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a + b + c + d = 3. Prove that

1 1 1 1 1

+ 2+ 2+ 2 2 2 2 2

a2 b c d a b c d

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1236063p6282109

Problem 2 (All russian olympiad 2016, Day 2, grade 11, P7). Let a, b, c, d be

positive real numbers such that a + b + c + d = 3. Prove that

1 1 1 1 1

3

+ 3+ 3+ 3 3 3 3 3

a b c d a b c d

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1236063p6282109

Prove that

2 2 2

3 a2 + b2 + c2 (a + b + c)

ab + bc + ca + (a b) + (b c) + (c a)

2

(a + b + c)

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1323474p7131589

numbers. Prove that

r r r

1 1 1

x + 2 + y + 2 + z2 + 2 3 2

2 2

y z x

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1195521p5852654

a1 , a2 , , an {0, 1, , n}. For the integer j (1 j n), define bj is the

number of elements in the set {i|i {1, , n}, ai j}. For example, when n = 3,

if a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 1, then b1 = 3, b2 = 1, b3 = 0.

a) Prove that

Xn n

X

(i + ai )2 (i + bi )2 .

i=1 i=1

b) Prove that

n

X n

X

(i + ai )k (i + bi )k ,

i=1 i=1

for the integer k 3.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1288394p6805932

1 Around the World www.molympiad.ml

Problem 6 (China Mathematical Olympiad). Let a1 , a2 , , a31 ; b1 , b2 , , b31 be

positive integers such that a1 < a2 < < a31 2015, b1 < b2 < < b31 2015

and a1 + a2 + + a31 = b1 + b2 + + b31 . Find the maximum value of

S = |a1 b1 | + |a2 b2 | + + |a31 b31 |.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1174692p5660033

that 9ai > 11a2i+1 (i = 1, 2, . . . , 2015), find the maximum value of

(a1 a22 )(a2 a23 ) . . . (a2015 a22016 )(a2016 a21 )

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1365571p7500146

Problem 8 (China Team Selection Test). Find the smallest positive number ,

such that for any complex numbers z1 , z2 , z3 {z C |z| < 1}, if z1 + z2 + z3 = 0,

then

2 2

|z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 | + |z1 z2 z3 | < .

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1212046p6011767

Problem 9 (China Team Selection Test). Let n > 1 be an integer, 0 < < 2,

a1 , a2 , a3 , , an ; c1 , c2 , c3 , , cn be positive real numbers, for y > 0,

21 ! 1

X X

f (y) = ci a2i + ci a

i

ai y ai >y

Prove that if x be positive real number such that x f (y), for one positive real

1

number y, then f (x) 8 x.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1217114p6068847

k

P

negative real numbers, Sk = ai with 1 k n. Prove that

i=1

n

X n

X n

X 2

ai Si a2j (ai Si )

i=1 j=i i=1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1290752p6827152

that

x2 xn (n + 1)2 2

x1 + + ... + (x1 + 2x2 + . . . + nxn ) (x1 + x2 + . . . + xn )

2 n 4n

https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1234376p6260511

Problem 12 (EGMO 2016). Let n be an odd positive integer, and let x1 , x2 , , xn

be non-negative real numbers. Show that

min x2i + x2i+1 max (2xj xj+1 )

i=1,...,n j=1,...,n

where xn+1 = x1 .

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1226674p6171538

x4 y + y 4 z + z 4 x + xyz x3 + y 3 + z 3 (x + y + z) (3xyz 1)

https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1248639p6419840

f (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 , x7 ) =x1 x2 x4 + x2 x3 x5 + x3 x4 x6 +

+ x4 x5 x7 + x5 x6 x1 + x6 x7 x2 + x7 x1 x3

be defined for non-negative real numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , x7 with sum 1. Prove that

f (x1 , x2 , . . . , x7 ) has a maximum value and find that value.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1259588p6531595

Problem 15 (Korea National Olympiad Final Round 2016). If x, y, z satisfies

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, find the maximum possible value of

x2 yz y 2 zx z 2 xy

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1214642p6037409

Problem 16 (Hong Kong Team Selection Test 2016). Let a, b, c be positive real

numbers satisfying abc = 1. Determine the smallest possible value of

a3 + 8 b3 + 8 c3 + 8

+ 3 + 3

a3 (b+ c) b (a + c) c (b + a)

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1155589p5481554

b1 , b2 , . . . , bn be real numbers such that ai + bi > 0 for i = 1, 2, . . . , n. Prove that

n n n

!2

X X X

n

ai bi bi

X ai bi b2i i=1 i=1 i=1

n

i=1

ai + bi X

(ai + bi )

i=1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1279182p6722142

Problem 18 (IMC). Let (x1 , x2 , . . .) be a sequence of positive real numbers satis-

X xn

fying = 1. Prove that

n=1

2n 1

Xk

X xn

2.

n=1

k2

k=1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1279761p6727191

Problem 19 (India International Mathematical Olympiad Training Camp 2016).

Let a, b, c, d be real numbers satisfying |a|, |b|, |c|, |d| > 1 and abc + abd + acd + bcd +

a + b + c + d = 0. Prove that

1 1 1 1

+ + + >0

a1 b1 c1 d1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1092902p4873866

Suppose that a sequence a1 , a2 , . . . of positive real numbers satisfies

kak

ak+1 2

ak + (k 1)

for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

real numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Determine, with certainty, the largest possible

value of the expression

a b c

+ +

a3 + b2 + c b3 + c2 + a c3 + a2 + b

real numbers such that

a b c

+ + = 1.

1+a 1+b 1+c

Prove that abc 18 .

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1317749p7087195

negative real numbers such that xyz = 1. Prove that

(x3 + 2y)(y 3 + 2z)(z 3 + 2x) 27.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1317762p7087228

Problem 24 (India Regional Mathematical Olympiad 2016). Let a, b, c be three

distinct positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that

a3 b3 c3

+ + 3

(a b)(a c) (b c)(b a) (c a)(c b)

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1320099p7110375

and abc = 1. Prove that

a+b b+c c+a 2

+ +

(a + b + 1)2 (b + c + 1)2 (c + a + 1)2 a+b+c

tation of 1, 2, ..., 100.

S1 = a1 , S2 = a1 + a2 , ..., S100 = a1 + a2 + ... + a100

Find the maximum number of perfect squares fromSi

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1185316p5756328

Problem 27 (Iran TST 2016). Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers such that

1 1 1 1

+ + + = 2.

a+1 b+1 c+1 d+1

Prove that

r r r r

a2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 d2 + 1

+ + + 3 a+ b+ c+ d 8

2 2 2 2

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1272961p6661060

numbers satisfies

kak

ak+1 2

ak + (k 1)

for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

Let a, b, c R+ and abc = 1 prove that

+ +

(a + b + 1)2 (b + c + 1)2 (c + a + 1)2 a+b+c

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1299715p6917170

Problem 30 (Israel Team Selection Test). Let a, b, c be positive numbers satisfying

ab + bc + ca + 2abc = 1. Prove that 4a + b + c 2.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1313735p7047187

numbers satisfying the system of equation

Find the minimum value of a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 .

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1195505p5852511

(x4 + y)(y 4 + z)(z 4 + x) (x + y 2 )(y + z 2 )(z + x2 )

for all positive real numbers x, y, z satisfying xyz 1.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1246265p6393959

that

8 8 8 8 8 8

+ + +a2 +b2 +c2 + +

(a + b)2 + 4abc (b + c)2 + 4abc (a + c)2 + 4abc a+3 b+3 c+3

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1263180p6565536

that

2a 2b 2c p

+ + 3(a + b + c)

3a + b 3b + c 3c + a

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1245779p6388664

Problem 35 (Junior Balkan Team Selection Tests - Romania 2016). Let a, b, c > 0

and abc 1. Prove that

1 1 1 1

3 3

+ 3 3

+ 3 3

a + 2b + 6 b + 2c + 6 c + 2a + 6 3

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1257383p6509502

real numbers such that a b 1 c 0 and a + b + c = 3.

a) Prove that 2 ab + bc + ca 3

b) Prove that

24 25

3 3 3

+ 14

a +b +c ab + bc + ca

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1319224p7102074

Problem 37 (Junior Balkan Team Selection Tests - Romania 2016). Let m, n are

positive intergers and x, y, z positive real numbers such that 0 x, y, z 1. Let

m + n = p, prove that: 0 xp + y p + z p xm y n y m z n z m xn 1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1233243p6247077

numbers such that (x + y 1)2 + (y + z 1)2 + (z + x 1)2 = 27. Find the maximum

and minimum of x4 + y 4 + z 4

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1189501p5795909

Pn Test 2016

n 2) be positive real numbers such that i=1 ai = i=1 bi . Prove that

n

X (ai+1 + bi+1 )2 1

Pn

i=1

n(ai bi )2 + 4(n 1) j=1 aj bj n1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1189503p5795912

triangle with c hypothenuse then show that for every positive integer n > 2 we have

cn > an + bn .

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1366039p7504772

and a, b 0 then show that:

b a

a+ b+ a2 + b2 + 3ab

sin cos

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1366048p7504796

satisfy x + y + z = 3. Prove that xy + xz + yz 3.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1276654p6698742

R+ , such that

1 1 1

+ + ... + = 1.

1 + a41 1 + a42 1 + a4n

n

Prove that a1 a2 ...an (n 1) 4

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1225111p6154409

real numbers with a + b + c = 3. Prove that

r r r r

b c a 34 1

+ +

a2 + 3 b2 + 3 c2 + 3 2 abc

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1252005p6455069

integer, and let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be reals for which

(a) xj > 1 for j = 1, 2, . . . , n and

(b) x1 + x2 + . . . + xn = n.

Prove that

n n

X 1 X xj

j=1

1 + xj j=1

1 + x2j

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1295276p6869616

numbers such that xyz = 1. Prove that

1 1 1 1

+ +

(x + 1)2 + y 2 + 1 (y + 1)2 + z 2 + 1 (z + 1)2 + x2 + 1 2

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1235293p6271434

integer. Prove that

n

X 1 2

2 + i)3/4

>2

i=1

(i n +1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1371354p7556839

1

numbers such that: x + y 2016 1. Prove that x2016 + y > 1 100

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1204702p5942450

Olympiad). Let u, v, w be positive real num-

Math

bers such that u vw + v wu + w uv 1. Find the smallest value of u + v + w.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h247578p1358629

Problem 50 (2016 Selection round of Kiev team to UMO). Let a, b, c > 0 such

that a + b + c = 3, prove that

a2 b2 c2 3

2

+ 2

+ 2

a+b b+c c+a 2

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1200061p5895510

Problem 51 (2016 Selection round of Kiev team to UMO). Let be positive real

numbers x, y, z. Prove that

x2 y2 z2 (x + y + z)3

+ +

xy + z yz + x xz + y 3(x2 (y + 1) + y 2 (z + 1) + z 2 (x + 1)

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1202171p5914965

x1 , x2 , , xn be positive real numbers such that x1 x2 xn = 1 . Prove that

n

n + 1

X q

xi x21 + x22 + x2i n

i=1

2

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1280874p6737599

the least value of such that for any positive real numbers x1 , x2 , ..., xn with x1 +

x2 + ... + xn = 1 and y1 + y2 + ... + yn = 1 with 0 y1 , y2 , ..., yn 21 the following

inequality holds

x1 x2 ...xn (x1 y1 + x2 y2 + ... + xn yn )

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1222243p6118293

Problem 54 (2016 Taiwan TST Round 1). Let a, b, c be nonnegative real numbers

such that (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 6= 0. Find the minimum of

1 1 1

(a + b + c)2016 + +

a2016 + b2016 b2016 + c2016 c2016 + a2016

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1269064p6624314

Problem 55 (2016 Taiwan TST Round 2). Let x, y > 0 such that x+y = 1. Prove

that

x y x y

+ 2 +

x2 + y 3 x3 + y 2 x + y2 x2 + y

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1274240p6673240

Problem 56 (2016 Taiwan TST Round 2). Suppose that a sequence a1 , a2 , . . . of

positive real numbers satisfies

kak

ak+1 2

ak + (k 1)

for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

Problem 57 (Taiwan TST Round 3). Let x, y, z > 0 such that x + y + z = 1. Find

the smallest k such that

x2 y 2 y2 z2 z 2 x2

+ + k 3xyz

1z 1x 1y

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1276974p6701808

Problem 58 (Turkey EGMO TST 2016). For all x, y, z > 0. Prove that

x4 y + y 4 z + z 4 x + xyz x3 + y 3 + z 3 (x + y + z)(3xyz 1)

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1248639p6419840

b2 + c2 3. Prove that

(a + b + c)(a + b + c abc) 2 a2 b + b2 c + c2 a

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1222296p6119503

sides. Prove that

r r r

a b c

+ + 3

a + b + c b + c + a c + a + b

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1201857p5911968

Show that

1 1 1 1 1 1

+ + + 1728

a bc b ca c ab

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1225703p6160187

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