A CommentAry on the missile ProCurement, Design & DeveloPment ProgrAms
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A look at the present Missile procurement, design and development initiatives
The INTEGRATED GUIDED MISSILE DEFENCE PROGRAM (IGMDP) was sanctioned on July 26th, 1983. Since that day, the program has come a long way and has many achievements to its credit. The program initially consisted of AGNI, PRITHVI, TRISHUL, AKASH and NAG missiles. Later on, Project K-15 was also added. Besides TRISHUL, all other missiles have been inducted into the armed forces. On 7th MAY 2008, DRDO closed the IGMDP and declared it a success. The other missiles such as AGNI-V, BARAK 8 and NAG variants were being pursued independently. India in 2010, posses a truly potent and accurate package of missiles that ranges from the 4km NAG to the 3500-5000km AGNI-III. It is also the only country to have a supersonic cruise missile, the BrahMos. This commentary provides a brief description of the various programs underway regarding Missile procurements, Design and Development.
AGNI-V is also known as AGNI-III +, as almost 60% of the The AGNI-V is India’s first missile to be equipped with the subsystems of the two missiles are similar. AGNI-V is a 3 MIRV (multiple independent re-entry vehicles) system. stage, solid propelled, canister based missile having multiple This will enable India to have a decisive second strike independent targetable re-entry capability in the event of a nuclear warheads (MIRV). This missile was conflict. The MIRV has the potential to • Program Sanctioned: May 2008 • Range: 5000-6000Km not a part of the original IGMDP. maneuver and send decoy warheads to • Development Cost: US$ 556 million confuse enemy anti-missile defenses. • Estimated Test: Late 2010, early 2011 The Advanced Systems Laboratory Each MIRV will have between 3 and 10 • Payload: 1500kgs (ASL) Hyderabad is the design and warheads and be able to impact within development hub for the AGNI-V. 40meters of the target. The material cutting stage was completed in February 2010 and the sub-system testing is currently in progress. The Ring The AGNI-V will also be the first strategic missile to Laser Gyroscope and Accelerometer have been developed by be capable of canister launch. This will allow it to be the Research Center Imarat. deployed and launched from even the remote corners of the country. The canisters are made from maraging steel India is building a 3-stage missile for the very first time. This is and are hermetically sealed, which facilitates long-term adding an additional 1000kgs in weight and 5meters in height storage. to the missile. To keep the missile weight in check, the entire 3rd stage and parts of the other 2 stages are being built from AGNI-V will bring India one step closer to developing its composites. first true ICBM.
AGNI-III is a two stage, solid propelled missile. The guidance system is similar to that of AGNI-V. • AGNI-III was first tested in July 2006; however the missile failed in its mission and fell into the Bay of Bengal in a mere 50 seconds. Upon investigation, it was found that there was a problem during the separation of the first and second stages. • • • The missile was successfully tested in April 2007 and May 2008. Finally in February 2010, the Indian Army Program Sanctioned: July 1983, conducted a successful part of IGMDP Range: 3500-5000Km user trial of the complete Estimated Induction: Late 2010 in AGNI- III system and found the Strategic Services Command. it to be satisfactory for Payload: 1500kgs induction.
sHAURYA- PRojEcT K-15 DETAIls
SHAURYA is a two stage, solid propelled, canister based missile. It can reach speeds of mach 6 even at low altitudes and is maneuverable as well. This makes SHAURYA a very effective weapon system for defeating Ballistic Missile Defenses. The missile performs a role in flight, to evenly spread the heat around its surface. The missile is loaded on a single vehicle which also acts as the launch platform making it difficult for satellites to track the launch platform. The missile has 6 motors; the first one to eject the missile out of the canister and the remaining five to propel the missile. • • • • Range: 600-1000km First test: October 2004 Payload: 500-1000kg Maximum Speed: Mach 6
The first test took place from an underground facility with an in-built canister. The flight lasted 485 seconds.
SHAURYA has been specifically designed for submarine launch capability. The canisters can be fitted in the submarine without much problem. This missile is very similar to the SAGARIKA project for developing a strategic SLCM.
sAGARIKA – PRojEcT K-15 DETAIls
The biggest At present the Indian Navy has no • Development started in 1991 challenge in the submarine that has the capability to test • Range: 600-1000km • First tested in April 2007 development the SAGARIKA. Thus on DRDO’s request, • Estimated Delivery: 2011 onboard INS ARIHANT of SAGARIKA Russia will loan a conventional submarine has been that of to India, in order to carry out the launch of miniaturizing the 500kg warhead to fit in the submarine. the SAGARIKA from an actual submarine. The missile weighs 7000kgs and is solid propelled. The missile launcher of the SAGARIKA, called Project 420, Till date, there have been 6 tests of SAAGRIKA, in which it was completed in 2001 in Hazira, Gujrat. reached a range of 700km on three occasions. In February 2008, it was launched from a pontoon, of the coast of The Indian Air force is actively considering attaching Vishakapatnam. The pontoon simulated conditions of a SAGARIKA to its fleet of medium range transport aircraft to submarine. act as a stand-off missile.
BRAHMoS-AIR LAuNCHED DETAIls
The IAF will be the last service to receive the BrahMos cruise missile. • • • • Development started in 2007 Range: 290km Estimated Test: December 2010 Estimated Induction: 2012. has also been modified to enable the missile to be fired at high altitudes. The IAF has already sent two Su-30MKI’s to Russia in March 2009, for the necessary modifications required to carry the BrahMos onboard. These aircrafts will be used to test the air launch of the missile. The wings of the Su-30MKI are also being strengthened to enable carriage of missiles on them. The fabrication of the launcher is already underway at the Trivandrum facility of BrahMos. It is expected that the air-launched BrahMos will be inducted by 2012 onboard 40 aircrafts.
The IAF variant weighs approximately 2000kgs and has only a single booster onboard. This is because the missile will be launched from a fighter that is travelling at Mach 1.5. The missile is anticipated to free fall for about 150meters, before its booster kicks in. The range of the missile is anticipated at 290km. The air launched version will also be shorter in length and have a self start capability. The ignition system
After the success of the BrahMos-I, plans are afoot to design a HYPERSONIC version of the missile, having a speed of Mach 5-7. The range would be kept at 290km. It is expected that the missile would be ready by 2015. Further details are awaited about the program.
• • • • • Development started in 2001 by DRDO Range: 80km(head on); 15km(tail chase) First flight test: March 2007 Expected Delivery: 2011 Payload: 15kg
: ASTRA is a beyond visual range air to air missile (BVRAAM). It is powered by a single stage, solid propelled system that is designed to perform turns even at 40G’s. The missile has a maximum speed of Mach 4 and can achieve a height of 20km. It carries 15kgs of High Explosive in its pre-fragmented directional warhead that is activated by a proximity fuse. The onboard radiofrequency seeker has been designed in-house. A radar fuse already exists on ASTRA, but the DRDO is working on a laser fuse as well. An experimental flight that verified the ballistic performance and control at low-altitudes and short
ranges was carried out in March 2007. A guided flight test was undertaken in September 2008. In November 2009, CAPTIVE TRIALS took place on a Su-30MKI. The fighter aircraft with the ASTRA on board performed 7G maneuvers at supersonic speeds. In January 2010, another test of the missile was undertaken at the Integrated Test Range at Chandipur, Orissa from a land based launcher. The missile is slated for use on the Mirage- 2000H, Su30MKI, LCA and FGFA. Induction is expected to happen in the next 24 months.
BARAK 8ER (NG) loNG RANGE sURFAcE To AIR MIssIlE (lRsAM) DETAIls
India acquired nine systems of the BARAK-1 for US$ 360 million The Indian Navy was very satisfied with the performance of BARAK-1 ship defense missile and in 2003 started negotiating for a longer range version. On January 27th 2006, the co-development contract was signed between IAI and Defence Research Development Laboratory (DRDL), an arm of the DRDO. The Israeli’s call it BARAK 8 and the Indian’s, BARAK 8ER or BARAK NG. The Indian NAVY has initial plans of acquiring 6 units and install them onboard the Project 17A vessels. The BARAK 8ER has a dual-pulse solid rocket motor, whose second motor fires as the missile approaches its target. This ensures that missile is not coasting in the final stages of its mission, thereby considerably reducing the chances of a fast, maneuvering target to escape. The BARAK 8ER also features an active seeker. This enables the missile to be left alone and the radar does not continuously have to paint/ illuminate the target at all times. The BARAK 8ER is capable of receiving mid-course correction and updates. • Co-Development agreement signed between IAI and DRDO in January 2006 • Development Budget: US$ 450 million • Range: 120km • Initial testing: 2010-2011
BARAK 8 MEDIUM RANGE sURFAcE To AIR MIssIlE (MRsAM) BAcKGRoUND
India had already signed a deal with RAFAEL and IAI in January 2006 to co-develop BARAK NG (Next Generation). This program and the program of IAF were combined and together called BARAK 8.. • Joint Venture between IAI/RAFAEL & DRDO cleared in July 2007 • Contract signed in February 2009 • Total cost: US$ 2.22 billion • Range: 70km • Initial delivery: 2016-2017
The IAF wanted a missile system that had a longer range than AKASH. The MoD wanted an indigenous system, but it would take DRDO far too long to come up with something that met the IAF’s requirements. Thus, looking to emulate the success of BrahMos, the Indian government agreed to a joint venture between the Israeli firms Israeli Aerospace Industries, RAFAEL and the DRDO. This venture would co-develop the medium-range air defense system. However, this Joint venture could only be inked in February 2009, after clearance was given by the Cabinet Committee on Security, Attorney General of India and the Central Vigilance Commission. The MRSAM JV aims to provide the IAF with 9 advanced air defence squadrons, each with 2 firing units. Each unit in turn, would consist of a command and control center, acquisition radar, guidance radar and 3 launchers with 8 missiles each. The total would therefore be 10 C2 centers, 18 acquisition radars, 18 guidance radars and 54 launchers armed with 432 missiles. The missile launcher and the command post would be made in India, with the rest of the complex system including the missile itself - to be made in Israel. The DRDO has stationed 25 of its scientists in Israel for the project. The first prototype was planned for 2011 and the development would be completed in five years from its start. IAI is exploring joint venture with a large Indian conglomerate to integrate the MRSAM’s. The Israelis would be supplying the seeker and some radar components, and DRDO making the airframe, servos, and propulsion. In November 2009, the Indian Army agreed to a US$ 1.11billion deal for the Barak 8. The missile system would be delivered by 2017.
loW lEVEl QUIcK REAcTIoN MIssIlE (llQRM) - sPYDER DETAIls
In mid 2005, the IAF floated its RFP for a LLQRM air defense system. The original QR was for 12 systems and the outline was drawn out for systems specially configured for Indian deployment and terrain conditions. This was increased to 18 systems and a TOT clause included. The first 3 systems would be procured off the shelf and the remaining 15 systems to be built in India by BEL, BDL and other firms. This plan was dropped and all 18 systems would now be bought off the shelf. any combination (IIR/RF) of four missiles on a rotatable launcher assembly. The system’s high mobility allows quick deployment and operational agility. The SPYDER System has 360° engagement capability during day or night and under all weather conditions. The SPYDER System can engage multi threats simultaneously. It has LockOn-Before Launch (LOBL) and Lock-On-After Launch (LOAL) modes of operation. The intercept envelope of the SPYDER system spans from less than 1km to 15 km, against targets flying at altitudes between 20 m and 9,000 m.
There were only 2 contenders, RAFAEL and MBDA with its VL-MICA system. RAFAEL won the tender, but the contract was signed only in July 2008 • Contract
The truck-mounted Command and Control Unit (CCU) signed with comprises the Elta EL/M 2106 RAFAEL and IAI in July 2008 • 18 units for the IAF SpyDer is designed to counter attacks by ATAR 3D surveillance radar. • Total cost: US$ 400 million aircrafts, helicopters, UAVs and precision The surveillance radar has • Range: 15km guided munitions. The system incorporates advanced ECCM capabilities • Expected delivery: 2011 RAFAEL’s air-to-air missiles – the Derby and can simultaneously track active radar (RF) missile and Python 5, a dual multiple-targets. Wireless data waveband Imaging Infra Red (IIR) missile. link communication enables deployment of the MFUs at a distance from the CCU. The CCU is also capable of SPYDER’s truck-mounted Missile Firing Units (MFU) is operating with neighbouring SpyDer air defence batteries. equipped with both IIR and RF missiles. The MFU carries
QUIcK REAcTIoN sURFAcE To AIR MIssIlE (QRsAM) DETAIls
The Indian Army was initially supposed to use AKASH missile for its air defense systems, however the then Chief of Army Staff, Gen. Deepak Kapoor had expressed his dissatisfaction at the performance of AKASH. The IAF had cited a similar reason to purchase the Israeli SpyDer. The Indian Army issued an RFP in April 2008 to: o RAFAEL o RHEINMETALL DEFENCE o RAYTHEON o KPB TULA (Russia) o MBDA (France) Only RAFAEL and MBDA submitted their bids in November 2008. Raytheon did not receive government permission for • • • • • RFI issued in April 2008 / Jan 2010 3 regiments and 1485 missiles Estimated cost: US$ 1.4 billion Range: 15km Operational height: 10m – 9km
the transfer of technology, while the other firms only had a 12km range QRSAM and needed to invest money to increase the range to the stipulated 15km. This RFP was then withdrawn and a fresh RFI has been issued on 25th January 2010. The requirements are for a reaction time of 6 seconds, the entire system being road and rail mobile and having Electronic Counter-Counter Measures. The missiles should be able to engage targets at speeds of 500meters/second.
BRAHMoS- SuBMARINE LAuNCHED DETAIls
BrahMos was launched from a moving warship INS Ranvir in the vertical configuration for the first time in March 2010. This was a • Development started in 2007 significant step • Estimated Submarine launch: 2011 as till date all • Range: 290km launches from a moving platform were carried out in an inclined configuration. The BrahMos Corporation has now requested the Indian Navy to provide one of its KILO-class submarines to test the missile. The submarine will first have to undergo modifications to enable it to carry and launch the missile. Already a model of the AMUR-class of submarines with the BrahMos fitted onboard is ready, incase India decides to purchase these submarines for Project 75(I).
MAN PoRTABlE ANTI-TANK MIssIlE- jAVElIN DETAIls
The Indian army at present uses the European MILAN and Russian KONKURS systems, both of which are licensed produced by Bharat Dynamics. Javelin is manufactured by Raytheon and Lockheed Martin and has replaced the • Possible FMS agreement with USA • Range: 4km M-47 Dragon in the US army. In October 2009, the Indian army was at an advanced stage of conducting user trials of the Javelin system.
sHoRT RANGE sURFAcE To AIR MIssIlE (sRsAM) DETAIls
The Indian Army has issued an RFI for a 20km SRSAM system to strengthen its air defense system. The missile should be capable of operating in both day and night conditions. The missile system should be mobile on rail and road launchers and be capable of targeting objects moving up to speeds of 500meters/second. The radar of the missile system should be capable of targeting multiple targets simultaneously and have inbuilt Electronic Counter-Counter Measures (ECCM). The entire system should be able to operate in a Nuclear, Biological and Chemical environment. • RFI issued in APRIL 2010
VARUNAsTRA- HEAVY WEIGHT ToRPEDo (HWT) DETAIls
The NAVAL SCIENCE TEHNOLOGY LABROTARY (NSTL) has developed a1500kg torpedo that has a top speed of 74km/h (40knots). It is wire guided. The Indian Navy was very satisfied by the user trials that were conducted off the coast of Vishakapatnam and has agreed to induct them into its submarine fleet. • User trials in 2008 • Expected Induction 2010-2011 • Range: 30km
AKAsH-MEDIUM sURFAcE To AIR MIssIlE DETAIls
AKASH is a medium range surface to air missile. More than 40 test firings had been done before the IAF in December 2007 finally agreed to induct the missiles for its air bases in north-east India. AKASH uses an integral ramjet rocket propulsion system to give a low-volume, low weight missile configuration, and has a low reaction time- from detection to missile launch of 15 seconds. The solid propellant booster accelerates the missile in 4.5 seconds to Mach 1.5, which is then jettisoned and the ramjet motor is then ignited for 30 seconds to Mach 2.8-3.5 at 20g. AKASH has an effective ceiling of 15km. RAJENDRA is a 3D phased-array surveillance and engagement radar that was developed by the Electronics Research& Development Establishment (ERDE). It is mounted on a modified BMP-1 chassis. The RAJENDRA is capable of tracking 64 targets in total. The radar is mounted on a turntable at the front of a raised platform. A single AKASH battery consists of 4 self propelled launchers, with each launcher carrying 3 missiles, a battery level radar- RAJENDRA and a command post. For the IAF, 2 batteries combine to form a single squadron, whereas for the Army, up to 4 batteries combine to form a single AKASH Group. Each AKASH battery can engage up to 4 targets with the RAJENDRA radar and a maximum of 2 missiles per target. Communication between the various vehicles is through wireless and wired links. The AKASH system can be deployed by rail, road or air. In MAY • Part of IGMDP 2008, the • Initial budget: US$ 45 million • Expenditure till date: US$ 112 million IAF gave a • Cost of each missile: ~US$ 0.5 million confirmed • Inducted into IAF in 2009. order for 2 • Range: 30km squadrons • Payload: 50-60kg for US$ 2 4 0 million. However this order was not large enough to undertake an economical production of the missile system. Thus in January 2010, the IAF ordered a further 6 squadrons and 750 missiles worth US$ 1. 11 billion. The launchers for the AKASH are built by Tata Power SED on a modified BMP-1 chassis. Now even the ARMY is actively considering acquiring the AKASH system.
loW lEVEl QUIcK REAcTIoN sURFAcE To AIR MIssIlE (llQRM) – MAITRI
In May 2007, DRDL and MBDA of France signed a codevelopment agreement to develop a next generation short range surface to air missile system. It was essentially a fusion of the Indian TRISHUL and the French MBDA’s MICA. However the Indian Air force went ahead and purchased the SpyDer from Israel and the Indian Navy signed a deal for the BARAK 8. Now a detailed work share agreement has been reached between DRDL and MBDA and a mockup is expected at AERO India 2011. The ownership of the Maitri program is envisaged as being fully Indian. With baseline technologies from the TRISHUL SAM program, the Maitri program basically envisages the sale of certain key technologies by MBDA to DRDO for the seeker, endgame avionics, thrust vector control and propulsion modifications. Maitri is being built in two basic variants -- a ship-borne point defence and tactical air defence version for the Navy and a land-based self-propelled (wheeled and tracked) launcherbased system for the Air Force and Army.
ANTI TANK MIssIlE- NAG DETAIls
NAG is a 3rd generation, fire and The helicopter launched NAG is • Development Trials began in 1990 forget, lock on before launch, anticalled HELINA. It is to be fitted on • Final user Trials (Indian Army) to tank guided missile that weighs the ALH DHRUV and the LIGHT happen in May-June 2010 42kg. It is the first missile in the COMBAT HELICOPTER being built • Part of IGMDP • Range: world to have a complete fiber glass by HAL. The missile will be launched o Land Version- 4-8km structure. It was initially supposed to from a twin-tube stub wing-mounted o Helicopter Version- 7-8km have 3 different types of guidance; launcher. At present a basic version o Air Launched- 10km a wire guided version, an infra-red is being tested, which is launched (IIR) version and a mill metric wave from a quadruple launcher and is (mmW) version. As of now only the IIR version is in use. NAG linked to a nose mounted stabilized thermal sight and laser uses a tandem HEAT (high explosive anti tank) warhead to range finding package. For the Cheetah helicopter, a single penetrate explosive reactor armor or composite armor. launcher has also been developed. The NAG has a top speed of 230meters/second and its flight path is almost invisible as it uses a special NITRAMINE based An air-launched NAG is also under development, to be fitted propellant that is smokeless. NAG has a 10 year maintenance on-board the upgraded Jaguar. This version will have the free shelf life. mmW active radar seeker. The land variant of the NAG is carried onboard a NAMICA (nag missile carrier). It is a modified BMP-2 and carries 4 missiles in a ready to fire mode and 8 in stock. More missiles can loaded without exposing the crew. The vehicle is fitted with a hydraulically operated elevated observation/ launch platform. The new land version of the NAG is being developed to have an extended range of 7-8km. DRDO is also working on a man-portable version of the NAG with a maximum weight of 14kg. After more than 40 trial flights, the Indian ARMY has placed a conditional order for 443 NAG missiles and 13 NAMICA’s for US$ 80 million, pending satisfactory short range summer trials.
• AGNI- I and II Inducted • PRITHVI- I and II Inducted • DHANUSH- Inducted
• BrahMos- Inducted (Ship and Land launched) • TRISHUL- Shelved • NIRBHAY- Covered in Unmanned systems
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