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A Commentary

on the Missile
Procurement, Design
& Development
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Destructive Capability
A look at the present Missile procurement,
design and development initiatives
PROGRAM (IGMDP) was sanctioned on July 26th, pursued independently.
1983. Since that day, the program has come a long
way and has many achievements to its credit. The India in 2010, posses a truly potent and accurate
program initially consisted of AGNI, PRITHVI, package of missiles that ranges from the 4km NAG to
TRISHUL, AKASH and NAG missiles. Later on, Project the 3500-5000km AGNI-III. It is also the only country
K-15 was also added. Besides TRISHUL, all other to have a supersonic cruise missile, the BrahMos.
missiles have been inducted into the armed forces.
This commentary provides a brief description of
On 7th MAY 2008, DRDO closed the IGMDP and the various programs underway regarding Missile
declared it a success. The other missiles such as procurements, Design and Development.

AGNI-V is also known as AGNI-III +, as almost 60% of the The AGNI-V is India’s first missile to be equipped with the
subsystems of the two missiles are similar. AGNI-V is a 3 MIRV (multiple independent re-entry vehicles) system.
stage, solid propelled, canister based missile having multiple This will enable India to have a decisive second strike
independent targetable re-entry capability in the event of a nuclear
warheads (MIRV). This missile was • Program Sanctioned: May 2008 conflict. The MIRV has the potential to
not a part of the original IGMDP. • Range: 5000-6000Km maneuver and send decoy warheads to
• Development Cost: US$ 556 million confuse enemy anti-missile defenses.
• Estimated Test: Late 2010, early 2011
The Advanced Systems Laboratory • Payload: 1500kgs Each MIRV will have between 3 and 10
(ASL) Hyderabad is the design and warheads and be able to impact within
development hub for the AGNI-V. 40meters of the target.
The material cutting stage was completed in February 2010
and the sub-system testing is currently in progress. The Ring The AGNI-V will also be the first strategic missile to
Laser Gyroscope and Accelerometer have been developed by be capable of canister launch. This will allow it to be
the Research Center Imarat. deployed and launched from even the remote corners of
the country. The canisters are made from maraging steel
India is building a 3-stage missile for the very first time. This is and are hermetically sealed, which facilitates long-term
adding an additional 1000kgs in weight and 5meters in height storage.
to the missile. To keep the missile weight in check, the entire
3rd stage and parts of the other 2 stages are being built from AGNI-V will bring India one step closer to developing its
composites. first true ICBM.

AGNI-III is a two stage, solid propelled missile. The guidance The missile was successfully tested in April 2007 and May
system is similar to that of AGNI-V. 2008. Finally in February
• Program Sanctioned: July 1983, 2010, the Indian Army
AGNI-III was first tested in July 2006; however the part of IGMDP conducted a successful
missile failed in its mission and fell into the Bay of • Range: 3500-5000Km user trial of the complete
• Estimated Induction: Late 2010 in
Bengal in a mere 50 seconds. Upon investigation, AGNI- III system and found
the Strategic Services Command.
it was found that there was a problem during the • Payload: 1500kgs it to be satisfactory for
separation of the first and second stages. induction.

SHAURYA- Project K-15

Details • Range: 600-1000km

• First test: October 2004
SHAURYA is a two stage, solid propelled, canister based The first test took place • Payload: 500-1000kg
missile. It can reach speeds of mach 6 even at low altitudes from an underground • Maximum Speed: Mach 6
and is maneuverable as well. This makes SHAURYA a very facility with an in-built
effective weapon system for defeating Ballistic Missile canister. The flight lasted 485 seconds.
Defenses. The missile performs a role in flight, to evenly
spread the heat around its surface. The missile is loaded on a SHAURYA has been specifically designed for submarine
single vehicle which also acts as the launch platform making launch capability. The canisters can be fitted in the
it difficult for satellites to track the launch platform. The submarine without much problem. This missile is very
missile has 6 motors; the first one to eject the missile out of similar to the SAGARIKA project for developing a strategic
the canister and the remaining five to propel the missile. SLCM.

SAGARIKA – Project K-15

The biggest • Development started in 1991 At present the Indian Navy has no
challenge in the • Range: 600-1000km submarine that has the capability to test
development • First tested in April 2007 the SAGARIKA. Thus on DRDO’s request,
• Estimated Delivery: 2011 onboard INS ARIHANT
of SAGARIKA Russia will loan a conventional submarine
has been that of to India, in order to carry out the launch of
miniaturizing the 500kg warhead to fit in the submarine. the SAGARIKA from an actual submarine.
The missile weighs 7000kgs and is solid propelled.
The missile launcher of the SAGARIKA, called Project 420,
Till date, there have been 6 tests of SAAGRIKA, in which it was completed in 2001 in Hazira, Gujrat.
reached a range of 700km on three occasions. In February
2008, it was launched from a pontoon, of the coast of The Indian Air force is actively considering attaching
Vishakapatnam. The pontoon simulated conditions of a SAGARIKA to its fleet of medium range transport aircraft to
submarine. act as a stand-off missile.
BrahMos-Air Launched

The IAF will be has also been modified to enable the missile to be fired at
• Development started in 2007
the last service • Range: 290km high altitudes.
to receive • Estimated Test: December 2010
the BrahMos • Estimated Induction: 2012. The IAF has already sent two Su-30MKI’s to Russia in March
cruise missile. 2009, for the necessary modifications required to carry the
BrahMos onboard. These aircrafts will be used to test the
The IAF variant weighs approximately 2000kgs and has only air launch of the missile. The wings of the Su-30MKI are also
a single booster onboard. This is because the missile will be being strengthened to enable carriage of missiles on them.
launched from a fighter that is travelling at Mach 1.5. The The fabrication of the launcher is already underway at the
missile is anticipated to free fall for about 150meters, before Trivandrum facility of BrahMos.
its booster kicks in. The range of the missile is anticipated
at 290km. The air launched version will also be shorter in It is expected that the air-launched BrahMos will be inducted
length and have a self start capability. The ignition system by 2012 onboard 40 aircrafts.


After the success of the BrahMos-I, plans are afoot to design that the missile would be ready by 2015. Further details are
a HYPERSONIC version of the missile, having a speed of awaited about the program.
Mach 5-7. The range would be kept at 290km. It is expected


Details • Development started in 2001 by DRDO

• Range: 80km(head on); 15km(tail chase)
: ASTRA is a beyond visual range air to • First flight test: March 2007 ranges was carried
• Expected Delivery: 2011
air missile (BVRAAM). It is powered by • Payload: 15kg out in March 2007.
a single stage, solid propelled system A guided flight test
that is designed to perform turns even was undertaken in
at 40G’s. The missile has a maximum speed of Mach 4 September 2008. In November 2009, CAPTIVE TRIALS
and can achieve a height of 20km. It carries 15kgs of High took place on a Su-30MKI. The fighter aircraft with the
Explosive in its pre-fragmented directional warhead ASTRA on board performed 7G maneuvers at supersonic
that is activated by a proximity fuse. The onboard radio- speeds. In January 2010, another test of the missile was
frequency seeker has been designed in-house. A radar undertaken at the Integrated Test Range at Chandipur,
fuse already exists on ASTRA, but the DRDO is working on Orissa from a land based launcher.
a laser fuse as well.
The missile is slated for use on the Mirage- 2000H, Su-
An experimental flight that verified the ballistic 30MKI, LCA and FGFA. Induction is expected to happen in
performance and control at low-altitudes and short the next 24 months.

India acquired nine systems of the BARAK-1 for US$ ensures that missile is not coasting in the final stages of its
360 million The Indian Navy was very satisfied with the mission, thereby considerably reducing the chances of a
performance of BARAK-1 ship defense missile and in fast, maneuvering target to escape. The BARAK 8ER also
2003 started negotiating for a longer range version. On features an active seeker. This enables the missile to be left
January 27th 2006, the co-development contract was alone and the radar does not continuously have to paint/
signed between IAI and Defence Research Development illuminate the target at all times. The BARAK 8ER is capable
Laboratory (DRDL), an arm of the DRDO. The Israeli’s call of receiving mid-course correction and updates.
it BARAK 8 and the Indian’s, BARAK 8ER or BARAK NG. The
Indian NAVY has initial plans of acquiring 6 units and install • Co-Development agreement signed
them onboard the Project 17A vessels. between IAI and DRDO in January 2006
• Development Budget: US$ 450 million
• Range: 120km
The BARAK 8ER has a dual-pulse solid rocket motor, whose • Initial testing: 2010-2011
second motor fires as the missile approaches its target. This


• Joint Venture between IAI/RAFAEL
& DRDO cleared in July 2007
India had already signed a deal with RAFAEL and IAI in January 2006
• Contract signed in February 2009
to co-develop BARAK NG (Next Generation). This program and the • Total cost: US$ 2.22 billion
program of IAF were combined and together called BARAK 8.. • Range: 70km
• Initial delivery: 2016-2017
The IAF wanted a missile system that had a longer range than radar, guidance radar and 3 launchers with 8 missiles each.
AKASH. The MoD wanted an indigenous system, but it would The total would therefore be 10 C2 centers, 18 acquisition
take DRDO far too long to come up with something that met radars, 18 guidance radars and 54 launchers armed with
the IAF’s requirements. 432 missiles. The missile launcher and the command post
would be made in India, with the rest of the complex system -
Thus, looking to emulate the success of BrahMos, the Indian including the missile itself - to be made in Israel.
government agreed to a joint venture between the Israeli
firms Israeli Aerospace Industries, RAFAEL and the DRDO. The DRDO has stationed 25 of its scientists in Israel for the
This venture would co-develop the medium-range air project. The first prototype was planned for 2011 and the
defense system. development would be completed in five years from its start.

However, this Joint venture could only be inked in February IAI is exploring joint venture with a large Indian conglomerate
2009, after clearance was given by the Cabinet Committee to integrate the MRSAM’s. The Israelis would be supplying
on Security, Attorney General of India and the Central the seeker and some radar components, and DRDO making
Vigilance Commission. the airframe, servos, and propulsion.

The MRSAM JV aims to provide the IAF with 9 advanced air In November 2009, the Indian Army agreed to a US$
defence squadrons, each with 2 firing units. Each unit in turn, 1.11billion deal for the Barak 8. The missile system would be
would consist of a command and control center, acquisition delivered by 2017.

In mid 2005, the IAF floated its RFP for a LLQRM air defense any combination (IIR/RF) of four missiles on a rotatable
system. The original QR was for 12 systems and the outline launcher assembly. The system’s high mobility allows
was drawn out for systems specially configured for Indian quick deployment and operational agility. The SPYDER
deployment and terrain conditions. This was increased to System has 360° engagement capability during day or night
18 systems and a TOT clause included. The first 3 systems and under all weather conditions. The SPYDER System
would be procured off the shelf and the remaining 15 can engage multi threats simultaneously. It has Lock-
systems to be built in India by BEL, BDL and other firms. On-Before Launch (LOBL) and Lock-On-After Launch
This plan was dropped and all 18 systems would now be (LOAL) modes of operation. The intercept envelope of the
bought off the shelf. SPYDER system spans from less than 1km to 15 km, against
targets flying at altitudes between 20 m and 9,000 m.
There were only 2 contenders, RAFAEL and MBDA with its
VL-MICA system. RAFAEL won the tender, but The truck-mounted Command
the contract was signed only in July 2008 • Contract signed with and Control Unit (CCU)
RAFAEL and IAI in July 2008 comprises the Elta EL/M 2106
SpyDer is designed to counter attacks by • 18 units for the IAF ATAR 3D surveillance radar.
• Total cost: US$ 400 million
aircrafts, helicopters, UAVs and precision The surveillance radar has
• Range: 15km
guided munitions. The system incorporates • Expected delivery: 2011 advanced ECCM capabilities
RAFAEL’s air-to-air missiles – the Derby and can simultaneously track
active radar (RF) missile and Python 5, a dual multiple-targets. Wireless data
waveband Imaging Infra Red (IIR) missile. link communication enables deployment of the MFUs
at a distance from the CCU. The CCU is also capable of
SPYDER’s truck-mounted Missile Firing Units (MFU) is operating with neighbouring SpyDer air defence batteries.
equipped with both IIR and RF missiles. The MFU carries


Details • RFI issued in April 2008 / Jan 2010

• 3 regiments and 1485 missiles
The Indian Army was initially supposed to use AKASH missile the transfer of • Estimated cost: US$ 1.4 billion
• Range: 15km
for its air defense systems, however the then Chief of Army technology, • Operational height: 10m – 9km
Staff, Gen. Deepak Kapoor had expressed his dissatisfaction while the
at the performance of AKASH. The IAF had cited a similar other firms
reason to purchase the Israeli SpyDer. only had a 12km range QRSAM and needed to invest money
to increase the range to the stipulated 15km.
The Indian Army issued an RFP in April 2008 to:
o RAFAEL This RFP was then withdrawn and a fresh RFI has been issued
o RHEINMETALL DEFENCE on 25th January 2010. The requirements are for a reaction
o RAYTHEON time of 6 seconds, the entire system being road and rail
o KPB TULA (Russia) mobile and having Electronic Counter-Counter Measures.
o MBDA (France) The missiles should be able to engage targets at speeds of
Only RAFAEL and MBDA submitted their bids in November
2008. Raytheon did not receive government permission for
BrahMos- Submarine Launched

BrahMos was launched from a moving warship INS Ranvir The BrahMos Corporation has now requested the Indian
in the vertical configuration for the first time in March Navy to provide one of its KILO-class submarines to test
2010. This was a the missile. The submarine will first have to undergo
significant step • Development started in 2007 modifications to enable it to carry and launch the missile.
as till date all • Estimated Submarine launch: 2011 Already a model of the AMUR-class of submarines with
• Range: 290km
launches from a the BrahMos fitted onboard is ready, incase India decides
moving platform to purchase these submarines for Project 75(I).
were carried out in an inclined configuration.


• Possible FMS agreement with USA
The Indian army at present uses the European MILAN and M-47 Dragon • Range: 4km
Russian KONKURS systems, both of which are licensed in the US
produced by Bharat Dynamics. Javelin is manufactured army. In October 2009, the Indian army was at an advanced
by Raytheon and Lockheed Martin and has replaced the stage of conducting user trials of the Javelin system.


The Indian Army has issued an RFI for a 20km SRSAM system should be capable
system to strengthen its air defense system. The missile • RFI issued in APRIL 2010 of targeting multiple
should be capable of operating in both day and night targets simultaneously
conditions. The missile system should be mobile on rail and and have inbuilt Electronic Counter-Counter Measures
road launchers and be capable of targeting objects moving (ECCM). The entire system should be able to operate in a
up to speeds of 500meters/second. The radar of the missile Nuclear, Biological and Chemical environment.


The NAVAL SCIENCE TEHNOLOGY LABROTARY (NSTL) has developed • User trials in 2008
a1500kg torpedo that has a top speed of 74km/h (40knots). It is wire guided. • Expected Induction 2010-2011
The Indian Navy was very satisfied by the user trials that were conducted off the • Range: 30km
coast of Vishakapatnam and has agreed to induct them into its submarine fleet.

AKASH is a medium range surface to air missile. More than batteries combine to form a single squadron, whereas for
40 test firings had been done before the IAF in December the Army, up to 4 batteries combine to form a single AKASH
2007 finally agreed to induct the missiles for its air bases in Group. Each AKASH battery can engage up to 4 targets
north-east India. with the RAJENDRA radar and a maximum of 2 missiles per
target. Communication between the various vehicles is
AKASH uses an integral ramjet rocket propulsion system through wireless and wired links. The AKASH system can be
to give a low-volume, low weight missile configuration, and deployed by rail, road or air.
has a low reaction time- from detection to missile launch
of 15 seconds. The solid propellant booster accelerates the In MAY • Part of IGMDP
missile in 4.5 seconds to Mach 1.5, which is then jettisoned 2008, the • Initial budget: US$ 45 million
and the ramjet motor is then ignited for 30 seconds to Mach IAF gave a • Expenditure till date: US$ 112 million
• Cost of each missile: ~US$ 0.5 million
2.8-3.5 at 20g. AKASH has an effective ceiling of 15km. confirmed
• Inducted into IAF in 2009.
order for 2 • Range: 30km
RAJENDRA is a 3D phased-array surveillance and squadrons • Payload: 50-60kg
engagement radar that was developed by the Electronics for US$
Research& Development Establishment (ERDE). It is 2 4 0
mounted on a modified BMP-1 chassis. The RAJENDRA is million. However this order was not large enough to
capable of tracking 64 targets in total. The radar is mounted undertake an economical production of the missile system.
on a turntable at the front of a raised platform. Thus in January 2010, the IAF ordered a further 6 squadrons
and 750 missiles worth US$ 1. 11 billion. The launchers for
A single AKASH battery consists of 4 self propelled the AKASH are built by Tata Power SED on a modified
launchers, with each launcher carrying 3 missiles, a battery BMP-1 chassis. Now even the ARMY is actively considering
level radar- RAJENDRA and a command post. For the IAF, 2 acquiring the AKASH system.



In May 2007, DRDL and MBDA of France signed a co- envisaged as being fully Indian. With baseline technologies
development agreement to develop a next generation short from the TRISHUL SAM program, the Maitri program
range surface to air missile system. It was essentially a fusion basically envisages the sale of certain key technologies by
of the Indian TRISHUL and the French MBDA’s MICA. MBDA to DRDO for the seeker, endgame avionics, thrust
vector control and propulsion modifications.
However the Indian Air force went ahead and purchased the
SpyDer from Israel and the Indian Navy signed a deal for the Maitri is being built in two basic variants -- a ship-borne point
BARAK 8. defence and tactical air defence version for the Navy and a
land-based self-propelled (wheeled and tracked) launcher-
Now a detailed work share agreement has been reached based system for the Air Force and Army.
between DRDL and MBDA and a mockup is expected at
AERO India 2011. The ownership of the Maitri program is

NAG is a 3rd generation, fire and The helicopter launched NAG is
forget, lock on before launch, anti- • Development Trials began in 1990 called HELINA. It is to be fitted on
• Final user Trials (Indian Army) to
tank guided missile that weighs happen in May-June 2010 the ALH DHRUV and the LIGHT
42kg. It is the first missile in the • Part of IGMDP COMBAT HELICOPTER being built
world to have a complete fiber glass • Range: by HAL. The missile will be launched
structure. It was initially supposed to o Land Version- 4-8km from a twin-tube stub wing-mounted
o Helicopter Version- 7-8km
have 3 different types of guidance; o Air Launched- 10km launcher. At present a basic version
a wire guided version, an infra-red is being tested, which is launched
(IIR) version and a mill metric wave from a quadruple launcher and is
(mmW) version. As of now only the IIR version is in use. NAG linked to a nose mounted stabilized thermal sight and laser
uses a tandem HEAT (high explosive anti tank) warhead to range finding package. For the Cheetah helicopter, a single
penetrate explosive reactor armor or composite armor. launcher has also been developed.
The NAG has a top speed of 230meters/second and its flight
path is almost invisible as it uses a special NITRAMINE based An air-launched NAG is also under development, to be fitted
propellant that is smokeless. NAG has a 10 year maintenance on-board the upgraded Jaguar. This version will have the
free shelf life. mmW active radar seeker.

The land variant of the NAG is carried onboard a NAMICA DRDO is also working on a man-portable version of the NAG
(nag missile carrier). It is a modified BMP-2 and carries 4 with a maximum weight of 14kg.
missiles in a ready to fire mode and 8 in stock. More missiles
can loaded without exposing the crew. The vehicle is After more than 40 trial flights, the Indian ARMY has placed
fitted with a hydraulically operated elevated observation/ a conditional order for 443 NAG missiles and 13 NAMICA’s
launch platform. The new land version of the NAG is being for US$ 80 million, pending satisfactory short range
developed to have an extended range of 7-8km. summer trials.

• AGNI- I and II Inducted • BrahMos- Inducted (Ship and Land launched)

• PRITHVI- I and II Inducted • TRISHUL- Shelved
• DHANUSH- Inducted • NIRBHAY- Covered in Unmanned systems
Experienced Management Team

Col K. V. Kuber
Senior Vice President - Religare Strategic Advisory Services
• 29 Years experience with the Indian Army.
• Specialisation in Electronic Warfare – Commanded an active EW unit
• Part of the Offset policy formulation team
• Handled over 200 capital acquisition proposals and interacted with over 350 global OEMs
• Current specialisation includes Market entry, Regulatory Compliance and processes pertaining to
Aerospace and Defence.

Rahul Gangal
Senior Vice President - Religare Strategic Advisory Services
• Worked across 9 Tata group companies heading operations across verticals world-wide.
• Experience includes working on joint ventures in the aerospace and defence segment
• Part of the founding team of the Tata group’s offset business in India
• Prior significant offset structuring experience
• Specialisation includes market entry, defence manufacturing and supply chain development.
• Prior exposure and experience in automotive, telecom, chemicals, and leather industry.

Ankur Gupta
Senior Manager – Religare Strategic Advisory Services
• Ankur is responsible for all Defence and Aerospace related research initiatives. In that capacity he
regularly interacts with most major corporations, embassies and international players in the Aerospace
and Defence/Homeland Security arena.
• Ankur has prior experience of 6 years as a Marine Engineer, working with A.P. Moller Maersk. In that
capacity he has worked across some of the world’s largest ships including Super Tankers; Product
Tankers; Mother Container; Feeder Container and Car Carriers.
• He was earlier heading the expansion for a intensive care chain in the healthcare business.
• Ankur has an MBA in International Business from the Delhi School of Economics.
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