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LESSON PLAN

BIOLOGY, GRADE 9

Date: June 14, 2017


Teacher: Mr. Ciplak
Lesson Plan Type: Cooperative Learning
Grade: 9, Biology
Time Line: 90 minutes (2 periods)
Lesson: Nucleic Acids (DNA)
Content Area: Biology

TEKS:
B.6A Identify components of DNA, and describe how information for specifying the traits of an
organism is carried in the DNA.
B.6B Recognize that components that make up the genetic code are common to all organisms.

Lesson Objective: 1
Given definition of DN, students will identify the specific functions of DNA in all organisms.
They will be able to give examples to these functions at the end of the first period. Students also
will be able extract DNA from living cells when necessary materials are given.

Lesson Objective: 2
Students will be able to complete DNA model by recognizing each component in the molecule
when necessary materials are given by end of the second period.

Materials:
Teacher Laptop
Projector
3D DNA Model
Activity 1: (45 minutes) Strawberry or Human Cheek Cells DNA Extraction Lab

Student Guide
Student Journal
Strawberry, frozen or fresh
Buffer, extraction, 10mL
Cheesecloth
Stick
popsicle
LESSON PLAN

Alcohol, ethanol/isopropyl, 20 mL
Water, 900 mL
Salt
Dishwashing detergent, 50 mL OR shampoo, 100 mL (no conditioner)
Funnel, plastic
Test tube
Colored pencils
Activity 2: Paper Model DNA

Copies of components of DNA, Funnel- plastic, Pipe cleaners (Various Colors)


Scissors
Envelope
Glue, Tape
Poster Paper
Colored pencils,

Introduction
Here is the overall my expectations from all students in the classroom: students are expected to
identify components of DNA and describe how information for specifying the traits of an
organism is carried in the DNA AND recognize that the components that make up the genetic
code are common to all organisms.
I will be asking students the following 3 questions:

What is DNA?
What are the components of DNA?
How does DNA carry information about the traits of an organism?
This is for checking students previous knowledge about DNA. After explaining each question,
students will be taking Pre-Assessment (copy of pre-assessment is at the end of the lesson plan).
After going over the pre-assessment questions which will show level of understating of DNA
students have I be presenting DNA model and components of DNA and describe how
information for specifying the traits of an organism is carried in the DNA.

Key Concepts:

DNA has a double-helix structure that consists of two polynucleotide chains. A


nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA) and a nitrogenous base
(adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thiamine). The nucleotides in each helix are held together
by phosphodiester bonds. The two helixes bind to each other, forming the double helix,
via weak, hydrogen bonds between complementary nitrogenous bases; adenine binds
with thiamine and guanine binds with cytosine. The double helix is wrapped around
histone proteins and super-coiled to make it more compact in the nucleus of eukaryotic
cells and the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells.
LESSON PLAN

Genes are sections of DNA that carry genetic information. Genes are specific sequences
of nucleotides that provide the instructions for building functional proteins and RNAs.
The proteins encoded by genes determine the traits that an organism displays. The gene is
the basic unit of inheritance.
All living organisms have genes that are composed of nucleic acids made from the same
nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil). It is the combination of
these bases that determine an organisms traits.

Instructional Activities:

Activity 1: (45 minutes) Strawberry or Human Cheek Cells DNA Extraction Lab
Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) is found in all organisms. Strawberries are an excellent source
for extracting DNA. They are soft and can be pulverized easily. In addition, strawberries have
very large genomes. They have eight copies of each chromosome, in other words, which makes
them octoploid. For comparison, humans are diploid, having only two copies of each
chromosome.

In this lab, you need to extract DNA from the cell of an organism. An extraction buffer
containing salt and dish soap will be used to extract the DNA from the cells. The salt breaks up
protein chains that hold the nucleic acids together, while the dish soap helps to dissolve the lipid
layer of the cell membranes. In Part II, you will discover that even though the size and location
of the DNA may vary among species, the components of DNA are the same.

Procedure:

1. Place one strawberry in a plastic baggie.


2. Smash the strawberry with your fingers for 2-3 minutes. Make sure
that you do not break the bag!
3. Add 10 mL of extraction buffer to the bag.
4. Mix the extraction buffer and strawberry together using your
fingers. Knead the mixture for one minute.
5. Make the filtration apparatus as shown in the diagram.
6. Pour the strawberry solution into the filtration apparatus. The
solution will take a while to drip and filter out the liquid from the
solid pieces.
7. Remove the filtration apparatus from the test tube.
8. Slowly drizzle the alcohol into the test tube..
9. Hold the test tube at eye level. Can you see a white cloudy mixture
where the alcohol and strawberry solution meet?
10. Dip the Popsicle stick into the test tube where the two liquids meet.
11. Gently swirl the Popsicle stick to gather the DNA.
LESSON PLAN

As a Progress Monitoring Assessment students will be answering the following 5 questions


in their groups during the activity 1:

Question 1
Draw a sketch of your observations of the strawberry DNA. If possible, use a microscope
to make further observations and record the magnification.
Question 2
Where is DNA located in the eukaryotic cell? Prokaryotic cell?
Question 3
What is an extraction buffer and why did you use it for this lab?
Question 4
Recall that cell membranes are mostly composed of lipids (referred to as a phospholipid
bilayer). Which part of the extraction buffer was responsible for breaking down the cells
membranes so DNA could be released from the nucleus? Explain.
Question 5
Would you expect a sample of human DNA to look exactly like a sample of strawberry
DNA? Explain your answer.

Activity 2: Paper Model DNA


All known forms of life contain nucleic acids DNA and RNA. DNA needs to be coded,
transmitted, and expressed. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are found
in abundance in all living cells, from single celled prokaryotes to complex eukaryotes such as
human beings. To understand how DNA carries information about the physical traits of an
organism, it is necessary to first understand the structure of the DNA molecule.
DNA consists of repeating monomers called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three parts
as illustrated on the right

A phosphate group
A five-carbon (pentose) sugar
A nitrogenous base
The phosphate group is attached to one end of the five-carbon sugar. The phosphate of one
nucleotide binds to the sugar of the next to form what is called the sugar-phosphate-backbone. It
is the sugar, deoxyribose, which gives DNA part of its name. There are four nitrogenous bases
within DNA: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These four bases can
further be divided into two groups based on their atomic structure: (A) and (G) are called
purines, while T and C are called pyrimidines.
Each of the nitrogenous bases has specific partner that it shares a hydrogen bond with. Adenine
always binds to thymine, and cytosine always binds only to guanine.
The entire structure of DNA looks like a ladder twisted into a spiral. This shape is known as a
double helix.
LESSON PLAN

Procedure for building a model of DNA:


1. Obtain the pipe cleaners for your model. You need
two long, black pipe cleaners, and six short pieces
of each of the following colors: red, blue, purple,
yellow. The pipe cleaners are color-coded. The
long, black pipe cleaners represent the sugar-
phosphate backbone. The other, shorter length
colors represent the four nitrogen bases of DNA.
Record the color-code in your Explore Student
Journal.
2. You will attach half (12) of the nitrogenous bases to
one sugar-phosphate backbone at equal intervals.
3. Using the base-pairing rule, attach the appropriate,
complimentary nitrogenous bases to the other sugar
phosphate backbone.
4. Once both halves of the DNA model are assembled,
join the nitrogenous base-pairs together. As you go
along, double check to make sure you are obeying
the base-pairing rule.
5. Now that your DNA is assembled, gently take both
ends of the strand, and gradually twist the model
until it spirals into the double helix shape. Repair
any connections that may come undone during this
process.

As a Progress Monitoring Assessment students will be answering the following 5 questions


in their groups during the activity 1:
Question 1

Label the nitrogenous base-pairs of your DNA model in the space below. Be sure that
you correctly followed the base-pairing rule.
Question 2

What are the three parts of a nucleotide in a DNA molecule?


Question 3

Describe what is found in the backbone of a strand of DNA. What is it composed of?
LESSON PLAN

Modifications/Differentiated Instructions:
English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)
Learning Strategies: 1C
Use strategic learning techniques, such as concept mapping, drawing, memorizing, comparing,
contrasting, and reviewing to acquire basic and grade-level vocabulary.
I will be writing key vocabularies of the topic on the board with their definitions.
Listening: 2E
Use visual, contextual, and linguistic support to enhance and confirm understanding of
increasingly complex and elaborated spoken language.
Instead of using complex and long sentences I will be using less complex and short sentences
with avoiding idioms in the explanation part of the lesson
Reading: 4F
Use visual and contextual support and support from peers and teachers to read grade-appropriate
content area text, enhance and confirm understanding, and develop vocabulary, grasp of
language structures, and background knowledge needed to comprehend increasingly challenging
language.
Each group has 4-6 students to work with each other cooperatively to successfully finish
activity_1 and activity_2 in the classroom. In these groups, students have specific job to do like,
group leader who will be a student that I choose. This student will be clearly read instructions to
his/her group and make sure everybody in the group understand their jobs and purpose of the
activity/experiment. I will also walk around and ask each group if they have concerns or any
parts that they want me to explain.
Moreover, I will be using the pictured vocabularies for each activity in the previous classroom
and share these picture vocabularies with students especially with ESL and SPED students.

Here are the pictured Vocabularies:

Phosphate Nitrogen Base

A nitrogen-containing group that forms part of a


nucleotide, forms hydrogen bonds with another
An inorganic compound consisting of a central nitrogen base, and give the nucleotide its identity as
phosphorous atom bound to four oxygen atoms. guanine, cytosine, adenine, thymine, or uracil.
LESSON PLAN

Gene Double Helix Nucleic Acid

A segment of DNA that encodes a


The primary physical shape of A nucleotide polymer capable of storing and
protein or functional RNA.
double-stranded DNA molecules. transferring genetic information.

Adenine Guanine
Nucleotide

A molecule made of a sugar, a A purine base that pairs with cytosine.


phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. A purine base that pairs with thymine.

Histone

A protein that DNA coils around to form chromatin.

Evaluation (Formative /Summative Assessments)(:

Students will be answering activity questions above with their group members and they will take
their group grades from their performance in the activities/experiment in the classroom. Also,
there will be the following assignment that is called post-assessment which consists 7 multiple
choice questions that students need to take it individually as final grade the day.
LESSON PLAN

Post Assessment Questions:


DNA DNA
Mechanisms of Genetics Mechanisms of Genetics

3 Which of the nitrogenous bases below would be classified as


purines?
1 The repeated unit of DNA, made up of a sugar, phosphate, and
nitrogenous base, is known as a A Adenine and guanine

A nucleotide. B Adenine and cytosine

B double helix. C Thymine and guanine

C adenine. D Cytosine and thymine

D thymine.

2 The genomes of an oak tree and a grizzly bear are similar in that -

A they share the same number of genes.

4 A segment of a DNA strand is GTC TAG. Which of the following is the


B their DNA is made of the same components.
complementary DNA strand?

C the DNA sequencing is identical.


A GTC TAG

D they code for similar adaptations.


B GUC UTG

C CAG AUC

D CAG ATC

DNA DNA
Mechanisms of Genetics Mechanisms of Genetics

6 Which of the following factors determines the trait that a given gene
will express?
5 A diagram of the DNA double helix is provided.

A Type of gene being sequenced

B Sequence of nucleotides in the gene

C Number of times the gene appears

D Amount of DNA replicated in the gene

7 The backbone of the DNA molecule is made up of -

A adenine and sugar.


The DNA components highlighted in the diagram can best be described
how? They are -
B sugars and thymine.

A the sugar deoxyribose and a phosphate.


C phosphates and adenine.

B genes, one from each parent. D phosphates and sugars.

C nitrogen bases held together by a hydrogen bond.

D the amino acids that will code for a protein.


LESSON PLAN

Pre-Assessment Questions:
DNA DNA
Mechanisms of Genetics Mechanisms of Genetics

2 A segment of DNA that leads to the expression of a hereditary


trait or characteristic is known as a

A gene.
1 A diagram of the DNA double helix is provided.

B protein.

C double helix.

D nucleic acid.

3 A nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, along with

A a sugar and phosphate.

B a phosphate.

C a sugar.

Which of the following components of DNA is indicated by the


arrow? D a ribosome and phosphate.

A Hydrogen bond

B Sugar-phosphate backbone

C Guanine-Cytosine

D Adenine-Thymine

DNA
Mechanisms of Genetics

4 DNA could best be described as -

A a double helix structure that consists of two


polynucleotide chains.

B a five carbon sugar found as part of the structural


components of a nucleotide.

C a structure containing information about the external


environment of a cell.

D all of the possible forms of a gene that can occur in an


individual.

5 Which of the following nitrogenous base pairings is correct?

A Adenine/guanine

B Cytosine/adenine

C Cytosine/guanine

D Guanine/thymine
LESSON PLAN

Closure:
After students are done with post assessment, I will use the overhead projector and go over the
each question with students. We will have a short discussion about questions answers and
explain students questions if they any during this time.
Lastly I will be giving them a home assignment which is called DNA Timeline. Students will
making a time based on the requirements on the assignments and turn it in on due date.

Homework Paper
DNA Timeline and Notes

Create a timeline on construction paper or poster board. Youll need note cards for this activity.

1. Fold the note card in half. On the front of the note card youll write the name of the scientist or event and the year of
their discovery or event. Inside the card youll include the details of their experiment/event and their overall
contribution to our understanding of DNA. (10 pts for each scientist)

Frederick Griffith,
Oswald Avery
Hershey-Chase
Rosalind Franklin
Erwin Chargaff
Watson-Crick

2. Next youll glue your note cards to your time line in chronological order. (After youve completed step 3)

3. Before you glue them down however, you need to take notes from the chapter on the back of your timeline regarding
the following subjects. (2pts each)

List the six molecules that make up the DNA strand.


Draw a nucleotide (choose one of the four types)
Nitrogen Bases. What are complimentary base pairs?
In what order do the nitrogen bases pair?
Hydrogen bonds
How many bonds hold together the base pairs?
What does DNA stand for?
What is the name of the shape of DNA?
Purines
Pyrimidines
What structures make up the sides of the DNA ladder?
What molecules in the sides of the ladder are attached to the base pairs?

4. Create a strand of DNA down the middle of the page and include 6 base pairs (4 A-Ts and 2 C-Gs) and the correct
molecules theyre attached to. Also, tell how many total hydrogen bonds there are in this strand. Be sure to adjust the
sizes of the molecules to reflect whether they are a purine or a pyrimidine. (10 pts)

5. Neatness and creativity = 10 pts

Thank you, Abdulkadir Ciplak