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1 Inequalities From 2007 Mathematical Competition Over The World

Problem 1 (All russian olympiad 2016, grade 9, P8). Let a, b, c, d be positive


a + b + c + d = 3. Prove that
1 1 1 1 1
+ 2+ 2+ 2 2 2 2 2
a2 b c d a b c d
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1236063p6282109

Problem 2 (All russian olympiad 2016, Day 2, grade 11, P7). Let a, b, c, d be
positive real numbers such that a + b + c + d = 3. Prove that
1 1 1 1 1
3
+ 3+ 3+ 3 3 3 3 3
a b c d a b c d
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1236063p6282109

Problem 3 (Azerbaijan BMO TST 2016). Let a, b, c be non-negative real numbers.


Prove that
  2 2 2
3 a2 + b2 + c2 (a + b + c)

ab + bc + ca + (a b) + (b c) + (c a)
2
(a + b + c)
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1323474p7131589

Problem 4 (Azerbaijan Junior Mathematical Olympiad 2016). Let x, y, z be real


numbers. Prove that

r r r
1 1 1
x + 2 + y + 2 + z2 + 2 3 2
2 2
y z x
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1195521p5852654

Problem 5 (Chinese Girls Mathematical Olympiad). Let n is a positive integers,


a1 , a2 , , an {0, 1, , n}. For the integer j (1 j n), define bj is the
number of elements in the set {i|i {1, , n}, ai j}. For example, when n = 3,
if a1 = 1, a2 = 2, a3 = 1, then b1 = 3, b2 = 1, b3 = 0.
a) Prove that
Xn n
X
(i + ai )2 (i + bi )2 .
i=1 i=1
b) Prove that
n
X n
X
(i + ai )k (i + bi )k ,
i=1 i=1
for the integer k 3.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1288394p6805932

Collection of Mathematical Olympiad from


1 Around the World www.molympiad.ml
Problem 6 (China Mathematical Olympiad). Let a1 , a2 , , a31 ; b1 , b2 , , b31 be
positive integers such that a1 < a2 < < a31 2015, b1 < b2 < < b31 2015
and a1 + a2 + + a31 = b1 + b2 + + b31 . Find the maximum value of
S = |a1 b1 | + |a2 b2 | + + |a31 b31 |.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1174692p5660033

Problem 7 (China Second Round Olympiad). Let a1 , a2 , . . . , a2016 be reals such


that 9ai > 11a2i+1 (i = 1, 2, . . . , 2015), find the maximum value of
(a1 a22 )(a2 a23 ) . . . (a2015 a22016 )(a2016 a21 )
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1365571p7500146

Problem 8 (China Team Selection Test). Find the smallest positive number ,
such that for any complex numbers z1 , z2 , z3 {z C |z| < 1}, if z1 + z2 + z3 = 0,
then
2 2
|z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 | + |z1 z2 z3 | < .
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1212046p6011767

Problem 9 (China Team Selection Test). Let n > 1 be an integer, 0 < < 2,
a1 , a2 , a3 , , an ; c1 , c2 , c3 , , cn be positive real numbers, for y > 0,
21 ! 1
X X
f (y) = ci a2i + ci a
i
ai y ai >y

Prove that if x be positive real number such that x f (y), for one positive real
1
number y, then f (x) 8 x.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1217114p6068847

Problem 10 (China Western Mathematical Olympiad). Let a1 , a2 , . . . , an be non-


k
P
negative real numbers, Sk = ai with 1 k n. Prove that
i=1

n
X n
X n
X 2
ai Si a2j (ai Si )
i=1 j=i i=1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1290752p6827152

Problem 11 (Croatia Team Selection Test). Let n 1 and x1 , . . . , xn 0. Prove


that
 x2 xn  (n + 1)2 2
x1 + + ... + (x1 + 2x2 + . . . + nxn ) (x1 + x2 + . . . + xn )
2 n 4n
https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1234376p6260511
Problem 12 (EGMO 2016). Let n be an odd positive integer, and let x1 , x2 , , xn
be non-negative real numbers. Show that
min x2i + x2i+1 max (2xj xj+1 )

i=1,...,n j=1,...,n

where xn+1 = x1 .
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1226674p6171538

Problem 13 (EGMO TST Turkey). Prove that


x4 y + y 4 z + z 4 x + xyz x3 + y 3 + z 3 (x + y + z) (3xyz 1)


for all positive real numbers x, y, z.


https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1248639p6419840

Problem 14 (Germany National Olympiad 4th Round). Let


f (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 , x6 , x7 ) =x1 x2 x4 + x2 x3 x5 + x3 x4 x6 +
+ x4 x5 x7 + x5 x6 x1 + x6 x7 x2 + x7 x1 x3
be defined for non-negative real numbers x1 , x2 , . . . , x7 with sum 1. Prove that
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , x7 ) has a maximum value and find that value.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1259588p6531595
Problem 15 (Korea National Olympiad Final Round 2016). If x, y, z satisfies
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, find the maximum possible value of
x2 yz y 2 zx z 2 xy
  

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1214642p6037409

Problem 16 (Hong Kong Team Selection Test 2016). Let a, b, c be positive real
numbers satisfying abc = 1. Determine the smallest possible value of
a3 + 8 b3 + 8 c3 + 8
+ 3 + 3
a3 (b+ c) b (a + c) c (b + a)
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1155589p5481554

Problem 17 (IMC 2016). Let n be a positive integer. Also let a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,


b1 , b2 , . . . , bn be real numbers such that ai + bi > 0 for i = 1, 2, . . . , n. Prove that
n n n
!2
X X X
n
ai bi bi
X ai bi b2i i=1 i=1 i=1
n
i=1
ai + bi X
(ai + bi )
i=1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1279182p6722142
Problem 18 (IMC). Let (x1 , x2 , . . .) be a sequence of positive real numbers satis-

X xn
fying = 1. Prove that
n=1
2n 1
Xk
X xn
2.
n=1
k2
k=1

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1279761p6727191
Problem 19 (India International Mathematical Olympiad Training Camp 2016).
Let a, b, c, d be real numbers satisfying |a|, |b|, |c|, |d| > 1 and abc + abd + acd + bcd +
a + b + c + d = 0. Prove that
1 1 1 1
+ + + >0
a1 b1 c1 d1
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1092902p4873866

Problem 20 (India International Mathematical Olympiad Training Camp 2016).


Suppose that a sequence a1 , a2 , . . . of positive real numbers satisfies
kak
ak+1 2
ak + (k 1)
for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

Problem 21 (India Regional Mathematical Olympiad 2016). Let a, b, c be positive


real numbers such that a + b + c = 3. Determine, with certainty, the largest possible
value of the expression
a b c
+ +
a3 + b2 + c b3 + c2 + a c3 + a2 + b

Problem 22 (India Regional Mathematical Olympiad 2016). Let a, b, c be positive


real numbers such that
a b c
+ + = 1.
1+a 1+b 1+c
Prove that abc 18 .
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1317749p7087195

Problem 23 (India Regional Mathematical Olympiad 2016). Let x, y, z be non-


negative real numbers such that xyz = 1. Prove that
(x3 + 2y)(y 3 + 2z)(z 3 + 2x) 27.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1317762p7087228
Problem 24 (India Regional Mathematical Olympiad 2016). Let a, b, c be three
distinct positive real numbers such that abc = 1. Prove that
a3 b3 c3
+ + 3
(a b)(a c) (b c)(b a) (c a)(c b)
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1320099p7110375

Problem 25 (2016 India National Math Olympiad (3rd Round)). Let a, b, c R+


and abc = 1. Prove that
a+b b+c c+a 2
+ +
(a + b + 1)2 (b + c + 1)2 (c + a + 1)2 a+b+c

Problem 26 (International Zhautykov Olympiad). Let a1 , a2 , ..., a100 are permu-


tation of 1, 2, ..., 100.
S1 = a1 , S2 = a1 + a2 , ..., S100 = a1 + a2 + ... + a100
Find the maximum number of perfect squares fromSi
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1185316p5756328

Problem 27 (Iran TST 2016). Let a, b, c, d be positive real numbers such that
1 1 1 1
+ + + = 2.
a+1 b+1 c+1 d+1
Prove that
r r r r
a2 + 1 b2 + 1 c2 + 1 d2 + 1  
+ + + 3 a+ b+ c+ d 8
2 2 2 2
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1272961p6661060

Problem 28 (Iran TST ). Suppose that a sequence a1 , a2 , . . . of positive real


numbers satisfies
kak
ak+1 2
ak + (k 1)
for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

Problem 29. Iran MO (3rd Round)


Let a, b, c R+ and abc = 1 prove that

a+b b+c c+a 2


+ +
(a + b + 1)2 (b + c + 1)2 (c + a + 1)2 a+b+c
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1299715p6917170
Problem 30 (Israel Team Selection Test). Let a, b, c be positive numbers satisfying
ab + bc + ca + 2abc = 1. Prove that 4a + b + c 2.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1313735p7047187

Problem 31 (apan Mathematical Olympiad Preliminary). J Let a, b, c, d be real


numbers satisfying the system of equation

(a + b)(c + d) = 2(a + c)(b + d) = 3(a + d)(b + c) = 4.


Find the minimum value of a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 .
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1195505p5852511

Problem 32 (Team Selection Test for JBMO - Turkey). Prove that


(x4 + y)(y 4 + z)(z 4 + x) (x + y 2 )(y + z 2 )(z + x2 )
for all positive real numbers x, y, z satisfying xyz 1.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1246265p6393959

Problem 33 (Junior Balkan MO 2016). Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove


that
8 8 8 8 8 8
+ + +a2 +b2 +c2 + +
(a + b)2 + 4abc (b + c)2 + 4abc (a + c)2 + 4abc a+3 b+3 c+3
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1263180p6565536

Problem 34 (Junior Balkan Team Selection Test 2016). Let a, b, c R+ , prove


that
2a 2b 2c p
+ + 3(a + b + c)
3a + b 3b + c 3c + a
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1245779p6388664

Problem 35 (Junior Balkan Team Selection Tests - Romania 2016). Let a, b, c > 0
and abc 1. Prove that
1 1 1 1
3 3
+ 3 3
+ 3 3

a + 2b + 6 b + 2c + 6 c + 2a + 6 3
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1257383p6509502

Problem 36 (Junior Balkan Team Selection Tests - Romania 2016). Let a, b, c be


real numbers such that a b 1 c 0 and a + b + c = 3.
a) Prove that 2 ab + bc + ca 3
b) Prove that
24 25
3 3 3
+ 14
a +b +c ab + bc + ca
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1319224p7102074

Problem 37 (Junior Balkan Team Selection Tests - Romania 2016). Let m, n are
positive intergers and x, y, z positive real numbers such that 0 x, y, z 1. Let
m + n = p, prove that: 0 xp + y p + z p xm y n y m z n z m xn 1
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1233243p6247077

Problem 38 (Korea Winter Program Practice Test 2016 ). Let x, y, z 0 be real


numbers such that (x + y 1)2 + (y + z 1)2 + (z + x 1)2 = 27. Find the maximum
and minimum of x4 + y 4 + z 4
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1189501p5795909

Problem 39 (Korea Winter Program Practice Pn ). Let ai , bi (1 i n,


Pn Test 2016
n 2) be positive real numbers such that i=1 ai = i=1 bi . Prove that
n
X (ai+1 + bi+1 )2 1
Pn
i=1
n(ai bi )2 + 4(n 1) j=1 aj bj n1
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1189503p5795912

Problem 40 (Kosovo National Mathematical Olympiad). If a, b, c are sides of right


triangle with c hypothenuse then show that for every positive integer n > 2 we have
cn > an + bn .
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1366039p7504772

Problem 41 (Kosovo National Mathematical Olympiad). If is an acute angle


and a, b 0 then show that:
 
b a 
a+ b+ a2 + b2 + 3ab
sin cos
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1366048p7504796

Problem 42 (Latvia National Olympiad). Assume that real numbers x, y and z


satisfy x + y + z = 3. Prove that xy + xz + yz 3.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1276654p6698742

Problem 43 (Macedonian National Olympiad 2016). Let n 3 and a1 , a2 , ..., an


R+ , such that
1 1 1
+ + ... + = 1.
1 + a41 1 + a42 1 + a4n
n
Prove that a1 a2 ...an (n 1) 4
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1225111p6154409

Problem 44 (Mediterranean Mathematics Olympiad 2016). Let a, b, c be positive


real numbers with a + b + c = 3. Prove that
r r r r
b c a 34 1
+ +
a2 + 3 b2 + 3 c2 + 3 2 abc
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1252005p6455069

Problem 45 (Middle European Mathematical Olympiad 2016). Let n 2 be an


integer, and let x1 , x2 , . . . , xn be reals for which
(a) xj > 1 for j = 1, 2, . . . , n and
(b) x1 + x2 + . . . + xn = n.
Prove that
n n
X 1 X xj

j=1
1 + xj j=1
1 + x2j

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1295276p6869616

Problem 46 (Pan-African Mathematical Olympiad). Let x, y, z be positive real


numbers such that xyz = 1. Prove that
1 1 1 1
+ +
(x + 1)2 + y 2 + 1 (y + 1)2 + z 2 + 1 (z + 1)2 + x2 + 1 2
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1235293p6271434

Problem 47 (2016 Philippines Mathematical Olympiad). Let n be any positive


integer. Prove that
n
X 1 2
2 + i)3/4
>2
i=1
(i n +1
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1371354p7556839

Problem 48 (Romanian Masters in Mathematic). Let x and y be positive real


1
numbers such that: x + y 2016 1. Prove that x2016 + y > 1 100
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1204702p5942450

Problem 49 (2016 San Diego


Olympiad). Let u, v, w be positive real num-
Math
bers such that u vw + v wu + w uv 1. Find the smallest value of u + v + w.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h247578p1358629
Problem 50 (2016 Selection round of Kiev team to UMO). Let a, b, c > 0 such
that a + b + c = 3, prove that
a2 b2 c2 3
2
+ 2
+ 2

a+b b+c c+a 2
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1200061p5895510

Problem 51 (2016 Selection round of Kiev team to UMO). Let be positive real
numbers x, y, z. Prove that
x2 y2 z2 (x + y + z)3
+ +
xy + z yz + x xz + y 3(x2 (y + 1) + y 2 (z + 1) + z 2 (x + 1)
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1202171p5914965

Problem 52 (South East Mathematical Olympiad). Let n be positive integer,


x1 , x2 , , xn be positive real numbers such that x1 x2 xn = 1 . Prove that
n
n + 1
X q
xi x21 + x22 + x2i n
i=1
2

Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1280874p6737599

Problem 53 (Spain Mathematical Olympiad 2016). Let n 2 an integer. Find


the least value of such that for any positive real numbers x1 , x2 , ..., xn with x1 +
x2 + ... + xn = 1 and y1 + y2 + ... + yn = 1 with 0 y1 , y2 , ..., yn 21 the following
inequality holds
x1 x2 ...xn (x1 y1 + x2 y2 + ... + xn yn )
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1222243p6118293

Problem 54 (2016 Taiwan TST Round 1). Let a, b, c be nonnegative real numbers
such that (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 6= 0. Find the minimum of
 
1 1 1
(a + b + c)2016 + +
a2016 + b2016 b2016 + c2016 c2016 + a2016
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1269064p6624314

Problem 55 (2016 Taiwan TST Round 2). Let x, y > 0 such that x+y = 1. Prove
that  
x y x y
+ 2 +
x2 + y 3 x3 + y 2 x + y2 x2 + y
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1274240p6673240
Problem 56 (2016 Taiwan TST Round 2). Suppose that a sequence a1 , a2 , . . . of
positive real numbers satisfies
kak
ak+1 2
ak + (k 1)
for every positive integer k. Prove that a1 + a2 + . . . + an n for every n 2.
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1268809p6621766

Problem 57 (Taiwan TST Round 3). Let x, y, z > 0 such that x + y + z = 1. Find
the smallest k such that
x2 y 2 y2 z2 z 2 x2
+ + k 3xyz
1z 1x 1y
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1276974p6701808

Problem 58 (Turkey EGMO TST 2016). For all x, y, z > 0. Prove that
x4 y + y 4 z + z 4 x + xyz x3 + y 3 + z 3 (x + y + z)(3xyz 1)


Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1248639p6419840

Problem 59 (Turkey Team Selection Test 2016). Let a, b, c 0 such that a2 +


b2 + c2 3. Prove that
(a + b + c)(a + b + c abc) 2 a2 b + b2 c + c2 a


Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1222296p6119503

Problem 60 (2016 Turkmenistan Regional Math Olympia). If a, b, c are triangle


sides. Prove that
r r r
a b c
+ + 3
a + b + c b + c + a c + a + b
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h1201857p5911968

Problem 61 (VJIMC). Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that a + b + c = 1.


Show that
   
1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + 1728
a bc b ca c ab
Solution. https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h1225703p6160187