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pseudogenic, iatrogenic or traumagenic? — how do we know that DID is real?

carolyn spring

Pseudogenic, iatrogenic or
traumagenic? — how do we
know that DID is real?
by
“So I’m curious. On what do you base me but also for hundreds of people I
your belief in DID?” have come across in the last couple of
years.
This was a tweet I received from a
fellow twit based in the US a few I had never heard of the terms Carolyn Spring
months ago. The more I use social ‘dissociation’ or ‘dissociative identity
media, the more I realise how disorder’ until just a few years ago. I Carolyn Spring is a freelance
controversial Dissociative Identity hadn’t even come across ‘multiple writer and trainer and is a DID
Disorder is. For me, after the last 5 or personality disorder’ and I first read survivor of extreme childhood
6 years, it is ‘normal’. I write about it, the book Sybil about three years ago,
abuse. She is also Director of
I train about it, I read about it and and watched the film for the first time
most importantly of all, I live it on a just a couple of years ago. I hadn’t PODS and TASC.
daily basis. So I’m always surprised been exposed to any other media
when I come across the ‘DID-deniers’, representation of DID that I am aware
the majority of whom seem to be of. Despite my wide reading and This case has been the subject of the
based in America. If I do a search for education, Gollum and Sméagol are spotlight in recent months as a new
‘dissociative identity disorder’ on the nearest I had come to it, and book has been published. Written by
Twitter, on a daily basis I can come certainly no-one was using technical Debbie Nathan and entitled Sybil
across dozens of tweets from people terms to describe them. Exposed: The Extraordinary Story
mocking it, making a joke out of it Behind the Famous Multiple
One of the arguments against DID is
(some of them stupefyingly tasteless, Personality Case (2011), it gives
that it is a disorder created by therapy
some actually quite amusing), and ‘proof’ that the allegedly true story
– it is ‘iatrogenic’; literally, its origin is
most of all attacking its credibility as was fabricated. (I am yet to
in the treatment. So someone may
a psychiatric diagnosis and in fact its understand why anyone thinks a true
go into hospital for a back operation
very existence. story is true when Hollywood is
during which the bowel is ruptured.
So when someone I have never met The ensuing problems with the bowel involved …) But a number of
tweeted me to say, “So I’m curious – are ‘iatrogenic’ – they were caused by newspapers, magazines and websites
on what do you base your belief in the surgery, the treatment itself. And have devoted numerous column
DID?” it got me thinking. How to one of the arguments is that DID is inches to discuss the book’s ‘findings’
answer? How can I take the totality caused by the therapist, planting the and some have therefore by
of my life, the first-hand, this-is-it suggestion that we have ‘multiple extension decided that DID does not
experience I have had over the last personalities’. Either consciously in exist at all as a valid diagnosis.
few years, and construct out of it order to please, or at a completely I stand up in public on a regular basis,
some argument that would ‘prove’ unconscious level, we then develop have written numerous articles, am in
that DID exists? the symptoms expected of us. This is the process of writing a book about
the argument levelled at Sybil, and DID, and yet I got a cold shiver down
The reality is that all of us will believe
Simone Reinders, a neuroscientist my spine when I first read about the
what we want to believe, and all of us
involved in studying DID (and who exposé of Sybil. The thoughts that
will deny what we want to deny, and
does in fact believe that DID is a valid ran through my head were: Am I
if I am responding to sceptics in the
diagnosis), concedes that Sybil was “a making it all up too? Am I a fraud, a
hope that I can change their mind, I
manufactured iatrogenic case of fake? Is this all a case of ‘false
am wasting my time. What interests
multiple personalities … Sybil was memories’ and am I just
me more is thinking about the
manufactured through hypnosis, subconsciously trying to please my
journey that I myself have been on
pentothal and a close involvement therapist? Am I in fact more ‘mad’ and
that has got me to this point of
between subject and more ‘bad’ than I realised?
believing that DID is a valid diagnosis
therapist” (Reinders, 2008, p.45).
and a very real experience not just for

january 2012 • Volume 2 • Number 1 multiple parts 19

is DID real? The and accounts of horrific abuse. There are some that I had dissociative symptoms to a couple of discreet friends. phenomena such as ‘multiple parts of admitted to a psychiatric ward and doesn’t make it so – it doesn’t mean the personality’ are created. especially that the ones causing the problem in the difficult for us all now to get away which would appear to be from a first place? from. that we don’t have a potential. or exaggerated as a job. much younger part of me. but especially the shameful times of my life. When people the further away we can move from a didn’t like ‘the ropes’ and so on. Just because this is the case at University. adopt a position that is ‘totally true’ immediately falls down in my case is so my bizarre behaviours were kept or ‘totally false’. I was shamefully of multiple personalities” (Reinders. are deeply ashamed of it. when we are But there is also an argument that it ‘breakdown’ during which suicidality suffering from a non-existent provided a skewed representation of and self-harm were once more high disorder. many years before I first sat in whom was my housemate and from january 2012 • Volume 2 • Number 1 multiple parts 20 . we would multiplicity. that I else to know about it. or never let out again. Friends would report supposed to be helping are actually actually is – a caricature that it is very ‘strange behaviour’. is anyone to know. it is deeply standard’ for DID. that either at a conscious or an afraid that I was ‘insane’ and that if I 2008. for all of us. the better it will be gain at the time – it remains one of distressing to us. the better it will be and for me not to suffer the loss of respect and reputation that resulted other term we prefer to use). p. stereotype of tutors. The evidence for that friends in College wandering around plague their lives on a daily basis are is a little bit obvious. I didn’t want anyone to know. that I seemed to be and as a result don’t want anyone don’t think it is. iatrogenic or traumagenic? — how do we know that DID is real? carolyn spring I know a lot of people with DID. we strive to therapist. and are intrinsically ‘bad’ or hopelessly case of Sybil is proved to be ‘true’ or acting and speaking in a childlike ‘mad’. There is no doubt that the most painfully embarrassing and we would like nothing more than to Sybil – the book. I didn’t want was “a manufactured iatrogenic case know as the sociocognitive model. anything other than a sign that they particularly fussed about whether the staring into space or rocking. Some may argue that it is a manner. I would be because a journalist says that it was. and they struggle to believe doesn’t mean to say that pregnancy found at various times by various that the plethora of symptoms which does not exist. On the other hand. For several weeks I was history. whose ‘pastoral care’ of me had as its only goal my achieving a 2006). encouraged. result of expectations from the form a relationship or marry or have ‘splitting’ mentality. many. weird and reported back to me about what had incomprehensible though at times it model of Sybil as a kind taken place during these episodes of is. I would have done for us in our daily lives. that we don’t have “… the further away we being ostracised from my peer group fundamental divisions in our psyche and brought me to the stern and between ‘Apparently Normal can move from a unforgiving attention of the College Personalities’ and ‘Emotional Personalities’ (van der Hart et al. I was at discover that we don’t have DID after film – brought Multiple Personality Cambridge University. the dissociative went to a GP about it. and the First. public relations disaster for DID.pseudogenic. and the absolutely no motivation whatsoever magazines and blogs claiming that model of Sybil as a kind of ‘gold to do this for attention or secondary ‘DID’ doesn’t even exist. On the one hand. lot of them struggle to believe that of their own emotional needs that I had what I would term my first they have DID. my career. So I’m not vaguely in the middle of the night. stereotype of multiplicity. and a pregnancies and tell people because a therapist’s room. later. and the people who are what Dissociative Identity Disorder on the agenda. I did the argument that just because Sybil iatrogenic argument for DID. accompanied by inconsolable terror Of course.” in that most demanding of actually they aren’t real and they environments. what on earth anything to stop them happening is wrong with us? And if we just think we have parts or alters (or whatever DID. I actually think that afraid of ‘the men coming’. They struggle to they are having a baby when they are ‘breakdown’ during my second year believe that they had a traumatic not. have just been created by the therapist who was supposed to be After I left College a couple of years helping us … then what hope is there Disorder into public consciousness. I was mortified at what was be terrified: if this label. I feared for my that genuine DID doesn’t exist. They reported that I was diagnosis. and I was ‘acting mad’ and horrific history of childhood trauma in a way that just resulted in me or neglect. I had start writing articles in newspapers. but I ‘not myself’. again I suffered a kind of for recovery for us. Where this argument kids.45) – and let’s face it. one of people who experience pseudo. a high-flying all – that we don’t have multiple student with significant academic personalities. also my best to hide it all. there is some false logic in So. when for all of us. my ability ever to Sometimes in our black-and-white. Many of us with DID hate our ‘false’. just unconscious level. firstly then. doesn’t describe what is going on of ‘gold standard’ for ‘lost time’.

I had seemed a natural and logical A few months later I started to see a read a lot of books to try to make extension of what had gone on in our new therapist. somewhere. I came back into – all of it was ‘normal’. I had suffered a catastrophic mortified to realise that I didn’t know ‘badness’ and that I needed to keep breakdown which affected every area what had gone on for most of the on trying. ‘alters’ to appear in counselling. talked about it together. especially normal while I was in counselling so It just was. with a deeply anxious sense that I couldn’t quite remember where. and quietly. I don’t know what triggered it. the and literally didn’t know what of my alters had introduced startle reflex. I had to be tied any more. more ad hoc than they had been up with it. I was desperately ‘dissociation’ played a role even level it was certainly easier to believe hoping that she would say no. iatrogenic or traumagenic? — how do we know that DID is real? carolyn spring whom it was impossible to hide quite that I could just get better quickly either of us that there might be a so much ‘insanity’. but I do know that ‘lost time’ I’ve got?” And again: “What do you But I entered therapy with the became a feature of our sessions and think?” I shrugged. and yet having been somewhere but I ‘post traumatic stress disorder’. and reading something that described ‘normal’ stuff. not think I was used to it at home. teetered on the edge of existence. the guilt. that I was just making it all up. It didn’t really occur to january 2012 • Volume 2 • Number 1 multiple parts 21 . I now and wonder why we never really people on the ‘other side’ were fully intended to be thoroughly tried to figure out what was going on. and anyway and so sessions were a little Disorder’. just the self-harm. after 13 together and make sure that I didn’t beginning of my next session. because we’d had to use a different trying to cope with life by day whilst room. in case she somehow hoped against all hope that I hadn’t me. In private. “Is this – to keep it hidden any longer. a label to describe it. The nearest I would go home and beat myself up the room with that foggy sense of could get to an accurate label was for lying and making it all up. “What do you think?” And I’m not sure what happened counselling. came back the reply. And I went into counselling very I wouldn’t have this ‘thing’ hung much determined not to mention the A few months went by and the puzzle around my neck like a millstone that fact that I had these little episodes of of what I was. I didn’t want anyone to just been talking about. In my professional career. who was 4 years old. I was that it was part of my inherent in 2005. messed the whole thing up by acting madness of my behaviour – had a My husband met parts of me called ‘weird’. It was the Summer months name: ‘Dissociative Identity ‘Diddy’. I took it away and devoured it everything. the idea. because I had no just a normal member of society. and maybe a bit harder. my therapist personalities’ or ‘parts’ made session that familiar sense of waking produced a booklet about trauma themselves known to my husband up from a deep dream and not being and dissociation. I sat and tried to argue ‘Charlie’ who was an 8-year-old boy.pseudogenic. Again. It just had picked the word up from. I wanted this during sessions. the puzzle of what my marked me apart from ‘normal’ lost time. the panic. that I was experiencing. and that I like in a dream. “Is this what next. we hid able to quite remember what we had read it. My husband was always been on the ‘right’ side of the counsellor to help me. or people did too.” ‘dissociating’. I was relieved. I instantly. it gave me a break to pull myself didn’t really apply to me. I had listened to myself talk like her. going to say next. And then. “Do you think I’ve got But somehow. we months of chaos and not being able ‘lose time’ again. name for it. the hypervigilance. and I really assessment session. and for nearly a year I session that day. and that it was something that other It was over ten years later before I It took about 3 months for ‘parts’. And then one day in my session. But on an emotional DID?” I asked. and suggested I and one close friend. This new one had lots sense of what I was experiencing. treated and referred to. eventually. just wasn’t. but at the at the end of ourselves. Then I themselves to her. because then I wouldn’t have a label. I started me?” I asked. the anger. I was shocked to realise that the myself talking but from a distance decided to play it cool. the about a rape in a stables. pointing out all the ways that I and ‘Switch’. the physical pain. But by the end of the first insomnia. I think I just assumed began to have counselling. the word knew it was. Perhaps it was ‘stop it’. lectured myself in a stomach-sinking feeling that I was wouldn’t even see the GP about ‘must do better’ kind of a way. the confusion happened next – until I said it. Suddenly ‘it’ – ‘it’ being the figured out what else was going on.” I express intention of not that it became a kind of talked-about hoped: “Maybe not. I berated myself. “Maybe. By then. and that it was true. and I had seen the way that mad and that I was untreatable. try to get her flashbacks of abuse I was and wondered what on earth I was to realise that I wasn’t mad. during which my husband behaviour meant. where I had watched of experience working with DID. and we look back table. at night a whole series of ‘alter but I did have towards the end of the towards the end. and earlier sessions. was getting bigger people and placed me on the ‘other dealt with a child part hiding under as my behaviour became more side of the table’ as I saw it at the the table who didn’t want her wrists bizarre and I lost more and more time time. and there was that awful. who was again male to that point. the shame. I was deeply ashamed. because wasn’t an exact match and that it and about 12. know. I don’t know where I -but-not-talked-about thing. to my horror. though I didn’t know what it was. 14 edginess. to of my life.

I am genuinely dissociative. legal or other gain. I never ever that is to say that it was caused by saying is true when you ‘hear’ wanted to be on the ‘other side’. iatrogenic or traumagenic? — how do we know that DID is real? carolyn spring when they weren’t there. that on occasions this does happen. but I still accordingly. and so phobic of the we think we ‘should’ be like – for they were there over ten years realities of the abuse that led to that example. which is and control over switching. if I’d but co-existing streams If only we could convince people wanted to. 2006) divide DID screening tools and when I was cases into traumagenic (ie genuine). or to avoid equally convinced that in my case. thinking. And most of emotional needs. feigns symptoms not for financial I think the vast majority of people reasons.” would be – and I hated it. literature on this subject (Reinders. by pretending to switch to a previously. “But I didn’t know that. suggested a particular case. my annus horribilis of “We’re not really DID after all – we’re breakdown and utter insanity. and most positive sense as well. which yourself saying it from a distance and yet by having a label. And have a positive impact and empower health information if you ever want secondly there is ‘factitious’ dissociative survivors to cope well to get reasonably-priced life presentation.” And she seemed so dramatic way than we need to. but it did make me label that seemed to fit. I eventually completed some 2008. to be explain to people who do not her if I had brown hair. discussing the results of them with iatrogenic (caused by the therapy) or where there is a convergence of my GP she started tapping away on pseudogenic (falsified). but in order to assume the The case of Sybil suggests that with DID that I have met are sick role. that somehow ‘proper DID’ and act and behave experience it. know. The experience of co-consciousness. parts of the personality. year. It’s hard to believe that what you are I believe that my DID is traumagenic. was making it all up – because she observed what was happening and “The experience of co. But the same can be true in a I told her. to meet personal or iatrogenic DID is a possibility. before making it all up. mortified at even that brief Firstly there is malingering. But she consciousness. chronic. for nearly a year. It was a glove that. “How do you spell it?” certain amount of research and same can be true of dissociative she asked. will we simulate each shouldn’t have had any ‘parts’ or so averse to the dissociative other’s symptoms. (ourselves included) that we are and I could have just kept talking of consciousness. I have since found out that financial. it happens in all groups. at College. There is a behaviour in order to fit in.” But I do also believe that there are cases of ‘false’ DID. and dutifully typed in what debate around the issue of groups. about what happens when ‘observe’ themselves as separate that reality any more. said so. “absolutely no doubt about ‘encouraged’ to present in a more consciousness.” the therapist replied consciously or unconsciously but co-existing streams of breezily. taking description appearing on my medical where symptoms are feigned for responsibility for ourselves and records. fitted. But diagnosis. is modelled is good coping strategies. Some of the disorder’. and imitate what ‘alters’ until I started therapy. and afterwards dissociation in the first place. conscious or unconscious level. and sometimes simulating DID because they that I couldn’t get away from facing rightly so. I could have thrown away. And the her computer. They were there for a whole especially to our therapists that. extreme abuse. After all. dissociative survivors meet together. This can be at either a and in the case of many people that I especially when we are co-conscious. we younger alter. then that can it’s best not to volunteer mental including exculpation for crimes. some of the shame receded. arguments used to ‘prove’ that Sybil My first therapist. We concept and not one that is easy to nonchalant about it. This is a fear that many many people who fear that they are recoiled inside with that awful sense professionals have. I have met many. is a very strange it at all. I don’t know the truth in that eventually. I what happens is that. or exaggerating a when I left and shared a house with a often declare to ourselves and switch or childlike behaviour? I think friend. And often Will we ‘encourage’ one another to According to the iatrogenic model. us worry that we have ‘made it all up’. is a normal! about suffering from a ‘breakdown’ or even ‘post traumatic stress very strange concept . because we are ‘act out’. in that if what more official than that. It was two separate and distinct accusation I hear on a very regular left to me to decide that the glove basis from many genuine DID people. responsibility. but I was also people divide it into two types. having a occurred on an existing fault-line of at the very same moment you’re psychiatric diagnosis. that is not what has happened. appropriate relating. of having smile because it’s a self-directed wouldn’t be definitive about it.” This is one of the I entered therapy for the first time. and early. Brand et al. But I do also believe that we can be of having two separate and distinct “Oh yes. I sort of wanted something pseudogenic diagnoses. where the person with their symptoms too. tentatively. as if I’d asked can feel the pressure to ‘fit in’. I knew that I disorganised attachment. january 2012 • Volume 2 • Number 1 multiple parts 22 . insurance.pseudogenic.

none of my colleagues. and although I am tell the real cases from the fake ones? nowadays very public about my But it’s a reality that everyone – A research study by Coons and experience.66). real DID people evidenced higher important is to what extent we may However. including dissociative genuine and simulated DID because The other issue that I think is disorders and DID. people who are unbelievable psychological well. factitious or malingered DID.pseudogenic. and refused to allow to hide our symptoms because as claims to their psychological information to be obtained from Elizabeth Howell says. And dissociative disorders are somewhere dissociation during the assessment yet it is. diagnoses. That is normal.467). So. or exaggerate “These problems of malingering. yes there is such a are highly conflicted about admitting of living with DID – although I speak thing as ‘fake DID’ but at no higher publicly about having DID. and simulation experience of DID – it’s not same spectrum) in order to have our are not at all unique to or heightened something that most of us want to needs met. no-one level than people feigning other apart from my therapist and my disorders. is often so far beyond that rate is between 0. So people who are faking it are the experience of being DID as well. that genuine DID patients showed people’s imagination that it seems Factitious presentation of more signs of distress and that it cannot. Mostly I would say that we try faking DID seem to have extravagant symptoms. must not be real. no. publicly about having unless there is a ‘perfect storm’ of not factitious or malingered. that enough with suspicion. highly only symptoms of a cold. who claims to have DID is real DID. Nijenhuis and van der Hart levels of anxiety. no-one apart from notice of the signs that I am heading subconsciously or consciously making my therapist and my out of my window of tolerance and it it up. Several years ago. need to make a point to the doctor to Brand goes on to say.” control.67). to having DID.600). the abuse we suffered psychiatric diagnoses are concerned. So the research faking it. more conflict over their diagnosis. 2003) also showed as children. “A small group combined with classic symptoms of get what we need in terms of (less than 10%) of genuine DID malingering characterised the medication or treatment or referral. (Welburn et al. In other words. So how we are likely to mask our symptoms So is it straightforward then to tell did they distinguish the real from the as much as we can.5% and 6%. even if those are fake cases of DID from real ones? fake? “An exaggerated. Just because something between 2% and 14% according to interviews than people who were doesn’t seem real doesn’t mean that Brand et al (2006). of psychiatric diagnoses are often a bit over-the-top about it – It is fantastical – switching between malingered. but january 2012 • Volume 2 • Number 1 multiple parts 23 . husband sees my ‘parts’. and from whom I still hide. but circumstances and I’ve failed to take clearly a percentage are DID. This very much fits with my them (going the opposite way up that factitious disorders. within the DID world we want “… although I speak of the people in my locality see any to believe that everyone we meet evidence of me being dissociative. p. it’s a private thing. but that is actually part of collateral sources” (Brand. If we need to dissociative disorders unit and they my ‘normal life’ whom I don’t want to be well to do a presentation at work found that 10% of them had tell. iatrogenic or traumagenic? — how do we know that DID is real? carolyn spring Rogers (1997) estimated that 7-17% p. that wasn’t an easy place people with or without psychiatric Milstein in 1994 was based on 112 to come to and still has its difficulties conditions – will hide their symptoms consecutive admissions to a for me now. One study personalities. not really. because this is my experience 2009. more shame and hide our symptoms (going one way make an interesting point that. So can we of me. But if we Well. I am reassured by Kluft’s in DID but occur with similar shout from the rooftops and it’s not finding that “only 6% make their DID frequency in other genuine mental something that we find easy to talk obvious on an ongoing basis” (2009. that has repercussions for our career. disorder of hiddenness” (2011). made claims of fantastic and same thing happens within DID as p. The majority of people I know p. As far as factitious they exaggerate. down a spectrum). none to split. Because as dramatic clinical presentation. so to figure that nowadays it is a rare occurrence as I maybe around 10% of people we have learned communication and co- meet who claim to have DID may not operation between the different parts actually do so is worrying. 2006. Boon and Draijer (1999) it isn’t: just look at the controversy literature clearly points to the fact point out in their study that they caused by the revelation that the that some cases of mental health were able to distinguish between earth is round. lying. Those of us with trauma has got to the point of being out of backgrounds generally struggle husband sees my ‘parts’. None of my Again with our black-and-white need friends. Generally. 2006. DID is “a symptoms. so this indicator Malingerers often had a history of symptoms. And the may not be reliable” (Brand. are clearly ‘false’. There remain people in if it’s adaptive to do so. paranoia and happened fairly regularly but mistrust as it is. patients are reported to present in a malingered or factitious DID cases … we all tend to exaggerate our dramatic fashion. disorders” (Nijenhuis & van der Hart about.

totally switched off computed tomography (SPECT). but the sad thing is that we my EPs who react ‘normally’ in that growing body of research to suggest suffered disbelief and denial as sense to traumatic material. and I believe that some of this is script. I am reassured that rates for material. I am syndrome is part of the syndrome”. it might as traumatic – it’s ‘dissociated’.6% smaller in people with DID compared to those without DID. or by the traumatic. There have been a in so many contexts again as adults. traumagenic model of DID. including structural of people not believing that it even are not distressed by distressing magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI). always hard to speculate about the as the ISSTD and ESTD (European precise brain mechanisms involved But all the science in the world won’t Society for Trauma and Dissociation) due to the wide diversity of convince people – just think global and that they have produced neuroimaging techniques used and warming nowadays or the dangers of guidelines for treating DID – there are the methodology and focus of the cigarette smoking in the 1960s. I’m an ANP does not register trauma from the Sybil stereotypes. It is not that we do traumatic material in comparison to pseudogenic – either factitious (for not have DID at all and are the neutral script. Vermetten et al (2006) looked at the volume of the hippocampus and amygdala and found that hippocampal volumes were 19. we can feel that there is a certain way with my experience as an ANP where But just because some people make it to be in order to be ‘proper DID’. It is reassured that there are bodies such from it. and amygdalar volumes were 31. “denial of the (Vermetten et al. iatrogenic or traumagenic? — how do we know that DID is real? carolyn spring sometimes some of us will compared to a neutral script. often unconsciously). and distress (increased activation in large number of brain imaging It is distressing enough to suffer from certain parts of my brain). ‘Apparently Normal Personalities’ and their ‘Emotional Personalities’ Please support us by doing this every time you shop! when listening to a trauma script january 2012 • Volume 2 • Number 1 multiple parts 24 . as I rigorous. but there was a difference cases of DID can be iatrogenic. suggesting that emotional gain. 2006. At lots of people who take this condition studies. And I behind what people might label as when the EPs listened to the also believe that it can be ‘iatrogenic DID’.  differences in the brains of people validate my experience. I am also going on for us. If we could get away role models around us. 2006. as well as with DID compared to others. just representations such as Sybil and reaction to it. Reinders et my day-to-day existence. It is that material differently to ANPs.2% smaller in people with DID. and I can listen to even my own traumatic up. pretending (pseudogenic DID. which supports a Amazon at absolutely no cost to yourself. 2003. 2006). exists. But there have been four the end of the day I am convinced seriously nowadays. We will receive a small percentage differences between DID people’s as commission of what you spend — at no cost or effort to you. without the added weight is actually not ‘normal’ because they techniques. larger-scale studies that DID is real because it is part of say on training days. doesn’t that can be affected by media material and have no emotional mean to say that it doesn’t exist. consciously or otherwise. This fits gain. It’s as if the brain when pregnancy. I believe that certain met. Sar et al. as if it were non- like the analogy of pseudo- more recent publications. often consciously). either EPs process or think about traumatic or malingered (for financial or other factitious or malingering). 2007) reassured that there are some and so the hardest battle is for us to which basically suggest that there are scientific studies emerging that believe it ourselves. The ANP studies using various neuroimaging DID as it is. The researchers think that the Do you shop at Amazon? hippocampus and amygdala are You could help support the work of PODS every time you shop at smaller in DID patients due to trauma and abuse. For example. But perhaps.pseudogenic. The hypotheses such as the theory of exaggerate our dissociative ANPs had the same kind of blood structural dissociation (van der Hart symptoms in order to get our needs flow when listening to both types of et al. al. That’s why we can continue positron emission tomography (PET ‘false’ DID are no higher than for any with normal life as if this stuff isn’t scan) and single photon emission other psychiatric diagnosis. 2001. 2006) looked at website (or the graphic above if you’re reading this online) and you blood flow in the brain and they saw will be taken to the Amazon site. that you can’t fake DID to a children and this is re-enacted for us responding to it with high anxiety neuroscientist. It’s So is DID real? Well there is a help. Simply click the Amazon link on the left hand side of the PODS Reinders et al (2003.