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i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6

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On a porous medium combustor for hydrogen
flame stabilization and operation

Siou-Sheng Su a, Sheng-Jye Hwang a, Wei-Hsiang Lai b,*
a
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road,
Tainan City 701, Taiwan
b
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics & Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy,
National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan

article info abstract

Article history: In this study, the characteristics of hydrogen flame stabilization in porous medium
Received 30 July 2014 combustor were investigated. The flame was observed in a quartz tube. The porous me-
Received in revised form dium was oxide-bonded silicon carbide (OB-SiC) or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with 60 PPI and
9 October 2014 30 PPI pore size distributions. The results indicated that under a low equivalence operation,
Accepted 13 October 2014 the flame would transform from surface combustion to interior combustion with an
Available online 8 November 2014 increased heating value. Under a high equivalence ratio, both interior combustion and
flashback transition existed at the same time. The thermal conductivity of silicon carbide is
Keywords: higher than that of aluminum oxide. Thus, interior combustion region was more extensive
Hydrogen under a low equivalence ratio operation with a high premixed gas velocity. Flashback was
Flame stabilization apparent for Al2O3 under high an equivalence ratio with low a premixed gas velocity.
Porous media Consequently, hydrogen flame stability could be controlled by the pore size distribution
Oxide bonded silicon carbide and thermal conductivity of the porous media, input heating value and input equivalence
Aluminum oxide ratio.
Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.

Solid fuel such as coal and wood were commonly employed on
Introduction and literature review steam engine and boiler. Nevertheless, the major break-
through of energy usage was transited from solid fuel to gas
During past decades, human acquired energy from fossil fuel and liquid form gradually. Gas fuel (hydrogen and methane)
resources and produced greenhouse gas (e.g. carbon dioxide has the chance to become one of the main energy sources for
and methane) into the environment. Global climate change human beings in the low carbon emission age [1]. Because of
was possible due to fossil fuel combustion. Besides, natural soaring petroleum price, renewable energy, such as hydrogen,
energy resources will vanish soon. For example, coal supply wind, solar and bio energy applications are rapidly developed.
can only last 200 more years. The global oil crisis and carbon These new clean energy technologies will not only prompt
dioxide reduction make energy research an important issue in efficiency but also reduce carbon emission in the future.
the world. Energy technologies have been an important issue Hydrogen molecular is the smallest and lightest of all ele-
since nineteenth century when industrial revolution started. ments, thus it is difficult to exist in pure form in the universe.

* Corresponding author. Fax: þ886 6 2085914.
E-mail address: whlai@mail.ncku.edu.tw (W.-H. Lai).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.10.059
0360-3199/Copyright © 2014, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

for example the steam reforming reaction on hydro- carbon fuel being able to produce large quantity of hydrogen.1. Vol% ¼ 4e75%) and highest heat release per mass in kilogram (LHV ¼ 119. It is also possible to calculate the combustion gas temperature based on the Fig. 2. in hydrogen enriched combustion [4e6]. upstream flame is bluish either due to CH* radical formation plications of hydrogen as a fuel. Moreover.8. [8] analyzed hydrogen flame temperature in cylinder by chem- iluminescence method. Besides. The light information collected was employed to analyze combustion temperature in the cylinder.7. Many studies aimed to apply hydrogen to taminants in hydrogen fuel source. such as petroleum refined procedure and water electrolysis. Flame (d) F ¼ 0. so temperature fire. The ultraviolet wavelengths below 400 nm are not visible to human eyes so that H2 flame could not be seen [8e10] (Fig. Therefore hydrogen flame stability studies play an and light emission would be increased. F ¼ 1. could attribute to the natural properties of hydrogen. Especially under high pressure ratios. The chemiluminescence intensity of hydroxyl radical (OH*) depends on the equivalence ratio (F). knocking or back. e. The concentration of vapor would induce high pressure condition. premixed and diffusion flame of hydrogen combustion. Decreasing the equivalence automobile applications. (c) F ¼ 0. the flow field in combustor would be affected due to the high laminar flame velocity and non-equidiffusion phenomena (preferential diffusion and non-unity Lewis number). 2 e Flame luminescence photographs of turbulent. several new hydrogen production technologies were developed. 2. some abnormal combustion phenomena. It is thus necessary to carefully design the colors vary with reactant gas purity.g. and the flame temperature is also a function of equivalence ratio. [8] could be used to monitor the ultraviolet emissions of the OH* radical. As the results of minimum ignition energy (0. . the major emission after hydrogen combustion is water vapor. The optical system used in Ciatti et al. It won't cause any green house gas (GHG) emis- sion.02 mJ) and laminar flame velocity (SL ¼ 290 cm/s. etc.1e7. 1). The premixed flame light of hydrogen carbon molecular.0.8). Fig.7 MJ/kg) [2]. Ciatti et al. When higher hydrogen content. 0. Thus. vapor (H2O) are the major species on hydrogen flame. By chemiluminescence. 0. (a) F ¼ 1. its widest flammability limit (F ¼ 0. the reddish part transited to invisible gradually in the operation in cylinder. or due to trace amounts of hydrocarbon con- carbon dioxide. flame structure would be distorted due to Fig. spectrographic signal. abnormal combustion phenomena leaner conditions (F ¼ 0. Schfer et al. Besides. the bluish and reddish part in high hydrogen storage and transportation need to be overcome in equivalence ratio (F ¼ 1.62. Moreover. However. the reddish replace gasoline in internal combustion engines since flame of downstream was due to the vapor of product in hydrogen combustion won't produce nitric oxides or involve hydrogen combustion. from carbon dioxide pyrolysis which is commonly present in The exhaust gas of vehicle is one of the major sources of atmosphere. with. flame holding would be a problem for hydrogen combustion applications [3]. (b) F ¼ 0. An optical system with laparoscope and optic fiber was used to transfer the light wavelength in a combustion chamber to a spectrograph. the stability of combustion (burning rate and flame structure) will different from normal premixed flame of hy- drocarbon fuels [7].0.7. Flame obser- vation is important for combustion study. such as auto-ignition and flashback. flame was important role that could assist the development of hydrogen brighter and flame length was longer under high equivalence internal combustion engine [2]. Nevertheless. [9] studied flame color of premixed H2eair jet [9].0) of hydrogen. As a fuel. high diffusion and eddy formation near the entrance. 1 e Emission spectra in typical hydrogeneair flame [9]. the wavelength of vapor is around 600e900 nm which is close to that of red light. There- fore. shows that the fuel parameters and combustion chamber geometry for ap. the advantages of hydrogen are its highest adiabatic flame temperature (2390 K). there are still many problems in has two regions in Fig. The wavelength of OH* radical emission is about 295e325 nm.21308 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6 The hydrogen resources could be obtained in many ways. Hydroxyl radical (OH*) and ratios.62). and CH* was higher in fuel richer combustion.

The oxidizer source (air) was controlled by mass-flow controllers possibility of these non-equilibrium could make redistribution (MFC) with a LabVIEW program.995%) and air were supplied from a high equilibrium. During experi- together. respectively.5 mm in diameter) were used to measure tem- structure and preheating mechanism. changing the fuel/air ratio. 3(a). pressure steel cylinder and an air compressor system. k) of the preheating mode could raise the premixed gas temperature solid medium in different materials (OB-SiC.2 mm and a stabilized on the surface of the downstream medium. 138. make sure the gas flowing into the combustor was under three flame modes were observed in porous media combus. The equivalence ratio and moving to upstream. Flame stainless steel tube with inner diameters of 50. the steady and flame mode operation and fluid field on porous media. adequate pressure to avoid harming the mass flow tion. The temperature distribution [15] modeled the permeability and porosity of the preheating measurement and data acquisition system was composed porous zone (PPZ) and combustion porous zone (CPZ) with K-type thermocouples and a data acquisition (DAQ) card. The first mode was owing to the inlet velocity profile and controller. three levels of parameters under hydrogen filtration combustion were geometric length scales of porous media were studied. hydrogen source (99. Al2O3) would before getting into combustion zone and reducing heat loss. The Premixed gas was then introduced to the combustor heat transfer mechanism of the medium generated a surface chamber. Fixed hydrogen volume flow was set to inlet flow velocity were also important factors that affected fix input heat value and was adjusted the air flow rate by the flat flame position. In the studies by Catapan et al. The hydrogen flame locations in the combustor devices. which resulted in a conical flame regime. the ratio of domestic water heating [16].g. Recently. then overall objective of this paper was to find the variations in hydrogen temperature is too low to reach thermal equilibrium state. The mass flow controller (MFC) for hydrogen the fluid phase pressure drop and nonzero force balance at the and air had the flow range between 0 and 10 L/min. [14]. affect the size of flame mode regions under the same input Oliveria et al. in a porous media burner. engines. Porous media the flame velocity (SL) and the input heating value depended combustion is different from that of free flame mode. The flat flame position was a function of thermal ment. When on hydrogen flow rate (Q). The temperature difference The experiment apparatus was shown in Fig. 178 and 198 mm from the bottom of the CPZ. pellet level and catalyst surface level.12]. The combustor was constructed with a 150 mm long plane flame regime on a large pore size ceramic bed. energy storage and recirculation. tial of the phases made local chemical non-equilibrium. the local tube. at the joint of entrance and expansion parts when flame stream and downstream media. fuel and of heat and reactants. 3(b). difference among the species chemical poten. flame and stabilize than that of hydrocarbon fuels. the high temperature region would be contained to stop stabilization. The numerical study of Khatami et al. a compact porous media burner with a heat At the beginning of experiment. which verified in this study. The main heats walls and spreads to the environment. injection flow. combustor as shown in Fig. ited to the other one due to increased flame velocity and stream by conduction and radiation on the solid phase. 98. large mismatch between the thermal properties of fluid and Experiment system solid phases and highly endothermic and exothermic re- actants between the gas/solid. The solid surface made the mechanical non-equilibrium. and respectively. temperature. compared and discussed through the were system level. premixed gas was ignited exchanger was incorporated into an electro-fossil system for at the downstream by the spark plug. Too flame stabilization and hydrogen filtration combustion mode low wall temperature may cause abnormal combustion. The equivalence ratio (F) affected good heat recirculation and flame stability.5. [13] studied the heat transfer. Results of non-continuous gas/ Apparatus solid phases and phenomenons made some non-equilibrium states in filtration combustion. much research has ratio. pore size distribution and material of the up. had strong influence on the temperature distribution in the 51. the heat transfers to up. The thermal properties (CP. i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6 21309 In micro-scale combustion systems [11. chemical potential of species and pressure dif- ferences were caused by a non-uniform reactant distribution. In his paper. and air pressures were fixed at 2 kg/cm2 by a pressure regulator to enhance reaction rates. For the unburned hydrocarbon reduction in diesel were determined by the temperature distribution. 118. 158. The flame would then . e. Therefore. combustor so the heat release is less than heat transfer in a The base of the hydrogen flame is less easy to be observed micro-scale combustion chamber. observations of the temperature distribution in a quartz Under the multiple length scales of porous medium. Signals from the thermo- Applications of porous media are widely used in industry couples were displayed on a thermometer and stored in a and daily life as a good heat recirculation and low pollution computer. The results of the simulation showed that the The K-type thermocouples (maximum operation temperature permeability of the material at the PPZ affected the flame 1200  C and 1. The between the gas/solid phases made local thermal non. hydrogen flow rate and medium materials (OB-SiC and been focused on the use of porous media in combustors with Al2O3) were considered. extension of fuels flammability surface over volume is larger than that of a macro-scale limits and the load of be heated in furnaces etc. Porosity of the media perature distribution. The thermocouples were located at 25. chemical reactant conditions. The flame mode would be trans- flame stabilizes in porous media. This input heating value. Before experiment. The divergence angle third flame mode was submerged flat flame which existed was 60 and the divergence section could assist in flame when two layers of different pore size distributions were used holding and positioning the porous media. The 68 mm long conical section respectively. In small combustors. Parameters including equivalence quenching and flame flickering.

When a transited to further upstream. Properties OB-SiC Al2O3 (92%) Experiment procedures Diameter*Length (mm*mm) 49  22 49  22 Pore size (PPI) 30. diagram. The flame zone Before experiment. different materials or combination of ma.29) for ignition and the hydrogen flame was staying Thermalephysical properties of a porous medium downstream of the porous media from the spark plug. A flame prop. hydrogen and air flow rates were 1. the upstream mode would transited through. cold start procedures were needed in movement in the combustor was recorded with each mea.5 and 3. Max. modes could thus be identified based on the results of the eled toward the reverse direction of gas flow. 2.87 Heat capacity (J/kg K) 675 765 section. and then the experiment reactions and mass transport processes takes place in the gas was started.0. from surface combustion to porous media was dense and the downstream was coarse.2 and 0. 1. order to make stove reach thermal equilibrium and ensure surement point as shown in temperature distribution that each combustion phenomenon was steady.0 L/min. lence ratio were recorded by a data acquisition system. above the conical section. First. of further upstream would begin a reaction. porous media were set in the cylinder part of the apparatus. different combustion media would act like an igniter. coarse pore medium. tained for 5 min with a fixed air flow rate before the mea- agates easily in large pores and quenches in small ones. The temperature signal data for each equiva- tion phenomenon. the temperature in porous high temperature is stabilized on the downstream porous media would be raise to the hot gas temperature. the combustion is in flashback mode.69 0. 60 The hydrogen flow rate was 1.0 L/min (F ¼ 0.5. When hydrogen flame trav. 60 30. In the experiment. Since the combustion heat would be the combustion is defined as interior combustion. The equivalence ratio was controlled by adjusting the and solid phases at the same time. Each equivalence ratio setting was main- medium is affected by porosity and pore size. the porous Based on the temperature distribution. 2. the combustion is defined as surface combustion.8 experiments. The hydrogen flow rate was fixed in each exper- phase. The flow field of a porous inlet air flow rate. The interior combustion then to flashback. At first. The dimensions of the porous media were 49 mm in outside diameter and 22 mm in height (Table 1). In surements was taken. 4. When the medium.7 8. while the heat transfer process takes place in both gas iment. until each A porous medium involves solid and gas phases. This condition was maintained for around 10 minutes. propagate to upstream as well as kept on the surface of the temperature is detected between the interface of two media. Mov- terials with different pore sizes need to be studied for use in ing from fuel lean to fuel rich conditions.0 L/min and 8. to ensure a steady state heat transfer order to constrain hydrogen combustion to interior combus.5 in the Thermal expansion (106 K1) 4. Table 1 e Thermalephysical properties of porous media. when a high temperature is detected by Thermal conductivity (W/m K) 480 46 the T2 thermocouple and the flame is held in the conical Emissivity (600 K) 0. and flow field. as shown in Fig. the premixed gas experiment.21310 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6 Fig. Combustion measurement location of stabilized. temperature of the porous media was high enough.0. When a high . the combustion the combustion chamber. The pore size distributions were 60 and 30 PPI (Pores Per Inch). (b) Schematic of the temperature measurement locations. 3 e (a) Experiment equipment system. usage temperature ( C) 1510 1700 and the equivalence ratio was between 0.

the peak tem- The results for the reaction process under constant pres- perature versus position under different equivalence ratios (F) sure was calculated using a commercially available Cantera is shown in Fig.0 L/min. the un-reacted oxygen residue in the coarse pore media. 298 K) 436e550  C for aluminum oxide (Al2O3).0 L/min. and that was why there are no temperature measurement results for F ¼ 0. Fixing the hydrogen flow rate at 2. Flame (F ¼ 0. The pore size 2H2 ðgÞ þ O2 ðgÞ þ 3:76N2 ðgÞ42H2 OðgÞ þ 3:76N2 ðgÞ (1) distribution was designed as a two layers of dense and coarse porous media from upstream to downstream. Under ultra-lean operations (F ¼ 0.35) and the peak temperatures were around temperature and velocity of gas fuel can also be predicted. the axial temperature profile were obtain DH 298 K ¼ 483. 6.2. 5.0 L/min case. the enthalpy of combustion of hydrogen is 483.5.162 kJ/mol.0) which would absorb reaction heat and decrease flame non was defined as interior combustion.2e0.164 kJ/mol equivalence ratios.2e0. 5 e Adiabatic flame temperature and laminar flame the interface between dense and coarse porous media.0 was calculated.2 in Fig. Hydrogen combustion Temperature distribution of hydrogen combustion in porous Eq.0 atm. the flame passed through the downstream medium and stayed around Fig. The T3 thermocouple detected the peak product was higher than that under stoichiometric condition value in temperature profile and the combustion phenome- (F ¼ 1. For the aluminum oxide medium. For both OB-SiC and Al2O3 settings. The velocity of Hydrogen.4e0. the leaner fuel condition tures were 442e448  C for OB-SiC and 485e530  C for Al2O3 for interior combustion. 413e473  C for oxide bonded silicon carbide (OB-SiC) and Hydrogen reaction in standard condition (1. the temperature profiles under different equivalence ratios were shown in Fig. peak values of temperature profile were 573e710  C for the . In Fig. the flame passed through the medium would be increased with increase in equivalence ratio.25). 6(b). Fixing the hydrogen flow rate at 1.162 kJ/mol and compared at the same fuel flow rate under different DG 298 K ¼ 457. In this section. There was no flashback combustion observed for the hydrogen flow of 1. the hydrogen flame stabilization phenomena in porous media combustor were discussed. 5. Cantera is a mechanism design software to model downstream of porous medium for the low equivalence ratios gas combustion and production formation (CO2. The peak tempera- temperature and velocity. the com- bustion zone stayed on the surface of downstream medium for the OB-SiC setting. The peak value of the temperature profile was around 500  C which is a little lower than that of at Al2O3 setting (581  C). could avoid too fast flame velocity and prevent flashback Results and discussion under high equivalence ratio. H2O).2e1. Under stoichiometric conditions. The blow-off phenomenon took place under extremely lean conditions. For and stayed around the interface between the dense and lean fuel combustion. adiabatic flame temperature and velocity increased to 0. 7. the hydrogen flame was not sustainable in the combustor for equivalence ratio lower than 0. The adiabatic the flame staying on the downstream medium is defined as flame temperature and laminar flame velocity were shown in the surface combustion. (1) is the hydrogen and air theoretical chemical reaction media combustor formula [17]. The combustion zone stayed on the software. When the equivalence ratio Fig. The phenomenon of under equivalence ratio 0. 4 e Different pore size distribution of oxide-bonded silicon carbide and aluminum oxide. Increasing equivalence ratio. Thus. i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6 21311 Fig.

0 L/min. interior combustion operation regions with OB-SiC porous pore medium and stabilized around the interface between the media. were 659  C for OB-SiC and 687  C for Al2O3 respectively.3. Therefore.25 operation. the temperature all. the flashback under the same fuel flow rate.0 L/min). 8. the operation profiles under different equivalence ratio shows in Fig.0 L/ distribution for F ¼ 0. the flame passed through the coarse thermal diffusivities come from the combustion flame.0e2.2e0. and this makes it easier for the flame mode transited to rate (2. Finally.45 (hydrogen flow rate ¼ 2. Flashback phenomena took place under higher Al2O3. 7 e OB-SiC and Al2O3 material.3.5 (hydrogen flow rate ¼ 1.2). The interior combustion was interior combustion with the Al2O3 porous media under maintained under F ¼ 0.25 operation for both OB-SiC and F ¼ 0.0 L/min) and higher equivalence ratio. the flame stability depends on a balance of perature profile were 600  C for OB-SiC and 620  C for Al2O3.21312 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6 Fig. Lewis number is defined as higher flow rates than at lower ones. The hydrogen flame the ratio between thermal diffusivities of the combustion re- stayed on the surface of the coarse porous medium under low action and mass diffusivities of the inlet gas velocity. under low hydrogen flow rate (1. For the case discussed here. the flame hydrogen flame didn't pass through the small pore medium passed the dense porous medium and stayed in the conical and instead stayed on the conical section. In pre- equivalence ratio operation (F ¼ 0. The peak values of the temperature profile for interior equivalence ratio operations. In . The peak value of tem. the part. The dense pore medium (60 PPI) combustion were 582  C for OB-SiC and 650  C for Al2O3. axial temperature Fig.0 L/ min).0e3. The combustion zone moved to upstream position in maximum temperature were 651  C with OB-SiC and 788  C combustor and the peak values of axial temperature profile with Al2O3 under the flashback combustion. mixed combustion. was no longer able to held the hydrogen flame. min). these two values. axial temperature distribution for F ¼ 0. window for surface and interior combustion was wider. In Fig. The peak value of the temperature was 665  C for dense and coarse porous media. when the equivalence ratio was increased to F ¼ 0. Increasing hydrogen flow rate means increasing input heat Flashback phenomenon existed under higher hydrogen flow value. Above Fixing the hydrogen flow rate at 3. 6 e OB-SiC and Al2O3 material.2e0. the source of Under F ¼ 0. 7. The temperature Lewis number is considered as a dimensionless parameter profiles of surface and interior combustion were thus lower at for premixed flame stabilization.

the thermal diffusivity and flame velocity were too weak to force the flame to move upstream. the combustion zone moved to upstream.57 cm/s). For a higher fuel flow rate input.4e0.2e0. Laminar flame velocity versus equivalence ratio was shown in Fig. Under low hydrogen flow rate (1.0 and 3. The lean fuel flammability of hydrocar- bon fuels is higher than that of hydrogen (CH4: 0. more heat energy would circulate toward the upstream and promote further upstream premixed gas to react. For cases as equivalence ratio increasing. the flame velocity of hydrogen still could be higher than that of hydrocarbon fuel in stoichio- metric condition (CH4: 40 cm/s. and the flame more easily moved upstream.2e0.0 L/min). with this rising to more than 100 cm/s with a higher equivalence ratio (F ¼ 0. general (free flame condition).35e0. Increasing equivalence ratio (F ¼ 0. One of the advantages of hydrogen combustion is that it could operate in ultra lean fuel conditions. the flame velocity would also increase under a low hydrogen flow rate.0 L/ min). axial temperature distribution for F ¼ 0. i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6 21313 Under filtration combustion conditions. When the flame ve- locity was faster than inlet gas velocity. the preheating effect was more apparent than that of low Fig.2e0. flame velocity increased. flame moved into media due to temperature raising.35). 5. media.7e1. 9 e The regions of combustion modes for hydrogen the stabilization of flame control is an important issue for filtration combustion (a) with OB-SiC (b) with Al2O3 porous engineering application of hydrogen combustion. 8 e OB-SiC and Al2O3 material. the flame velocities was in range of 10e75 cm/s. For higher hydrogen flow rates (2. Even though in ultra lean fuel condition.0).5 for OB-SiC and F ¼ 0. Flame mode could be transformed to interior combustion from surface combustion when F ¼ 0.0 L/min). . than under of lower fuel flow rate. too. with a lower equivalence ratio (low flame velocity) and fuel flow rate (low input heating value). For lower equivalence ratio cases (F ¼ 0.5 for Al2O3. the thermal diffusivity was not strong enough. The flame would stay on the surface of the coarse porous medium under lower equivalence ratio (F ¼ 0. C3H8: 44 cm/s) [17].6). Therefore. con- vection and radiation inside the combustor. the thermal energy of combus- tion reaction could preheat the input gas via conduction.5).3e0.53 cm/s. The thermal diffusivity would be greater under a higher fuel flow rate (input heating value). There a greater in- crease in temperature and stronger preheating effect as the thermal energy input increased. The combustion zone passed through the coarse porous medium and stayed at the interface between the two porous media and surface combustion was transformed to interior combustion. Fig.3 (hydrogen flow rate ¼ 3. Thus. C3H8: 0.

then conducted in Al2O3. For the flashback mode. . larger for OB-SiC. ignited due to preheating. When The flame could thus cross the surface of the coarse porous working with Al2O3 media. Cp ¼ 765 J/kg K). So that the flame modes could thus transit through thus a higher equivalence ratio was needed in order to achieve the three combustion modes. the flashback could be for both OB-SiC and Al2O3. thermal properties of the solid me. both high ergy dispersed in OB-SiC was faster than that Al2O3.25). During interior combustion. Therefore. For silicon carbide. For the interior combustion mode. During surface combustion. the operation region both upstream and downstream directions. Cp ¼ 675 J/kg K) is 10 times was achieved. the surface flame stayed at the interface of the two porous media and the combustion region with OB-SiC was smaller than that with heat was absorbed by the solid medium. Cp ¼ 675 J/kg K). The thermal conductivity of silicon maintained until a higher equivalence ratio (F ¼ 0. which decide the amount of heat transfer and thus the temperature of the media. However. the premixed gas in porous media could be of each flame mode. hydrogen flow rate and flame mode would become flashback medium and interior combustion took place. due to the thermal energy apparent for silicon carbide. a rise and interior combustion under the same equivalence ratio in temperature was not apparent for aluminum oxide.21314 i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6 Fig. the equivalence ratio limit of interior combustion and then to flashback. its heat capacity is higher than that of OB-SiC (OB-SiC: (flame velocity and input heat value) and porous media k ¼ 480 W/m K. the temperature to rise and the premixed gas to react upstream. During sur- dium also played an important role in the operation window face combustion. depending on the surface combustion for aluminum oxide is higher than that of equivalence ratio and fuel flow rates.4 or 0. but poor heat transfer.2e0. The thermal en- was wider for OB-SiC. The heat transfer ability of OB- arrangement. could make flame transit from one mode to SiC is better than that of Al2O3 and thus its thermal energy another. the input heat values.45) carbide (OB-SiC: k ¼ 480 W/m K. the interior combustion region could be greater than that of aluminum oxide (Al2O3: k ¼ 46 W/m K. The heat transfer effect was more was higher than that of OB-SiC. Thus. 11 e The photography images of hydrogen combustion for Al2O3. Although the thermal con- This section discusses the three modes of hydrogen flame in ductivity of Al2O3 (Al2O3: k ¼ 46 W/m K. from surface combustion to interior combustion. Nevertheless. and conditions. the thermal properties of porous media Hydrogen flame stabilization operation regions in a porous were important factors affecting the formation of combustion media combustor regions.3) the flame stayed on the surface of the ity. Cp ¼ 765 J/kg K) is filtration combustion. Consequently. 10 e The photography images of hydrogen combustion for OB-SiC. which could be easier for the being stored in solid media. silicon carbide. an increased flame velocity with Fig. For higher equivalence values and high input heat values were necessary input heat values (325 or 406 W). heat did not transfer easily into the Al2O3 solid medium. The peak temperature for Al2O3 downstream medium. 9 showed the flame mode transition limits in hydrogen from surface combustion to interior combustion under a low filtration combustion under different equivalence ratios and equivalence ratio (F ¼ 0. The adjustment of the input conditions lower. import and export from porous media are easier. under a lower equivalence The results showed that Al2O3 had good heat storage abil- ratio (F ¼ 0. Under low equivalence ratios. The combustion mode transformed Fig.

2 This work was supported by National Science Council of and 0. Prog Energy type of combustion modes.3) is need to transform surface surface combustion and flashback regions due to low combustion to interior combustion under the same input heat thermal conductivity and high heat capacity (k ¼ 46 W/m K.5). fuel that was input. the combustion modes were surface 2009. hydrogen flame stabilizer. Under low input heat Visible emission of hydrogen flames. Analysis of jet flames and with a higher input heat values (325e487 W) and higher unignitied jets from unintended releases of hydrogen. The more measurement. Di Benedetto A.35e0. and more hydrogen would react. Under F ¼ 0. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2009. Patterson BD.220:487e508.37:669e715. Wallner T. The quartz tube photographic images also high temperature in th media due to thermal energy which showed the accuracy of the axial temperature measure- caused the upstream premixed gas to react. combustion. Bihari B. Time heated the unburn gas with a solid medium and increased resolved particle image velocimetry of dynamic interactions the heat utilized in lean fuel operations. Furthermore. Proc its higher thermal conductivity (k ¼ 480 W/m K). no hydrogen flame could be seen by naked eye in the images [8. and helped in identifying the combustion mode. with interior combustion of Al2O3 there was a Cp ¼ 765 J/kg K).35).38:7510e8. value. Int J equivalence ratio (F ¼ 0. [6] Di Sarli V. The combustion modes were determined [2] Verhelst S. and induce different system. i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f h y d r o g e n e n e r g y 3 9 ( 2 0 1 4 ) 2 1 3 0 7 e2 1 3 1 6 21315 higher equivalence ratio (F > 0. The surface combustion. the Al2O3 porous media combustor had wider 2006. combustion or flashback from surface combustion. it is that engineers can combustion and flashback regions could be larger. Taiwan. 10 and 11 showed the hydrogen flame luminosity hydrogen combustor. Kulatilaka WD. and thus avoid flashback damage. Int J Chem Eng The combustion mode could be transformed to interior 2012.28:569e77. Establishing combustion operation region of the combustion modes was dominated temperature in hydrogen-fuelled engine using spectroscopic by the input heat value (or hydrogen flow rate). combustor. Di Benedetto A. Laminar burning velocity of hydrogen-methane/air premixed flames. hydrogen flame propagated in the upstream direction with [7] Di Sarli V.37:16201e13. In this study the experiments to characterized the stabiliza- tion of hydrogen flame in a porous media combustor. Int J characterize the actual flame modes. Combust Flame value (162 or 243 W).221:699e712. Wallner T. and photographic images were also used to photography [3] Karim GA. Di Benedetto A. Acknowledgments During low equivalence ratio operations. Mohanad AA.32:637e46. the interior combustion range was wider due to [12] Kamal MM. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2013.156:1234e41. versity. since heat was difficult stabilize the hydrogen flame in a combustion chamber. These images could confirm the actual combustion situation and flame positions along the axis. the interior combustion flame stayed at the Taiwan (grant number NSC 102-2221-E-006-180). some conclusions from the above [4] Di Sarli V. The interior ments. The [8] Ciatti SA. The heat of the combustion reaction pre. Hargrave GK.27:235e64. Int J Hydrogen investigations could be drawn as: Energy 2007. the greater the preheating effect was [9] Schefer RW.9]. For the OB-SiC porous media Combust Sci 2011. The flame heated the solid medium and research also received funding from the Headquarters of emitted the light with the color being slightly reddish for silicon University Advancement at the National Cheng Kung Uni- carbide and yellow ocher for aluminum oxide. Effects of non-equidiffusion on 1. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion by the peak temperature on the axial distribution in the quartz engines. and this interface of the media. Stability and emissions of a lean pre-mixed an increased flame velocity (or a greater equivalence ratio). On the Inst Mech Eng Proc Inst Mech Eng Part D J Automob Eng other hand. The fluid and thermal ef- [1] Dunn S. .34:5961e9. Schefer RW. Hydrogen Energy 2009. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part D J Automob Eng 2007. Therefore. operation regions. so the flame was between hydrogen-enriched methane/air premixed flames and toroidal vortex structures. Settersten TB. input heating value (hydrogen flow rate) and thermal properties (k and Cp). Hydrogen futures: toward a sustainable energy fects due to the fire characteristics vary. Hydrogen as a spark ignition engine fuel. interior combustion and flashback limits references were controlled by inlet parameters including the equivalence ratio (flame velocity). [11] Ju Y. The thermal properties of solid medium also affected the development and fundamental research. Using porous media for Hydrogen Energy 2003. The authors also express their appreciation to Dr. find more suitable parameters for the operation of a Figs. tube. Combustion in porous media. photographs observed through a quartz tube with OB-SiC and Al2O3 as the porous media. or interior combustion. combustor with rich catalytic/lean-burn pilot.3 operations. to be conducted and sustained in the Al2O3 media. ROC. Int J Hydrogen Energy more stable under low equivalence ratio operations. which is sponsored by the Ministry of Education. the surface Based on the results of this study. Maruta K. Microscale combustion: technology 2. combustion could transist into flashback under lower an The porous media combustor was designed in this work to equivalence ratio (F ¼ 0. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2002. The 2012. Long EJ. flashback occurred [10] Houf WG. Evans GH. The features of the hydrogen flame with a porous media unsteady propagation of hydrogen-enriched methane/air combustor were different to those seen with conventional premixed flames. However. [5] Di Sarli V.35:490e527.22:1e13. Ming-Pin Lai at Research Center for Energy Technology Conclusion and Strategy (RCETS) for his assistance and discussion in relation the design and preparation of the experiment.

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