was a commonplace: Rome’s devotion to the cultural value of mos maiorum contributed greatly to the nation’s successes. -nis — description arbitror. adfixique .a titulo: 3. nec . Brevis huius facti narratio. is the slave’s name not recorded here? 2. -ēri — posticum. if Panapio memorialized him. -nis — surmise Reatinus.II testimonium: amplum ei faciendo monumentum ac testimonium pietatis grato titulo 3.1 reddendo confessus est. nec tamen quam cito dicitur aliquem pro alio mori voluisse. convulsa ianuae claustra. Panapio autem quantum servo debēret faciendo: 17. -i — inscription anulus.4 sed non parva materia laudationis: nam si quis ante oculos ponere velit quis: 7. reddendo: 17.VI. -acis — menacing acknowledge clam — secretly trux.I.1 propinquum aut paternum amicum ad curiam deducebant.V. -ūs — assault titulus.II 8–10. minacem vocem.II. -ari — think. -i — evidence passus est < patior aestimatio. Why. -i — bolt confiteor. the author recalls an idealized past when young men paid the proper honor and respect due to their elders.3 truces vultūs.V etiam id fieri potuisse arbitrabitur. tamquam: tamquam maiores natū adulescentium communes patres essent. 252 Annotated Readings recepit et ut Panapionem occı̄di passus est.XIII. si: 18. 16. -i — ring claustrum. -um — of Sabine narratio. however. judge Reate materia. -are — exchange accursus. which ones would Romans credit extraordinary slaves with and memorialize in monument and narrative? 9. -are — change laudatio. arbitrabitur: nor.b natū: 3. that it could even happen so easily indicium.10 Quocircā iuvenes senatūs die utique aliquem ex patribus conscriptis aut die: 4. -a.a subitum militum accursum. -cis — murderous Reading for Understanding 1. fulgentia arma.1. -i — record permuto. -ae — material monumentum. aestimatione: 3. What makes the old Roman ways of acculturating the young better than other ways? Senectuti iuventa ita cumulatum et circumspectum honorem reddebat. Reading for Information 1.1. tam faciliter debēret: 16. -i — back door minax. -i — memorial commuto. rem verā aestimatione prosequetur.1. -nis — praise testimonium.

The author’s list of distinguished Romans at the end of this passage is impressive indeed. The author’s critique of Greek book learning issues from what kind of prejudice? 3.1 percurrendo: 17.a simul percurrendo sim longior.VI. -ae — senate house praecurro.1 disciplinae: 3. -ere — get up alienigenus. -a.c reddebat. nutrimentis: 3. Fabii. -ae — flute abundant roboro. -a. -i — party percurro.V. -a. -um — related at table actuosus. Maiores natū 13. -a.II.8 nutrimentis prosequebatur.7 essent interfuturi: adventum discubitū praecurrerent.V ne: 16. -a. quid etiam utilius certamine? Pubertas canis suum decus carmine: 3.14 hōc splendidius. -ae — school valva.a in conviviis ad tibias egregia superiorum opera carmine comprehensa quam: 6. -ae. pars: 3. -cre — swift respectful modest certamen. -um — verecundus.III.V. -ūs — arrival defungor.III. -ere — compile circumspectus.III. Marcelli.II fulserunt Caesares.i reducendi: 17. -nis — posting convivium. What are the limitations of this educational method? 2. The author here advocates educating youths through role modeling. inquam. -um — alacer. -ere — escort anticipate nutrimentum. Invitati ad cenam meditatione: 3. Quid his praesentibus: 3. inde. -ūs — birth meditatio.1 cursū: 3.V.XIII.1 diligenter quaerebant quinam ei convivio essent interfuturi. ac ne singula imperii nostri lumina praetulerim: 15. Can you name some other.V. brevique processurarum in lucem virtutum suarum sustinenda: 17.1 et abire patiebantur. -um — scanty singuli. D. donec reducendi etiam officio fungerentur. -um — deed curia.V.1.3. Qua donec: 16. more infamous Romans who were educated under the same system that the author here glorifies? .1 certamine: 3. Preeminence 253 valvis: 3.a.2.6.II verecundā laboris meditatione ipsi doctores erant. -e — joint consideration adolescence quocircā — and therefore doctor.13 studia huic domesticae disciplinae praetulerim? Inde oriebantur Camilli. quam scholam.III.III.7 quinam: 7.V.III.V. -a. Ex quibus apparet cenae quoque tempore quam parco discubitū: 3. -i — enter propinquus.7 Scipiones. filled deduco. -a. quae alienigena canis: 3. -ūs — reclining ingredior.7 valvis exspectabant.II quidem voluntariā statione et corpora et animos ad publica officia impigrē officio: 3. -i — perform parcus. 16. Quas Athenas.7 sustinenda roborabant. sublatāque mensā priores consurgere 17.V. -ere — run through Reading for Understanding 1. -um — impigrē — readily tibia. -a — individual statio.V. -a. -i — support adfigo.V.VI.III. ne senioris convivio: 3. -ere — attach sublata < tollo schola.V. -ere — escort back together foreign born fungor. Fabricii. defuncta virili cursū aetas ingredientes actuosam vitam favoris imitanda: 17. -tatis — communis. caeli clarissima pars. -ris — instructor canus. -um — reduco. -inis — competition natus.13 peragebant.1 cenae: 3. -are — grow strong comprehendo.10 sublatā mensā: et quam modesto sermone his praesentibus soliti sint uti.V.III sermone: 3. -i — spend patres conscripti — senators discubitus.13 statione: 3. divi ne: 16.III. -cris.1 processurarum: 12. quō ad ea imitanda iuventutem alacriorem redderent. -nis — pubertas.1 quō: 16.VIII cumulatus. -ere — precede.V. -um — gray haired utique — especially adventus. -ae — door consurgo.

V interest: 20. Bonum est non laudari.6 Bene audire alterum patrimonium est.V si: 18. Maximum in eo vitium est. sed pluribus: 3.I. honestam. melioribus. interest. non qui habearis. dum vivis.1 moribus: 3. qui: 16. sed esse laudabilem. 254 Annotated Readings Verse Readings 1.III.III.V.III. Miser dici bonus vir. Si famam servare cupis.3 Est socia mortis homini vita ingloria.5 pluribus. quae sunt mala. si non te turba deriserit.V. plurimum: 3. facias: 19.V Malis displicēre est laudari. multis: 3.III.III.I.V. opinentur: 15. . But public opinion also has its limits.3 Probo bona fama maxima est hereditas.1 fac fugias animo. malis: 3.3 Moribus egregiis facias tibi nomen honestum. placeas: 16.IV homini: 3.I Male de te opinentur homines sed mali. laudari: 3.8 Bona opinio hominum tutior pecuniā est. gaudia vitae. The Romans understood that a significant part of preeminence consists of maintaining a good reputation. sed qualibus stude.7 Plurimum qui sis. probo: 3. (ut) fugias: 16. Bona fama in tenebris proprium splendorem tenet. qui non melioribus vult placēre.III. Ingenuus animus non fert vocis verbera.V. Honesta fama melior pecuniā est. animo: 3. The following sententiae from different authors examine notoriety.2 pecuniā: 3.5 Non quam multis placeas. esse non potest.4 Nondum felix es.III.

Patiens et fortis se ipsum felicem facit. -um — noble nondum — not yet bene audire — to be well inglorius. Which of these aphorisms contradict that claim? 2.IV. -a. A militaristic culture such as ancient Rome prized the virtue of courage highly and viewed coward- ice and timidity not only as personal faults but as fundamentally unpatriotic.III. adripe.7 Multum venturi ne cures tempora fati. quam accipit. calamitati: 3. Hostili in bello dominatur dextera fortis. In a culture where PR image is everything. .7 In rebus dubiis plurimi est audacia. 16. ante . -ēre — mock spoken of inglorious Reading for Understanding 1. plurimi: 3. quam: Pericla qui audet ante vincit.a.II Nemo timendo ad summum pervēnit locum. can a person achieve preeminence when opposed by scorn and ridicule? When confronted by indifference? 2. -um — derideo.1 Non nōvit virtus calamitati cedere. -ēre — displease patrimony inheritance splendor. Stultum est timēre quod vitari non potest. timendo: 17.D multum: 3. . Some celebrity publicists claim that there is no such thing as bad publicity. -a.3.II Audendo virtus crescit. -nis — opinion patrimonium. -tatis — displiceo. someone who has been in the news much) or a Nobel Prize winner in the sciences (that is.IV non metuit mortem. qui scit contemnere vitam. .ii. -i — hereditas. -ris — splendor ingenuus.V. someone whose name average people will probably hear only once)? 3. tardando timor.II ne cures: 19.1 Occasiones non modo accipe. venturi: 12.II. Which would you rather be: Time magazine’s Person of the Year (that is. D. Felicitatem in dubiis virtus impetrat. tardando: 3. Preeminence 255 opinio.XIII. audendo: 17.

6. 1. to observe courage? 3. -i — dream tardo. Irascere ob rem gravem.a 9. 12.II. utere: 19.6. irascere: 19. 256 Annotated Readings Calamitas virtutis occasio est. M. fit cum gloriā.13 10. esto: 19.d 8. notice how these catchphrases have a jingle quality.V.V.7 5. -e — enemy. Obey these. your family. Can a person be a risk taker but not courageous? Can a person be courageous but not take risks? 3. patientiā: 3.II. -i — coward occasio. ferto: 19. Coniugem ama.3 Quidquid fit cum virtute. -are — delay hostilis. Perit voluptas. cum: 3. Itaque deo supplica. Our society values risk taking but frowns on recklessness. Cognatos cole. 3. virtute: 3. virtus immortalis est. -are — avoid adripio. . Iracundiam rege. Virtute utere. Cato claimed.6 Ignavus omni cessat omnis tempore. -nis — circumstance dominor. Liberos erudi. Parentem patientiā vince. Etiam gerunt cum timidis bellum somnia. 6. Verecundiam serva.I 13.V. 4. Porcius Cato (234–149 BCE) is traditionally said to have composed the following “Fifty-Eight Commandments” and passed them on to his son for instruction.I 11. 7. Libenter amorem ferto.V. and you could achieve preeminence for yourself. Many of these apothegms try to define courage in the contexts of disaster and crisis. Although they are in prose. Mundus esto.V. tempore: 3. What do the Romans seem to mean by the word virtus? Is it like our expression the right stuff? 2. 2. Are these the only settings. cum: 3. ignavus. and your state. Parentes ama.3 vito. Familiam cura. -ere — seize somnium. or just the best settings. -ari — dominate Reading for Understanding 1.

. 17. memento. Alienum noli concupiscere. D.III 27.III.1 15.1 18. Minori parce. Instructions 1–8 express family values. -nis — good alea. Litteras disce. -are — pray maledicus. Existimationem retinē. Saluta libenter. Do they differ much from the Boy Scouts’ code or the Girl Scouts’ code? 3. -are — be moderate erudio.V.I 14.I 35. Libros lege. 32. Maiori concede.5 31. Pauca in convivio loquere.6. Convivare rarō. 29. -ire — teach slanderous meretrix. esto: 19. How do these differ from the sorts of New Year’s resolutions that people often make? 4. -a. esto: 19. Nihil temerē credideris. Blandus esto. -ari — attend trochus. Diligentiam adhibē.6. -um — clean existimatio.7 34. Preeminence 257 credideris: 19. Quod satis est.II.a 16. Trocho lude. 20. trocho: 3. Which ones seem the most timely today? Which seem the most outdated? 2. minori: 3. -um — tempero.I 24.III. convivare: 19. Liberalibus studē. maiori: 3. -a.10 23.V. mentire: 19.IV. noli: 19. Instructions 17–29 center on self-improvement and vice avoidance. Instructions 9–16 deal with personal care.III. -ae — name concupisco. nihil: 3. loquere: 19.III. Datum serva. 26. Maledicus ne esto. -ere — lust after modesty convivor.II 19.II. -ae — dice playing verecundia. dormi. -i — hoop game temerē — rashly parties Reading for Understanding 1. liberalibus: 3.a 33. Aleam fuge. vino: 3. Nihil mentire. Vino tempera.I 22.IV.1 30. supplico. 25. Meretricem fuge. Which one of these first twenty-nine aphorisms should become your personal motto? The next precepts are social and civic and express values commonly credited for Rome’s early suc- cess in the world.V. memento: 19. ne: 19.1 28.5 21. Quae lēgerı̄s. quae: 3. -tricis — prostitute mundus.

3 52. Bono benefacito. Tute consule. Patere legem.III 41. -ēre — ridicule tent emphasis arbitrium. Neminem riseris.I 58. Imagine that after you’ve lived a very long life. Beneficii accepti esto memor. Miserum noli irridēre. 57. Rem tuam custodi.ii.IV. Antequam voceris. 47. -i — decision. benefacito: 19.III.1 45. arbitrio: 3.1.5 49. Minorem ne contempserı̄s. -ūs — magistrate deliberate. videto.V. accesserı̄s: 15. feceris: 19. -ere — approach outcome Reading for Understanding 1.1 44.6.3. In iudicio adesto. Cum bonis ambula.a 54. -a.C ne: 15. quod iustum est. 16.1 43. Success in the larger community is the thrust of precepts 46–58.3 40. -i — general’s -te — suffix conveying irrideo. foro: 3. Ad praetorium stato. stato: 19.II noli: 19. 55.a.6. What differences do you no- tice between the larger community in Roman times and the larger community today? Would Cato’s instructions be more appropriate for someone coming of age in. quam ipse tuleris. Minimē iudica. -a. 15.XIII.V.a 53. blandus. -um — easygoing patere = pati consultus. Consultus esto.II 39.IV. adesto: 19. Precepts 30–45 provide instruction in social and interpersonal matters. bono: 3.a riseris: 19. accedo. -um — benefacio. 258 Annotated Readings 36. Ius iurandum serva.V. Ontario? 3. videto: 19. Mutuum da. Magistratum metue.II 48. Washington DC or in Ottawa. Which ones are most appropriate for college seniors? Which ones do you hope others will follow the year after you graduate from college? 2.II.IV. Foro parce. say.III. Aequum iudica. Cui des. Pugna pro patriā. 56. adgredere: 19.II. antequam: 51. beneficii: 3. ne accesserı̄s. Illud adgredere.6 37. -ere — do good magistratus.II. thoughtful turns praetorium. Nihil arbitrio virium feceris. 46. someone is delivering your eulogy and prais- ing your character: which of these last twenty-nine precepts would you like your eulogist to commend you for? . 50. contempserı̄s: 42.a 38.1. esto: 19.

III. caveas: 19. erit diuturnum. The Romans were usually more worried about the tendency toward absolutism in their leaders rather than weak or ineffectual leadership skills.I. modici breviora laborant. In sterculino plurimum gallus potest.V.3 Qui vinci sese patitur pro tempore. The ability to lead others is a crucial aspect of greatness. Clementia in quamcumque domum vēnerit. animo: 3. felicitas: 3. rogando: 17. erit in occasione. Quod persuaseris.II Cogit rogando. ubi digni imperant.IV Grande aliquid caveas timido committere cordi.III.IV A duabus causis praestare princeps solet. ne: 16.II Necesse est multos timeat. cum rogat potentior. caveas: 19. vincit.I Agat princeps curam non tantum salutis. quem multi timent. . Magni magna parant.2 Potens misericors publica est felicitas. agat: 15. Utrumque casum aspicere debet. cordi: 3. coegeris: future perfects quod coegeris. ulciscendi: 17. Qui a multis timetur. si aut se vindicat aut alium. D. (ut) timeat: 16. felicem eam tranquillamque praestabit.II Clementia est temperantia animi in potestate ulciscendi. Clementia est lenitas superioris adversus inferiorem. multos timet. persuaseris. Preeminence 259 4. sed honestae cicatricis.3 Omnes aequo animo parent.1 Ne tua paeniteat caveas victoria temet. qui imperat.

-a. quod ipse non possis pati. -tricis — scar lenitas. Explain the basic truth each of them tries to capture. Amicos secretō admonē. -i — dung heap adversus — (with accusative) abundo. 3. qui alienas amat. -um — calm misericors. -a.7 Nulli imponas. -ere — entrust self-restraint palam — in public modicus. -tatis — safety -met — suffix conveying supplicium. -i — death emphasis sentence Reading for Understanding 1. imperio: 3. quam sereni caeli et nitentis.2 quam medico multa funera. -e — great temperantia. Do Romans seem to expect clementia from their leaders? 2. -nis — moment serenus. cicatrix. it’s true. -tatis — leniency nē — indeed sterculinum. imponas: 19. respected intelligence in all aspects of their society—nowhere more so than in the government and in the military. 5. -ae — severitas. -um — sympathetic enduring restrained aspicio.III. The third through fifth maxims in this section are the most provocative. -um — mild grandis. -a.I. -ere — examine occasio. Non alia facies est quieti moderatique imperii. The following aphorisms emphasize the importance of wisdom and prudence. virtutibus: 3. -rdis — diuturnus. -tatis — severity committo. Which do you prefer? Why? 3. The trait of clementia appears to be quite important. -i — cock. .V. -um — moderatus. The mercy a winner shows to a loser is all the more praised when it’s unexpected. -um — ordinary ulciscor.5 Parēre scire par imperio gloria est. rooster toward quietus.II Severitas assidua amittit auctoritatem. 260 Annotated Readings principi.IV possis: 15. palam lauda. labor: 3. -a. nulli: 3. The Romans. -a. -are — abound gallus. -i — get revenge securitas.III. medico: Haud minus turpia sunt principi multa supplicia.III.10 Nē virtutibus multis abundat.2 Labor imperantis militum securitas. The first two aphorisms in this section are very similar.

sis: 16. Gravis animus dubiam non habet sententiam. Incertus animus dimidium est sapientiae.V homini: 3. credenda: nam miranda canunt. accommodet: 15.I.V nobis: 3.I.10 Vir prudens animo est melior quam fortis in armis.II Deliberando discitur sapientia.3 quae fugias.3 Magno perficitur discrimine res memoranda.7 Utilibus monitis prudens accommodet aurem.V Per quae sis tutus.III.III poetae: 3.1 animo: 3. cogites: 19.V. fugias: Multorum disce exemplis.X Non est beatus.V. quod credas proba.4 Est homini semper diligenti aliquid super. statuendum est: 17. illa semper cogites.I discrimine: 3. statuendum est semel. discute. Consilium in dubiis remedium prudentis est. felicitate: 3.III facias: 19. Preeminence 261 Ducis in consilio posita est virtus militum.III. 17.IV (ut) legas: 16.I Discute quod audias omne. magistra: 3. quae facta sequaris.V Quid cautus caveas aliena exempla docebunt.IV Consilii regimen virtuti corporis adde. Privata studia publicum evertunt bonum. nesciat: 16. credas: 16. 16. audias. perlectis neglege multa. deliberando: 17.18 miranda. deliberandum est. quō pervenias cogites.IV Nil sine consilio facias: sı̄c facta probantur.V.III.13 Scire uti felicitate maxima felicitas est. proba: 19. vita est nobis aliena magistra.II perlectis: 3.V. sed non credenda poetae. pervenias: 16. .1 Multa legas facito. memoranda: 17. Deliberandum est saepe.V Quidquid conaris. D. sequaris. facito: 19.2 monitis: 3. ipse qui se nesciat. caveas: 16.III.

-ntis — prudent accommodo. -ere — read probo. Which do you suppose soldiers depend on more.IV dimidium.IV cum: 16. In our culture. -ere — dissect. Compare the first maxim of this section with the last in the previous section.ii. -minis — crisis overlook decision memoro. How did the knight react to his public embarrassment? religasse: 20. -ocis — swift perlego.3.XIII. Do these concepts appear synonymous with the Latin word consilium? 2.I. What caused his toupee to come off? 3. Why did the knight come to the Campus Martius? 2. ad Campum nitidis vēnit conspectus in armis frenis: 3.III. -ere — make a discrimen. -minis — control analyze Reading for Understanding 1. -a. -ntis — remedium. Specta.a. 20. 20. -um — cautious fit. Velox consilium sequitur paenitentia. deliberes. -are — prove paenitentia. facias.2 et facilem frenis flectere coepit equum. -ere — undermine cautus. facias: 19. -are — remember velox. which seems to regard the process of intelligence over the results. -ae — regret thoroughly discutio. paeniteat: 16. quod non debet. priusquam — before regimen. quod te numquam paeniteat. . deliberes: 19. -i — advice conscientious prudens. -ere — add diligens. -i — cure monitum.IV et nihil praetermittit.5 priusquam: 16. adapt praetermitto. quod debet. capiti solitus religasse capillos atque alias nudo vertice ferre comas. 262 Annotated Readings (facere) debet: Sapiens nihil facit. the effort or the planning of their leaders? 3.I. -ere — statuo.C Priusquam promittas.3 Calvus eques. Explain the sense of the second aphorism.3.a et cum promiserı̄s.III.V. -i — half addo. where leadership usually boasts itself to be results oriented? In what setting might the second apho- rism make a great motto? 6. -are — everto. “Gone with the Wind”: The Bald Equestrian Reading for Information 1. we talk much of the purpose-driven life or living with intentionality. How well would this maxim be greeted in a corporate setting today.

“positos fūgisse capillos. qui habet in consilio fidem.” referens.2 quod: 16. Sat est disertus. -inis — gust sagax. -acis — clever. -rre — deflect nitidus. unde abiit. -a. -are — tie back praeflo.1 deiecto .IV. milibus: 3. capillos: 3.III. after this incident would you feel proud to have him as your superior officer? 7. Did it surprise you to learn that Roman men sometimes employed hairpieces? Did you know that Julius Caesar practiced the time-honored comb-over? What do you suppose is the con- nection between hair and ego? 3.2 Etiam hosti est aequus. .I. Fides sı̄cut anima. -ere — throw down same age frenum.III. -a. -a. -um — laughable aequaevus.3 distulit admotā calliditate iocum. -i — helmet eques. hosti: 3. -um — calliditas. e quo loquitur veritas. Would you agree that an important trait of greatness is the ability to laugh at oneself? What happens to prominent people when they can’t take a joke at their own expense? 2. The Romans had an expectation—sometimes gratified. quōvis pervenit.4 deseruēre: 20. -tatis — wit conspectus. -are — blow disfero. -um — bald boreas. These aphorisms examine the role of honor and honesty. 13. nullum fallere.3 calliditate: 3.III. witty religo. -a. 13. sometimes not—that personal integrity would attend preeminence. -um — of the conspicuous deicio.II. If you belonged to the same cavalry brigade as this knight.2 appositā . inhonestum notat.XIII. 13. -ae — north wind galerus. . . Qui ius iurandum servat. -itis — knight spiramen. D. viri: 3.IV “Quid mirum. Honos honestum decorat. 5 populo conspiciente: ridiculum populo conspiciente caput.2. tantis quod risus milibus esset. 10 mirum (est): 20. Preeminence 263 Huius ab adverso Boreae spiramina praeflant.V.2 quem prius aequaevae deseruēre comae?” calvus. etiam in morte. numquam redit.5 Boni est viri. .III.c Ille sagax. -ntis — brow Reading for Understanding 1. galero: Nam mox deiecto nituit frons nuda galero. -a. -um — shiny ridiculus. . comā: discolor appositā quae fuit ante comā. -i — rein frons.III.

VI Potest quid esse honestum. amicis fidem. famae: 3. A malis hominibus tutissimum est cito effugere.c dictū: 17.a viri: 3.IV Praestabis parentibus pietatem.I.1 nil: 3.I.I Malo veris offendere quam placēre adulando. quid: 7.V.b Cum accusas alium.3 Bono iustitiae proxima est severitas.III.6 praestabis: 19. aliquem: 3. nec ab inferioribus timearis.II. Famam curant multi.7 attenderis: 19.V. aliter in solitudine. Conscientiae potius quam famae attenderis.II. pauci conscientiam. veris: 3. bonis: 3.3. cum superiore furiosum. ut nec a superioribus contemnaris.II. iustitiae: 3. aliis. adulando: 17.III. 3. 264 Annotated Readings eripere: 3.1 Cum hominibus pacem.2 cum: 16.5 Viri boni est nescire facere iniuriam.7 Nil prodest didicisse. .I. ut: 16.2 Sibi primō auxilium eripere est leges tollere. sibi: 3.III.II.2 Bonus esse non potest aliis malus sibi.2 Vir constans quicquid coepit complēre laborat. quamquam: 16. esto: 19. quamquam sint aspera dictū.2. Non vives aliter in foro.2 bono: 3. tollere: 12. bella cum vitiis habē. si cessas benefacere.II Sı̄c vive. quod non liberum? Nullum laborem recusant manūs ab aratro ad arma translatae.a Proximus esto bonis.V.3.IV Vera libens dicas. cum inferiore sordidum.7 nocentis: 3.III. omnibus aequitatem. conscientiae. cognatis indulgentiam.V.III. propriam prius inspice vitam.IV.6.I.4 Ridiculum est aliquem odio nocentis innocentiam suam perdere. odio: 3. Cum pare contendere indecens.XIII.IV. si non potes optimus esse. dicas: 19.

-i — plow solitudo.III.5 mora: 3.a Effugere cupiditatem regnum est vincere. -ntis — stable translatae < transfero disertus. Tacēre pro se praestat. -um — dishonorable indecens. Integrity is sometimes represented here as making the better choice between two options.3.I. -ae — innocence iustitia. Egregios faciet mentis constantia mores. -ae — justice recuso. -um — eloquent compleo. -tatis — fair play severitas. -a.5 Servis imperare moderatē laus est. In this selection. According to these maxims. cogitationis: 3. -tatis — truth conscientia. servis: 3. What paired options are cited here? In your experience. . -ēre — complete malo. -a.III. Bonum ad virum cito moritur iracundia. locutum (esse): Saepius locutum.1 Mora cogitationis diligentia est. malle — prefer veritas.I.IV paenitet: 20. -tatis — sternness aratrum. what are some of the things that honorable people avoid? Why? 2. -are — adorn conscience cesso. 20. -are — fawn on decoro. -ere — pay attention ridiculus.2 Nocēre posse et nolle laus amplissima est. -a.I. Where we often attribute success to something we call drive. are most ethical choices between opposites? 3. D.I. -um — attendo. what are your three favorite aphorisms? What are your three least favorite? 8. quam contrā loqui. -ae — adulo. the defining characteristic of preeminence for Romans was the ability to curb and hold in check one’s impulses and emotions. Preeminence 265 fallo. effugere: 12. vincere: 3. numquam te tacuisse paenitet. -inis — solitude Reading for Understanding 1. Bis vincit qui se vincit in victoriā. the quality of self-control is given close attention. Of this group.IX diligentia: 3. -um — crazy innocentia.2 Medicina calamitatis est aequanimitas. -are — refuse aequitas. -ere — deceive constans. -a. -are — stop inhonestus. -ntis — indecent laughable quōvis — wherever furiosus.

-nis — decision abditus. -ūs — readiness desirousness constantia.6.13 moderatē — moderately cogitatio. qui velle quod satis est potest.III.9 Quanto maior eris. -ae — constancy incumbo. cogites: 16.II.a dicas. -ere — pay medicina. Felicitas nutrix est iracundiae.IV Libenter feras.III. non quid cogites. Patientia animi occultas divitias habet.1 In hoc incumbe.IV Severitatem abditam. qui se subicit rationi.V Considera quid dicas. Quod vult habet. quod necesse est: dolor patientiā vincitur.7 Omnia subicit. tibi: 3. Homo tacēre qui nescit. 17. est adhibenda: Omni rei moderatio est adhibenda. ut libentius audias quam loquaris.III. interdum vince ferendo.V. 266 Annotated Readings constantiae: 3. -tatis — making procinctus. 3. esto: 19. -tatis — level­ nutrix. Iram qui vincit. -um — hidden cupiditas. rationi: 3. -a. nescit loqui. -ae — remedy divitiae. clementiam in procinctū habē.V.5 Nocēre casus non solet constantiae.III. -ricis — nurturer frequenter — often headedness moderatio. virtus: 3. linguā: Auribus frequentius quam linguā utere. quanto. Quem superare potes.2 maxima enim est hominum semper patientia virtus. -nis — mora.5 Imperium habēre vis magnum? Impera tibi. feras: 19. hostem superat maximum. auribus. ut: 16.I. tanto moderatior esto. tanto: 3. -arum — riches attention aequanimitas. -ae — postponement moderation .

verba. fall procido. -um — brief. amico et morior. amico: 3.I. -ere — fall over. .I.VI “Me nē. vellem: 15.I. sed manifestus erat: moriens quaerebat amatae coniugis amplexūs. -ūs — embrace nē — indeed. difficult .14 “Sed tamen hoc satis est: vixi te.4 frigidus et iam iam cum moriturus erat: moriturus erat: 17. the prince who died prematurely? 2.5 Pectore maturo fuerat puer.c nec tamen hoc ultrā te doluisse velim. -ere — fall forth primaevus. -a. G. How many of these aphorisms pertain to speech acts? What common theme do you notice in them? 2.II Discidio vellemque prius—.V.7 opus: 5. “dum moriorque. How many of these maxims use language suggestive of the military? What do you suppose is the significance of that usage? 9.1 et magnum magni Caesaris illud opus. does it appear that the Romans had a positive or negative opinion of basic human nature? 3. -um — in one’s upon ultrā — further prime angustus. Although he’s speaking to his wife. -a. 15 (ut) iaceam.IV. -um — cold discidium.” inquit.V. truly incido.1 cum: 16.V. integer aevo. velim: 20.” Non omnia dixit inciditque pudor quae prope dixit amor. Cil- nius Maecenas (died 8 BCE). 5 aevo: 3. Iuppiter. 13. From this selection. Why does the speaker wish he had died before Drusus.g angustam Drusi non cecidisse diem! pectore: 3.3.III. ante me: 3. oscula. manūs. iaceam tellure sub aequā. . What four things does the speaker seek from his wife? 3. -a.I Hoc mihi contingat. Reading for Information 1.7. Caesar. “iuvenis primaevi.1 cum dicar subitā voce fuisse tibi. 10 te . Mollibus ex oculis aliquis tibi procidet umor. D. Preeminence 267 Reading for Understanding 1. contingat: 15.III. -i — civil discord amplexus.” frigidus.I. The poetic fiction here is a deathbed speech by Augustus’s most trusted adviser and friend.5 cecidisse: 12. sat est. whom does he actually address? fato veniente: Sı̄c est Maecenas fato veniente locutus. cum: 16.” dixit.

Vipsanius Agrippa (line 32)—great regrets and sorrows in Augustus’s life—seem tactful or awkward to you? 2.8 nec tibi qui moritur desinit esse tuus. Do the references to civil war (line 7).” 20. senex pete sidera serō: terris: 3.7. . cum: 16. Can you explain and resolve the apparent contradiction? 3.8 expleat amissi munera rupta gener.IV Exemplum vixi te propter molle beati.3 Et tibi succrescant iuvenes bis Caesare digni succrescant. tradant: 15. 25 pectus: 3. expleat: 15. te propter: 8.III. what evidence do you see in this poem for a growing ruler cult? . tui: 3. 30 Caesare: 3. -are — place succresco. unus Maecenas teque ego propter eram. Vive diu. How can Augustus’s wife Livia be made secura? velim: 15.V.16 sit. 20 Ipse ego quicquid ero cineres interque favillas. tuus: nor does the one who dies on you cease to be yours favilla.I. -um — ancestral serō — late.3. after a long time amissi = Agrippa colloco.a tibi: 3. Et decet et certē vivam tibi semper amore. decet: 20.7 collocet: 15.b Cum deus intereris divis insignis avitis.I si: 18. Reading for Information 1.III.a semper ero. nec . impersonal reason does the speaker wish Augustus a long life? 3.III. avitis: 3.6 tum quoque non potero non memor esse tui. What is the speaker’s one hope for immortality? 2.I Sit secura tibi quam primum Livia coniunx. contigit: 20.III. For what selfless. mi care. -esse — join arbiter. Although Augustus officially and publicly opposed his living deification. -a.I. the death of Claudius Nero Drusus (lines 3–6). -tri — adviser expleo. -ēre — fulfill patrius. tibi: 3. vivam: 15.III. and the death of M. 268 Annotated Readings The poem continues with Maecenas’s tearful praise for Augustus and his prayers for the future of the emperor and his household.IV “Sed meminisse velim: vivam sermonibus illı̄c. tibi: 3.2.7 Arbiter ipse fui: volui quod contigit esse.4 est opus hoc terris. -ere — grow gener = Tiberius together Reading for Understanding 1.III.I.II. Lines 25–26 express two seemingly contradictory notions: absolute independence and com- plete submission.2 pectus eram verē pectoris ipse tui. semper si meminisse voles. -ae — ash porrō — onward intersum.III. .I et tradant porrō Caesaris usque genus. te quoque velle decet.I te Venus in patrio collocet ipsa sinū.

I.2 noli: 19. 3. patriae: 3. qui utitur clementiā.10 Cui omnes bene dicunt.II Multa ignoscendo fit potens potentior. ut: 16.II Male imperando summum imperium amittitur. we see some familiar themes and some less common ones as well.c Probi delicta neglegens. consolatio: 3.II. Multos vitam differentes mors incerta praevenit: iudicandus est: omnis dies velut ultimus iudicandus est.6 spem retinē.3 Exsilium patitur. spes una hominem nec morte relinquit. officium levat. .13 Perpetuō vincit. leges teras. nimium est perdere. bona. morte: 3. quae summos sublevant. omnibus: 3.3 neglegens: 12.3 Misericors civis patriae est consolatio. In this final selection of sententiae on the topic of preeminence. sint: 16.3 or Bonus vir nemo est nisi qui bonus est omnibus.II patriae: 3. ni: 18. 17.III.I. ut et bene agas. quisquis patriae est utilis.III. Preeminence 269 10.II. noli: 19. ignoscendo: 17. patriae qui se denegat. pluris: 3. ut: 16.V.V Intellege ecquae sint. imperando: 17. teras: 15.III. nulli tutus est summus locus.2 Populi est mancipium. clementiā: 3.1 Qui exspectat ut rogetur.III.1 Gradus a magnis fit ad maiora saepius. quae amicos multos capit. patriae: 3.III.III Rebus in adversis animum submittere noli.V.III. nulli: 3. Satis est superare inimicum.III Noli contemnere ea.V.4 Ni gradus servetur.IV Nulla pusilla domus. D. possidet populi bona.7 Pluris docentis vita quam sententia.III.

fault malo. Cuius fortitudinem di immortales admirati incolumitatem sinceram ei praestiterunt: nam neque altitudine deiectūs quassatus nec pondere . -are — compass ecqui — whether any consolation loquela. By what agency was Cocles supposedly saved? 3. verba. -um — weak consolatio. Of the group. Reading for Information 1. infatigabili pugnā sustinuit.I Omnia pertractet primum mens. 270 Annotated Readings pertractet: 15. -i — exile delictum. -a. what are your three favorite aphorisms? What are your three least favorite? 3. atque. According to the author. cede potenti. which aspects of preeminence have all the apothegms presented in this chapter not adequately addressed? Supplemental Readings 1. malis: 19. is the subject of this anecdote. poterit prodesse aliquandō. ut patriam periculo imminenti liberatam esse vı̄dit. What adversity did he overcome before rejoining his troops? 4. Cede locum laesus Fortunae. donec post tergum suum pons abrumperetur. -rdis — submitto. he saves Rome from her dreaded enemies the Etruscans (506 BCE). incertus. -ire — overtake sympathetic aliquandō — sometimes pusillus. -i — crime. differo. Positioned at the Sublician Bridge. -nis — pertracto. Which of the preceding seem to take a more novel view on the topic of preeminence? 2. loquelae. What did Cocles do after he had determined that Rome was safe? 2. -are — elevate language exsilium.IV Audire malis quam loqui libentius. besides Cocles. -ere — surrender praevenio. All things considered. -ere — forgive asset unexpected misericors. -um — ignosco. -a. possideo. -ēre — possess sublevo. -rre — put on hold denego. Horatius Cocles extremam eius partem occupavit. malle — prefer Reading for Understanding 1. -are — deny mancipium. Horatius Cocles. -ae — speech. totumque hostium agmen. armatus se in Tiberim misit. -i — property. the famous hero of early Rome. laedere qui potuit. what saved Rome? Etruscis in urbem Ponte Sublicio irrumpentibus.

maximā cum fiduciā ad colloquium eorum tetendit. Apud quos cum de fine belli ageret. like this one. Quapropter discedentes Etrusci dicere potuerunt: “Romanos vicimus. -minis — battle line deiectus. ab Horatio victi sumus. quo ab ipsis Cornelio Asinae consuli iniectae erant. -ae — happiness munimentum. this story recounts the debate between the Carthaginian generals Hanno and Hamilcar over how the Romans would receive a peace party. According to the author. yet stories of individual heroism. -e — tireless stupeo. Preeminence 271 armorum pressus nec ullo verticis circuitū actus. stupentes illos admiratione. -um — uninjured haesito. How would you explain that? 2. alterum propugnando. hos inter laetitiam et metum haesitantes. et tribunus militum ei dixisset posse illi meritō evenire . distraxit. -tatis — safety laetitia. the mere ability to put Hanno in chains would have made the Ro- man consuls famous. Set in 256 BCE. Hanno autem. Unus itaque tot civium. -ēre — be amazed alveus. -ūs — fall propugno. How do you explain this apparent contradiction? 2. What prompted the Carthaginians to consider suing for peace? 2. but what act made them even more famous? Speciosa illa quoque Romana fides. duces eius fractis animis consilia petendae pacis agitabant. -ere — break off circuitus. -inis — height consero. -i — defense sincerus. Reading for Information 1. unusque duos acerrimā pugnā consertos exercitūs. -ūs — swirling aggressive infatigabilis. -ere — engage Reading for Understanding 1. but it’s interesting to note that it has no epilogue. -are — be abrumpo. alterum repellendo. Every Roman child was taught this story of Horatius Cocles. Why would the precedent of Cornelius Asina concern Hamilcar? 3. ne eodem modo catenae sibi inicerentur. Hanno proved that he was right. there’s no account of what became of Cocles after his act of heroism. Why does the author introduce the notion that the gods helped Cocles? 3. -are — hesitate altitudo. Quorum Hamilcar ire se ad consules negabat audēre. -i — riverbank incolumitas. In early Rome. Ingenti Poenorum classe circā Siciliam devictā. That is. ne telis quidem. -a. certior Romani animi aestimator.” agmen. quae undique congerebantur. were popular. nihil tale timendum esse ratus. Despite some intimidation. laesus tutum natandi eventum habuit. individualism wasn’t highly prized. Denique unus urbi nostrae tantum scuto suo quantum Tiberis alveo munimenti attulit. D. tot hostium in se oculos convertit.

Reading for Information 1. Because of his constant levelheaded- ness. Rome was gradually less humane to its conquered foes. Do you have any sympathy for the views of the tribune? 3. When the situation against Hannibal in the Second Punic War looked the most bleak for Rome. numquam a consilii salubritate ne parvi quidem certaminis discrimine recessit. According to the author. -are — cheat in command to a dictator persevero. ratus sum — colloquium. ita hic non dimicando maximē civitati nostrae succurrisse visus est: alter enim celeritate suā Carthaginem oppressit. ne Roma opprimi posset. regrouped. quodque est difficillimum. ubique irā ac spe superior apparuit. fides civitatis nostrae liberat. by what two means was Carthage defeated? Illa verō pietatis constantia admirabilis. How did Fabius manage to thwart Hannibal? 3. How might you explain the coincidence of these changes? 3. “metū. Itaque frustrari et eludere Poenorum impetus quam manum cum his totā acie conserere melius ratus. Ergō ut Scipio pugnando. rēri. Rome survived. Fabius Maximus infatigabilem patriae praestitit. -ris — reor.” Claros illos fecerat tantum hostium ducem vincire potuisse. it had a long tradition of treating those it defeated with consid- erable dignity. Fabius Maximus Cunctator was named dictator (217 BCE). nec umquam sibi rei publicae permisit irasci. aestimator. -e — tireless magister equitum — second lacesso. compluribus praetereā iniuriis lacessitus in eodem animi habitū mansit. -are — persevere . sed multō clariores fecit noluisse. and finally defeated her Carthaginian enemy. saepe etiam specie bene gerendae rei oblatā. plurimis comminationibus Hannibalis irritatus. Tam perseverans in amore civium—quid?—in bello gerendo nonne par eius constantia? Imperium Romanum Cannensi proelio paene destructum vix sufficere ad exercitūs comparandos videbatur. While Rome was a republic. Hanno. Q. uterque consul. What slights did Fabius suffer at the hands of the Roman government and people? 2.” inquit. Pecuniam pro captivis Hannibali numeraverat: fraudatus eā publicē tacuit. But after the government turned more autocratic. infatigabilis. -i — judge think conversation Reading for Understanding 1. Why didn’t the Romans avenge the humiliation of Asina by treating Hanno comparably? 2. dictatori ei magistrum equitum Minucium iure imperii aequaverant: silentium egit. quam Q. -ere — injure fraudo. “Isto te. alter cunctatione id egit. 272 Annotated Readings quod Cornelio accidisset. tribuno tacēre iusso.

D. Fabius is also praised for his great patriotism.” but we more often criticize our public officials for acting too slowly. in ipsā denique Iovis Optimi Maximi cellā ponere. quantum egerat gerundive? robore: use of ablative? in emerendis. Voluerunt illi statuas in comitio. Where did Romans want to set up Scipio’s statue? 2. After the Battle of Zama and the defeat of Carthage (203 BCE) in the Second Punic War. -tatis — well-being destruo. Preeminence 273 Cannensis. -ere — destroy comminatio. -are — assemble irrito. -tatis — speed comparo. What do you suppose kept Fabius from simply retiring into private life in response to his public humiliations? 3. Adiecit quoque non patres: use of accusative? rei publicae: use of oportēre patres conscriptos se rei publicae Carthaginiensium dative? . -ere — engage salubritas. -e — of or at frustror. si quidem maxima eius merita paribus ornamentis gerundive? ornamentis: use of decorare conati sunt. when Hannibal attempted to incite the Carthaginians to war against Rome for yet another time—and how Scipio reacted to the situation. What made Fabius’s slowness so commendable? 2. -nis — delaying Reading for Understanding 1. The end of this passage narrates an incident that occurred in 195 BCE. What political honors did they want to give him? 3. Eodem robore mentis causam Hannibalis in cum: type? legatis: use of ablative? senatū protexit. We commonly say “Patience is a virtue. voluerunt ornatū: use of ablative? pulvinaribus: use of imaginem eius triumphali ornatū indutam Capitolinis pulvinaribus dative? plebiscito: use of applicare. Reading for Information 1. despite having been wronged several times by the state he loved so much. the elder Scipio Africanus occupied an unparalleled place in the hearts and loyalties of most Romans. -are — annoy cunctatio. The judgment that Fabius saved Rome by essentially doing relatively little or nothing is his- torically accurate. On what grounds did Scipio advise the senate not to get involved in Hannibal’s efforts in Carthage? maioribus: use of dative? Non defuit maioribus grata mens ad praemia superiori Africano Africano: use of dative? exsolvenda: gerund or exsolvenda. voluerunt ei continuum per omnes vitae annos consulatum ablative? consulto: use of ablative? perpetuamque dictaturam tribuere: quorum nihil sibi neque patiendo: gerund or gerundive? plebiscito dari neque senatūs consulto decerni patiendo paene recusandis: what form? emerendis: gerund or tantum se in recusandis honoribus gessit. cum eum cives sui missis legatis tamquam seditiones: use of accusative? seditiones apud eos moventem accusarent. -nis — skirmish celeritas. in ablative? illi: use of dative? curiā. in rostris. Can you think of other great leaders in history who achieved success by doing relatively little or nothing? 4. -ari — frustrate oblata < offero Cannae consero.

Eiusdem virtus. paene . -ere — vote moderatio. quod sibi asperrimum in Africā bellum gerenti tam delicatus quaestor sorte obvēnisset. What was Marius’s initial impression of Sulla when the latter first arrived in Africa? 3. altissimāque moderatione alterius saluti consuluit. -i — plebiscite seditio. claustris. -i — decree interpono. -ris — couch of the gods Reading for Understanding 1. Mitridatem compescuit. ablative? saluti: use of dative? alterius dignitati. Marius consul molestē tulisse traditur. vino. eumque. socialis belli fluctūs repressit. -ere — interpose house decerno. victoriā tenus utriusque hostem egisse dignitati: use of dative? victoriā tenus: type of contentus. -ae — statue plebiscitum. qua obsidebatur. Quapropter C. catenas Iugurthae manibus iniecit. 138–78 BCE). The principle that no sovereign nation has a right to engineer regime change in another sov- ereign nation has a very modern ring. -nis — cella. Quae tam diversa tamque inter se contraria si quis apud animum suum attentiore comparatione expendere velit. ipsam illam provinciam proscriptum et exsulem petere coegit. -ere — protect statua. -ae — dictatorship protego. what were Sulla’s favorite preoccupations? 2. deserve self-restraint pulvinar. . Of all the accomplishments listed. -ae — temple sanctuary emereor. ludicrae artis amore inquinatam perduxit. 274 Annotated Readings moderatione: use of interponere. Cinnae dominationem fregit. Do you agree with Scipio? Does it seem odd at all to hear this principle coming from a decorated general? 5. This passage outlines the eventful career of the dictator Sulla (ca. emerendis: he conducted himself almost as greatly in refusing honors as he had done in deserving them decoro. Before he gained the quaestorship. -ēri — earn. duos in uno homine Sullas fuisse crediderit. -are — adorn dictatura. -i — assembly consultum. whose early years were very unpromising. Reading for Information 1. . -nis — uprising comitium. preposition? 8–10. Why do you suppose Scipio turned down the opportunity to defeat Hannibal a second (and perhaps final) time? 3. quasi perruptis et disiectis nequitiae. verō Sulla usque ad quaesturae suae comitia vitam libidine. . qui se in Africā quaestorem fastidierat. which three happened in Italy? L. Why do you suppose Scipio rejected the honors offered to him? 2.

Porcius Cato Uticensis (95–46 BCE) contrived to assas- sinate Sulla the dictator (ca. sed facultatem deesse. -ere — dedicate defiled socialis. quod salus eius magno praesidio militum custodiretur. The author portrays Sulla’s great talents as all bottled up in him. ut ferrum sibi daret obsecravit. Reading for Information 1. Sulla accomplished some great things in his career. 138–78 BCE). -nis — tyranny comitium. cum salutandi gratiā praetextatus ad Sullam vēnisset et capita proscriptorum in atrium adlata vı̄disset. just waiting for the right op- portunity or conditions to break out and nullify all his bad habits. the young deadbeat and the older man of achievement. respondisset. Does true preeminence require that a leader engage exclusively in good and noble acts throughout her or his career? 6. adfirmando perfacile se eum interfecturum esse. the author states that there were two Sullas. atrocitate rei commotus paedagogum suum interrogavit quapropter nemo inveniretur. -ire — be allotted exsul. -a. This narrative tells how the young M. -e — with allies Reading for Understanding 1. -ae — delicatus. Despite the fact that Sulla was a ruthless tyrant. -ere — repress quaestorship effeminate dominatio. -ere — discard expendo. nisi ipse se felicem appellari maluisset. Does this seem like sound psychology to you? 3. Cato. -nis — comedy through comparison inquinatus. Without a doubt. Later. What made Cato think he could kill Sulla? 3. -um — reprimo. -crum — of perrumpo. the author here overlooks his many wrong- doings and seems to hold the ruler in fairly high regard. whose deaths was Sulla responsible for? M. but he also committed many despicable acts. -cra. -um — disicio. -lis — exile ludicer. -i — election obvenio. qui tam crudelem tyrannum occı̄deret: cumque is non voluntatem hominibus. What horror did the young Cato observe in Sulla’s atrium? 2. quaestura. Could the case be made that Sulla’s later ruthlessness and wrongdoings were consistent with his earlier misbehaviors? Why do you suppose the author didn’t make this connection? 4. -ere — break comparatio. Paedagogus et . According to the narrator. Does this seem like sound psychology to you? 2. -a. Preeminence 275 turpem adulescentulum et virum. D. quod in lecto illius considere solēret. What role did Cato’s tutor play in all of this? 4. dicerem fortem.

-ere — pat down. its erstwhile allies (329 BCE). -tatis — opportunity frisk class Reading for Understanding 1. Ceterum casū: use of ablative? victoribus et iratis: use of cum auxilium unicum in precibus restare animadverterent. -i — prospect frightened by paedagogus. -ere — become adlata < adfero propositum. -ere — be fright. -um — wear. Why is the unfavorable comparison with Marius (ca. -a. What were the sentiments of the senators before the Privernates spoke? 2. faciendum: gerund or gerundive? eodem tempore et victoribus et iratis subiecta. municipia. eumque posteā ad Sullam excussum semper adduxit. What were the sentiments of the senators after the leader of the Privernates spoke? 3. praetextatus. ablative? cum: type? ingenui et Italici sanguinis oblivisci non potuerunt: princeps sanguinis: use of genitive? merērentur: use of subjunctive? enim eorum in curiā interrogatus quam poenam merērentur. . interfectisque: use Priverno capto interfectisque qui id oppidum ad rebellandum of ablative? rebellandum: gerund or incitaverant. . -i — tutor ened by municipality voluntas. senatus indignatione accensus consilium gerundive? indignatione: use of ablative? agitabat quidnam sibi de reliquis quoque Privernatibus esset sibi: use of dative? esset: use of subjunctive? faciendum. . 157–86 BCE) at the end of the pas- sage rather unfair? 7. -tatis — will excutio. Si ipsum Marium illo loci statuisses. -ere — escort ing the toga of manhood perfacilis. -tatis — cruelty atrium. Reading for Information 1. adfirmo. How do you feel about praise for someone who expressed a desire to commit murder? 2. municipium. -ere — recognize extimesco. -e — very easy crudelitas. Nihil hōc admirabilius: puer in officinā crudelitatis deprehensus victorem non extimuit. What did the Privernate leader say that won over the senators? Priverno . The young Cato is commended for his utter lack of fear as though fearlessness in adolescence were a matter of principle. -are — affirm adduco. celerius aliquid de suā fugā quam de Sullae nece cogitasset. equestris ordo — equestrian facultas. Ancipiti igitur casū salus eorum fluctuabatur. which had unsuccessfully re- belled against Rome. legiones. This anecdote recounts the judgment on the Latin town Privernum. The Roman senate had to determine the proper punishment for the Priver- nates. Can you think of other reasons why a thirteen-year-old might seem to lack fear? 3. 276 Annotated Readings animum Catonis agnōvit et propositum exhorruit. equestris ordinis maiorem partem trucidantem. cum maximē consules. -i — attendant exhorresco. -i — vestibule agnosco.

cum quibus. should we believe this account of Siccius’s exploits? 2. -are — incite exasperatus. nisi ea certi auctores monumentis suis testata esse voluissent. “perpetuam. -tatis — freedom animosus. totius civitatis oculos in se numerosā . -a. ut maiorem semper victoriae partem traxisse vidēretur: sex et triginta spolia ex hoste retulisse. Why was it that Siccius was conspicuous in the triumphal processions of his generals? Sed quod ad proeliatorum excellentem fortitudinem attinet. “Si bonam dederitis. How do you suppose the senate communicated its decision in this case to Rome’s other allies? 8. regressum animoso eius dicto obtulit. favens Privernatium causae: use of dative? causae. tergo cicatricibus vacuo: novem imperatorum triumphales currūs secutum esse. Preeminence 277 libertate: use of ablative? respondit. meritō L.” verbis: use of ablative? Verbis arma sumpserat exasperatosque patrum conscriptorum animos inflammaverat. Siccii Dentati commemoratio omnia Romana exempla finierit. Why. quattuordecim cives ex mediā morte raptos servasse. according to the author. -um — spirited indignatio. quinque et quadraginta vulnera pectore excepisse. “Quam merentur qui se dignos libertate iudicant. How many chest wounds did Siccius receive? How many back wounds? 3. -a. How did the consul Plautius set up the Privernate leader for success? 2. -ūs — retreat lasting Reading for Understanding 1. -are — rebel libertas.” inquit. -are — inflame diuturnus. inspectante utroque exercitū. cuius opera honoresque operum ultrā fidem veri excedere iudicari possent. quorum in numero octo fuisse eorum. quaesivitque qualem dicto: use of ablative? habituri essent: use of cum eis Romani pacem habituri essent. -a. sed etiam ius et beneficium nostrae civitatis daretur: use of subjunctive? daretur. Quem centies et vicies in aciem descendisse tradunt. At is subjunctive? impunitate donatā: use of constantissimo vultū. -tatis — impunity indignation inflammo. impunitate donatā. The bravery of certain legionary soldiers was a popular boast among Roman writers. non diuturnam. -um — high incito. eo robore animi atque corporis utentem. D. ex provocatione dimicasset. -nis — exasperated impunitas.” Qua voce perfectum est ut victis si: type of condition? victis: use of dative? non solum venia. rebello. This account commends a simple soldier from the 5th century BCE alleged to be the bravest of them all. Sed Plautius consul. What arguments could you make for punishing the Privernates? For not punishing the Privernates? 3. -cipitis — uncertain regressus. -um — long anceps. Reading for Information 1. ablative? vultū: use of ablative? si malam.

-nis — challenge corona obsidionalis — nedum — let alone. Cassius dispatched his centurion Titinius to find out what? 2. what did Titinius discover? 4. cum et castra hostium invicem capta et Bruti copiae magnā ex parte incolumes essent. Of all of Siccius’s accomplishments. -ris — battle numerosus. ut specularetur quonam in statū res M. -um — octoginta — eighty soldier numerous armilla. When he finally returned to Cassius. murales tres. was stealing your thunder? 3. finire vitam properavit. What did Titinius do in response? Nam C. torques octoginta tres. hastae octodecim. which one do you think carries the greatest honor? Why? 2. would you feel that Siccius. Bruti essent. -a. Reading for Information 1. Titinii verō non . be- tween the forces of the Second Triumvirate and those of Cassius and Brutus. -is — neck chain Reading for Understanding 1. -ere — excel. as a highly decorated soldier. Quem is exceptum esse ab hostibus omniaque in eorum potestatem recidisse existimans. quia tenebrarum obscuritas hostesne an commilitones occurrerent dinoscere non sinebat. If you were a triumphing general. Obviously. -ae — spear vicies — twenty times corona muralis — awarded phalerae. the assassins of Julius Caesar. nedum militi satis multa. The story illustrates how a simple mistake can affect all of history. ornamenta etiam legioni. civicae quattuordecim. obsidionalis una. throughout his long career. The dramatic scene that this passage depicts took place in 42 BCE at the Battle of Philippi. dum crebros excessūs viae petit. Siccius was never promoted so high as to excuse him from battle duty. 278 Annotated Readings donorum pompā convertentem: praeferebantur enim aureae coronae octo. -cis — scar torquis. -arum — triginta — thirty for storming a wall breastplates provocatio. Does that seem unfair to you. What took Titinius so long on his mission? 3. Cassium error a semet ipso poenas exigere coegit: inter illum enim pugnae quattuor exercituum apud Philippos varium ipsisque ducibus ignotum eventum missus ab eo Titinius centurio nocturno tempore. armillae centum sextaginta. surpass corona civica — awarded for sextaginta — sixty centies — one hundred times saving a citizen’s life hasta. not to quadraginta — forty awarded for raising a siege mention cicatrix. phalerae quinque et viginti. or just smart personnel management? 9. proeliator. tardius ad Cassium rediit. -ae — armband excedo.

-i — handle obscuritas. -ēre — mix commilito. deinde profusus in lacrimas. -are — obliterate iugulum. he doubtless would have attempted to place the Roman republic back on a more steady footing. -tatis — darkness unexpected permisceo.” superque exanime corpus eius iugulo suo gladium capulo tenus demisit ac permixto utriusque sanguine duplex victima iacuit. -a. many also-rans of history? . -ari — observe inopinatus. -um — capulus. Did Titinius’s final act diminish Cassius’s mistake or place it in higher relief? 3. “Etsi imprudens. Cassius was a noble and principled person. and if history had turned out differently. qui oculis paulisper haesit inopinato iacentis ducis spectaculo attonitus. -um — together soldier unpunished dinosco. -a.” inquit. accipe me fati tui comitem. D. What do you make of all the many. -um — night. causa tibi mortis fui. history remembers him as just one of the assassins of Julius Caesar. erroris illa. Preeminence 279 oblitteranda est silentio virtus. As it happens. -i — throat speculor. nocturnus. “imperator. pietatis haec. Does this passage openly praise Cassius? Criticize him? Does it seem to praise Titinius? Criticize him? 2. -ere — distinguish Reading for Understanding 1. tamen. ne id ipsum impunitum sit. oblittero. -a. -nis — fellow impunitus.

280 Annotated Readings

E. Women

Prose Readings

These three anecdotes about the loyalty of wives to their husbands illustrate how women will place
their own lives and dignity in jeopardy out of spousal affection.
Reading for Information
1. What did Tertia Aemilia do for her slave girl after her husband passed away?
2. How did Turia keep her husband safe after the Second Triumvirate proscribed him?
3. How did Sulpicia disguise herself to be reunited with her husband?

ut: 16.III.1 Atque ut uxoriam fidem attingamus, Tertia Aemilia, Africani prioris
comitatis et
patientiae: 3.II.3 uxor, mater Corneliae Gracchorum, tantae fuit comitatis et patientiae,
ut: 16.II
cum: 16.I.3.a ut, cum sciret viro suo ancillulam ex suis gratam esse, dissimulaverit, ne
ancillulam: 3.IV.4
esse: 12.I.3.d femina domitorem orbis Africanum magnum virum impatientiae reum
ne: 16.III.1
impatientiae: 3.II.6 ageret, tantumque a vindictā mens eius afuit, ut post mortem Africani
ut: 16.II
manumissam ancillam in matrimonium liberto suo daret. Q. Lucretium,
a: 3.V.2 proscriptum a Triumviris, uxor Turia inter cameram et tectum cubiculi
ancillulā: 3.V.16 abditum, unā consciā ancillulā, ab imminente exitio non sine magno
fide: 3.V.7 periculo suo tutum praestitit, singularique fide id egit, ut, cum ceteri
ut: 16.II
cum: 16.I.2 proscripti in alienis et hostilibus regionibus per summos corporis et
animi cruciatūs vix evaderent, ille in cubiculo et in coniugis sinū salutem
cum: 16.I.2 retinēret. Sulpicia autem, cum a matre Iuliā diligentissimē custodiretur,
ne: 16.III.1 ne Lentulum Cruscellionem, virum suum proscriptum a Triumviris, in
Siciliam persequeretur, nihilo minus, famulari veste sumptā, cum duabus
ancillis totidemque servis ad eum clandestinā fugā pervēnit, nec recusavit
proscribere: 12.I.3.d
ut: 16.III.1 se ipsam proscribere, ut ei fides sua in coniuge proscripto constaret.

uxorius, -a, -um — wifely libertus, -i — freedman evado, -ere — escape
comitas, -tatis — kindness camera, -ae — room persequor, -i — follow
ancillula, -ae — slave girl cubiculum, -i — bedroom famularis, -e — slave-
dissimulo, -are — pretend abditus, -a, -um — hidden totidem — the same number
otherwise conscius, -a, -um — aware of
domitor, -ris — conqueror immineo, -ēre — loom clandestinus, -a, -um —
impatientia, -ae — being out exitium, -i — death secretive
of control singularis, -e — unique recuso, -are — refuse
vindicta, -ae — vengeance hostilis, -e — enemy- consto, -are — be established
manumitto, -ere — set free cruciatus, -ūs — torment

E. Women 281

Reading for Understanding
1. The husbands in these stories had achieved degrees of public prominence. How did their
wives achieve their degree of celebrity?
2. In what ways does the first anecdote differ from the other two? Are those differences more
conspicuous to us than they would have been to the author’s ancient readers?
3. The loyalty of the wives is presented as exemplary, but is it presented as typical or atypical?

This story celebrates a certain Sulpicia (late 3rd century BCE), who won a state-run competition
to find the most chaste woman in Rome.
Reading for Information
1. Why was the statue of Venus Verticordia (Heart-Changer) consecrated?
2. How were the competitors eliminated in this contest?
3. What mention is made of the women who participated in this contest? What mention is
made of the reaction of Sulpicia, the winner?

commemorationi: Meritō virorum commemorationi Sulpicia Servii Paterculi filia, Q. Fulvii
quae: 7.V.2 Flacci uxor, adicitur. Quae, cum senatus libris Sibyllinis per Decemviros
cum: 16.I.1
libris . . . inspectis: inspectis censuisset ut Veneris Verticordiae simulacrum consecraretur,
ut: 16.IV quō facilius virginum mulierumque mens a libidine ad pudicitiam
quō: 16.III.2.c
converteretur, et ex omnibus matronis centum, ex centum autem decem
sorte: 3.V.1 sorte ductae de sanctissimā feminā iudicium facerent, cunctis castitate
cunctis: 3.III.7
castitate: 3.V.10 praelata est.

commemoratio, -nis — censeo, -ēre — vote castitas, -tatis — chastity
commemoration simulacrum, -i — statue praelata est < praefero
Decemviri — a college of consecro, -are — consecrate

Reading for Understanding
1. What parties sponsored this contest?
2. How was this contest different from or similar to a modern beauty pageant?
3. Although the narrative doesn’t specify how the contest was judged, do you suppose women
had much of a say in its outcome?
4. How do you think Romans defined castitas (penultimate line) for a woman?

282 Annotated Readings

This interesting story, dating back perhaps to the 5th century BCE, impugns a mother for the will
she left behind at death, while commending her daughter for making no legal challenge.
Reading for Information
1. Aebutia’s will left money to which heirs?
2. Why didn’t her daughter Afronia challenge the will?
3. What effect did her refusal to challenge have on Afronia?

tabulae: 3.I.1 Aebutiae autem, quae L. Meneni Agrippae uxor fuerat, tabulae testamenti
furoris: 3.II.6 erant plenae furoris: nam cum habēret duas simillimae probitatis filias,
cum: 16.I.2
probitatis: 3.II.3 Pletoniam et Afroniam, animi sui potius inclinatione provecta quam
inclinatione: 3.V.7
iniuriis aut officiis: ullis alteriusutrius iniuriis aut officiis commota, Pletoniam tantummodo
filiis: 3.III.1 heredem instituit: filiis etiam Afroniae ex admodum amplo patrimonio
Afroniae: 3.II.1
nummum: 3.II.8; viginti milia nummum legavit. Afronia tamen cum sorore sacramento
sacramento: 3.V.10 contendere noluit, testamentumque matris patientiā honorare quam
iudicio: 3.V.7 iudicio convellere satius esse duxit; eō se ipsa indigniorem iniuriā
iniuriā: 3.V.16
animo: 3.V.3 ostendens quo eam aequiore animo sustinebat.

tabula, -ae — codicil commotus, -a, -um — nummus, -i — sesterce
probitas, -tatis — integrity disturbed sacramentum, -i — lawsuit
inclinatio, -nis — inclination tantummodo — only honoro, -are — honor
proveho, -ere — carry away admodum — no less than satius — better
alteruter — either one (of two) patrimonium, -i — inheritance

Reading for understanding
1. How do you suppose their mother’s will affected the relationship between Afronia and her
sister? Why doesn’t the author explore this narrative angle?
2. This account seems to imply that Aebutia was insane, but what supporting evidence does
it provide? Is it necessary to accept the author’s word that Afronia’s disinheritance was
3. If Aebutia had disinherited a son and he had refused to challenge the will, would such a
refusal have been portrayed as praiseworthy?

In this story, about a woman prisoner and her survival, a variety of men who control her fate
change their views, if not their prejudices.
Reading for Information
1. By what form of execution is the woman condemned to die?
2. How does her daughter manage to keep her alive?
3. What change in the woman’s punishment does the action of her daughter produce?

E. Women 283

sanguinis: 3.II.3 Sanguinis ingenui mulierem praetor apud tribunal suum capitali crimine
crimine: 3.V.10
triumviro: 3.III.1 damnatam triumviro in carcere necandam tradidit. Quo receptam is,
necandam: 17.III
custodiae: 3.III.7 qui custodiae praeerat, misericordiā motus, non protinus strangulavit:
ne: 16.III.1
quid: 7.VI.1.a aditum quoque ad eam filiae, sed diligenter excussae, ne quid cibi
cibi: 3.II.2
ut: 16.II inferret, dedit, existimans futurum esse ut inediā consumeretur. Cum
inediā: 3.V.7
cum: 16.I.3.a autem plures iam dies intercederent, secum ipse quaerens quidnam
secum: 8.II.1.a
esset: 16.V esset quo tam diu sustentaretur, curiosius observatā filiā animadvertit
sustentaretur: 16.XII
exserto ubere: 13.III.1 illam, exserto ubere, famem matris lactis sui subsidio lenientem. Quae
famem: 3.IV.1.a
subsidio: 3.V.1 tam admirabilis spectaculi novitas ab ipso ad triumvirum, a triumviro ad
quae: 7.V.2
iudicum: 3.II.1 praetorem, a praetore ad consilium iudicum perlata, remissionem poenae
poenae: 3.II.6
mulieri: 3.III.3 mulieri impetravit. Quō non penetrat aut quid non excogitat Pietas, quae
servandae: 17.III
matrem: 3.IV.4 in carcere servandae genetricis novam rationem invēnit? Quid enim tam
uberibus: 3.V.1
alitam esse: 12.I.3.d inusitatum, quid tam inauditum quam matrem uberibus natae alitam
(as if introduced by
inauditum) esse? Putarit aliquis hoc contrā rerum naturam factum esse, nisi diligere
putarit: 20.I.3
factum esse: 12.I.3.d parentes prima naturae lex esset.
nisi: 18.I.4
parentes: 3.IV.1

ingenuus, -a, -um — noble protinus — at once subsidium, -i — assistance
praetor, -ris — judicial official strangulo, -are — execute lenio, -ire — ease
tribunal, -lis — praetor’s aditus, -ūs — approach spectaculum, -i — spectacle
court excutio, -ere — frisk, pat novitas, -tatis — novelty
capitalis, -e — capital down perlata < perfero
damno, -are — condemn inedia, -ae — starvation remissio, -nis — reprieve
triumvir, -i — penal official intercedo, -ere — pass excogito, -are — contrive
carcer, -eris — prison sustento, -are — sustain inusitatus, -a, -um — unusual
custodia, -ae — guard curiosē — attentively inauditus, -a, -um — unheard
praesum, -esse — be in observo, -are — observe of
charge of exserto, -ere — take out alitam esse < alo
misericordia, -ae — sympathy uber, -ris — breast

Reading for Understanding
1. Why isn’t the woman executed outright?
2. Why should the filial piety (and ingenuity) of her daughter be grounds for the mother’s legal
3. The author’s reference to the lex naturae argues that an inversion isn’t always a perversion.
Do you agree with the author’s praise for this story’s outcome?

The daughter of one of Rome’s most famous orators speaks out against a measure of the Second
Triumvirate targeting only women (1st century BCE).

284 Annotated Readings

Reading for Information
1. Why did Hortensia agree to speak on behalf of Roman matrons?
2. Why was her appeal successful?
3. Why was her speech in a sense a reproach of her male relations?

cum: 16.I.1 Hortensia verō, Q. Hortensii filia, cum ordo matronarum gravi tributo
tributo: 3.V.7
virorum: 3.II.2 a Triumviris esset oneratus nec quisquam virorum patrocinium eis
eis: 3.III.3
accommodare audēret, causam feminarum apud Triumviros et constanter
ut: 16.III.1 et feliciter egit: repraesentatā enim patris facundiā, impetravit ut maior
pecuniae: 3.II.2 pars imperatae pecuniae his remitteretur. Revixit tum muliebri stirpe Q.
his: 3.III.1
stirpe: 3.V.7 Hortensius verbisque filiae aspiravit; cuius si virilis sexūs posteri viam
verbis: 3.III.7
si: 18.I.3 sequi voluissent, Hortensianae eloquentiae tanta hereditas unā actione
feminae abscissa non esset.

tributum, -i — tax revivo, -ere — live again hereditas, -tatis —
onero, -are — encumber stirps, -pis — offspring inheritance
patricinium, -i — advocacy aspiro, -are — favor actio, -nis — declamation
accommodo, -are — provide virilis, -e — masculine abscindo, -ere — break off
repraesento, -are — reflect sexus, -ūs — gender
facundia, -ae — eloquence posteri, -orum — posterity

Reading for understanding
1. Is there anything in this account that suggests eloquence is an inheritable trait?
2. Why would the Triumvirs, in a period of civil war, want to tax Roman matrons?
3. Why, in a period of civil war, would Roman matrons want to protect their assets?

This incident from 246 BCE, during the First Punic War, involves both class conflict (the Appii
Claudii were patricians) and the censorship of women’s speech.
Reading for Information
1. What was Appia doing out in public? What happened to her there?
2. How had Appia’s brother recently died? Did he die alone?
3. What was the consequence of her careless speech?

vindicatum est: Non in facta modo, sed in voces etiam petulantiores publicē vindicatum
est; ita enim debēre esse visa est Romanae disciplinae dignitas inviolabilis.
Appia namque illius Caeci filia, a ludis, quos spectaverat, exiens, turbā
cum: 16.I.3.a undique confluentis fluctuantisque populi iactata est. Atque inde
habitam esse:
12.I.3.d egressa, cum se male habitam esse diceret: “Quid me nunc factum esset,”
me: 3.V.10
quanto: 3.V.9 inquit, “quantoque artius pressiusque conflictata essem, si P. Claudius,
si: 18.I.3

E. Women 285

proelio: 3.V.7 frater meus, navali proelio classem navium cum ingenti civium numero
cum: 3.V.4
non perdidisset? Certē quidem maiore nunc copiā populi oppressa
utinam: 15.IV intercidissem. Sed utinam,” inquit, “reviviscat frater aliamque classem in
perditum: 17.I.1 Siciliam ducat atque istam multitudinem perditum eat, quae me nunc male
miseram convexavit!” Ob haec mulieris verba tam improba ac tam incivilia
C. Fundanius et Tiberius Sempronius, aediles plebei, multam dixerunt ei
factum esse:
12.I.3.d aeris gravis viginti quinque milia. Id factum esse dicit Capito Ateius bello
Fabio . . .
consulibus: 13.VI Poenico primo, Fabio Licino Otacilio Crasso consulibus.

petulans, -tis — impudent pressē — closely classis, -is — fleet
dignitas, -tatis — dignity conflictor, -ari — struggle multitudo, -dinis — mob
inviolabilis, -e — inviolable navalis, -e — naval convexo, -are — disturb
undique — on all sides copia, -ae — multitude incivilis, -e — uncivil
confluo, -ere — flow together opprimo, -ere — beleaguer aedilis plebei — city
fluctuo, -are — swell intercido, -ere — perish commissioners
iacto, -are — jostle revivisco, -ere — come to life multa, -ae — fine
artē — tightly again aes gravis — solid copper

Reading for Understanding
1. As you read them, do the words of Appia, as extensively quoted here, resemble the offhand
remarks of one exiting a theater?
2. The author suggests that annoyance and discomfort motivated Appia’s speech. Can
you imagine her speaking out in an attempt—tactless and insensitive, to be sure—at
3. In Roman naval warfare, almost all casualties were plebeians, few were patricians, and none
was a woman. Does this have any bearing on the outrage against Appia?
4. Do you think Appia should have been punished for her speech act?

This passage examines the practices of divorce and concubinage. The first recorded divorce in
Rome—an interesting case—didn’t take place until 231 BCE. On the other hand, Roman men
kept concubines from an early date.
Reading for Information
1. Why, early on, was there no need for prenups?
2. Why did Carvilius divorce his wife? Was something wrong with her? Did he want to divorce
3. What oath did censors require husbands to take?
4. King Numa Pompilius prescribed what penalty for a concubine who touched the temple of
Juno, the temple of legitimate marriage?

286 Annotated Readings

memoriae: 3.V.1 Memoriae traditum est quingentis ferē annis post Romam conditam
annis: 4.II.2
actions neque nullas rei uxoriae neque actiones neque cautiones in urbe Romā aut in
cautiones: 3.IV.3
nihil: 3.IV.7 Latio fuisse, quoniam profectō nihil desiderabantur, nullis etiamtunc
divertentibus: matrimoniis divertentibus. Servius quoque Sulpicius in libro, quem
cum: 16.I.4 composuit De Dotibus, tum primum cautiones rei uxoriae necessarias esse
quia: 16.XIII.3.b
vitio: 3.V.7 visas scripsit, cum Spurius Carvilius, vir nobilis, divortium cum uxore
M. . . . consulibus:
13.VI fecit, quia liberi ex eā corporis vitio non gignerentur, anno urbis conditae
dilexisse, habuisse,
praevertisse: quingentesimo vicesimo tertio M. Atilio P. Valerio consulibus. Atque is
gratiā: 8.III Carvilius traditur uxorem, quam dimisit, egregiē dilexisse carissimamque
animo atque amori:
3.III.7 morum eius gratiā habuisse, sed iuris iurandi religionem animo atque amori
a: 3.V.2
uxorem: 3.IV.1 praevertisse, quod iurare a censoribus coactus erat, uxorem se liberorum
se: 3.IV.4
quaerundorum: 17.V quaerundorum gratiā habiturum esse. “Paelicem” autem appellatam esse
habiturum esse:
12.I.3.d probrosamque habitam esse, quae iuncta consuetaque esset cum eo, in cuius
iuncta . . . esset: 16.XI
causā: 8.III manū mancipioque alia femina matrimonii causā foret, hac antiquissimā
foret: 16.XI; 10.III.7.a
ne: 19.III.1 lege ostenditur, quam Numae regis fuisse accepimus: “Paelex aedem
tangito: 19.II
Iunoni: 3.III.3 Iunonis ne tangito; si tangit, Iunoni crinibus demissis agnum feminam
crinibus demissis:
13.III.1 caedito.”
caedito: 19.II

quingenti, -ae, -a — five diverto, -ere — go astray probosus, -a, -um —
hundred divortium, -i — divorce ignominious
ferē — nearly gigno, -ere — produce mancipium, -i — ownership
res uxoria — property be- ius, iurandum — oath Numa — Rome’s second king
longing to a wife praeverto, -ere — take prece- crinis, -is — hair
actio, -nis — law case dence over demitto, -ere — unbind,
cautio, -nis — bond censor, -ris — high magistrate lower
profectō — actually liberi, -orum — children agnus, -i — lamb
etiamtunc — even then paelex, -icis — concubine

Reading for Understanding
1. From a legal standpoint, infertility represented unimpeachable grounds for divorce and
was attributed solely to the wife. Furthermore, the marriage oath that the censors re-
quired essentially made childbearing the only social and legal purpose of marriage. What
emotional and sexual outlets were available to Roman women who didn’t want to have
2. Socially and legally, it was difficult for Roman women of citizen status to become concubines.
What emotional and sexual outlets were available to those who didn’t want to marry?
3. Dowries and prenuptial contracts imposed considerable financial burdens on the fathers and
husbands of Roman women. What reliable options would have been available to women
who were determined either to divorce or never to marry?

E. Women 287

This anecdote about Cornelia, the mother of the famous Gracchi brothers (2nd century BCE),
serves to introduce a discussion about wealth and noble poverty.
Reading for Information
1. What proud possession did the Campanian hostess show Cornelia?
2. What problems does the author see with material possessions?
3. What are the advantages of poverty?

esse: 12.I.3.d Maxima ornamenta esse matronis liberos sı̄c invēnimus: Cornelia
matronis: 3.III.3
cum: 16.I.3.a Gracchorum mater, cum Campana matrona apud illam hospita ornamenta
donec: sua, pulcherrima illius saeculi, ostenderet, traxit eam sermone, donec
e scholā redirent liberi, et “Haec,” inquit, “ornamenta sunt mea.” Omnia
nimirum habet qui nihil concupiscit, eō quidem certius quam qui cuncta
possidet, quia dominium rerum collābi solet, bonae mentis usurpatio
nullum tristioris Fortunae recipit incursum. Itaque quorsum attinet aut
divitias in primā felicitatis parte aut paupertatem in ultimo miseriarum
cum: 16.I.1
amaritudinibus: statū ponere, cum et illarum frons hilaris multis intus amaritudinibus sit
bonis: 3.V.10 referta et huius horridior aspectus solidis et certis bonis abundet? Quod
quod: 7.V.2
personis, verbis: melius personis quam verbis repraesentabitur.

hospitus, -a, -um — strange usurpatio, -nis — adoption intus — within
saeculum, -i — age incursus, -ūs — assault amaritudo, -dinis — bitter
schola, -ae — school quorsum — for what? to what feeling
nimirum — surely end? refertus, -a, -um — crammed
concupisco, -ere — desire divitiae, -arum — riches horridus, -a, -um — grim
possideo, -ēre — possess paupertas, -tatis — poverty abundo, -are — abound
dominium, -i — domination hilaris, -e — happy repraesento, -are — reflect
collābor, -i — pass away

Reading for Understanding
1. Although Roman literature often portrays women as greedy and acquisitive, Roman history
more often shows men exhibiting these traits. How would you account for this disconnect?
2. Why is the goddess Fortuna called tristior?
3. Is there any significance in the fact that Romans considered Fortuna, wealth, and women
equally fickle and unstable?

The Oppian Law (215 BCE), a fairly severe antisumptuary law, was passed at the height of the
war against Hannibal, when all of Rome’s resources were needed for the war effort. About a de-

288 Annotated Readings

cade after Rome had defeated Hannibal and public and private wealth had been restored, Roman
women (and some Roman men) pressed for the repeal of this law, which they argued was no longer
Reading for Information
1. According to this account, Roman women held what opinion of the Oppian Law?
2. Did Roman men initially grasp the strength of the women’s position?
3. Why is the author of this narrative reluctant to pursue the issue in greater detail?

urbi: 3.III.1 Urbi autem nostrae secundi Punici belli finis et Philippus, Macedoniae rex
devictus, licentioris vitae fiduciam dedit. Quo tempore matronae Brutorum
abrogationi: 3.III.7 domum ausae sunt obsidēre, qui abrogationi Legis Oppiae intercedere
veste: 3.V.13 parati erant; quam feminae tolli cupiebant, quia his nec veste varii coloris
auri: 3.II.2 uti nec auri plus semunciam habēre nec iuncto vehiculo propius urbem
vehiculo: 3.V.1
passūs: 3.IV.3 mille passūs nisi sacrificii gratiā vehi permittebat. Et quidem obtinuerunt
gratiā: 8.III
ut: 16.II ut ius per continuos viginti annos servatum abolēretur: non enim
tenderet, esset: provı̄derunt saeculi illius viri ad quem cumulum tenderet insoliti cultūs
studium, audacia: pertinax studium aut quō se usque effusura esset, legum victrix, audacia.
si: 18.I.3 Quod si animi apparatūs muliebres intuēri potuissent, quibus cotidiē
novitatis: 3.II.2
sumptuosius: 6.I.2 aliquid novitatis sumptuosius adiectum est, in ipso introitū ruenti luxuriae
luxuriae: 3.III.7
loquar: 15.III obstitissent. Sed quid ego de feminis ulterius loquar, quas et imbecillitas
quas: 3.IV.4
studium: 3.IV.1 mentis et graviorum operum negata adfectatio omne studium ad
sui: 7.III curiosiorem sui cultum hortatur conferre?

devinco, -ere — defeat sacrificium, -i — sacrifice intueor, -ēri — keep watch
licens, -ntis — unrestrained obtineo, -ēre — assert over
fiducia, -ae — confidence aboleo, -ēre — abolish novitas, -tatis — novelty
obsideo, -ēre — besiege provideo, -ēre — foresee sumptuosē — lavishly
abrogatio, -nis — repeal cumulus, -i — accumulation introitus, -ūs — advent
intercedo, -ere — intervene insolitus, -a, -um — luxuria, -ae — luxury
semuncia, -ae — half an unaccustomed obsto, -are — block
ounce victrix, -tricis — imbecillitas, -tatis —
vehiculum, -i — vehicle conqueror weakness
mille passūs = a mile apparatus, -ūs — accessory curiosus, -a, -um — attentive

Reading for Understanding
1. What made the Oppian Law divisive between men and women?
2. Why, on its appearance, were men slow to recognize women’s objections to this law?
3. Although the women finally succeeded in getting the law repealed, the author fails to credit
them with a political success and instead suggests that their cupidity prevailed. If the author’s
reaction was typical, how do you suppose the women viewed their success?

quem inscripsit De Dotibus: fieri: 12. who benefited from betrothal agreements? .II. Iudices esset: 16.I. eum. quo civitas universo Latio lege Iuliā data est. qui stipulabatur aut qui spoponderat. -ūs — down pay- contractus. the Latins had to comply with the Roman laws on betrothal. observatum esse: qui stipulatus erat.d solita esse fieri scripsit Servius Sulpicius in libro. litem pecuniā aestimabat. -nis — stipulation quamobrem — why stipulor. security deposit Reading for Understanding 1.d Latio: 3. itidem spondebat.I. hōc more atque iure solita esse: 12. From what you can tell. The procedures are specifically described from a technical and legal perspective. After such an agreement. which stated that a breach of a betrothal agreement had to go to court only if a party felt legally aggrieved. condemnabat.V cognoscebant. causae: 3.I. quantique quanti: 3.III.II. -are — convict itidem — likewise sponsus.I.3. quae Latium appellatur.2 Si nihil iustae causae videbatur.” Hoc ius sponsaliorum observatum 12. ‘sponsus. -are — observe spondeo. After 90 BCE. -ae — fiancée condemno. “ducturus erat. Women 289 10. Is contractus stipulationum sponsionumque dicebatur ‘sponsalia.IV datum iri: 12. qui spoponderat. Reading for Information 1. This narrative outlines the Latin practice of betrothal followed until 90 BCE. Iudex quamobrem data acceptave non esset uxor quaerebat.b ducturus erat: 17.1 esse. assess stipulate sponsa.3. ex sponsū agebat. Does the creation of such legal specifics suggest that the breach of betrothal agreements was a rare or a common occurrence? What does the preservation of the specifics here suggest? 2. E.VI “Qui uxorem.1 esse dicit Servius ad id tempus. -ūs — contract ment. ducturum esse: quae promissa erat.’ Sed si post eas stipulationes uxor non dabatur aut non ducebatur. qui ducturus erat. ab eo. qui spoponderat se ducturum 17. aut ei.” inquit. What were the contents of the contract that constituted the betrothal agreement? 2. -i — fiancé observo. What kinds of consequences were there for an unfulfilled betrothal agreement? Sponsalia in eā parte Italiae.’ Tunc. sponsio.VI si: 18. what happened if the marriage didn’t take place? 3.3. -ēre — pledge sponsus. sponsalia.7 interfuerat eam uxorem accipi aut dari. unde ducenda erat. -ari — bargain. Do you think this Roman legal dispensation made it easier for parties to enter into and re- nege on betrothal agreements? 4. -ium — betrothal stipulatio. -nis — pledge aestimo. ‘sponsa’ appellabatur.I eam in matrimonium datum iri. -are — judge. stipulabatur ducenda erat: 17. Does the fact that all legal consequences for unfulfilled betrothal agreements were monetary simply make marriageable women a commodity? 3.

Viriplaca (Husband-Appeaser). Why were Roman women denied wine in the olden days? . qui depositae virginitatis cubile nesciret: 16. ceno. continēri was clearly written in sarcasm. disciplinam: 3. in highly moralistic tones. -ae — chair uncorrupted self-restraint Reading for Understanding 1. The remark videlicet .IV. The logic concerning women who marry only once and women who have married multiple times is not applied to men in this passage. Quod genus severitatis diligentius: 6. two topics concerning the practices of women: how they eat at the dinner table and whether they should remarry.V. -ae — experience epulo. -are — honor experientia.4 signum: 3. This passage discusses women’s abstinence from wine. -dinis — custom videlicet — evidently egredior. -are — dine conservo.XI egredi nesciret.4 Feminae cum viris cubantibus sedentes cenabant. What is the criticism leveled here against women who have married multiple times? cum: 3. In the Capitoline temple. . How has the custom of men and women dining together changed up to the author’s time? 2. -i — exit convĪctus. how are Jupiter. Quae consuetudo ex quae: 7. Quae feminae uno contentae matrimonio fuerant coronā pudicitiae honorabantur: existimabant enim eum praecipuē matronae sincerā fide incorruptum esse animum. Reading for Information 1.IV. -ae — lack of sella. -nis — party friend incorruptus. -are — preserve virginitas.V. Iuno et Minerva in sellas ad cenam invitabantur. -tatis — virginity consuetudo. -a. 290 Annotated Readings 11.2 hominum convı̄ctū ad divina penetravit: nam Iovis epulo ipse in lectulum.IV.4 videlicet quia magis ad rem pertinet dearum quam mulierum disciplinam continēri. -ūs — banquet honoro. Why not? 12. .4.a cuiusdam intemperantiae signum esse credentes. multorum matrimoniorum experientiam quasi legitimae experientiam: 3. a form of humor the Romans didn’t often employ. What emotion(s) would produce such a response to the subject? 2. Why is women’s posture at the dinner table portrayed as a moral issue? 3. Juno. Reading for Information 1. along with their sexual fidelity and their special goddess. -um — intemperantia. and Minerva represented as they dine? 3. This passage takes up.II aetas nostra diligentius in Capitolio quam in suis domibus conservat.

why would Roman husbands deny their wives wine? 3. -nis — name Reading for Understanding 1.V. If the author invented her. . indulgentibus namque maritis et auro abundanti et multā purpurā usae maritis: 13.2 auro.V. -a. .III. -a.1 placandis: 17. -i — shrine appellatio.2 honorem. -um — placo. depositā. What evidence to the contrary do you see in this passage? 2.3 veniebant.1 prolāberentur. praised highly here.2. -um — iurgium. -i — follow intemperantia. 3. -are — redden exquisitus. veneranda quidem et nescio an praecipuis et exquisitis veneranda.1 mutuo pudore custodiebatur.V. -i — fall concinnus. Dea nomen hoc a placandis viris fertur depositā: 13.III. -um — unknown tempero. -are — abound contentio. .V. -i — quarrel utpote — as being unallowed intercedo. quod est in Palatio. sed honesto comitatis genere temperata esset— indulgentibus .III. -ae — purple concors. in sacellum deae Viriplacae. what was his purpose? . -a. ignotus. .3 cinere: 3.III. in pari iugo sacrificiis: 3.1 inconcessam Venerem esse consuevit. purpurā: sunt—quō formam suam concinniorem efficerent. If there is a direct correlation between alcohol consumption and sexual activity. sed pariter et vidēre sanctē et aspici diligentiā: 3. summā cum diligentiā 3.3 caritatis ipsā sui appellatione virorum maiestati debitum a feminis reddens a: 3.V. where did they go to be reconciled? feminis: 3.a pudore: 3. -are — temper invicem — one after the other scilicet — obviously abundo. -ris — ambusher expensive inconcessus.13 quō: 16. ne scilicet in aliquod dedecus ne: 16.6.V.III. Women 291 2. matrimoniorum oculi metuebantur.3 matrimoniorum: aliquid iurgii intercesserat. -um — ceterum — besides between everyday comitas. -ae — lack of rutilo.III sacrificiis colenda utpote cotidianae ac domesticae pacis custos. Quotiens verō inter virum et uxorem rutilarunt: 20. concordes revertebantur. .c capillos cinere rutilarunt: nulli enim tunc subsessorum alienorum concinniorem: 6. The goddess Viriplaca. et ibi invicem locuti quae voluerant. quia proximus a Libero patre intemperantiae gradus ad ut: 16. Ceterum ut non tristis earum et horrida pudicitia. . -tatis — kindness sacellum. -are — placate Liber. -coris — disgrace purpura.III adsecuta esse. contentione animorum iurgii: 3.2 contentione . -eri = Bacchus pleasing adsequor.1 maiestati: 3. -nis — contention dedecus. How did Roman wives in those days try to make themselves more attractive to their husbands? 3. -rdis — reconciled prolābor.II. E. colenda: 17. -a.III. The author refers to the marital iugum caritatis as par.I summā .III. -a.I. -ere — come cotidianus. is attested nowhere else in all of Roman literature and artifacts.2 Vini usus olim Romanis feminis ignotus fuit. When husbands and wives quarreled. -um — self-restraint subsessor.II.

7 libris: 3.1 bibissent: 16. in qua id maritis: 3. in adulterio uxores deprehensas ius fuisse maritis mulieri: 3. he further asserts the legal right of a husband to kill an adulterous wife. bibere: 12. in Latio aetatem abstemias egisse. -i — disgrace apprehend cognatus. -ūs — drinking taetrē — shamefully . libris pervulgata sunt. passum. -are — abstemius.II si: 18.2. habet. digito non audeat contingere. 292 Annotated Readings 13. -ae — refined wine divortium.VI. si vinum bibit. According to M.I.IV. institutumque esse ut cognatis osculum ferrent deprehendendi ut: 16. si quid perversē taetrēque factum si: 18. -i — raisin wine censor.a a: 3. -are — commit murrina.a fecit.I. condemnatur. -ere — abstineo. quam si probrum et adulterium admisissent: 18.1 mulieres refert non minus.2 quid: 7. Here another author connects women’s wine drinking and sexual infidelity.1 Marcus Cato non solum existimatas.3 cum: 16.3.3 uxores: 3. -ris — high magistrate adultero. Verba Marci Catonis adscripsi ex oratione quadam.b.I. ut odor indicium faceret.3.IV.b adulterere: 20.V. -a.1 admisissent.1 te. he assumes the responsibilities of what Roman magistrate? Romae: 4.4 quoque scriptum est. multatur.3 causā.1 est a muliere. -ere — be guilty of impune — without lorea.b solitas esse: Atque haec quidem in his.I.2. Why were women expected to kiss their relatives? 2. “cum divortium fecit. quod videtur. illa si: 18. -um — set = sed condemn abstinent multo.V.I.d genus: 3.I.” De iure autem occidendi ita scriptum est: “In occidendi: 17. hoc est. -ēre — abstain probrum.III. si adulteres sive tu adulterere. de quibus dixi. eas vino semper abstinuisse institutum esse: 12.V. the legal consequence of a woman’s wine drinking was the same as that for what other infraction? 4. Reading for Information 1.I. si bibissent.1 si: 18. How did women try to disguise their drinking? 3. mulieres Romae atque eas: 3.3 Qui de vı̄ctū atque cultū populi Romani scripserunt.I.V.IV.1.VI.I. -ae — spiced wine perversē — wickedly adultery pōtus.” vĪctus.4 abstinuisse. -i — divorce punishment passum.III. set et multatas esse quōque a iudice pōtū: 3.1 ius est. si probri quid cum alieno viro probri: 3. neque digito: 3.d dicunt. et imperium.1 necare: “Vir. M. sine iudicio impune neces. -i — relative admitto. -are — fine prehendo. -ūs — way of life pervulgo. si vinum in se.XI ferunt loream. Cato asserts that when a man is divorcing his wife.II. In a nasty juxtaposi- tion.III. -are — publish condemno.” inquit.I.1. Bibere autem solitas esse ut: 16. mulieri iudex pro censore quid: 7.i adulterio uxorem tuam si prehenderı̄s. murrinam et quae id genus sapiant pōtū dulcia.I.3.I.3 si: 18. sed 12. Cato.2 est.III.IV cognatis: 3.

-ntis — violent prosterno. circumcidendum vinum ubi: 16.3 Ex vulvā quoque feminis vehemens malum nascitur proximēque ab stomacho vel adficitur haec vel corpus adficit. quod 16. What single abstention is recommended for this condition? 3. -ere — affect spuma. (b) relatives monitored them by smelling their breath. Though the murder of an adulterous wife may have been a justifiable homicide. si satis virium est.3 sopor tantum est.III ut: 16. -ere — tense stomachus. Adiuvatque ruta contrita cum melle. and (c) they avoided detection by drinking other types of wine? 2. -i — belly disto. -ris — loss of adficio. treatments. 17. -ae — frothing consciousness exanimo.IV mollire commodē videtur solanum in lac demissum. Ut mulierem excitet 17. What now outdated treatments are found here? feminis: 3.b morbo: 3. etiamsi casus ı̄dem non revertitur. “Wandering uterus” is compared to what other affliction? 2. This passage.V. aut sebum taurinum vel caprinum cum rosā mixtum.2 est. ut tamquam: ut tamquam comitiali morbo prosternat. E. excerpted from a Roman medical writer. vulva.V. Ubi incidit.7 neque oculi vertuntur nec spumae profluunt nec nervi distenduntur: eo: 3.2. sanguis missus adiuvat.” the condition some- times referred to as the wandering uterus. Idque quibusdam feminis crebrō revertens perpetuum virium: 3. -ere — come out incido. deinde contritum. Women 293 Reading for Understanding 1. Interdum etiam sı̄c exanimat.1 aquae frigidae perfusio efficit. Si durities manet.19 feminis: 3.III.” Reading for Information 1.II. and prevention of this “disease. si parum est. -i — muscle vehemens. et cera alba atque medulla cervina cum irino.a circumcidendum: est in totum annum.7 cyprino ceratum. -ae — vagina comitialis morbus — epilepsy nervus. defigendae sunt: cucurbitulae tamen defigendae sunt in inguinibus.2 pube tenus impositum.III. vel quodlibet calidum et umidum cataplasma naturalibus pube: 8. describes “hysteria. -are — grow weak profluo. How do you explain the jurisprudence of a law that permits a husband to kill an adulterous wife but grants an adulterous husband complete impunity? 3.IV tenus: 8.III.XIII. Deinde ubi ad se redit. Distat tamen hic casus eo. do you sup- pose many men actually killed their wives? 14.III. -are — differ sopor. The quality of Roman gynecology is revealed here as the author explains the symptoms. -ere — occur . -are — lay low distendo.XIII.1. vel ex naturalibus: 3.II. How do you explain the author’s claims that (a) ancient Roman women didn’t drink wine.

Cupping is applied to what parts of an affected woman? 4.I. At si purgatio nimia mulieri nocet.III dolores capitis surgere. apponatur: 15. -a.3 vitio: 3. -a. -i — henna oil commodē — suitably goat ceratus.7 sunt cucurbitulae cute incisā inguinibus vel etiam sub mammis si: 18. -um — from an contrita < contero durities.3 emittendus est: 17. -a. incisis inguinibus apponenda est cucurbita idque repetieris: 20.III. -ipis — fat sulpur. Si vero non se sanguis ostenderit. cocleae comburendae conterendaeque sunt: cum testis suis comburendae conterendaeque sunt. with what frequency should cupping be administered? purgetur: 15. 13.b admotae. -ei — hardness ox mel. -are — cleanse ceratus. quō facilius consistat.3 si: 18.3. is ex apponenda est: 17.V. -ium — private deer inguen.1 si: 18.III. -ris — sulfur .1 adiecto. Si vero sanguis.4 eruperit: 18. mellis — honey mollio.III. -ere — attach naturalia.IV adiciendum est. ceratum ex rosā fiet.II per tres vel quattuor menses tricesimo quōque die repetieris: tunc sanasse: 20.I. -are — ulcerate consisto. scias ei ei: 3. -a.I. -ae — small cataplasma. purgetur iunco quadrato. -matis — plaster. Tunc ex bracchio ei sanguis emittendus est et curasti: 20. idque apponatur. qui ex inferiore parte erumpere solet.III. -ae — wax cucurbitula. -ae — vagina exulcero. . -um — warm demitto.V.5 remedio: 3. -um — quartered adeps. 294 Annotated Readings adiuvo. -i — iris ointment perfusio. -a. Si concidere vitio locorum mulier solet.4 scias hoc vitium sanasse. -um — from a pig pulvis.I.III. -um — moist cera.1 inguinibus: 3. In what way is sulfur used in treatment? 3.III. -is — pubic area sebum. 19.IV adiciendum est: 17. -veris — powder quadratus. -inis — groin parts irinum. -a. deinde his mel 17. and finally what pessary (vaginal suppository) should be used to prevent hysteria. medulla. -ere — soak As the passage continues. -um — from a cyprinum. -um — from a defigo. cohere purgo. -ae — marrow cupping poultice cervinus.I est.2. -ae — rue plant circumcido.I. -are — benefit umidus. -i — fat ruta. -um — waxed solanum. contritae rosae pulvere.I. pulvere: misceatur. Si vero vulva exulcerata misceatur. we learn how an affected uterus should be treated. -a. -ere — stick. Reading for Information 1. -a.I Si parum pura est. If a hysterical woman also experiences nosebleeds. remedio cute incisā: 13. -um — waxed contritae < contero iuncus.7 statim curasti eam.6 naribus eruperit.III.9 sulpure suffumigari debet.IV die: 3. -ere — cut out taurinus. -i — nightshade calidus.V.I. -nis — submersion pubes. vulva.1 scias: 15.2. how nosebleeds may be a gynecological problem. -i — thin cattail suillus. ei recens suilla adeps et ex ōvis album quō: 16.c adiecto . . Which flower is employed most in the treatment of hysteria? 2. Dolens vero ea mulieri: 3. -ire — soften caprinus. -a. vel album ex ōvo cum rosā mixtum.

-nis — naris. Do you see any evidence in this passage that the Romans viewed hysteria as more than just a medical condition? Verse Readings 1. “Beauty and the Beast”: A Brother and Sister A father instructs his son and daughter. . Did the father praise one child and rebuke the other? What did he order both children to do? monitūs: 3.5 ı̄demque insignem pulchrā facie filium. hysteria shifted from a physiological to a psy- chological condition only relatively recently. would you be inclined to consult a doctor? What alternatives might you have? 3. -ere — burn cupping thirtieth together cutis. te: 13. ut: 16.IV. pulchrā facie: 3. From diagnostic and therapeutic standpoints. in cathedrā matris ut positum fuit. -ae — small tricesimus. Women 295 suffumigo. the former handsome and haughty. the latter unpretty and mean. pueriliter ludentes forte inspexerunt. -inis — groin concido. Where did the siblings find the mirror in which they discovered their differing looks? 2. 5 Hic se formosum iactat. -ae — breast loci. praecepto . -ae — cupping testa. -ere — collapse from below mamma. -is — skin repeto. Which strikes you as worse: the fact that the Romans had such a meager knowledge of basic female anatomy or the fact that their meager knowledge of basic bacteriology probably killed thousands and thousands of women? 2. -ere — repeat incido. .1 Praecepto monitūs saepe te considera.XIII.III.a Hi speculum.2. illa irascitur nec gloriantis sustinet fratris iocos. .V. If you were a Roman woman experiencing gynecological problems and had some knowledge of the “medical” methods of treatment. -ae — snail menstruation cucurbita. E.2 Habebat quidam filiam turpissimam. Whose feelings were hurt first? 3. Reading for Information 1. -are — fumigate inguen. -ae — shell cucurbitula. how to resolve their sibling rivalry. -a. -are — cure. -ere — cut sano. -orum — private parts purgatio. -um — comburo. heal Reading for Understanding 1. -is — nostril coclea.

What lesson does it hold for readers neither beautiful nor ugly? 2. How would the lessons of this tale have been different if the daughter were beautiful and the son ugly? 3. -um — pueriliter — childishly amplector. 15 ut: 16.3.” 11.7 tu formam ne corrumpas nequitiae malis.2 A feminis utroque spoliari viros. 5 illi: 3.I. What does each one do to improve her situation with him? 4.II Ergō ad patrem decurrit laesura invicem.V. What is the outcome? a: 3.XI aetatis: 3.” inquit. -ūs — warning decurro.III. -ae — chair criminor. annos celans elegantiā. ne: 16. nempe exemplis discimus.1 moribus: 3.3. “speculo vos uti volo.3 magnāque invidiā criminatur filium. will the effects necessarily be as he describes? 2. The poet instructs his readers to ponder this tale often. -ere — run off corrumpo.III. Does the father’s command make sense? If the children do what he orders. vir natus: though born male praeceptus.I. “Somebody’s Gonna Get Hurt”: The Two Rival Women Vanity of a competitive sort has a strange (and comical) effect. invidiā: 3. Reading for Information 1. 296 Annotated Readings accipiens—quid enim?—cuncta in contumeliam. spoliari: 12.V. .b “Cotidiē.2 Ambae. animosque eiusdem pulchra iuvenis ceperat. Amplexus ille utrumque et carpens oscula dulcemque in ambos caritatem partiens. 10 quod: 16. 16.d amentve amentur: amentve amentur. -iri — dole out monitus.V. The opening couplet states that the theme of this poem is what? 2. -a. -ari — accuse Reading for Understanding 1.1 tu faciem ut istam moribus vincas bonis. vidēri dum volunt illi pares. -i — hug advised by glorior.V. What is the major difference between the two women who compete for the same lover? 3.XIII vir natus quod rem feminarum tetigerit. -i — mirror invicem — in turn nequitia. -ere — ruin speculum. -ari — boast partior. laesura: 12.II. speculo: 3.1 malis: 3. -ae — wickedness cathedra.3 Aetatis mediae quendam mulier non rudis tenebat.V.III.13 uti: 12.

“illo posse confido loco loco: 3.2 actis mensibus: humi iacebat.d recolo.1 humi: 4. nam funditus canos puella. trust insto.” inquit. instante partū: Instante partū. “No Good Can Come from Bad”: A Wife and Husband at Childbirth This clever anecdote delivers a punch line that could be used on a TV sitcom today. flebilı̄s gemitūs ciens.2. -e — tearful Reading for Understanding 1.I. If the wife’s reaction seems snappish. -are — conceal calvus. Why doesn’t this story narrate the outcome of the women’s competition apart from the man’s baldness? 2.18 malum: 3. -are — pluck out Reading for Understanding 1. -a.c “Minimē. Nemo libenter recolit qui laesit locum.7 calvus repente factus est.” finiri: 12.I. E. -um — gray celo. curā: 3. flebilı̄s: 5.III. Women 297 homini: 3. .2 putaret: 15.III. 10 spolio. -a. 13.3 Vir est hortatus. -are — plunder invicem — each in turn repente — suddenly nempe — recently quĪ — somehow funditus — roots and all rudis. nigros anus evellerat. -are — press onus.2. -ēre — summon confido. Which parts of the story are credible? Which are not? 3.d (ut) reciperet: 16. -ere — revisit cieo. mulier actis mensibus 13. -ire — end flebilis. 5 melius quō: 16.III.IV.3. -um — bald evellero. Does the suggestion of the husband seem to you to contain any motive other than love and concern for his wife? 2.V.II Quı̄ se putaret fingi curā mulierum.V. Rewrite the last couplet in English. -neris — burden finio. -ere — believe.3 capillos homini legere coepēre invicem.I. -ere — groom canus. corpus lecto reciperet. How does this story bear out the opening premise that men are always plundered or de- spoiled by women? 3. what could explain that? Would the typical adult Ro- man male have firsthand knowledge of childbirth? 3.IV onus naturae melius quō deponeret.III. offering a punchy comedic one-liner appropriate for a modern audience. -e — uncharming fingo. coepēre: 20.4 malum finiri quo conceptum est initium.II.

So why does she scratch and peck? 2. -i — wheat adsero.I. quid desideras?” quid: 7. “Quidquid dederis.3. In line 8. -ae — chicken planē — obviously mas. how much grain will cause her to stop scratching and pecking? cum: 16.1 “Ne scalpas.” ne: 16.1 “Ex toto ne quid scalpas. -are — satisfy fateor.a Cum castitatem Iuno laudaret suam. quanto possis satiari cibo?” Respondit illa.1 nullamque ut adfirmaret esse illi parem. -ere — disagree peck pateo. -tatis — satio. Do goddesses fall within the class of feminae? If Juno and Venus don’t mind being compared to farm animals. -ēre — lie open adfirmo.III. maris — male sodes = si audes immō — rather iocunditas. the hen says that she’s satisfied with whatever food she’s given.4 iocunditatis causā non renuit Venus. -are — affirm modius.3 interrogasse sı̄c gallinam dicitur: possis: 16. 5 illi: 3.III.7 melius (esse): mari coniungi melius uni feminam.d feminam: 3. dis et deabus: 3. sed permitte scalpere. Venus.IV. “Gossip Girls”: Juno.a Tum denique illa fassa est naturae malum: pateat: 15. ego scalpam tamen.” ne: 16. -tatis — chastity interrogo.1.II sı̄c ut concedas pedibus aliquid scalpere. 15 quia per “gallinam” denotavit “feminas.I “Planē. -are — interrogate triticum. -are — mean Reading for Understanding 1.2 interrogasse: 20. ut: 16.” castitas. -ere — assert gallina.” Risisse Iuno dicitur Veneris iocos. -i — granary renuo. What assertion did Juno make before the other deities? 2. immō nimium est. ut: 16. -i — peck denoto. 298 Annotated Readings 4. -ēri — admit amusement scalpo. sodes.I.I.V “Dic.III. 12.II “Licet horreum mi pateat. According to the hen. and the Hen Reading for Information 1. Was Venus’s interview with the chicken intended as a serious rebuttal of Juno? 3. Why does Juno laugh at Venus’s rebuttal? Because it was effective? Because it was funny? 3.III.” inquit. -ere — scratch and horreum. satis erit. “satis est modius tritici?” 10 permitte: 19.III.III.3 dis et deabus adserens praesentibus mari: 3.3. should we? .VI.

risus candidioris: 6. According to the poet. quae vult bella vidēri. more: 3. what do we mean? 6. The first of these maxims treat women quite objectively.I. -a. bellus. Dicta.III.II Uxoris linguam. artis: 5.1 debet vulgari more placēre sibi.1 Quae vult vidēri bella nimis.II. Reading for Information 1. gratia nuda perit. -e — vulgar condio. sales. unadulterated beauty? Non est forma satis. sermonis gratia. lusus. memento: 19. tacēre: 12.I. desperare: 3.3. What is wrong with pure. Uxor legitimus debet quasi census amari: vellem: 15. quidquid tibi sumitur artis. -ire — season dantly present sal. What do you suppose the poet means by mos vulgaris (line 2)? 2. -ūs — game playing supersum. si frugi est. Women 299 5. non velle pati nec posse tacēre.V. nulli negat. the poet (doubtless a man) gives advice to a woman about the nature of beauty. nec. what should a woman cultivate in order to appear beautiful? 2. -esse — be abun- vulgaris. . but then the sententiae become more tendentious.I.2 Condit enim formam.IV. When we say that someone or another is the latest It person. What do you suppose the poet means by opus naturae candidioris (line 4)? 3. E.I vindicant naturae candidioris opus. nisi sal superest. for all our vagueness. 5 nisi: 18.1 Feminae naturam regere desperare est otium. -um — pretty lusus. In this poem. Multis placēre quae cupit.II nec censum vellem semper amare meum.I. culpam cupit.d namque malum est. regere: 3.2 otium: 3. salis — witticism. ferre memento. wit Reading for Understanding 1. pati. Aut amat aut odit mulier.1 et. nil est tertium.1 nulli: 3.

semper enim mulier.2 Didicēre flēre feminae in mendacium. male cogitat. cum: 16.1 Animo virum pudicae. Malo in consilio feminae vincunt viros. odit. Muliebris lacrima condimentum est malitiae. si coeperit esse molesta. -isse — remember molestus.3. 300 Annotated Readings Adulter est uxoris amator acrior.III Coniugis iratae noli tu verba timēre. -ēre — comply mendacium. invenias: 15.I. acris. -ūs — income acer.3 dulce de labris loquuntur.I. -um — pretty pareo. Mulier quae multis nubit. noli: 19.3.1 Mulier intrā pectus omnis celat vı̄rus pestilens: corde: 3. useful furo. oculo: 3. -ere — rage legitimate memini. -a. marito: 3. tum demum est bona. -a. Nil temerē uxori de servis crede querenti.V. -um — census.II Casta ad virum matrona parendo imperat. didicēre: 20. -um — frugi — good. animo. legitimus. -ere — choose fleo. naufragium: 3. parendo: 17.1 Naufragium rerum est mulier male fida marito.I. -i — culpa. cum: 16.IV.III.a Mulier cum sola cogitat. -i — complain deceitfulness . multis non placet. si: 18. non oculo eligunt. de qua non invenias quid queri.III.V.I.I. quem coniunx diligit. -a.II Nulla tam bona uxor. -ēre — cry bellus.2 vı̄rus: 3.2. -ae — fault queror.a nam lacrimis struit insidias. ne: 16. corde vivunt noxio. Apertē mala cum est mulier.b nec retinēre velis.1 Uxorem fuge ne ducas sub nomine dotis. Muliebre est furere in irā. cum femina plorat. acre — keen troublesome despero. -are — give up on eligo.

Telesilla is not a bride but a what? Iulia lex populis ex quo. Telesilla had married how many times before? 3. -i — lip condiment naufragium. had been restored for how many days before Telesilla’s marriage? 2. for example. boyfriends. non nubit: adultera lege est. -i (n) — virus queror. -ere — contrive vı̄rus. Reading for Information 1. -um — moecha.III. -a.V. The poet addresses his friend Faustinus in the first poem. Women 301 temerē — rashly struo. would they have differed from. -ae — adulteress straightforward thirtieth Reading for Information 1. The Lex Iulia. lege: 3.2 Formosissima quae fuēre vel sunt. In these two brief poems the poet criticizes the morality of two women (Telesilla in the 3rd person and Catulla in the 2nd). aut minus aut certē non plus tricesima lux est. -um — noxious malitia. -i — ploro. What does the poet wish for Catulla? fuēre: 20. do you ex- pect that we would have a comparable selection of aphorisms about men.10 Quae nubit totiens.5 et nubit decimo iam Telesilla viro. E.V. sed vilissima quae fuēre vel sunt. viro: 3. According to the poet. -i — shipwreck noxius. If the intent of these aphorisms was to entertain.I. -i — revive totiens — so often simplex. 5 moechā: 3. renata est atque intrare domos iussa Pudicitia est. -arum — plots pestilens. renascor. What qualities or traits seem to make the authors of these aphorisms most anxious? 2. If there had been more female Roman authors and their works had survived. Faustine. and husbands? 7. In what two respects is Catulla a standout? 2. -i — complain insidiae. -ntis — deadly condimentum.7 Offendor moechā simpliciore minus. blond jokes in our culture? 3. -a. -are — weep labrum. which encouraged citizen marriage. . -ae — wickedness intra — within Reading for Understanding 1. -plicis — tricesimus.

-midis — pyramid totidem — as many viator. totidem mihi Iuno puellas. The next poem is a cute parody of funerary epitaphs dedicated throughout the Roman world to univirae. in the final line.7 Contigit et thalami mihi gloria rara fuitque pudicitiae: 3.3 Bis mea Romano spectata est vita Tarento. viator. mihi: 3. This tomb is comparable to what two famous funerary monuments of the ancient world? 2. women who could boast that they had been married to only one man.IV. -i — bedchamber Mausolus. Which do you suppose is more effective in protecting public morality.I. Catulla.1 et nihil extremos perdidit ante rogos: quinque dedit pueros. marmor: -ris — marble pyramis.II Marmora parva quidem. How many children did the woman produce? 3.III. Otherwise. the authority of law or the authority of popular literature? 8. Reading for Information 1.III. nihil: 3. sed non cessura. 302 Annotated Readings vellem: 15. the poem reads much like numerous surviving epitaphs.1 Mausoli saxis pyramidumque legis. Tarento: 4.IV. On what argument is a multiply married woman the same as an adulteress? Is this argu- ment valid? 3. -i — king of Caria. -i — hundred-year thalamus. What did her children do for her at her deathbed? cessura: 12.2 una pudicitiae mentula nōta meae.II o quam te fieri. Why are the exaggerations of a hundred-plus-year life span and ten children who survive to adulthood successful in this poem? . -ae — prick occupant of the Mausoleum Reading for Understanding 1. vellem formosam minus aut magis pudicam! vilis. -e — cheap Reading for Understanding 1. The comedy of this parody is powered by exaggerations and. a grossly inappropriate obscenity.1 clauserunt omnes lumina nostra manūs. festival mentula. saxis: 3.III. -ris — traveler Tarentum. Do you suppose that the poet would be less concerned with these women’s morality if they were less sexually desirable? 2. 5 lumina: 3.

the word crisas (line 10) is borrowed from Greek. -a. -um — suntanned lascivus. To which two traditional Roman matrons does the poet refer? 3. Rhodos. mater Etruscis. -um — patrician King Numa coloratus. -um — from criso.I. deque coloratis. -ere — learn about Mitylene. Ephesos. Does it diminish the poet’s point at all that he is pretty Greekified himself? .V. -i — Greek island Latin Aricia edisco.2 Cum tibi non Ephesos nec sit Rhodos aut Mitylene. ψυχή μου. -a. referas: Tu licet ediscas totam referasque Corinthon.” congeris usque 5 —pro pudor!—Hersiliae civis et Egeriae.III. μέλι μου. 15.3. -ae — city on a Hersilia. What is the effect of the juxtaposition of the words pudicitia and mentula? What’s the ef- fect of the word mentula counterbalancing the references to the Mausoleum and the Great Pyramids? 3. -i — Greek Asia lino. and Corinthon are all Greek case forms. -a. cum crisas. E. in the course of lovemaking. tibi: 3.4 sed domus in vico. Lais eris.I. Mitylene.3 sed quem lascivo stravit amica viro. -ae — wife of King Corinthos — Corinth (city in Greek island Romulus Greece) vicus. -a. Laelia. viro: 3. Ephesos.V Scire cupis quo casta modo matrona loquaris? cum: 16.III. audiat: 15. “κύριέ μου. Women 303 2. -are — reach orgasm Rhodos. This little poem is about (and to) a blue-blooded Roman matron who. uses Greek endearments in a manner that the poet finds whorish. -ere — lay out Minor city Aricinus. loquaris: 16. -ere — apply makeup sterno. patricio. Does the poet allow any sort of Greek learning? cum: 16. de: 3. numquam lita. Who is the viator of this poem? 9. nec lectulus audiat omnis. Laelia. What neighborhood does Laelia come from? 2. blandior esse potes? 10 ediscas. -um — lusty Reading for Understanding 1. -ae — companion of omninō — entirely patricius. -i — neighborhood Egeria.18 durus Aricinā de regione pater.b Numquid. Reading for Information 1.I Lectulus has voces.II non tamen omninō.

I. The Greek that Laelia uses translates into “My lord. -a.1.I.1 Non ego signatis quicquam mandare tabellis.4 Estne tibi.II At mihi quid prosit morbos evincere.I. puellae: 3.I Exsolvit promissa Venus: mea gaudia narret. quam te si quoque velle putem.I. or to an accurate appraisal of Cerinthus? The next poem.III.2. made famous by two Corinthian hetaerae) is quite admirable. to her illness.I.III.a tabellis: 3. velim. Fama.1 me legat ut nemo quam meus ante. How secure does the poet seem to be in Cerinthus’s affections? Do you attribute this to her youth. pudori: 3. quis: 7. narret: 15. 304 Annotated Readings 2. shows the poet openly acknowledging her love—a love now requited by Cerinthus.9 Tandem vēnit amor. magis. as they are some of the very few poems we have written by ancient Roman women.III.II . -ere — overcome lentus.4 dicetur si quis non habuisse sua. How is the structure of this poem quite simple? 2.7 Exorata meis illum Cytherea Camenis attulit in nostrum deposuitque sinum.b.3 nostra potes lento pectore ferre mala? vexo. This first poem she wrote from her sickbed.i prosit: 15.” Does that seem excessive to you? What is the poet’s real objection here: that Laelia’s use of Greek is an af- fectation or that her words are unseemly for a proper Roman matron? 3. It’s addressed to her young lover Cerinthus.3 quod mea nunc vexat corpora fessa calor? A. The next three poems are said to have been written by the adolescent Sulpicia (second half of the 1st century BCE). to her gendered role in society. They represent a great treasure.VI. What is the effect of its question-statement-question arrangement? 3. Cerinthe. qualem texisse pudori nudasse: 20. both naïve and sophisticated. my honey. -are — distress evinco.V. my soul. si tu 5 si: 18.3 optarim. 5 si: 18.III.III. -um — sluggish aliter — otherwise Reading for Understanding 1. ut: 16. Can you come up with a comparable wordplay using one re- spectable and one disrespectable name? 10. ego non aliter tristes evincere morbos optarim: 20.8 quam nudasse alicui sit mihi. si: 18. Camenis: 3.V.4 pectore: 3. tuae pia cura puellae.3 alicui. mihi: 3. velim: 15. tibi: 3.III. The wordplay in the final line with the names Laelia (a traditional and respectable Roman name) and Lais (a typical name for a Greek prostitute.

I. taedet: 20.III. Judging by her poems.16 1–2. and participial and infinitive phrases. cura: 19.6 ardorem cupiens dissimulare meum. -are — seal. Why does the poet credit the Muses and Venus for winning over Cerinthus. sign wrong Cytherea = Venus mando. magis: such that. -a. a causal clause. mea lux.I. Reputation. . -ere — commit hesternus. What is the effect of the complicated syntax of this poem (a hortatory clause. -are — entrust taedet — it’s boring Camenae = Muses tabella. fervidus. Why does the poet want the joyless to recount her joys? Why is she unwilling for others to read of her love before Cerinthus does? 4. -ere — fulfill pecco.II.III. all in a single sentence)? 3. -are — lay bare exsolvo.I si quicquam totā commisi stultā iuventā. -a.3 lux: 3. -are — do something exoro. -are — disguise committo. What is the best translation for this complex word in the present context? 2.3. ne: 16.I paenituisse: hesternā quam te solum quod nocte reliqui.1 Ne tibi sim. On the basis of this poem. -um — fateor.VI ac videor paucos ante fuisse dies. -are — beg. E. what sort of intimacy does the poet appear to have shared with her lover? This last poem expresses a confused and bittersweet confession of Sulpicia’s desire for her lover. . aequē iam fervida cura tibi: 3. a comparative clause. pray to signo. 5 20. 10 cum: 16. cuius: 3. fatear: 15. instead of just crediting herself? 3.V.6 cuius me fatear paenituisse magis. How do the first couplet and the last couplet counterbalance each other? 2.III.b digno: 3.V. Women 305 peccasse: 20. -ēri — confess yesterday’s Reading for Understanding 1. it would be more shameful for me to hide than to expose to someone nudo. a conditional clause. -ae — tablet Reading for Understanding 1. how old do you imagine Sulpicia to be? Would you characterize her writing as charming? Immature? Insightful? Simplistic? Heartfelt? Contrived? .3 sed peccasse iuvat. qualem . a relative clause.5 taedet: cum digno digna fuisse ferar.5.III. another comparative clause. vultūs componere Famae iuvat. -um — feverish paenitet — it causes shame dissimulo. The poem opens and closes with references to Fama.a nocte: 3.

-um — violent subsequor. Mars magne.I. kalendis: 3.II. ipse veni. quidquid: 3. Is Sulpicia more attractive with her hair arranged or unarranged? tibi: 3. comptis est veneranda comis.V. cum vult exurere divos.I. -um — twin como. -is — hair The praise for Sulpicia’s grace and beauty continues.II Hoc Venus ignoscet.V. Where does Cupid/Amor get the fire to light his torches? 3.V. -arum — first day geminus. The poet asks Phoebus and the Muses to do what on every March 1? Talis in aeterno felix Vertumnus Olympo mille habet ornatūs. Reading for Information 1. capillis: 3. cui: 3. The following poem was written in praise of the beautiful maiden Sulpicia. -ae — cloak violentus.IV.6 spectatum: 17. fusis decet esse capillis: comis: 3. quoquo vestigia movit. Vertumnus wears how many different outfits? Why? 2. 10 Urit. -ere — inflame crinis. -ere — arrange of the month lampas.2 proximus Eois colligit Indus aquis.6 aquis: 3.14 Seu solvit crines. si sapis.III.1 arvis: 3. -um — white exuro. 306 Annotated Readings 11.4 Illius ex oculis.IV. -a. 20 .V.1 vellera det sucis bis madefacta Tyros.III.X cultor odoratae dives Arabs segetis. -um — Tyrian ignosco.1 vellera: 3. What is the occasion of this poem? 2. -adis — “lamp” Tyrius.I caveto: 19.X sucis: 3. seu niveā candida veste venit. Illam.3 cum: 16. -a.III.V. at tu. seu Tyriā voluit procedere pallā: veste: 3.1 Sola puellarum digna est cui mollia caris 15 det: 16. -a. kalendae.V.8 Sulpicia est tibi culta tuis.III.1 ne tibi miranti turpiter arma cadant.III. violente. kalendis. Sulpicia deserves pearls from where? Perfume from where? Dyed wool from where? 3. 5 accendit geminas lampadas acer Amor. Tyros: Greek nominative possideatque metit quidquid bene olentibus arvis singular possideat: 16. componit furtim subsequiturque Decor. Reading for Information 1. mille decenter habet. -i — attend niveus. -ere — forgive furtim — secretively palla. veni: 19. quidquid agit. caveto ne: 16. tibi: 3.10 urit.14 seu composit. -a.18 et quascumque niger rubro de litore gemmas segetis: 3.1 spectatum e caelo.

hic mihi sanctus mihi: 3. Pierides. tibi: 3. E. -i — god of possideo. The poet assumes the persona of Sulpicia for this poem and describes her love for the youth Cerinthus. How are Sulpicia and Cerinthus supposedly different in their loves? mihi: 3. -getis — harvest of shell dampened ruber.6 habendus erit: 17.III. -a. Phoebe superbe. . per te dulcissima furta perque tuos oculos per Geniumque rogo. Cerinthe. from the description given here? 2. -um — eastern Reading for Understanding 1. -a. et dederunt regna superba tibi. 5 si: 18. -bra.V. novum Parcae cecinēre puellis cecinēre: 20. -eris — fleece odoratus.6 Hanc vos. -e — solemn Phoenicia) Eous. -bis — Arabian testudineus. How many different gods does this twenty-four-line poem mention? What is the effect of such a high deity-to-line ratio? 3. -ūs — ornament olens. -a. Uror ego ante alias: iuvat hoc. The Fates foretold what at Cerinthus’s birth? 3. How specific and detailed is the praise of Sulpicia’s appearance? Could you draw a portrait.1 Qui mihi te. quod uror. -i — juice Arabs. -ris — farmer kalendae.3 adsit: 15.1 te nascente. -arum — first day vellus.I. -um — festive decenter — appropriately cultor. -um — made madefactus.I.1 si tibi de nobis mutuus ignis adest. -i — Indus River changing seasons meto. -ere — harvest Pierides. dies dedit. What is the occasion for this poem? Why are Genius and Natalis deus invoked? 2. -ēre — possess Indus.I Mutuus adsit amor. What does the poet ask from Venus? 4. Cerinthe. -tis — fragrant festus. -um — Muses ornatus. -brum — red lyra. would you be more pleased and proud if you were Sulpicia or Sulpicia’s parents? 12. -um — seges.IV atque inter festos semper habendus erit: te nascente: 13. Women 307 cantate: 19. festis cantate kalendis et testudineā. -a. lyrā. Hoc sollemne sacrum multos haec sumet in annos: choro: 3. -ae — lyre Tyros.III. Vertumnus. On the receipt of this poem.16 dignior est vestro nulla puella choro.V. for example.III. -um — scented of the month sucus. Reading for Information 1. -toris — shore sollemnis.I kalendis: 3. -i — Tyre (city of litus.III.2 servitium. -a.

V. cape tura libens votisque faveto. clamne palamne roget? 20 roget: 16. relinque: 19. Infidos. What does the poet ask Phoebus to bring? 3. -i — fire palam — openly mutuus. Notice how this poem balances a tension between dominance and submission. Do you observe any trends or patterns of gender in this tension? 3. intonsā Phoebe superbe comā. precor.1 neu notet informis languida membra color.b nam pudet haec illum dicere verba palam.II cum: 16.III.III. -i — servitude focus. -a. -ere — be agreeable furtum. 5 neu: 16. propera: nec te iam. -i — intrigue servio.5. quoniam deus omnia sentis. -ēre — be inflamed catena. leva: 19.5 Magne Geni. What two things does Sulpicia’s boyfriend do with respect to the gods? ades: 10. Now notice how this poem also balances a tension between openness and concealment.1 Effice ne macies pallentes occupet artūs.b crede mihi. relinque focos.3 formosae medicas applicuisse manūs. Reading for Information 1.I tunc.3 Hūc ades. Couched as a prayer.III. The maiden Sulpicia is ill. Venus: vel serviat aequē serviat: 15.5 vinctus uterque tibi.3. -a. cum de me cogitat. -um — unfair adnuo.5.I.6 adnue: quid rēfert. -arum — Fates suspiro. Explain the last line of the poem. -ire — be able cecinēre < cano infidus.I Sed potius validā teneamur uterque catenā. sis: 15. expelle: 19. Does it seem authentic or in character for a woman. . et tenerae morbos expelle puellae. sed tectius optat: pudet: 20. ille calet.b si modo.III. Which feature is Phoebus said to be proud of? 2. -um — holiday.III.III. caleo.III.I puellae: 3. pigebit formosae: 3. -a.III. -um — faithless posthāc — hereafter servitium.I tibi: 3. and the poet invokes Phoebus Apollo.III. 15 queat: 15. comā: 3. ne: 16. in prayer.14 pigebit: 20.V Optat idem iuvenis quod nos. or is the poet’s persona slipping and exposing a male author? 13. At tu.I nulla queat posthāc quam solvisse dies. quam: 7. sancte. -ae — chain Parcae. Phoebe.I teneamur: 15. 10 Quod si forte alios iam nunc suspirat amores.I rēfert: 20. 308 Annotated Readings votis: 3. -a. faveto: 19.III.IV Nec tu sis iniusta. -ire — serve clam — privately Reading for Understanding 1. Natalis.3 hūc ades. the god of healing. where does it fall within this tension? 2. -are — long for queo. adnue: 19. -um — mutual iniustus. vel mea vincla leva.V festus.

-ere — drive away artus.IV. -i — sea langueo.1 numeranda: 17.2 et quodcumque mali est et quidquid triste timemus. iam laetus eris. -a.XIII.3. fave! Laus magna tibi tribuetur in uno tibi: 3.I Sancte.I Phoebe. -are — count macies.3. dicit in aeternos aspera verba deos. evehat: 15. interdum.3 cogitat. et frustrā credula turba sedet. Cerinthus.3 Tu modo semper ama: salva puella tibi est.I. -um — torqueo. cum debita reddet duos: 3.III. hūc — here palleo. -ūs — limb eveho.3 optabunt artes et sibi quisque tuas.10 Nil opus est fletū: lacrimis erit aptius uti.1 restituisse: 12. -ere — carry away intonsus. E. veni.I neu iuvenem torque. 20 fave: 19.III. According to the poem.13 aptius: 6. -um — unshorn informis. Are there others who want to be Sulpicia’s boyfriend? 3.I in pelagus rapidis evehat amnis aquis. lacrimis: 3. -are — apply weakened numero. -ēre — torment applico.3. tecumque feras quicumque sapores feras: 19. -bris — celebrated focus. fletū: 3. Reading for Information 1. before making one final appeal to Phoebus. quod langueat illa. -a. fletus.I Pone metum. quod: 16. Women 309 mali: 3. if Sulpicia is cured. -ūs — weeping credulus.II. 15 tibi: 3. -i — debt aptus.a At nunc tota tua est.2. -a.V.d corpore servato restituisse duos. why should Cerinthus have no fears? 2. -a.V. 10 torque: 19. will Phoebus be the envy of all the other gods? pone: 19.III.IV quicumque et cantūs corpora fessa levant. (as if introduced by laus) Iam celeber.III votaque pro dominā vix numeranda facit. -um — proper restituo.1.i Interdum vovet. -a.i quandō: 7. veni: 19. -ei — thinness pelasgus.1 Tunc te felicem dicet pia turba deorum. -i — hearth . -um — swift expello. -e — hideous sapor.b.VI.I. metuit qui fata puellae puellae: 3.III.I si quandō fuerit tristior illa tibi. te solum candida secum tibi: 3. -ris — potion piget — it causes annoyance languidus.I. 25 sibi: 3.III. -ēre — be pale rapidus. si: 18. -ēre — be sick The poet now addresses the boyfriend. focis: 3.b certatim sanctis gratus uterque focis.II.1 cum: 16. -ere — restore certatim — in rivalry quandō = aliquandō celeber. Why. -um — gullible debitum. Cerinthe: deus non laedit amantes.a.

according to this poem? 2. -ae — armlets perinde — just command over agmen. juvenile and adolescent deaths were much more commonplace than today. Spurius Tarpeius arci praeerat. a naïve young girl or con- quest-intent warriors? 3. -trum — left obruo. The infamous tale of Tarpeia. -nis — reproach merces. Cuius filiam virginem aquam sacris petitum extrā moenia egressam Tatius ut armatos Sabinos in arcem secum reciperet corrupit. -are — press for sinister. Retell this story from the viewpoint of Tarpeia. and where basic infections could be fatal. -esse — have armilla. With what was Tarpeia rewarded from the Sabines’ left arms? Romulo regnante. 310 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. How does that fact affect your understanding of this poem? Supplemental Readings 1. This story suggests that what vice threatened Rome right from its very beginning? 2. quod ea quoque laevis gestaverant. How does the message of the story change? . -nis — treachery paciscor. Who was the king of Rome when this incident occurred? 2. mercedis nomine pactam quae in sinistris manibus gerebant: erant autem in his armillae et anuli magno ex pondere auri. How sick is Sulpicia. -cedis — reward praemium. What did Tarpeia admire on the Sabines’ left arms? 4. Reading for Information 1. where childhood diseases killed many young peo- ple. -tra. According to the author. Sulpicia’s or Cerinthus’s? 3. who was more at fault in this incident. solverit. What was Tarpeia supposedly doing when Tatius encountered her? 3. -minis — battle line reprehensio. perinde quasi promissum. Whose suffering is described more. praesum. -i — reward proditio. quia impia proditio celeri poenā vindicata est. who betrayed Rome to its Sabine enemies. This story became exemplary among Romans of the deep-seated greed (and improvidence) of women. Loco potitum agmen Sabinorum puellam praemium flagitantem armis obrutam necavit. stipulate flagito. -i — agree. Absit reprehensio. In a culture where there were no vaccines. is told here. -ere — bury Reading for Understanding 1.

Which crime does the author castigate Tullia more for. -nis — haste carpentum. suprā id duci vehiculum iussit. -um — sudden probosus. Who killed Servius Tullius? What was the relationship between the killer and Tullius’s daughter? 3. Cum carpento veheretur et is. Reading for Information 1. E. which recounts how this princess ran over the corpse of her assassinated father with her carriage (traditionally 535 BCE). -um — wicked monstrum. ordior. -i — vehicle cognomen. conscientiā nefarium. What became of the street where Tullia ran her father over? A Tulliā ordiar. -i — street iumentum. . repentinae morae causam requisivit. -minis — name succutio. -i — horse vehiculum. -um — wicked repentinus. Quā tam impiā tamque probrosā festinatione non solum se aeternā infamiā. -ūs — embrace commaculo. The author justifies telling this story on what three grounds? 2. quia tempore vetustissimum. et ut comperit corpus patris Servii Tulli occisi ibi iacēre. -ere — fling together complexus. her treatment of her father’s corpse or her adultery? 2. -a. Rome enacted certain measures acknowl- edging the value of all matrons. -ire — learn vicus. -iri — begin frenum. succussis frenis constitisset. -a. -are — disgrace Reading for Understanding 1. Does the latter seem like an important detail for this story? 3. -i — carriage comperio. This passage relates how his wife and his mother dissuaded the Roman traitor Coriolanus from attacking Rome (488 BCE). -a. -i — rein interfector. In honor of these women. sed etiam ipsum vicum cognomine sceleris commaculavit. -ris — killer nefarius. voce monstri simile exemplum est. quō celerius in complexum interfectoris eius Tarquinii veniret. The notorious Servia Tullia is the subject of the next selection. -i — abomination requiesco. Women 311 2. The author doesn’t relate what became of Tullia and Tarquinius but does note the name change of the street where the incident occurred (Sceleratus Vicus). qui iumenta agebat. What evidence can you find that this story was already well known and the author didn’t have much of an interest in retelling it? 3. -ere — inquire festinatio.

-orum — a tribe of adorno. confessus est plus salutis rei publicae in stolā quam in armis fuisse. -i — trimming Latium sancio. -i — decree vitta. quō Coriolanus exoratus erat. Sulpicius Galus (consul in 166 BCE) divorced his wife because she did what? 2. Veturia mater et Volumnia uxor nefarium opus exsequi precibus suis non passae sunt. 10–11. the men all acted proactively. Super haec aedem et aram Fortunae Muliebri eo loco. -ae — path nefarius. testando: with this sophisticated cult of religion attesting that their intention was mindful of the favor ordior. -are — plead with minor. Reading for Information 1. A temple was dedicated to which goddess? Where was it erected? Atque ut a publicis actis ordiar. Why did Antistius Vetus divorce his wife? . Permisit quoque his purpureā veste et aureis uti segmentis. what were Roman men obliged to do on the street? 3. . insofar as the women weren’t guilty of any serious wrongdoing. -ae — woman’s dress Reading for Understanding 1. Which neighbors of Rome did Coriolanus retain for his assault? 2. memorem beneficii esse animum suum exquisito religionis cultū testando. . -iri — begin decretum. Why do you suppose women played a minimal role in the conduct of foreign war and peace? 2. What do you think of a reward system for women that features clothes and jewelry? 3. -a. but they invariably in- volve internecine conflicts. In quarum honorem senatus matronarum ordinem benignissimis decretis adornavit: sanxit namque ut feminis semitā viri cederent. -um — wicked stola. As you can see. -ae — headband Volsci. By senate decree. memorem . faciendam curavit. 312 Annotated Readings Reading for Information 1. -are — decorate segmentum. The following three anecdotes narrate incidents leading to husbands divorcing their wives. Roman lore has several stories about women acting as peacemakers. What other motives might they have had? 4. -ire — require exoro. Marcium Coriolanum patriae arma inferre conantem. The assumption that patriotism motivated Coriolanus’s mother and wife isn’t really substan- tiated here. admotoque portis urbis ingenti Volscorum exercitū funus ac tenebras Romano imperio minantem. vetustisque aurium insignibus novum vittae discrimen adiecit. What new adornments were women permitted to wear? 4. -ari — threaten semita.

-are — gain approval libertina. -i — divorce munio. ut potius cavēret iniuriam quam vindicaret. -i — cradle forı̄s — abroad supervacuus. -ire — fortify arcesso. Women 313 3. dum sı̄c olim feminis occurritur. sed tamen aliquā ratione munita: “Lex enim. subjunctive? iungendus est: use of gerundive? Iungendus est his P. -ere — prompt ignoro. For each anecdote. quibus formam tuam decoris: use of genitive? his: use of dative? approbes. -nis — punishment abruptly irritatio. Publicia and Licinia were alleged to have committed what crime(s)? How were they killed? 2. vindicaret: use of praebuit ultionem. -ae — freedwoman for Reading for Understanding 1. -are — divorce occurro. -ere — oppose approbo. -a. ut ita dicam. This next passage relates the summary capital punishment that their kinsfolk carried out against three women. Given what you read here. -ae — notice. -um — citerior. ratione: use of ablative? tibi: use of dative? abscisa est sententia. quod illam in publico cum quādam libertinā vulgari incunabulis et nutrimentis: use of ablative? secretō loquentem viderat: nam. -nis — provocation repudium. incunabulis et culpae: use of genitive? culpā: use of ablative? nutrimentis culpae. On what grounds was the wife of Egnatius Mecennius killed? . -are — be unknowing praefinio. Sulpicii Gali maritale supercilium: nam uxorem capite aperto: use of ablative? dimisit. supply a perfectly reasonable explanation for the woman acting as she did.” quibus: use of dative? approbes: use of subjunctive? inquit. mens earum a occurritur: why present? delictis aberat. Antistius Vetus repudiando libertinā: use of ablative? dicam: use of subjunctive? uxorem. -ere — break off unnecessary ultio. quod eam capite aperto forı̄s versatam cognōverat. Ut ulterior tui conspectus tui: adjective or pronoun? irritatione: use of ablative? supervacuā irritatione arcessitus in suspicione et crimine haereat haereat: use of subjunctive? repudiando: gerund or gerundive? necesse est. supercilium. qui coniugem notā: use of ablative? se ignorante: use of ablative? repudii notā adfecit. “tibi meos tantum praefinit oculos. his esto speciosa. nihil aliud quam se ignorante ludos ausam ludos: use of accusative? feminis: use of dative? spectare. In none of these cases is any argument made that the women were entitled to legal process. Reading for Information 1. -ire — restrict repudio. Do you suppose women’s innocence affected the outcome of the divorce process? 5. Why aren’t the names of the divorced wives related in this passage? 2. esto: what form? notitiae: use of dative? horum te certiori crede notitiae. attention incunabulum. His decoris instrumenta compara. Sempronius Sophus. -i — pride notitia. non ipsā commotus culpā citeriorem delicto delicto: use of ablative? cavēret. does it appear that men were required to provide much in the way of evidence or just cause in suing for divorce? 3. Sempronius Sophus ended his marriage (circa 284 BCE) on what grounds? Horridum C. -ius — swifter abscido. Ergō. E.” Nec aliter sensit Q.

-are — stir. -are — kill by exigo. his adulter- ous mistress. -tis — evident concito. why didn’t they simply impose an absolute and uni- versal prohibition on all alcohol use? 6. -ere — exact reproacher strangulation vindicta. sed etiam reprehensore caruit. quae Claudium Asellum viros suos veneno necaverant. quod vinum bibisset. uno quōque existimante optimo illam exemplo violatae sobrietati poenas pependisse. Egnati autem Mecenni longē minore de causā. -ris — defender interimo. propinquorum decreto strangulatae sunt: non enim putaverunt severissimi viri in tam evidenti scelere longum publicae quaestionis tempus exspectandum. fault Reading for Understanding 1. Reading for Information 1. unexpected death was not an uncommon phenomenon in antiquity. Et sanē quaecumque femina vini usum immoderatē appetit. rouse sobrietas. 314 Annotated Readings 3. -ris — strangulo. -ere — strike. The following story recounts a complicated case of attempted fraud involving a man. -i — decree sons. fusti percussam interemit. item Licinia. Itaque quarum innocentium defensores fuissent. What was the outcome of Varro’s health crisis? 3. -i — crime. -ere — kill decretum. -ae — punishment careo. What arguments are adduced to justify the summary killings of these women? Publicia autem. If the Romans were sincere in this view. -tatis — sobriety quaestio. Explain the logic or jurisprudence used here that if the women hadn’t been guilty. venenum. Why did Varro allow Oticilia to draw up a phony IOU? 2. idque factum non accusatore tantum. we’ve seen the view expressed that women and wine just don’t mix. given the poor state of Roman forensic medicine. -i — poison defensor. Magno scelere severitas horum ad exigendam vindictam concitata est. -ntis — guilty reprehensor. Sudden. After this outcome. In several readings now. quae Postumium Albinum consulem. In what possible scenarios might accusations of poisoning plausibly be leveled against Ro- man women? 3. what did Oticilia maintain? . Ascertaining the cause of death was usually very difficult. sontium maturē vindices exstiterunt. their men- folk would have been the first to defend them? 2. beat delictum. and a dubious IOU. qui uxorem. -ēre — lack evidens. -nis — inquiry percutio. omnibus et virtutibus ianuam claudit et delictis aperit. This incident occurred sometime in the middle of the 1st century BCE.

How are they especially problematic when the two lovers aren’t married? 7. tinge adduco. oblige adversaria. one of homicide. Women 315 4. What did Aquillius do to settle the case? relaturus: what form? Ne quod relaturus quidem sum oblitterandum est silentio. Quod prudentiā et religione: use of ablative? si eādem formulā Varro et damnari et adversariae absolvi si: type of condition? formulā: use of ablative? potuisset. . vir magnae auctoritatis et scientiā iuris civilis auctoritatis: use of genitive? scientiā: use of ablative? excellens. -a. E. -are — punish communion shameless calumnia. eius quoque non dubito quin Aquillius turpem et adversariae: use of dative? castigaturus: what form? inconcessum errorem libenter castigaturus fuerit: nunc privatae fuerit: use of subjunctive? actionis calumniam ipse compescuit. eo consilio. -nis — agreement prosecution coloro. -ae — false debitum. adhibitis in consilium principibus adhibitis . oblitterandum est: use of gerundive? Visellius Varro. -ae — opponent hundred destringo. This fascinating story describes a legal matter that arose in the province of Asia in 68 BCE. The case. -ere — curb Reading for Understanding 1. and the Roman proconsul involved refused to either convict or acquit the woman defendant. -are — obliterate maturo. -tricis — lender unallowable commercium. Aquillius. -ae. Evasit deinde ex illā nomine: use of ablative? colorando: gerund or gerundive? tempestate adversus vota Otaciliae. -i — yield. -i — inverecundus. quos maturasset: syncopation of? petendo: gerund or gerundive? ut fronte inverecundā. ex amicā obsequenti subitō praedae: use of dative? morte: use of ablative? destrictam feneratricem agere coepit. libidinosam si: type of condition? peteret: use of subjunctive? liberalitatem debiti nomine colorando. si decessisset. ita inani stipulatione captaverat. . expensa nummum: accusative or genitive? expensa: use of accusative? ferri sibi passus est. Quae offensa. -um — nummus. -i — sesterce feneratrix. nummos petendo. adulterii crimen publicae quaestioni: use of dative? vindicandum: gerund or quaestioni vindicandum reliquit. C. iudex adductus. -are — color. quam legati genus esse voluit. -a — three obsequor. Issues concerning love and money are problematic even in marriage. . De qua fronte: use of ablative? stipulatione: use of ablative? re C. -ere — bring in as compesco. -are — expedite formula. was particularly hard to adjudicate. gravi morbo correptus. prudentiā et religione suā mulierem reppulit. cum qua commercium libidinis habuerat. -a. ut. ab heredibus sibi: use of dative? consilio: use of ablative? eam summam peteret. The author expresses the view that both parties in this case were culpable. -ae — jurisprudence tricenti. but which one was more culpable? Why? 3. -ere — expose inconcessus. -i — debt stipulatio. quod spem quod: with indicative or subjunctive? praedae suae morte non maturasset. principibus: use of ablative? civitatis. -um — castigo. trecenta milia nummum silentio: use of ablative? morbo: use of ablative? ab Otaciliā. What evidence is presented that Oticilia didn’t loan money to Varro? 2. gerundive? oblittero.

Although this is a great anecdote. -nis — hesitation relego. Claims of paternity. Considerably less common were claims of maternity. quo Dolabella. Mater familiae Zmyrnaea virum et filium interemit. -ire — learn the Areopagus Reading for Understanding 1. Consideranter et mansuetē populi Romani magistratus. cum ab his optimae indolis iuvenem. qui inspectā causā et accusatorem et ream post centum annos ad se reverti iusserunt. Quam rem Dolabella ad se delatam Athenas ad Areopagi cognitionem relegavit. Where did he end up? . Why does the author refer to the woman’s motive as iustus dolor (sixth line)? 2. -ere — murder mansuetē — leniently absolvo. but this anecdote involving a famous (alleged) mother comes to a decisive outcome. Whom did the woman murder? Why? 2. Sed ille transferendo quaestionem. -are — bind over sapienter — wisely proconsularis. before the mod- ern advent of DNA testing. -e — contamino. Dolabellae. occisum esse comperisset. both true and false. -are — taint rea. -i — produce Areopagita. it’s not particularly good or satisfying as a legal or historical record. Why. Did Dollabella simply pass the buck by referring the case to the Areopagus? 3. were fairly common in the ancient world. Who did the claimant allege was his mother? 2. was he repudiated? 3. hi differendo inexplicabilem cunctationem damnandi atque absolvendi vitabant. according to the claimant. quem ex priore viro enixa fuerat. Reading for Information 1. To what higher court and where did Dollabella refer the case? 3. -ere — acquit enitor. sed Areopagitae quoque non minus sapienter. -ae — defendant proconsular consideranter — deliberately cunctatio. 316 Annotated Readings Reading for Information 1. -nis — delay interimo. eodem adfectū moti. What additional facts of the case would you want presented into evidence? 8. animus fluctuatus est. What was the decision of the higher court? Does the author approve of their decision? Haesitatione P. -ae — member of comperio. proconsulari imperio Asiam obtinentis. quia ipse neque liberare duabus caedibus contaminatam neque punire tam iusto dolore impulsam sustinebat. haesitatio.

-is — trireme untouched spolio. -nis — contagion videlicet — obviously inquino. -tatis — weakness contagio. diceret. After her death. -are — rob adfigo. This story. quia . -ere — attach imbecillitas. Exstitit qui clarissimae ac sanctissimae sororis eius Octaviae utero se genitum esse fingere audēret. what became of Septicia’s dowry? 3. -a. dotem. Why is no mention made of the claimant’s alleged father? 3. . Does this anecdote belong more properly in the history books or in the grocery store tabloids? 9. -um — gods triremis. in contumeliam eorum. perinde atque ipsius filium retentum esse. tells how a certain woman remarried and altered her will out of spite for her grown sons. What evidence was produced that the claimant was Octavia’s son? That he wasn’t Octavia’s son? 2. . E. Reading for Information 1. irata filiis. Sed dum plenis impudentiae velis ad summum audaciae gradum fertur. -ium — household remus. imperio Augusti remo publicae triremis adfixus est. sed ab eo. Did Septicia and Publicius marry with the purpose of having children? 2. subiecto in locum suum proprio filio. 6. dated to the era of Augustus. videlicet ut eodem tempore sanctissimi penates et veri sanguinis memoriā spoliarentur et falsi sordidā contagione inquinarentur. A quibus aditus est divus Augustus et nuptias mulieris et suprema iudicia improbavit: nam hereditatem maternam filios habēre iussit. cum iam parere non posset. testamento etiam utrumque praeteriit. Later. Publicio seni admodum nupsit. -i — oar intemptatus. subiecto . If the claimant suffered from summa imbecillitas corporis (line 4). the emperor intervened on behalf of these sons. cui datus erat. Women 317 Ne divi quidem Augusti etiamnunc terras regentis excellentissimum numen intemptatum est ab hōc iniuriae genere. filio: while his own son was substituted in his place etiamnunc — even now penates. The author suggests at the end of the passage that Augustus’s ruling served what greater purpose? Septicia. propter summam autem imbecillitatem corporis iussū matris expositum esse. does it make sense that he was relegated to rowing on an imperial warship? 4. -are — besmirch Reading for Understanding 1.

-are — blast. virum retinēre vetuit. -are — render confundo. Do you think Augustus struck a fair and effective balance in this case? . -are — reject reproduction burial veto. nubis effeta. Governments are often put in the position of having to balance individual rights both with pro-family interests and with the interests of the state. The author invokes the personified Aequitas to justify the actions of Augustus. -ere — spurn addico. -ere — lay beneath pronuntio. -um — ill marcidus. -are — forbid malevolus. -a. Why does the state care whether an older woman remarries or how she transmits her wealth and property through her will? 2. neque erubescis ei totum patrimonium addicere. 4. fully effetus. -ere — prepare for improbo. cuius pollincto iam corpori marcidam senectutem tuam substravisti. -tatis — equity willed substerno. -um — withered aequitas. potuitne iustius aut gravius pronuntiare? Spernis quos genuisti. scorch Reading for Understanding 1. Why isn’t the cause or origin of Septicia’s feud with her sons related? 3. -orum — the dead judgment erubesco. Ergō dum sı̄c te geris. ad inferos usque caelesti fulmine adflata es. 318 Annotated Readings non creandorum liberorum causā coniugium intercesserat. Si ipsa Aequitas hac de re cognosceret. testamenti ordinem malevolo animo confundis. Explain how the rule of law was at work in this story. -a. -inis — thunderbolt sperno. -ere — be ashamed fulmen. -ere — award adflo. -um — past pollingo. -a. admodum — altogether. -ere — pervert inferi.

3 formā et aetate: est. -a.3 linguis: 3. id regnum furori: 3. vis habitat. -ēre — drive dominor. . impetūs: impulses like the madness of lust and greed 4–5. Love 319 F.V.V. -ae — greed gods commemoro.2 veneris gignuntur.3 Magnā curā praecipuoque studio referendum est quantopere libidinis et referendum est: 17.XII pestes penetrarunt. -are — illustris. he cites the marriage of Claudius Nero Drusus and Antonia Minor (second half of the 1st century BCE). Drusum etiam Germanicum. infamia flagrat.III.V. alterius viduitatis experientiā consenuit. et quod super omnia est. operum penetrarunt: 20. what were Antonia’s sleeping arrangements? curā. -is — pest commemorate summoveo. quia ei demum penates.V. a household or a community can maintain its health and integrity only if what conditions exist or don’t exist? 2. Faventibus igitur linguis contrarios his tam diris vitiis mores pecuniaeque: 3. . ubi minimum virium veneris pecuniaeque consilio ac ratione: 3. -e — illustrious pestis. in eodemque toro alterius adulescentiae vigor exstinctus fide: 3.10 coniugio habuit. Love Prose Readings 1. iniuria dominatur. eximiam Claudiae familiae sibi: 3. F. fratri: 3.II.1 suorum pro habitū aetatis magnitudine vitrico pariter ac fratri.I Drusum: 3.XII gloriam patriaeque rarum ornamentum.10 experientiā: 3.V.7 vitrico.2 commemoremus: duobus mirificē respondentem. -um — away infamia. What distinguished Drusus’s marital relations? 4.5 familiae suae claritatem supergressa.IV. what conditions exist? 3.VIII constitit: 20.V.6 laudibus: 3.II. To support his assertion. femina laudibus virilem magnitudine: 3.7 cupido sibi vindicaverit: nam quō istae generis humani certissimae summoti sint: 16.2 impetūs: 3. After Drusus’s death.7 1–2. -ari — dominate eximius. Augustis vitiis: 3. amorem mariti egregiā fide pensavit. constitit usum veneris intrā coniugis 15. convı̄ctum socrūs pro veneris: 3. 3.III.III. studio: 3. According to this passage. Augustis: 3.a quae post eius excessum. Reading for Information 1. Where vice is rampant.III.II.V. Antonia quoque.V.II.3 vindicaverit: 16. -um — dreadful avaritia.6 ac ratione summoti sint. -ium — household dirus.7.IV avaritiae furori similis impetūs ab illustrium virorum pectoribus consilio libidinis et avaritiae: 3. The author of this passage asserts that great people experience the affection of love differently from other people. ea civitas. . ubi . .III. bella virium: 3. -a.1 aeterno in gradū facile steterit.I.V steterit: 16. -ae — infamy extraordinary . vindicaverit: where the desire for sex and money has appropriated for itself a minimum of strength quantopere — how penates. formā et aetate florens.6 commemoremus.4 caritatem clausum tenuisse. libidinis .I.

a oportet: 20. -tatis — widowhood vitricus. a view that the Stoics en- dorsed.IV.1.III. .IV.7 rubori oportet esse. do you sense that Drusus’s sexual fidelity to Antonia was the norm? Was it a common exception to the norm? 3. -ae — experience mirificē — wonderfully cohabitation consenesco. salutarem coniugi potius mare dimisso: 13.10 utilia.7 Corneliam nescio utrum feliciorem dixerim. -ris — prime greatness excessus. -um — confine socrus.4 interitū: 3.3 anguibus . -are — requite vigor. -ūs — mother-in-law together Reading for Understanding 1.2 feminā dimissā.III.I. -ūs — death viduitas.3 feminā dimissā: sustinuitque in conspectū suo se ipsum interitū serpentis occidi. rubori: 3. feminam dimitti iussit. ardua imitatū.V.3. -dinis — penso.I. ipsi celerem obitum instare. occidi: 12.III. mare dimisso. Gracchus.a coniuges stabilitae fidei opera percurrens. Livia’s husband.V an esse miseriorem. certior factus est ab haruspice. -ae — young condition supergredior. died in 14 CE. .I.2 veneratione contemplandas lectoris oculis subiciam.III. ipsi: 3. valenter inter excellentissima: 3. -ūs — experentia. This anecdote about the parents of the famous Gracchi brothers (2nd century BCE) is prefaced with an interesting discussion about marital love.1 imitatū: 17. -i — surpass adulthood magnitudo.7 pergam. deprehensis.III.III. even if it’s hard to imitate? 2.III. anguibus domi suae mare ac feminā domi: 4.b .I dixerim: 16. The author claims that libido and avaritia are similar to furor. Ti. Itaque 13.III oculis: 3. What were the portentous implications of letting each of these snakes go? contemplandas: Ad adfectum honestum. habuerit. What two snakes were caught in Gracchus’s house? 3. quod talem virum habuerit.3. Reading this passage of praise. legitimique amoris quasi quasdam imagines non sine maximā opera: 3. 320 Annotated Readings habitus. -i — stepfather convĪctus. -ūs — state. -tatis — fame adulescentia. uxori. amiserit: 16. claritas. marem necari. Augustus. quod amiserit. deprehensis: 13. Drusus died in 9 BCE. -a.4 quam sibi partem augurii secutus. verum aliquantō ardentiorem et concitatiorem 17. Can you make arguments that either support or refute this claim? Where does the emotion of love belong in this argument? 2. uxori eius. -ere — grow old clausus.XIII. Do you sense that Antonia’s widowhood was the norm? Was it a common exception? 4. Reading for Information 1. What does this suggest about Roman sleeping arrangements? 2. quia excellentissima animadvertenti ne mediocria quidem praestare praestare: 12. ceterum cognosci animadvertenti. how is a moral example useful. According to the author.

ubi ı̄dem et consortione: 3. -are — ponder anguis. Nec quin: 16. -ere — submit haruspex. classis. -e — average augurium. togatum et calceatum corpori coniugis corpori: 3. -i — augury pergo.III.VII. What was Plautius doing in Tarentum? 2. impositā: 13.a distrahi vitā. Probably set in the 1st century BCE. -ere — take back landfall unguo. Plautius et Orestilla fati quis: 7.III. atque ibi uxor eius Orestilla. -icis — soothsayer aliquantō — somewhat valenter — strongly obitus.7 maximus et honestissimus amor est. -is — fleet Tarentum. Sanēque.1 Tarenti: 4. -ere — continue with rubor.I. funeratā eā unguendi et osculandi: 17.V. si quis sensus modo exstinctis inest. In what situation(s) would you be willing to give up your life for another? Are all such situ- ations equally honorable? 3. . -are — give a funeral reduco. Gracchus’s self-sacrifice was praiseworthy. -ire — establish insto.a Nam cum M. -is — snake lector.2 incubuit.7 in Asiam reduceret Tarentumque appulisset. -are — be imminent concitatus. The author tells this story in a context of marital love and devotion. Love 321 adfectus.V.II et in rogum impositā. -ūs — death contemplo.III.3. 13. -ntis — ardent stabilio. morbo oppressa decessisset.I. -i — Sicilian city opprimo. -um — percurro.a exstinctis: 3. . -ris — cause for shame interitus.III. -ere — put in.III. F. make funero.10 tenebris: 3.2.3 Quorum ibi factum sepulcrum est—Tarenti etiamnunc conspicitur. Quem amici. maris — male Reading for Understanding 1. but to what extent was it also gullible? 2. this story recounts how a man preferred the role of loving husband to that of loyal military officer and ambitious politician.1 dubito quin. -ere — anoint .7 consortione gestientes vultūs tenebris intulerint.2 si: 18. but is it possible that Gracchus sacrificed himself for some motive other than conjugal affection? 3. -ris — reader mas. -ere — survey salutaris. -a.VI. inter officium unguendi et osculandi stricto ferro ferro: 3. Plautius imperio senatūs classem sociorum sexaginta navium Tarentum: 4. -ūs — emotion subicio.V. subiectis facibus.1 quae illūc eum prosecuta erat. What happened to his wife there? 3.7 quem: 7. to be sure.III. -ūs — death ardens. What did he do at her funeral? cum: 16. utrumque unā cremaverunt. -e — salutary excitable mediocris.2 morbo: 3.I.3 subiectis facibus: iunxerunt ac deinde.XIII. aliquantō praestat morte iungi quam ubi: 16. Reading for Information 1. sı̄cut erat.I. funeratā .1. -ere — overcome sexaginta — sixty appello.

-ere — split calceatus. in miseriā curisque es solacium. -um — empty requies. 322 Annotated Readings stringo. ut verissimē dicitur. How do you explain this use of death as a yard- stick of love? 4. Where do his feet seem to take him in the course of his day? 3. What reasons does the author give for missing his wife? 2. who is away on family matters. Unum tempus tormentis: 3. -a. -a.V. litibus: 3. did Plautius’s friends act rightly in this story? 2. -i — solace hora. -um — wearing insum. Plautius’s service to the state may well have earned him a public funeral at Rome. What is his single distraction from this longing? desiderio: 3. a shared death is preferable to life in separation? 3. -ere — bar lack exigo.2 tenear: 16. -a.1 imagine tuā vigil exigo. cui es requies in labore. quod denique excluso: 3. deinde tui: 7. -ae — hour tormentum. vigil. -i — tomb aliquantō — sometimes a toga etiamnunc — even now distraho. The author portrays himself as at a real loss in the absence of his wife.2 aeger et maestus ac similis excluso a vacuo limine recedo. -are — cremate sanē — obviously togatus.V. -ire — desire incubo. -minis — threshold solacium. It gives us an uncommon glimpse into the emotional intimacies of Roman marriage.II. Vale.V. pedes ducunt. but he was buried instead at Tarentum. All of the anecdotes we have read here involving married love measure loyalty and devotion in terms of the death of one of the spouses. -esse — exist in shoes consortio.7 Incredibile est quanto desiderio tui tenear. -ere — spend vacuus.7 sit: 16. -ere — draw unā — together with gestio.V quod non consuevimus abesse. In your view.I. Inde est quod magnam noctium partem in quibus horis: 4. The following is a letter written by a husband to his wife. -are — lie atop cremo. Aestima tu. quibus horis te visere solebam. -um — wearing sepulcrum. quō in foro et amicorum litibus conteror. In causā amor primum. inde quod interdiū.III. -i — longing diaeta. ad diaetam tuam ipsi me. -nis — partnership Reading for Understanding 1. -ēre — be missing. -i — torture . desiderium. What do you think of the author’s assertion that where true love is concerned. -ae — dayroom careo.V quae vita mea sit. Reading for Information 1. -etis — relief interdiū — sometimes limen.10 his tormentis caret. -is — wakeful excludo.

-tatis — will hereditas. how does a wife establish the fact that she is the mistress of her house? 3. -dinis — loneliness voluntas. how would you feel? 5. Which of his wife’s qualities does the author specifically miss? Is this letter more about the author or the addressee? If you were to receive such a message from a sweetheart. -are — obey imputo. oboediens auctoritati. F. dispositioni: auctoritati domini. Adsidēre autem aegrotanti magis aegrotanti: 3. et vernulae beneficiis obligati.V. quae 3. What three motives does the author give for a man’s marrying? 2. When a wife takes ill.III. of a lover rejected by his mistress. id quod: 7. this passage expresses some very negative views about love and marriage. -i — tender loving temperament obligo. -ēre — sit by management oboedio. Written by a Roman who was also an early Christian Father. Aut si bona est. What motive lies behind a wife’s anxious tears when her husband is ill? 4. cum parturiente gemimus. si: 18. -are — be sick languor. coaegrotandum coaegrotandum est. dispensatio.7 possunt amici. et numquam ab eius lectulo recedendum.IV fuerit et suavis uxor (quae tamen rara avis est). -ae — home slave solacium. -nis — dispenso. Love 323 Reading for Understanding 1. quod placet. si adversum viri faciat voluntatem. -nis — vernula. the author criticizes the selfishness of wives. -are — manage adsideo.1 cum periclitante torquemur.V est. Quod si ipsa languerit. -are — indebted care obtempero. quam illa quae nobis imputat lacrimas suas (et hereditatis spe vendat illuviem) et sollicitudinem iactans. -ire — be obedient aegroto.I.III. quam uxor. -are — impute solitudo.3 beneficiis: 3. et dispositioni eius obtemperans. non quod iubetur. How is the passive tenear in the first sentence artful and effective? Would the active teneo te in quanto desiderio be as good? 2. The clause similis excluso a vacuo limine recedo is highly suggestive of a commonplace in Roman amatory poetry. What evidence do you find in this letter that the husband is feeling a bit rejected and even begrudges his wife’s absence? 3.7 in eo se esse existimat dominam. Reading for Information 1.9 ducuntur uxores: multō melius servus fidelis dispensat. According to the author. Starting with the claim that a slave is preferable to a spouse. languentis animum desperatione conturbat.V. what must a husband do? Si propter dispensationem domūs et languoris solacia et fugam solitudinis multō: 3. recedendum (est): 17. -ris — sickness dispositio. -tatis — inheritance .

divitem extollit.g.I adulteriis: 3.IV. -ēre — torture langueo.V. womb about evilesco. exhibeant: 15. -ere — become vile intumeo. -tris — belly. feratur: 15. o rem improbam. deformem redimit. -ei — dirt conturbo. Though written at the very end of the 4th century CE.IV. How should a wise man love his wife? 2.I nec praeceps feratur in coetum. 3.II exhibeant. iidem illis pudicitiam praeceperunt. -ēre — be sick together desperatio. -ae — adulteress together by lenocinium. Regat impetūs voluptatis. -ere — instruct abscedo. -tis — satiation adultera. -i — allure saltem — at least praecipio.IV omnis virtus ruit.IV. nec amatores uxoribus se perfect perdant: 15. non adfectū. non perdant filios..7 Itaque cito eius modi nuptias satietas solvit. 324 Annotated Readings illuvies. Reading for Information 1. In what respect should beasts be imitated? 3.III. -are — confound periclitor. maritos: 3. Quorundam matrimonia adulteriis cohaeserunt: amatores. -ere — disappear venter. Cum primum lenocinium rem: 3.4 Doctissimi viri vox est. -ēre — swell abstulerant < aufero The passage closes with a discussion of pudicitia. What are the masculine equivalents of pudicitia? pudicitiam: 3.1. quā amissā.IV. How does pudicitia mediate contrasts (e. esse retinendam: 17.V. postquam imitentur: 15. in suā nimius. -ūs — emotion cohaereo.III uxoribus: 3. -ēre — be brought satietas.7 adfectus.4 quasi adulteram.3 uxoribus iungi. quod libebat. What bitter irony does the author see in marriages whose origins began in adultery? In alienā quippe uxore omnis amor turpis est.b et. the feminine virtue of proper modesty. -e — pleasant The author continues with the claim that excessive love (and sex) between husband and wife is disgraceful and that any relationship predicated on lust is a faulty one. imitentur saltem pecudes et. Sapiens vir iudicio. -are — be sick torqueo. sed maritos. -nis — despair suavis. qui abstulerant. 3. -ari — put in peril sollicitudo. this passage would have met with the full agreement of Cato the Censor in the 2nd century BCE. -inis — worry coaegroto.5 illis (feminis): libidinis abscessit.III. Nihil est foedius quam uxorem amare se: 3. How does it mediate between generations? 3. Haec quā amissā: 13. unattractive/attractive) among women? 2. pudicitiam in primis esse retinendam.I intumuerit: future uxorum venter intumuerit. eviluit. In hac muliebrium virtutum principatus est.III. Certē qui dicunt se causā rei publicae et generis humani causā: 8. rich/poor.V. et liberos tollere. adfectū: iudicio debet amare coniugem.1 pauperem commendat. exornat .10 regat.7 or 3. Reading for Information 1.

-are — deify deformis. -um — external consecro. The soldier asked for what from the woman’s slave girl? Per aliquot annos quaedam dilectum virum sarcophago: 3.V.6 corporis pudicitia vindicat. -are — make brilliant exorno. modo: 3. bene de liberis. How did the widow get a reputation for chastity? 2. had committed what crime? 3.3 aeternum effert. -um — redimo.1 claram adsecuta est famam castae coniugis.II. -a. Captivitatis nulla maior calamitas est quam ad alienam libidinem trahi.IV patre dubitandum est. -ūs — beginning vitio. nec de dubitandum est: 17. something that can be taught and learned? 3.1 et in sepulchro lugens vitam degeret.V.1 amisit et sarcophago corpus condidit. nobilitent: 16. . -are — spoil militaris. as described in this passage. What do you think is the main point that the author of this passage is trying to make? 2. -a. “The Power of Love”: The Widow and the Soldier Reading for Information 1. bene in primis de se. Love 325 subole: 3. -um — secret eloquentia. -a.I Intereā fanum qui compilarant Iovis. whose bodies the soldier was ordered to guard. militaris gloria triumphusque novae gentis consecrat. -are — ennoble furtivus. doctus. eloquentia in nomen gentis: 3. Viros consulatus illustrat.V. -ere — praise externus.II.7 pulchram: bene meretur de maioribus. quibus nec de matre erubescendum. 5 compilarant: 20. The sentence Captivitatis nulla maior calamitas est quam ad alienam libidinem trahi is very provocative. -ere — redeem illustro. Mulieris virtus propriē pudicitia est.V. F. -e — ugly captivitas. quorum sanguinem furtivā subole erubescendum. -are — dress up illustrious nobilito. -e — military- point erubesco. -ere — blush triumphus.X Multa sunt quae praeclara ingenia nobilitent. -is — offspring effero. The criminals. -um — learned suboles. -a. What does it mean? Is it true? Does it have significance for today? Verse Readings 1. . -rre — launch principatus. cum: 16. Is self-control.I. .19 a quo revelli nullo cum posset modo nullo . -i — triumph extollo. a quo: 3. quam a contumeliā externi corporis: 3. non vitiat. -ae — eloquence Reading for Understanding 1. -tatis — captivity praeclarus.

15 aliquot — (indeclinable) fanum. Sollers acumen mille causas invēnit.III.X At sancta mulier. How did the widow solve the soldier’s problem? reclusis foribus: Paulum reclusis foribus miles prospicit.III Horum reliquias ne quis posset tollere.5 quae forte dominae tunc adsistebat suae dormitum: 17.III. 326 Annotated Readings cruci: 3. 30 Sı̄c turpitudo laudis obsedit locum. -ire — thirst dilectus.V. “Non est quod timeas. timeas: 16. Turbatus miles factum exponit mulieri. -ae — slave girl sarcophagus. namque lucubraverat et usque in serum vigilias perduxerat. saepius: 6.VI. How did the soldier react on first seeing the widow? 2. What happened one night during the soldier’s visit? 4. -a.1. 10 Aliquandō sitiens unus de custodibus nocte: 3. -i — attain includo.V.III per quas vidēre posset viduam saepius. -ere — attach lucubro. impotentis: 3. -i — temple aliquandō — once some compilo. -um — beloved crux. ne: 16. -ere — spend cadaver. quis: 7. -ēre — mourn tollo.5 videtque egregiam facie pulchrā feminam. dominae: 3. -arum — remains vigiliae. 13.III.III ne subeat ille poenas neglegentiae. artior: 6. -ere — enclose Reading for Information 1. Correptus animus ilicō succenditur.a custodes dantur milites cadaverum. monumentum iuxtā. How often did the soldier visit the widow? 3.7 cruci suffixi luerunt poenas numini. 20 posset: 16.II. mulier quō se incluserat.V. -are — stay up late condo.III.I dormitum eunti. -ere — steal perduco.1 Cotidianā capta consuetudine advenae: 3.3 facie: 3. -ere — bury poenas luere — pay the price serum. subeat: 16. -ere — draw out dego. figendum: 17.2 consuetudine: 3. -are — plunder sitio. -is — corpse adsequor.2 mox artior revinxit animum copula. . -i — crypt suffigo. -cis — cross ancillula. 25 desideratum est corpus ex unā cruce. -ere — tear away reliquiae.II. -arum — wakefulness lugeo.I.” ait.III virique corpus tradit figendum cruci.1 oriturque sensim ut impotentis cupiditas.6 aquam rogavit mediā nocte ancillulam. -i — late hour revello. Hı̄c dum consumit noctes custos diligens.2 paulatim facta est advenae submissior.

whose conduct had been so exemplary up to that point (see. After the death of a spouse. -a.. -ere — peer in vidua. -inis — intelligence turbatus.g.7 Repente caelum. Vicit locuples genus et formam pauperis. 17. line 28). 10 Asellus autem. 5 ultrā: 8. Do you agree? 2. -ae — link. -um — subeo. In the fable’s last line. -ire — suffer succendo. One Bride.VI parum ampla in urbe visa quod fuerat domus. . maerens propinquos contulit se in hortulos. Since the widow’s husband had received the proper rite of a funeral. et coniugalem praefert Hymenaeus facem. -tis — clever copula. “It’s Complicated”: Two Boyfriends. sancta.I. for how long should a person resist and be unavailable to the enticements of love? 2.V. Who owns the donkey that the bride’s family hired out? 3. -ere — explain ilicō — instantly submissus. -ere — inflame submissive turpitudo. behaved disgracefully. bond recludo. ut: 16. F. the poet expresses the view that the woman. misericordiā: 3.XIII Ut nuptiarum dictus advēnit dies. e. How does Venus intervene? Unam expetebant virginem iuvenes duo. Veneris misericordiā. -ae — widow distraught corripio. shut acumen. do you think her treat- ment of his corpse was disrespectful? 3. What distinguishes the two boyfriends from each other? Who wins out? 2. -ēre — take up Reading for Understanding 1. laedant: 16. -um — prospicio. -a. and the Gods Reading for Information 1. -ere — seize advena.III viae labores teneros ne laedant pedes. dolorem quia non poterat perpeti. -ire — bind obsideo. qui solebat pauperi quaestum deferre.2 quos ultrā paulō villa splendens divitis erat acceptura: erat acceptura virginem e matris sinū. amans. stabat portae in limine. Illum puellae casū conducunt sui. -ae — stranger expono. turba concurrit frequens. 15 ventis movetur. intonat mundi fragor noctemque densis horridam nimbis parat. -ere — close. Love 327 paulum — a bit sollers. Pompa explicatur. -inis — disgrace impotens — powerless revincio.

drink known dissipo. -ere — pursue.4 Procurrunt pueri.V. .d aequalitatis inter plausūs nuptias. -ari — be amazed posse sodalis. sese: 3. -ere — hire maereo. -rre — carry in front conduco. esset: 16. garden fax.V. parum . Inter sodales ille paucos accubans 25 poculis: 3. recreatus gaudiis. grando. Where does the donkey take the bride? 2.1 amorem crebris avocabat poculis.V. hortante . hortante Baccho et Venere. 30 coniuge: 3. -are — restore.7 Novus maritus coniuge amissā dolet. -i — park. Whom did the bride finally marry? Lux rapitur oculis. caelites. -ae — hortulus. -i — endure praefero. Quaerunt parentes per praeconem filiam. comprobarunt: 20. . -ūs — income intono. -um — scared poculum. suorum — loved ones conferre se — to take oneself weddings misericordia. ubi: 16. -ūs — applause accubo. -are — disperse recreo.V. -inis — threshold Reading for Information 1. -ere — run forth aequalitas. -ris — crash.2. voce: 3.XIII Ubi nuntiatum est. revive comprobo. 328 Annotated Readings 8.1 sibi quemque cogens petere praesidium fugā. -are — banish innotesco. -nis — town crier . -i — cup. fugā: 3. -i — cloud concurro.I omnes favorem comprobarunt caelitum. din parum — not at all porta. -are — relax praeco.II. et simul vis grandinis effusa trepidos passim comites dissipat. -ae — gateway nimbus. 20 Asellus nōtum proximē tectum subit. .1 et voce magnā sese vēnisse indicat. -are — resound paulō — a little defero.2 dulcı̄s: 5. -ere — assemble limen. -tatis — agemates. -are — approve procurro.IV. pulchram aspiciunt virginem et admirantur. -cis — torch sympathy ultrā — beyond quaestus. -ere — become trepidus. . -is — companion plausus.III.V Quid esset actum postquam populo innotuit. In what condition was the handsome boyfriend? 3. -rre — earn fragor. -a. -inis — hail avoco. -i — god of sui. -ēre — grieve Hymenaeus. court coniugalis. dulcı̄s perficit Venere: 13. deinde domino nuntiant. domus: because the house in the city hadn’t seemed big enough expeto. -um — gods admiror. -e — conjugal casū — by coincidence perpetior.

b Cum Venere et Baccho lis est et iuncta voluptas. animo: 3. quod: 7. Blanditiā. non imperio. Love 329 Reading for Understanding 1. Love.III. F. In venere semper certat dolor et gaudium.III. quae ventris amica est. quod: 7. noli: 19. gulae: 3.I.1 complectere: 19.V. The following aphorisms bear this out.1. you’re lucky”? 3. cum: 16. Amor miscēri cum timore non potest. Try retelling the story from the perspective of the bride. becomes a thorny psychological thicket when accompanied by other strong emotions. est iuncta: 9.III agitando: 17.V. Which do you think is a better moral for this fable.II Amans.V quod lautum est animo complectere. Omnis qui amicus est amat. sı̄cut fax. vigilans somniat. Non vincitur. fit dulcis Venus. sed non omnis qui amat amicus est.I Inhonesta victoria est suos vincere. Amantium ira amoris integratio est.8 Discordia fit carior concordiā. The outcome of this story is said to be commendable on the belief that the gods engineered it.V Amans quod suspicatur. which is rarely uncomplicated in its own right. agitando ardescit magis. “Love conquers all” or “When you’re lucky.2 Cum te detineat Veneris damnosa voluptas. sed fuge lites. sed vincit qui cedit suis. concordiā: 3. Amor otiosae causa est sollicitudinis. Apart from the poet’s assertion.5 indulgēre gulae noli. . is there any evidence to establish the gods’ involvement in and approval of this marriage? 2. Would it be the same tale? 3.

2 eripuit iuvenem. -are — dream inflamed integratio.V. -tris — gut. Amans iratus multa mentitur sibi. amari si velis. -a. In amore semper mendax iracundia est.5 Iniquē irascitur. -inis — worry discordia.4 ingenio. 13. -um — vigilo. amends for gula. 330 Annotated Readings suis: 3. ereptā coniuge: vivere et ereptā coniuge qui potuit.II si: 18. Reading for Information 1. What common fantasy does the poet imagine in the depths of his loss? 4. the poet. Frangit fortia corda dolor. Do the Ro- mans seem to view it in the same way? 4. non haec patientia nostro 5 ingenio: 3. we often view the combination of love and anger as dangerous. redimas: 15.III. -um — fine. Which two people does Lygdamus call hard hearted? 2. -ere — undo. puellae: Qui primus caram iuveni carumque puellae 3.1 Ab amante lacrimis redimas iracundiam. who has left him for another man. In what ways does love combine with other emotions? When is it positive.3 Non ego firmus in hōc.III. -a.b Cogas amantem irasci. -a.III. Lygdamus. dearly misses his Neaera (both probably pseudonyms). -are — lose sleep ardesco. What important detail do we learn about the relationship of Lygdamus and Neaera? iuveni. -um — idle sui.III.I.2. Durus et ille fuit. qui suis irascitur sine dolore. suspicor. -ae — gluttony elegant Reading for Understanding 1. -ere — become dishonorable somnio. In a poem of love lost. -um — ruinous lautus. -ae — coaxing redimo. -nis — renewal otiosus. and when is it not? 2. belly inhonestus. -ēre — get hold of blanditia. -a. . How well does Lygdamus claim to be holding up under his loss? 3. suorum — loved ones iniquē — unjustly sollicitudo. Which two aphorisms seem the most true to you? Which two seem the most false? 3. In our culture. -ari — suspect venter. lacrimis: 3. ferreus ille fuit. make damnosus. qui tantum ferre dolorem. -ae — discord mendax — deceptive detineo.

Does the poet imagine an expensive burial for himself? 3. causa: 3.I.IV.b conivgis ereptae.I. -um — attended fateor. ossa veste: 3. 30 praefor.10 incinctae nigrā candida veste legent.6 ossa: 3.d Ergō cum tenuem fuero mutatus in umbram cum: 16.II. velis: 3. veniat: 15.I tollere: 12. -um — frango.IV.V.V.V. What details about Roman funerary practices do you learn from these lines? 2.3. maereat illa viro. -ere — break incomptus.b post haec carbaseis umorem tollere velis. dives et Assyria.IV. who is participating in Lygdamus’s funeral? Praefatae ante meos manes. -eri — son-in-law The poet’s morbid fantasy continues with increasingly specific details. -ris — liquid lyaeus. -a. 15 liquore: 3. -a. taedia) mala: 3.3.3 atque haec in celebri carmina fronte notet: Neaerae: 3.II.a candidaque ossa suprā nigra favilla teget.7 sed veniat carae matris comitata dolore: maereat: 15. 10 veniat: 15.1 mox etiam niveo fundere lacte parent. lyaeo: 3. -um — white perfundo. Love 331 vitae: 3.IV. -a. -um — hard taedium. -a. animamque precatae.1 ponere: 12.I versūs: 3.V.I genero. manūs: 3. -a.II demonstret.I. capillos: 3.6.I ante meum veniat longos incompta capillos.III. -ari — invoke incinctus. 20 parent: 15. Besides Neaera. nostri: 3. -ēri — admit disheveled maereo.I. Reading for Information 1.2 perire: 12.3 maereat haec genero. 25 fundantur: 15.I.I Et fleat ante meum maesta Neaera rogum.V.3. -a.1.3.a tot mala perpessae. and the poem ends with Lygdamus’s proposed epitaph.IV. -um — unbelted niveus.4 sı̄c ego componi versūs in ossa velim.1 et primum annoso spargent collecta lyaeo. Illı̄c quas mittit pinguis Panchaia merces Eoique Arabes.6 et nostri memores lacrimae fundantur eōdem. -a. taedia: 3.a (after Nec mihi vera loqui pudor est vitaeque fatēri. -ēre — weep gener.II. -um — liquor.1 perfusaeque pias ante liquore manūs. notet: Sed tristem mortis demonstret littera causam 15.VIII lygdamvs hı̄c sitvs est: dolor hvic et cvra neaerae. ferreus. -ere — perfume annosus.III.I. -i — wine linen- . -ae — ash comitatus.4 nata (esse): 12.6 coniugis: 3. dolore: 3. cavsa perire fvit. -i — loathing maestus. velim: 15. lacte: 3.b atque in marmoreā ponere sicca domo. -i — suffer fleo.6 fleat.V.3.IV. -ēre — mourn perpetior. viro: 3. F. -um — old carbaseus.I huic: 3. taedia nata meae.1 pars quae sola mei superabit corporis. -a. -um — sorrowful hearted favilla.

I Ergō.I Fas et iura sinunt veteres extendere amores. -um — of eodem — at the same place umor.” This old saw reminds us that age doesn’t necessarily nullify passion.1. The genius lecti is the sexual and procreative power of the head of household’s bed. espe- cially an obsessive or frustrated love? 2. -a.V.V genius. -a. -ēre — burn up lampas. In what way does it seem strange that the poet should mention this mojo? . duremus. What would it say about you and/or the people you love? 5.XIII. quamvis adoleverit aetas. duremus: 15. -padis — lamp duro. utamur: 15. -e — rich Arabs. Nealce. -a. quod: 7.1 quı̄s tenera in nostrum vēnerı̄s arbitrium. Does this poem suggest that passion among older people was considered disgraceful or acceptable? 2. -ris — dampness Pan­chaea (mythic Red Sea celeber. -a. 332 Annotated Readings velum. quı̄s: 7. In this poem. Compose your own two-line epitaph. -i — guardian spirit arbitrium.IV. The name Nealce is Greek and suggests a prostitute or a freedwoman (or both). age.a utamurque annis.I Sit nox illa diū nobis dilecta. quos mora parva teret. -ere — lay out siccus.V.8 te: 3. -um — dried Eous. sit: 15. nobis: 3. -um — of island) known marble merces. -i — shroud Panchaius. -bre — well marmoreus. -bis — Arabian Reading for Understanding 1. fac: 19.I fac cito quod coeptum est. the poet exhorts his long-standing lover to persist in their love. -um — eastern pinguis. -are — persevere extendo. “Just ’cause there’s snow on the roof don’t mean there ain’t fire in the furnace. Why do you suppose the poet includes his mother-in-law in his death fantasy? 3. Why do you suppose death fantasies are so common among those experiencing love. Does that fact change the poem for you? 3. -bis. -ere — extend Reading for Understanding 1.III. non cito desinere.1 quae te prima meo pectore composuit. 5 adoleverit: 16. pectore: 3.10 sit torus et lecti genius secretaque lampas. -edis — product sino. -i — choice adoleo.

-licis — concubine exitus. non corpus facit. -i — beginning paulisper — for a little while paelex. Love 333 6. paelicis: 3. -trum — allegiance elābor.III. -i — indulgence. tamquam: Amare sı̄c incipe. iuveni.4 Oculi occultē amorem incipiunt.XII Quem diligas. Quı̄ pote transferre amorem. is neutrum capit.II. -minis — crime sui. In amore semper causa damni quaeritur. si exitum cogitaveris.b extorqueo.XIII. -e — lasting lepos. Amor. Amor extorquēri non pote. -i — loss quı̄ — in the way that . nuptae: 3.3 Amare iuveni fructus est. ni rectē moneas. si: 18. consuetudo perficit. suorum — loved ones perennis.I. -ūs — pleasure totiens — so often consuetudo. away neuter. -i — pursue obsequium.1. -tra. elābi pote. -dinis — habit crimen. ut lacrima. F.1 Obsequium nuptae cito fit odium paelicis. oderis. quotiens amittit suos. ni: 18. in pectus cadit. Paulisper laxatus amor decedere coepit. pote deponere. seni: 3. ab oculo oritur. non animus facit.6 diligas: 16. -oris — pleasure damnum. tamquam non liceat tibi desinere.2. -are — relax rectē — rightly fructus. Homo totiens moritur. 16. and time. -ēre — wrestle insequor.a. -ae — bride initium. Lepores duo qui insequitur. The following aphorisms examine the relationship between love. Perenne coniugium animus. -ūs — end laxo.I. crimen seni. loss.II.i Libidinis initia continebis. Amori finem tempus. -i — slip away neither nupta.

ocellis: 3. dum: 16. agri . -ēre — smile at meditor. -ae — grape cluster . prata: 3. The poet starts with a complaint against the fields where his love now lies buried. 3. how might you explain that difference? 3. What secret story will Lydia furtively tell? 3. -i — little eye roseus.3 Vos nunc illa videt. nimium multumque: O fortunati nimium multumque beati.3.10 hōc formosa magis. -a.VI hōc: 3. -e — green adloquor. do the Romans seem optimistic or pessimistic about the effects of time on love? 2. 10 aut roseis viridem digitis decerpserit uvam (dulci namque tumet nondum viticula Baccho). Reading for Information 1.3 membra reclinarit teneramque illiserit herbam.1 et gelidi fontes. agri: discetis amare.VIII aut inter varios.II.V. 5 et mea submissā meditatur carmina voce. -i — meadow ocellus. -a. If the Romans devoted less. mea quod formosa puella vobis: 3. which features of his beloved Lydia does the poet praise? 2. flores reclinarit: 20. avium: 3.I. lymphae). Invideo vobis.IV.III. -ere — pluck adrideo.III. vobis: 3.VI Tardabunt rivi lābentes (sistite.5 Invideo vobis. .4 est vobis: tacitē nostrum suspirat amorem. . Veneris stipendia. stipendia: 3.XIII. pratum. On the whole.a.V. In our culture. lymphae: 3. In this section. What will be the reactions of nature to Lydia’s story? vobis: 3. vobis mea Lydia ludit. -um — viridis. -um — rosy suspiro. et secreta meos furtim narrabit amores. aviumque silentia fient. gaudebunt mollia prata.1 vos nunc adloquitur. The loss of a girlfriend named Lydia to death forms the subject of this poem. mihi quae cantabat in aurem.7 in quibus illa pedis nivei vestigia ponet. -are — sigh for submissus. Again. -i — speak to lowered decerpo.i. vos nunc adridet ocellis. cantat et intereā. we devote a lot of attention to lost love. 15 Gaudebunt silvae.III.B dum mea iucundas exponat cura querelas. 334 Annotated Readings Reading for Understanding 1. which two of these aphorisms seem the most true to you? Which two seem the most false? 7. -ari — celebrate uva. agri formosaque prata.

-i — salary tardo. silvis. 30 silvis: 3. pater: 3. -ire — disdain infundo.7 frigore: 3. -are — recline rivus. -ae — water The poet begins to express his sense of loss.a quod mea non mecum domina est: non ulla puella doctior in terris fuit aut formosior. Lydia is obliquely and favorably compared to Europa and Danaë.3 Et mas quācumque est.V.18 sive libet campis: tecum tua laeta capella est. nobis: 3. -ae — calf. -ae — complaint illido. campis: sive tibi silvis nova pabula fastidire 3. making her worthy of which god’s attention? 3.IV (Iuppiter. tauro Iove digna vel auro avertas: 19.3 At mihi tabescunt morientia membra dolore. heifer pabulum. -um — chilly pleasant stipendium. -ere — infuse mugio.2 Cur non et nobis facilis. -a.III.IV. avertas aurem. -a. -ere — avert pererro. -ae — vine shoot gelidus. dolore: 3. F. according to the poet.II. -um — steep interpello.3.III. -i — food .I. -a. Felix taure. Why. -a. which he situates against a backdrop of the mythological and natural worlds. mihi: 3. -ire — bellow capella. What physical effects is the loss of Lydia having on the poet? 2. -are — interrupt averto. -oris — chill haedus.V. -ere — reveal reclino. -ere — bruise lympha.7 et calor infuso decedit frigore mortis. illi sua femina iuncta: 35 interpellatos numquam ploravit amores.d Et pater haedorum felix semperque beatē. a te vaccula non umquam secreta cubilia captans te: 3.3 mugire: 12. -ae — she-goat frigus. -i — river querela.4 frustrā te patitur silvis mugire dolorem. -are — seize fastidio. agri: mea gaudia habetis. -um — viticula.III.VI sive petis montes praeruptos. ac.V. si 25 tauro. illi: 3. natura. -ere — waste away capto.V. mea sola puella est).1. are the bull and the billy goat luckier than he? Invideo vobis. Reading for Information 1.III.16 fabula non vana est. -are — lament vaccula. fuisti? Cur ego crudelem patior tam saepe dolorem? tabesco. -i — goat quācumque — wherever doctus. saxa pererrans. -are — slow expono. mecum: 8. pater magni gregis et decus. -um — learned praeruptus. auro: 3. Love 335 nondum — not yet furtim — furtively iucundus. 20 et vobis nunc est mea quae fuit ante voluptas. -are — wander over ploro.

III. -ire — omit tuus (amor) = Endymion insparsus. -nis — condition vicis. tuus tecum est: cur non est et mea mecum? nōsti: 20. solvere: 12. non silvis fama locuta est? deum: 1. quae: 3.I.I. -ae — deity misereor. est: what things has a gods’ parade.7 aut insparsa videt mundo. -is — turn gesto. the daughter of King Minos.I Phoebe.III. sacratamque meae vittam temptare puellae.6.III.a condicio similisque foret mortalibus illis— mortalibus: 3. Notum Minoidos astrum quaeque virum virgo. With whom did Jupiter have sex before he was married? ausus (sum): 20. inque vicem Phoebi currens abit aureus orbis.IV.IV.3. -ēri — pity scattered over laurus. what things has a tale of the gods not proclaimed with [kinds of] wood? pallidus.1 cum: 16. (cum) foret: 16. Reading for Information 1. 40 tuus (amor): 3. Why does the poet wish that he were the first person guilty of forbidden sex? 2. became what? 3. 336 Annotated Readings The poet next points out that even the gods have had to deal with the loss of their loved ones.IV. -are — celebrate condicio. dolor nōsti quid sit: miserēre dolentis.3 haec quoque praetereo. recens in te laurus celebravit amorem.I.1 Laedere. quae . quō: 16.2.V miserēre: 19.II. potuit vos nostra quid aetas.4 Aurea quin etiam cum saecula volvebantur.I. Why doesn’t the poet further enumerate the gods’ love affairs with mortals? cum: 16. -i — laurel tree The poet wonders whether he was somehow responsible for Lydia’s death and whether her death was a punishment for their lovemaking. Reading for Information 1. and he wonders whether the pain of humans is more acute precisely because of the pains that the gods have experienced. The mortal love of Phoebus was turned into what? 2. dolentis: 3.X Luna. -a. caelicolae.b quae: 3.3 Luna. 50 vos: 3. .4 Sidera per viridem redeunt cum pallida mundum.1. -are — wear praetereo.I.1 Et quae pompa deum. -a.b immatura meā cogor nece solvere fata? 55 . -um — caelicola.IV Ausus ego primus castos violare pudores. secuta est. sı̄cut captiva. sit: 16.3.1 Omnia quisque deus secum sua gaudia gestat 45 mundo: 3. . -um — pale celebro.II. Ariadne.c silvis: 3.c condicio nobis vitae quō durior esset? 44. quae dicere longum est.V.

d tantum: 3. atque ex me dulcis foret orta voluptas.6 magistra: 3.7.II dulcia cum Veneris furatus gaudia primum cum: 16. Numquid minus aurea proles? deus atque heros Ergō quod deus atque heros. ut: 16. -are — sanctify letum. prius coniunx quam dictus uterque est.VI aetas (facit): 20.5 prius .3.1 Nam mihi non tantum tribuerunt invida fata. formoso supponens bracchia collo. -a. 60 12. et ille 70 fuligine: 3.VI Infelix ego. fama esset: 15. miserumque genus. fuerat Mavors distentus in armis. -ae — Venus distendo.1 Iuppiter ante. -a. sui: 7. Adonis made an adulteress out of which deity? 2.V Tantam Fata meae cordis fecēre rapinam. quam: cum Iunone. .D gaudia libavit dulcem furatus amorem. -ēre — take delight in Cypria. -rtis — Mars gaudeo.ii. -ere — distract insuper — on top of suppono.III mendacia: 3.I. amictū: 3. non illo qui tempore natus. sui semper mendacia factus. -i — deception premature invidus. non ullo moreretur tempore.II moreretur: 15. -ris — mistake immaturus.a. For what does the poet blame the Fates? moechum: 3.III.II.2 prima foret! Letum vitā mihi dulcius esset.I.II auctor ut occulti noster foret error amoris. quod vix oculis cognoscere possis.6 nascendi: 17. F. oculis: 3.II ut maneam.1 possis: 15. -i — adulterer accumbo.VIII.V. -um — furor.IV.2 nascendi. 80 moechus.10 fecēre: 20.1 furatus (esse): dicerer.V.8 Non mea.V. -ere — lay under turpo.1 atque rubens oculos roseo celavit amictū? Talia caelicolae.) Non Aurora novos etiam ploravit amores. auctor: 3.III. Where were Mars and Vulcan when Venus was with her lover? 3. collo: 3. credo. Cypria: 3.IV. quos insuper accumbebat. What natural effect was created when Aurora lost her lover Orion? 4.II quō facilis natura fuit. -ari — steal mendacium. Sors o mea laeva quo: 3.I.I.II quod: 7. Reading for Information 1. 65 sacro.4 Et moechum tenerā gavisa est laedere in herbā purpureos flores.7 tristi turpabat malam ac fuligine barbam. cur non minor aetas? 75 (fecerunt): 20. -i — death error.3. quo sera libido est.V.I. factus: 10.I. -um — jealous The poet continues with his description of divine sexual dalliances and ends his poem with a final lament. -are — dirty .XIII.a vitā: 3. nam certē Vulcanus opus faciebat.IV. 16. tempore: 3.2 ut: 16.V.7 (Tum. foret: 10.V.1 Cypria. Love 337 utinam: 15. -ere — lie Mavors. .IV Istius atque utinam facti mea culpa magistra facti: 3.

a tristia mandenti est melleus ore sapor. do you think the poet’s true love really died and he was left to mourn and make some sense of his loss? Alternatively. -are — eat Reading for Understanding 1. -ae — beard amictus. -i — apple apporto. perhaps this poem is merely the result of an assignment (“Write a poem.IV. -inis — soot amores = Orion coming barba. multum: 3. Does the poet truly appreciate the previous gifts of “apples” and a “hairy chestnut.II Tu licet apportes stringentia mala palatum. -a. -are — adorn mando. pulchra puella. -a. In this suggestive poem. 338 Annotated Readings mala. -i — mouth dissimulo. -are — bring melleus. venire.3 Omnia grata puta.7 oscula cum pomis mitte. -ae — deity dawn heros. -ūs — clothing rapina.V. ornares donum. -ris — flavor castanea. Does this poem seem emotionally authentic to you? That is. sed si magis ipsa venires. si: 18. mittis et hirsutae munera castaneae. -ae — plundering Aurora. vorabo libens. -ere — pucker sapor. -ae — chestnut palatum.IV. apportes: 15. the poet expresses appreciation for his lover’s “fruits” and invites her to come to him so she can bestow these favors in person. -um — honeyed voro. In our culture. -ois — hero Reading for Understanding 1. adultery).I. multum mihi cara. hirsutus.e.” or does he regard them as mere come-ons? . Why isn’t the same distinction made clear in this poem? 2. 3. -um — shaggy stringo. in which you lament the loss of a dead lover”) given by a grammaticus. What does the poet’s sweetheart send him? 2. -ere — eat pomum. 8. -ae — goddess of caelicola. Explain what the poet means in his complaint for the human race sera libido est (line 78). -um — slow in fulgo.1 At si dissimulas. mittis.I. What does he call these gifts? mihi: 3.3 Aurea mala mihi. -a. less than a hundred lines in length.. -are — tell lies orno. tuum. Reading for Information 1. we distinguish pretty clearly between premarital sex and extramarital sex (i. -are — lament serus. dulcis mea Martia.1.III.18 si: 18. 5 tristia: 3. ore: 3. -ae — cheek ploro.

-i — silence pervigilo. -i — exile roughed up expedio.2. nullum iter expedio. 5 solus. dure. -erum — mangled.d solus ego ex cunctis paveo somnumque torumque. canum: et volucrum cantūs turbaque fida canum. How are lines 8–13 especially dreamlike? 2.III. cum: 16. -era. sursumque capillis excitat et lacerum pervigilare iubet.1 carpebam et somno lumina victa dabam. piget.2 “Tu famulus meus. -ire — make ready Reading for Understanding 1. io.4 cum me saevus Amor prensat.) also sug- gest food. rursumque redire 20. exsilium. magne Cupido. -ēre — be afraid lacer. sweetie pie. solus. Reading for Information 1. 1. etc.I. et pudor est stare viā mediā.5 paenitet. 10 Ecce. What might he mean? 3. Though the poet vows to heed the god. -are — stay awake rursum — again prenso. cum: 16.V. What do you suppose is the connection between sexual passion and orality? 9.III. Many of our endearments (honey. et sequor imperium. sugar.” inquit.I.10 Lecto compositus vix prima silentia noctis somno: 3. the god’s words. where is the love. iacēre potes?” Exsilio et pedibus nudis tunicāque solutā omne iter impedio. At what point in the poet’s sleep does the dream occur? 2. Love 339 2. paenitet: Nunc propero. What does Cupid call the poet? Does he treat the poet accordingly? lecto: 3. -ūs — sound sursum — from behind io — ha! paveo.III. silentium. tuum. and his own reaction. tacent voces hominum strepitūsque viarum volucrum. nunc ire piget. -are — seize famulus. “ames cum mille puellas. F. -i — slave strepitus. where is the obedience in this poem? . The poet here describes the appearance of the god Cupid in a dream. This poem is frankly oral. The poet says his mouth is currently “chewing on bitter things” (tristia mandens).

do we share some of these views of love? Can you think of some similar song lyrics? 3. Amicitia semper prodest. Non est hominis maior stultitia quam putare se amari ab his. aut cum sapias non ames. Some infirmities and afflictions are curable. cupiat.III ostendit se numquam sui causā vixisse. 340 Annotated Readings 10. -ae — madness Reading for Understanding 1. non ponitur. qui facit.V Amans quid cupiat scit. Amor animi arbitrio sumitur. If viewed according to a medical model. amor et nocet. Amare et sapere vix deo conceditur. Qui propter pecuniae vel libidinis amorem moritur.a Honestius est cum iudicaverı̄s amare.1 Cum ames non sapias. sapias. As the following sententiae make clear. sapiat: 16.II non diligat. -ūs — emotion dementia. sui: 7.I. rationis: 3.2 Nil rationis est. the diagnosis is love! Amoris vulnus idem sanat. ames: 15. Nec mortem effugere quisquam nec amorem potest. cum: 16.3. quam cum amaverı̄s iudicare. -i — decision ius iurandum — oath adfectus. quos ipse diligat: 15. quid sapiat non videt. What common view of love do all the preceding aphorisms express? 2. ubi res semel in adfectum venit. arbitrium. which is love? .I. Amantis ius iurandum poenam non habet. cum: 16. some aren’t.II In Venere semper dulcis est dementia. In our culture.II.

A dialogue on love: two potential lovers discuss whether to consummate their mutual attraction.I caeci protinus irruamus illūc— nam languescit amor peritque flamma.I et tecum iaceamus osculantes. What’s his purpose in proclaiming it in the manner that he does? 3. Non ergō.b et taedet veneris statim peractae. cortici: 3.7.III. Reading for Information 1. -icis — bark glisco. et diū iuvabit. iuvabit: hoc iuvit. According to the second speaker. -i — apple exinde — thereafter impleo.a Quandō ponebam novellas arbores māli et piri. -ēre — fill in pirum. ut pecudes libidinosae.” 10 .2. Reading for Information 1. 20. what is wrong with sexual passion? 2. -um — young cortex. -a. What wordplay do you notice in the last line of this poem? 2. What ambiguity in the word animus does the poet exploit in the last line? 12. How do farm animals behave? 3.3 cortici summae notavi nomen ardoris mei. iuvat. novellus.6. According to the first speaker.III. -ere — spread mālum. sı̄c. What is the future of this proclamation? quandō: 16. Hic nullus labor est ruborque nullus: iuvit.a hoc non deficit incipitque semper.” 5 “Sed sı̄c.XIII. how should the lovers spend their time? Why? “Foeda est in coetū et brevis voluptas veneris: 3. The poet claims that he was doing what when he decided to proclaim his love? 2. irruamus: 15.II. sine fine feriati iaceamus: 15. Love 341 11. iuvat. gliscit ardor: animus implet litteras. -i — pear Reading for Understanding 1. Nulla fit exinde finis vel quies cupidinis: crescit arbor. F. Duly noted: the poet describes how he publicized his love in a time-honored way.

IV Atque utinam posses uni mihi bella vidēri! 5 displiceas: 19.III. The poet here claims to love no one other than his girlfriend and to be exclusively devoted to her. nec iam te praeter in urbe te praeter: 8. atrum — dark foedus. This poem purports to be by the famous poet Tibullus but is in fact just an imitative tribute to his style of writing.2 Tu mihi curarum requies. 10 mihi: 3.II quā nulla humano sit via trita pede. -ere — grow weary rubor. who speaks each side of the debate? 2.I qui sapit. subduco. -a.3 formosa est oculis ulla puella meis. Which of the two sides does it seem will win the debate? 13. Why does the poet want others to see his girlfriend as unpretty? 2. Is the first speaker really saying no? 3. -a. sit: 15.IV oculis: 3.10 Nil opus invidiā est. Reading for Information 1. et in solis tu mihi turba locis. procul absit gloria vulgi: absit. -ere — rush into feriatus. -um — pretty requies. -ari — kiss libidinosus. tu nocte vel atrā lumen.III. atra. -um — lusty languesco. -a. 342 Annotated Readings taedet — it disgusts illūc — there osculor. utinam: 15. Reading for Information 1. what does the girlfriend supposedly provide the poet? Nulla tuum nobis subducet femina lectum: hōc primum iuncta est foedere nostra venus. the poet experiences a sudden change of thought. The poem closes with the poet acknowledging his utter subjection. -etis — rest After a bold claim and a sacred vow. -i — mob ater.V.IV Displiceas aliis: sı̄c ego tutus ero. Sı̄c ego secretis possum bene vivere silvis. would the poet react to a heaven-sent girlfriend? 2.III. mihi: 3. allegedly. in tacito gaudeat ille sinū. What god does he make his oath to? Why? . -ere — wear down bellus. -eris — bond tero.5 Tu mihi sola places. gaudeat: 15. invidiā: 3. How. -ere — steal vulgus. Why doesn’t the poet boast of his love? 3. Although the poet gives us little solid evidence either way. -ris — cause for shame irruo. In lines 9–12. -um — at leisure Reading for Understanding 1.

F.IV. parva extolluntur amore. -a.1 nec fugiam nōtae servitium dominae. dominae: 3.I. Why does the poet swear an oath to one goddess but sit suppliant at the altar of a different goddess? 2.1 Hoc tibi sancta tuae Iunonis numina iuro. -a.7 Alta cadunt odiis. hoc: 3. Iuravi stultē: proderat iste timor. demens. in tacito gaudeat ille sinū) with the confession in line 20 (hoc peperit misero garrula lingua malum)? 14.1 si ipsum ut amicus amas: amor est pretiosior auro. odiis. -um — unjust pignus.1 Virtuti amorem nemo honestē denegat. Quid facio demens? Heu! Heu! Mea pignora cedo. mittetur frustrā deficietque Venus. In amore forma plus valet quam auctoritas. -ere — be seated Reading for Understanding 1. si: 18.3 hoc peperit misero garrula lingua malum.II Nunc licet e caelo mittatur amica Tibullo. me: 3. ama. 20 Iam faciam quodcumque voles. final miscellany of aphorisms on love. Iam magnum reddis modico tu munus amico.III.III. Why does he suddenly think that expressing his devotion is a mistake? 4.V.8 Si vis amari. Which motifs in this poem strike you as a little trite? Do they diminish your appreciation of the poem? 3.V. tuus usque manebo. sed Veneris sanctae considam vinctus ad aras: supplicibus: 3.5 haec notat iniustos supplicibusque favet.II.1 Nunc tu fortis eris. To what does he finally compare his situation? mittatur: 15. virtuti: 3. -oris — promise servitium. -um — chatty iniustus.IV.III. How do you reconcile the aphorism of line 8 (qui sapit. -ere — produce consido. -i — slavery pario. . nunc tu me audacius ures: (mihi) misero: 3. auro: 3. amore: 3. Love 343 3. -ntis — insane garrulus. A brief. 15 (per) numina quae sola ante alios est tibi magna deos.

does amor seem an overstatement? Would some word meaning “admiration” seem more apt? 3. -ere — praise humble expensive Reading for Understanding 1. -um — extollo. For the second aphorism. In the first aphorism here. forma can mean “beauty” or “appearance” or even “the human body”. -a.” How should this aphorism be best understood? 2. For the third aphorism. -are — refuse modicus. auctoritas can mean “prestige” or “social class” or “authority” or “external influ- ence. -a. 344 Annotated Readings denego. -um — pretiosus. can you provide some examples of alta and parva that bear out its truth? .

Pa rt I V


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A. Acquisition Vocabulary
To achieve reading fluency in Latin, it is essential that you constantly work at building your
Latin vocabulary. Mastering the following lists will virtually guarantee you a good vocabu-
lary, suitable for future readings in both prose and poetry.


1. From Morphology and Grammar Review section 6, learn all the adjectives and ad-
verbs listed in I.4 and II.4.
2. From Morphology and Grammar Review section 8, learn all the prepositions listed in
I.1 and II.1.
3. From Morphology and Grammar Review section 10, learn all the irregular compound
verbs listed in I.7, II.7, and III.9.
4. From Morphology and Grammar Review section 11, learn all the deponent verbs
listed in capital letters; also learn the semideponents provided in II and III.
5. From Morphology and Grammar Review section 20, learn all the impersonal verbs
listed in III.1, III.5, III.6, and III.7.

II. The following words appear eight or more times throughout this text; their
frequency alone justifies learning them.

accipio amica ars
advenio amicus at
aeger amitto atque
āer amo aura
aes amor audio
aetas ancilla auris
ager animus aurum
ago annus aut
ales appareo autem
alienus appello avis
aliquis aqua avus
alius ara axis
alter arbor bellum
altus arma bellus

348 Vocabularies

beneficium caedo canis
bibo caelum
cado campus

cantus coepio cum (conjunction)
capillus cogito cunctus
capio cogo cupio
caput colo cura
carmen coma cursus
carus compono dea
casus condo debeo
cauda coniunx decus
causa consilium dein, deinde
caveo consul depono
cedo contentus deus
celer corpus dico
certus cras dies
cibus credo dignus
citus creo diligens
civis cubiculum diligo

discedo emo fatum
disco enim faveo
diu eo, ire feles
divus equus felix
do ergo femina
dolor eripio fero, ferre
dominus et ferus
domus etiam fides
dormio exemplum filia
dubito exercitus filius
dubius existimo finis
duco explico flamen
dulcis facilis flamma
dum facio flos
duo factum forma
effugio fama
ego fas

A. Acquisition Vocabulary 349

formosus hīc impono
fors hic inde
forte homo iniuria
fortis honestus inquam, inquit
fortuna honos or honor intellego
forum hostis interficio
fuga humanus invenio
fugio iaceo ipse
gaudium iam ira
gens ibi is, ea, id
genus idem iste
gero ignis ita
gradus ille itaque
gratia illīc item
gratus imperator iubeo
gravis imperium
habeo impero

iudicium līber (adjective) membrum
iungo liber (noun) mens
ius līberi meritus
iuvenis lingua meus