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Agroindustria y Ciencia de los Alimentos / Agroindustry and Food Science

Acta Agron. (2017) 66 (1) p 9-14 ISSN 0120-2812 | e-ISSN 2323-0118 doi:

Measurement of fruit color-heterogeneity index and their
relation to Jatropha curcas L., oil in Colombia
Determinación del índice de color- heterogeneidad de frutos y su relación con el
aceite de Jatropha curcas L., en Colombia

Luis Fernando Campuzano Duque 1 and Fernando Cardeño 2

Centro de Investigación La Libertad, Corpoica (Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria), Villavicencio, Meta-
Colombia. 2Universidad de Antioquia. Medellín, Antioquia- Colombia. Author for correspondence:

Rec.: 20.05.2015 Acep.: 17.07.2015

Jatropha curcas L. is a wild species in the domestication process with an oil and biofuel potential use. The evolu-
tionary-adaptive processes have conferred a reproductive mechanism based on protogyny-geitonogamy, achieving
a floral asynchrony addressed to ensure the outcrossing and survival in extreme climate and soil conditions.
In the wild, this plant performs a fruit heterogeneity, an unattractive attribute for harvest timing. Therefore,
this research aimed to determine the number of harvest, yield and proportion, and physiological states of fruit
maturity with the maximum oil quantity and quality. A randomized complete block factorial arrangement of
treatments design was performed. The varieties and stages of fruit ripeness, were the factors. A relation of 19:
31: 36: 14 with fruits pericarp colors: green: yellow: yellow-brown: brown, was obtained. The best harvest timing
was during the yellow-brown state, which represented the highest oil content associated with high oleic acid and
linoleic contents. Nevertheless, for a fruit harvest timing, the use of the epicarp color index is recommended.
These results suggest the floral asynchrony breeding traits, requires the ensuring of the fruit homogeneity for
mechanical or manual harvesting.
Keywords: Floral asynchrony, epicarp color index, oleic acid, linoleic acid.

Jatropha curcas L., es una especie silvestre en proceso de domesticación con potencial para usar su aceite como
biocombustible. Los procesos evolutivos-adaptativos le han conferido un mecanismo reproductivo basado en la
protoginia-geitonogamia que garantiza la asincronía floral como una forma de asegurar la alogamia y superviven-
cia en condiciones extremas de clima y suelo. En condición silvestre esta planta presenta heterogeneidad de los
frutos, atributo poco atractivo para la cosecha. Por esta razón, se realizó este estudio, para determinar el número
de cosechas, rendimiento y la proporción y estados de madurez fisiológica del fruto con la máxima cantidad y
calidad del aceite. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con arreglo factorial de tratamientos; los
factores fueron variedades y estados de madurez del fruto. Se obtuvo una relación 19:31:36:14 de frutos con el
color del pericarpio verde: amarillo: amarillo-café: café, respectivamente. La mejor época de cosecha fue el estado
amarillo-café que representó el mayor contenido de aceite asociado con alto contenido de ácido oleico y linoelico.
Para la cosecha oportuna del fruto se recomienda utilizar el índice de color del epicarpio. Estos resultados sugi-
eren que el carácter asincronía floral requiere de mejora genética que asegure la homogeneidad de frutos para
la cosecha manual o mecánica.
Palabras clave: Asincronía floral, índice de color-epicarpio, ácido oleico, ácido linoleico.


there is a lack of research humidity. The aim of this for collection (Rondanini et al. Martins. with a location of 04º 09’ north latitude records about the indexes of the appropriated and 74º 53’ west longitude. 2012). 2004). the fruit proven to be useful in order to obtain the highest and seed performance and the predominant performance of seed dry matter. interval among harvests. this. Vallejos. 2004). (Aguiar. 1380 mm annual precipitation. sugar content and Location ethylene concentration. curcas L. have harvests correlated with crop cycle. Experiment 1: Determination of number of with a potential use in biofuels. Machado. where the protandry mechanism (69%) and geitonogamy (81%) (Neto The physiological fruit ripening is a process in et al. with only a few which determines the repeated cycles with different indexes compared to the continual-cycle crops. states of ripening in a harvest (Henning.). Pinto.. timing maturity and the physiological quality. are useful to decide the appropriate moment harvest timing in Colombia. index in order to recognize the appropriate 2006) and Caesalpinia echinata L. 2010). There are indexes of physical. the state of fruit ripening and the epicarp color In the continual-cycle crops or continuous identification to establish the physiological period harvest. research was to determine the harvest number Rondanini.. located in the town correlated with the natural fruit absorption and of Espinal. Santos et al. In the case of apple (Malus domestica Borkh) and pear (Pyrus communis L. physiological ripening of the fruit harvest timing. harvest indexes are useful tool as a decision making. curcas L. In order to prevent practices. yellow (Garay et al. (around 15%) and the harvest timing in terms of performance and appropriate state of the fruit days. the plant phenology The research was carried out in the Nataima – (120 and 150 days after the flower buds) are Corpoica Research Center. biochemical and physiological indexes. The first was stablished to determine clusters with less than 10% of yellow color (Silip. by crop cycle and intervals. barley. Due to maturity state at harvest timing its wild condition. this plant is associated to poor 10 . the fruit performance. fruit size and firmness. In both experiments. Colombia at the fruit shape and size (Quintero. harvest timing is a key factor to guarantee the the domestication throughout a plant breeding quality attributes and minimize the harvest and the technological mastering of good harvest and postharvest losses. and and proportion of fruits according to the more recent. and fruit conditions. the second experiment was addressed (Silva. the harvest number and intervals among Tambunan.. Milagres. two varieties of J. 2009). as an adaptive and co-evolutionary changes take place and define the characteristics strategy to guarantee its survival in extreme of a final product for either direct consumption conditions. & Wassner. soybean.. 2007.. to evaluate the usefulness of the epicarp color Peltophorum dubium (Spreng) (Aquino et al. the grain color and humidity could indicates an accurate harvest interval. in America (Henning. 66 (1) 2017. This results in a mechanical harvesting In annual-cycle crops. Hambali & Surahman. 2007). in order to achieve a or agro-industrial processes. 2011).. Tolima department. yellow with brown patches (Dransky Two experiments were carried out in field et al. The appropriate production on a commercial and rentable scale. Ricinus communis L.. 74% average relative In J. The first studies harvests. biochemical and physiological (89%). In the case of new species such as J. performance were twenty years ago in Africa and India. which provides the physical. & Santos-Días. In the first case. physiological maturity of the fruit for harvest Tavares. 2011). Nevertheless. it is recommended to combine the of maturity on harvest timing. the identification of unviable and it is caused by the floral asynchrony the fruit ripening degree is easy. a.. 29ºC average temperature.. is already necessary. curcas. 2012). & Kanashiro. Type of experiments Santos-Días. —color fruit— are useful to determine the harvest curcas identified as CJ3 and CJ6 were evaluated.Acta Agronómica. & Nakagawa. l. wheat. p 9-14 Introduction soils and low precipitation. The yellow-brown color of the epicarp (Silva. In other crops. bean and There is a lack of basic studies that sunflower crops. the combination of several indicators is useful to describe the Material and methods phenology (days from blooming to harvesting). oil contents fruit proportion according to their physiological and quality. maturity. ensure the xenogamy-allogamy which physical. 323 m. 2010). these same index timing. the low performance and fruit biochemical and physiological type. highest quantity and quality of the Jatropha oil. heterogeneity is the most limiting aspect of the J. Actually. In the case of feijoa (Acca sellowiana [Berg] Burret). 2012). s. which requires a combination of several indexes.

5 GY 6/6 the fifth at 480 days and 112 days cohort. 0 Y 8/10 sixth at 514 days and 34 days cohort (Table 2). presented six by Campuzano. 2010). which consisted of two varieties statistical analysis were ran with SAS. The first from the variance analysis. respectively. curcas floral 11 . was carried out. 71. EMF 3 Yellow-Brown 5. Colombia. respectively. as a result of the J. the third at 326 days and 71 days Fruit state Epicarp color Color description Munsell Scale cohort. and adjusted of the Espinal-Tolima. fruit and dry seed performance of two varieties (CJ3. Measurement of fruit color-heterogeneity index and their relation to Jatropha curcas L. the epicarp color among medians and the Tukey test (P=0. The ripening degree of In 17. 81 days cohort. EMF2= 100% color yellow fruits. Color scale of the epicarp fruit for the states of ripening in J. 4) oil contents. (2015) (Table 1).3™. in harvest conditions in Espinal. EMF1 Green 7. The useful expressed in days. On each experimental CJ3=high performance variety. (2010). interval among harvests. CJ6=low performance variety unit and repetition 250 fruits from 20 plants were taken. the fourth at 368 days and 42 days cohort. 3) seed dry with a sowing distance of 3x2 m and a growing matter: determined in 100 seeds throughout the density of 16600 plants. in order to establish the differences CJ6). version from the Jatropha Colombian collection (CJ3 and 9. 112 and 34 days. EMF3= 100% color in transition yellow- brown. cycles of fruit harvest. and a 1 174 0 154 40 43 12 growing density of 16600 plants. 0 Y 8/8 EMF 4 Brown-Dehicent 5. predominant fruit founded in the experiment 1.1 months of harvest. was performed as Harvest days harvest (CJ3) (CJ6) a control (EMF5). 5) oleic and linoleic acids determined through Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization Detector Experiment 2: Fruit heterogeneity (GC-FID) and is expressed in percentage. curcas L. the J. and expressed in percentage. this date was correlated Table 1.100 timing of 20 Jatropha trees of each useful seeds-1.. 2007). 05) was associated to the four states of ripening of the performed. The levels of this factor were: EMF1= 100% Results and discussion color green fruits. CJ6) of J. the second was at 255 days and (Dranski et al. through the chemical experimental unit are associated to the CJ3 and extraction using the Soxhlet method (AOAC CJ6 varieties and the consequently repetition International. Number of harvests. 0 YR 3/2 Table 2. oil in Colombia A field experiment was performed as a base in Determined variables a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to control the fertility gradient with two The determined variables are described as following: varieties (CJ3=high performance and CJ6=low 1) number of harvests and intervals among harvests performance) and three replicates. The experimental unit was 20 days Fruit Seed Fruit Seed plants with a sowing distance of 3x2 m. the two varieties of J.ha -1 . and the EMF 2 Yellow 5. the seed was obtained from the manual discarding of the pulp fruit. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) was Statistical analysis performed in order to control the soil fertility gradient with a factorial treatment arrangement The compliances of the assumptions taken of two factors and three repetitions..ha-1. the harvest stove method at 36ºC. The first fruit harvest timing was at 174 days.. 42. curcas L. the procedures and factor: varieties. Interval Performance Performance A fruit proportion of 19:31:36:14 Harvest among kg. 2015). Colombia. curcas L. 2) fruit and dry seed performance experimental unit was settle out of 20 plants expressed in kg. 81. Adjusted by (Campuzano. The heterogeneity of the days among each harvest interval was: 0. 2 255 81 1653 430 554 144 3 326 71 1759 457 541 141 Harvest and sample preparation 4 368 42 1513 393 524 136 The fruit from the evaluated varieties assessed 5 480 112 1244 323 507 132 corresponds in both experiments— to the sixth 6 514 34 503 13 63 17 harvest (514 days — 17. and EMF4= 100% color brown fruits Harvest number and fruit performance with fruit dehiscence.ha-1. and expressed in grams. and the second factor. fruit. was defined by the scale curcas evaluated in soil and weather conditions proposed by Dranski et al.ha-1 (EMF1:EMF2:EMF3:EMF4). as cohort zero.1 months) after the field 1+6 514 4 6826 1656 2232 582 conditions establishment. Tolima...ha-1 kg.

ha-1 of fruit. CJ6 (n=300) 19. CJ6 variety presented CJ3 (n=300) 18.ha-1 accumulated upon the second The variance analysis performed a high year of harvest. (P=0. curcas.7±1.69 ** V x FRS 4 6. the common denominator is a low variable. oleic and linoleic acids This low performance is associated to the of two varieties of J. performed 2232 kg. rieties of J.ha-1. the variation in the number of cohorts among harvests.year -1 (Gopinathan ripening factor performed a higher influence in & Sudhakaran.8 kg.9 Both varieties. equivalent to 1656 kg. Tambunan. plant genetic resources and not corroborates the economic balance point to originate recommendations on a commercial level. 35% to 36% yellow- brown. EMF3=yellow-brown and EMF4=brown of two va- the fruit maturity. Cv (%) 1.7±2.5 to 1. 66 (1) 2017. is not enough to represent the balance results agreed with (Silip. curcas L. 30% to 31% yellow.23 ns Fruit ripening State of fruit ripening state (FRS) 4 1094. by effect of five fruit ripening state in harvest conditions in Espinal-Tolima.1 and the condition of wildness of the evaluated months obtained in the CJ3 variety was 1656 varieties.72 0. a statistic differences were detected performance in India with 0.4 mg. with a significantly gradual increase in the second and third harvest timing This heterogeneous relation of fruit proportion and a gradual reduction from the fourth and (different states of physiological maturity) and fifth harvest.08 ** 0. Hambali.8 30. The seed dry matter performed a gradual increase from 59.6 35.2 36. This indicates that the fruit state of Tanzania with a 2. Colombia.ha-1. Mean squares for dry matter. all the evaluated variables with the exception of linoleic acid.21 0.ha-1.25 ** 375.1 14.67 ** 15. performed an ascendant and descendant production behavior. 2009).6±1.01%.57 ns 1.6 kg.S) attributes of species still are correlated to a Variation Dry Oil Oleic Linoleic gl lowest degree of domestication and adaptive source matter contents acid acid development of evolutionary strategies in soil Repetition 2 4.20 g in EMF1 (green) state to 85. 01) for the variety interaction by fruit state year -1. Colombia.64 2.ha-1. 35 mg. equivalent to 96.month of dry seed. in monoculture in of fruits in J. In that Sutrisno.ha-1 of dry seed.056 ns 38.ha-1 of dry seed. & Surahman. are associated to the genetic constitution The highest accumulated performance at 17.ha-1 of dry seed.ha-1 to reproductive mechanism of protogyny.40 0. which corroborates a differential These results allowed to corroborate the interaction variety by fruit state of ripening performance of J. In the linoleic acid is speculated.01) for oleic acid in The worldwide information about the real the variety factor and for all the variables in the performance of J.12 and weather restrictions. floral asynchrony phenomenon and the low relation of male: female flowers (30:1).6±0.21 0.42 1. This phenomenon is attributed to the kg.40 1.3 a fruit and dry seed performance superior to CJ3 in 4594 kg and 1074 kg. Whereas the CJ6 variety. Variety (V) 1 0. The accumulated performance of the CJ3 Variety EMF1 EMF2 EMF3 EMF4 variety was 6826 kg. with a production cost similar to the obtained in State of fruit ripening and its relation to oil Colombia: quantity and quality $3000.0±1. respectively.42 ** The fruit proportion obtained during the sixth harvest (514 days after the sowing) and classified Error 18 1.0 mg. oil contents.49 ** 10. curcas in commercial condition fruit state of ripening factor.year -1and of ripening.Acta Agronómica. significantly differences (P=0. lowest in the first harvest.73 ns 0. ** Significant difference at 0.09 performed the following fruit relation: 18% to 19% ns: non-significant differences. curcas in non-domesticated (Table 4). 2010).6 13.5±2. who reported the regard. Rucoba & Munguia (2013). curcas in harvest conditions in Espinal-Tolima. curcas.2 31. Mexico: 282. Table 4.14 0. point in order to obtain economic benefits.13 by epicarp color index in the two varieties. p 9-14 asynchrony which results in a heterogeneity of Table 3.ha-1 of fruit and 582 kg. These month. Typical Mean square (M.92 ns 0..49 ns 0.77 g in EMF4 (brown) state with a mass 12 .5±1. South Africa with a 0. describes a non-uniformity in the blooming and development balance point for J. Fruit proportion (%) and standard deviation for the ripening states EMF1=green. EMF2=yellow.4±0. green.35 0. and 13% to 14% brown (Table 3).

obtained in the ripening states EMF1 and EMF5 The second authors.95% and 4.46 to the palm oil biodiesel which exhibited bad cold Control flow properties. of the fruit in J. different from the other evaluated treatments and performed the highest reduction value (3. In the CJ3 variety. performed a similar of 30. after and close to EMF2=yellow 33. the lowest content of linoleic acid was highest performance in seed and oil dry matter.97% maturity states.32 d -12. 42.76 ±0.34 2015).41%) and stearic EMF1=green 92. curcas under harvest conditions in Espinal-Tolima. 72 %. considered the first obtained for this species in Colombia.62 a . 38% EMF3=yellow-brown 33. and descendant in maximum value obtained in EMF4 (33.63%) the EMF4.30 40.44% with the EMF5=Control 30.01).57 g.62%) in the monounsaturated. performed an ascendant behavior from the in EMF3 were statistically equal (p=0.43% was obtained. in the J.73 ±0.43%) in the saturated acids (Campuzano et al.01) to all the % studied ripening states (22. which not Previous studies of morpho-agronomic and surpass the 3% (Table 5). In the two evaluated varieties (CJ3 fruit ripening state in J. epicarp color index showed the highest oil content EMF3 with a 33. the g % relation to % relation to linoleic acid (33. Measurement of fruit color-heterogeneity index and their relation to Jatropha curcas L.67 ±0. The oil content in obtained it in EMF4 (33. The CJ3 variety reached it ripening. The control EMF5.73% and 30. Table 6. EMF2=yellow 85. the linoleic acid values obtained state.73 ±0. curcas. The highest seed dry matter content in EMF2 (33.32 ab the EMF3. oleic acid contents in relation to EMF3. respectively. EMF5=Control 30. lipid characterization of the Colombian Jatropha Collection. In relation to the oleic acid. Colombia. the palmitic (12.65 42.97 b -4. with results decrease in relation to EMF3 in harvest conditions in Espinal-Tolima. EMF3=42. and of 11. Average and standard deviation of dry matter and linoleic acid contents by effect of the variety factor and physiological states of maturity EMF2=26.. performed a constitution of Table 5. curcas a better EMF4=brown 59.30%. The predominant fat acid was the Fruit ripening Dry Oil Increase or Oleic Increase or state matter contents decrease in acid decrease in oleic acid (44.40 ab and EMF4.65 a and EMF4= 42. in castor-oil plant.98 g.01).62% superior and statistically different (p=0. the first fat brown acid confers the biodiesel of the J.65% for the EMF1.43 ±0. a species control. respectively.30 c in the states of maturity before. agreed with the obtained by Santos et al.15 ab of fruit ripening EMF2=42..44 38. CJ6 EMF1=green 30. states EMF1 and EMF5 control.38 a . Average values of oil and oleic acid contents of two varieties of J. For biofuel applications. curcas on a worldwide level. was Medians with the same letter in a vertical direction are statistically the same the lowest record with a 38.01) to the EMF1 state to the EMF3 state. 2%) (Table 6).20 d 28.15 c the highest contents were obtained in three states EMF2=yellow 32. performed the and CJ6). These results.67 c -6.18%). curcas and Silva et The performed of the linoleic acid showed al.40%.92 c -3. oil in Colombia increase of 26.15 ab 12. Medians with the same letter in a vertical direction are statistically the same (Tukey P=0. lipid constitution was oleic-linoleic. EMF2 EMF4=brown 32.. correlated to the previously reports of J.38 a any statistical differences among them (p=0. (2012). a linoleic acid content relative to Jatropha sp.77 b 26.63 ±0.95 42.71 b -1.18 d -11.03 ±0. attributable to the loss of observed in the ripening state to reach the highest water during the physiological process of fruit content of linoleic acid.95%) in the polyunsaturated.73% and CJ6=33.26 c The oleic acid contents of EMF5=control. which is considerably weak. curcas by effect of five fruit physiological maturity states and their increase or oils predominantly oleic-linoleic. These values did not show EMF4=brown 33. the most relevant factors at the time of buying The differential response for this variable was raw material for processing is the quality and oil 13 .40 a -0. The first authors mentioned the yellow-brown ripening state. the predominant EMF3=yellow.38 b 22. curcas seed by effects of the fruit ripening both varieties.67 (7.90% and 30. in castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis a differential response to varieties and fruit L). Colombia. in which the varieties CJ3 and CJ6 can be found.72 a +0.02 performance in cold flow properties if compared E M F 5 = 87. For the biodiesel industry.46%) in relation to EMF3.01) correlated to EMF1=21.03%) contrary to CJ6 variety which was observed in EMF3=92.62 c 33. performed the lowest oil Variety Fruit ripening state Linoleic acid content statistically different (p=0.01).20 ±0.30 ±0.40 c control EMF5 (Table 5).90 ±0. and EMF3 EFM3 in a lowest level. 6. The fruit ripening state based on the (CJ3=32. The fruit harvest CJ3 EMF1=green 30. in J.32%. The fruit harvest in ripening This could indicates the variety interaction x states EMF2 and EMF4 control the reduction in fruit ripening state.92% statistically (Tukey P=0. and in the behavior in the definition of fruit ripening state CJ6 variety: 30.30% for the ripening for harvest timing.63%). Nevertheless. showed an oil content reductions of EMF3=yellow-brown 32. 73.67 and EMF4=28. (2009).98 a 21.

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