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Sand Control

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Overview:

A textural analysis of sediments (or sedimentary rock) can be very useful to geologists. We

analyze textures to determine if a sediment or sedimentary rock source can be used as an

industrial or commercial resource. We analyze textures to determine how well fluids such as oil,

gas, water and contaminants can be transmitted through sediments and sedimentary rocks, and

we analyze textures to interpret the processes that went into the formation of the

sediments/sedimentary rocks.

**Analysis of loose sediment typically involves the study of grain size, shape, and sorting as well
**

as composition. For this lab we will observe and describe several different samples of sand and

compare their characteristics to those of ideal frac sands. I will assign a sand sample to each

small group of students. Each group of students will describe the general characteristics of their

sand sample, process their sand sample through a stack of sieves, graph and perform descriptive

statistics on the results, and then discuss the results with respect to how suitable their sample

would be for use in hydraulic fracturing. Each group will present their information to the class so

that we may compare different samples. Finally, each student will submit their own completed

exercises, including a written report with a complete formal description of their sand sample and

an analysis of how suitable their sand sample is for use in hydraulic fracturing.

**Preparation for this lab:
**

Field trip to Southwestern Energy’s sand processing facility

Read industry specifications

o Frac Sand Specifications and

http://industrialsands.cdeglobal.com/applications/112/frac-sand-specs (accessed

05/23/14)

o The facts of frac (Zdunczyk, M. (2007): The facts of frac; Industrial Minerals,

January 2007, pages 58–61)

Read and re-read Chapter 3, section 3.1 and 3.2 in Principles of Sedimentology and

Stratigraphy, 5th ed. by Boggs.

**Each individual student will turn in:
**

Sediment Observations sheet

Sieve Data Table sheet

Excel spreadsheet curves

Written report

Observations Procedure

**1. Work with your group
**

2. Use your hand lens, dissection microscope, and grain size card to examine, describe, and

sketch your sand sample.

3. Record your observations on the attached Sediment Observations sheet.

Record your observations below in the appropriate spaces. microscope and information from your text book.Well rounded (Powers) Roundness Surface texture Polished. grain size card. sphere.Sediment Observations sheet (page 1) Name______________ Observe your sediment sample using a hand lens. composition Grain Size mm Wentworth Maximum Minimum Average Size distribution Well sorted -------Very poorly sorted Sorting Grain Shape 0-1 (Krumbein and Sloss) Disc. shape. frosted. roller (Zingg) Sphericity 0-1 (Krumbein and Sloss) Very angular ---. blade. other . size.color. Sample # ___________ Sketch Sample below Magnification Scale ___ Initial notes: describe in general .

sorting. Must include color. grain size.Sediment Observations sheet (page 2) Composition (in order from most abundant to least abundant) Minerals/other Estimated % of sample Formal description of your sample based on data collected on Observations sheet. 3 . shape. grain surface texture and composition descriptors.

Take the sieve stack out of the shaker and place it on the table 8. Calculate the cumulative weight percent of the coarsest to the finest material. If a few grains are recalcitrant. Weigh your empty sample ‘boat’.01 g) on the data sheet. 12. 6. Interpret the potential of the sample for use as a frac sand based on evidence and the API specifications for frac sands. Prepare a “nest” of sieves in 1 increments with the largest grain size mesh on top. sorting. median. with at least 10 subdivisions between each size. and skewness) – see textbook! 7. see step 10) 5. Calculate the descriptive statistics (mean. 13. Report: Write a brief report on your sample. Record descriptive statistics in the Sieve Data Table Presentation: Be prepared to describe your sand sample in class on (date). 60. Clean the lab – leave it in better condition than when you found it!! Data Reduction Procedure (record in the Sieve Data Table and transfer to excel): 1. Turn each sieve over and rap it sharply and evenly on a piece of paper. All members of the group meet in the lab and work together 2. and the smallest on the bottom (lid. mode. gently brush the sieve with a soft brush to clean particles from the mesh. 18. describe the sample using the results you collected from the Sediment Observations sheet and the Sieve Data Table sheet. 7.01 g) on the data table. Make sure the sieves are clean (if not. 11. just leave them. CLEAN THE SIEVES. 3. Construct a frequency curve and a cumulative arithmetic curve based on the results. Then transfer it to your sample boat. 35. DO NOT FORCE THE GRAINS THROUGH THE SCREEN – this could create a hole and ruin the mesh.01 g and record on the data table. Calculate the cumulative weight of the coarsest to the finest material. Calculate the weight percent of each size fraction 4. 10. Return your sand sample to its original container. Weigh the fraction from the top sieve to the nearest 0. 5. Record the weight of the boat + sample (to the nearest 0. In your report. Weigh the boat with the sand sample. 230. secure the lid with the shaker clamp and run the shaker for 10 minutes.Sieve Procedure 1. 120. Record the empty weight (to the nearest 0. Pour the sample into the top (coarsest) sieve. pan) and place them on the shaker. Transfer approximately 50 grams of your sand sample into the sample ‘boat’. 9. Take a piece of notebook paper and fold a crease down the middle and carefully dump the contents of the top sieve on the paper. Repeat step 8 and 9 for the rest of the sieves. Over the waste bin. 6. 10. Percent should be on the y-axis and size should be on the x-axis. 3. 4. Calculate the weight of each size fraction (subtract the weight of the boat from the raw weight measurements) 2. 4 .

Sieve Data Table (page 1) Name______________ Sample #_______ Weight of Cumulative Cumulative Screen Weight sand sand Weight % weight % of Weight of size () w/boat (minus of sand sand sand boat) -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Weight of empty boat: _________ Initial weight of sand sample: _________ Total cumulative weight of sand sample: _________ Sieve loss or Gain: _________ Mode: ______________ Median: ____________ Mean: ______________ Sorting: ____________ Skewness: ___________ 5 .

grain surface texture and composition descriptors.Sieve Data Table (page 2) Formal description of your sample based on data collected on Observations sheet and any changes necessary based on data collected from the sieve analysis. 6 . Must include color. shape. sorting. grain size.

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