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The latest approved ~'Iission of AAA has just been fonnulated. It will be
officially published in all Field ~'lanuals pertaining to AAA.

a. Geneml. The mission of 1\t\1\ is to attack and destroy hostile targets in the
air, on the ground and on the water.

b. Antiaircraft Mission. \Vith guns, guided missiles and automatic weapons,

to attack all forms of enemy aircraft and guided missiles, to destroy them, to
• nullify their effectiveness or to force them to abandon their hostile mission.

c. Sl/rface J\lissioll.

(1) \Vith gllns mid gl/ided missiles to sl/pport illfmltry (armored) units
by m!lItmlizing or destroying those tnrgets wllich are most dnnger-
OilS to the slllJported arms; to provide or reinforce field artillery fires;
mId to attnck mid destroy tm'gets of opportllliity, Oil land or Oil water.

(2) \Vith al/tomatic weapons to IJrovide close fire slllJPort for infantry
(armored) 1lliits b)' reinforcing tIle fires of infantry hem,)' weapons,
and to attack mid destroy targets of opportl/nity, onlmld or on water.


a. Commanders whose forces include antiaircraft artillery will assIgn it that

mission dictated by considerations of the greatest threat to the over-all mission of

the force.

b. Antiaircraft artillery will be so emplaced as best to accomplish the assigned

mission. \,Vhenever possible without prejudice to the assigned mission, it will also

be so sited as to facilitate attacking targets other than those specifically included

in that mission.

Founded in 1892
OFFICERS Published from 1892 until 1922 as
PRESIDENT Published from 1922 until 1948 as the
ADDITION"AL MEMBERS OF THE Cover: Palletized M45- Turret of Btry D, 779th AAA A\V Bn, Kadena
Dispersal Area. Fighters in background.
BRIGADIER GENERAL JOHN C. HENAGAN Activities of the Tenth Army AAA. By Colonel John 1. Hincke, CAC 2
COLONEL CHARLES M. BOYER Trailer Life at Fort Bliss. By Major \1. B. Cagle, CAC II
Three and One-half Times the Speed of Sound 14
COLONJlL JOHN H. MADISON Introduction to Ramjet Propulsion.
LIEUTENANT COLONEL SAM C. RUSSELL By Lielltenant Commander J. P. Field, U. S. Navy 15
MAJOR BERGEN B. HOVELL The Air Defense of the United States.
By Lieutenant Colonel Floyd A. LAmbert, USAF 23
Air Force Guided Missile Program.
By Brigadier General William L. Richardson 26
The purpoJe of the AJIociation shall be to
Atomic Bomb-The X-Factor of Military Policy.
promote the efficiency of the Coast Artillery
By Lieutenant Commander H. B. Seim, U. S. Nav,y 27
Corps by maintaining its standards ana tradi.
tions, by disJeminating profeJIi011al knowl. National Guard Encampments , 32
edge, by inspiring greater effort toward the Operation Comet 33
improvement of materiel and methods of Information, Please. By Lieutenant Colonel Alvin B. Auerbach, Engr 35
training and by fostering mutual understand.
A Study of AM Equipment 38
ing, respert and cooperation among all arms,
branches and components of the Regular Honor Roll 45
Army, National Guard, Organized Reserves, The Battery Commander Sweats It Out.
and Reserve Officers' Training Corps. By Captain Peter P. Genera, CAC 46
Fort Bliss Photos 47
What Is Character Guidance? By J\;lajor General John M. Devine 48
Th. JOURNAL prints artid •• on .ubj.cta of Decline and Fall of Flak 49
professional and ceneral interest to personnel Winners of the Coast Artillery Association Medal 51
of an the compon.nt. of the Coast Artill.ry
Corp. In ord.r to .timulate thought and pro- Seacoast Service Test Section Notes 53'
Toke discussion. However, opinions expressed Bernard 1\1. Baruch , 55
and conclusions drawn in articles are in no
lenst official. They do not reflect the opinions News and Comment 57
or conclusions of any official or branch of the About Our Authors 60
D.partm.nt of the Army.
Coast Artillery Orders 61
The JOURNAL do•• not carry paid adverti.-
ing. The JOURNAL p.y. for original artid .. Books-i'vlanuals 63
upon publication. Manu.cript .hould be ad-
dr •••• d to the Editor. The JOURl\AL i. not COLONEL W. I. BRADY, Editor
responsible for manuscripts unaccompanied by
return postaee.
:\1 Sgt Fred P. Presnell, Business Manager
PUBLICATION DATE: Augu.t I. 19t9 Sgt Ralph N. Charleston, Cir. :\Igr.
Sgt Fred A. Baker, Bookkeeper
Sgt Leo A. Donelon. Order Dept. Clerk

Pnblished bimonthly by the United States Coast Artillery Association. Editorial and execntive officea. 631 Pennsylvania Avenne, N.W.,
Washington 4, D. C. Term.: $3.00 per year. Foreign .ubscription •• $4.00 per year. Single copies, 75c. Entered as second-class matter
.t Washington, D. C.: additional entry at Richmond, Y,,-, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Copyright, 1949, by the United States
Coast Artillery _-\.~sociatjon.
Brry C, 866rh AAA A wr Bn on Zamami Shima overlooking anchorage In rhe Kerama Rerto.

The Ryukyus Campaign had participated in the invasion of Tarawa while the other
had been in garrison on Johnston Island. In i\hrch 1944,
A discussion of any major part of the Ryukyus campaign both battalions were assembled on Kauai, T.H., under the
requires a brief description of the over-all organization for 1st Provisional Marine AAA Group and for ten months
this operation. The campaign., known by the code name carried out extensive training in target practice and field
ICEBERG, lasted from March through June 1945 and was exercises in the identical tactical organization they were to
in every sense of the word a joint operation. Top command have later in combat. These battalions were composite or-
was exercised by Commander, Fifth Fleet. His principal ganizations, each consisting of four gun batteries, two AvV
subordinate in the Ryukyus area was Commander Joint batteries and a searchlight battery. Tenth Army AAA, then
Expeditionary Forces. The next lower level of command on Oahu, established liaison with these units in September
included several task forces, one of which was Expeditionary 1944. In January 1945 the l\llarine Group was moved to the
Troops, better known in Army parlance as Tenth Army. Marianas to augment the defenses of Guam and Tinian
The Expeditionary Troops conducted tactical land opera- where it later mounted out for the assault on Okinawa.
tions in the Ryukyus initially under Commander Joint In addition to the Army and Marine AAA units attached
Expeditionary Forces. vVhen our forces were securely estab- initially to the two assault Corps, Tenth Army AM in-
lished ashore, the Navy relinquished control, and command cluded those garrison battalions which arrived in several
of all ground combat and service units, as well as tactical echelons of shipping after the first. Of these units, two
Marine Air Groups and certain Naval forces, passed to the Marine battalions had seen combat on Funafuti and Apa-
Commanding General, Tenth Army, operating directly un- mama. Two of the Army battalions came directly from the
der the theater commander. States while the remainder were furnished by the Hawaiian
Viewed in its broad aspects, that portion of the operation AM Command. Some of the latter were trained at Oahu,
devoted to air defense included the activities of fighter air- initially under control of the 53rd AM Brigade and later
craft of the U.S. and British Navies, U.S. Marine Aviation under the 44th and 43rd AAA Groups. As each was made
and later the Army Air Forces, as well as both ground and available to Tenth Army AAA, it was moved to an area near
ship-borne antiaircraft artillery. The Tenth Army AAA Schofield Barracks where intensive training continued.
Command (Brig. Gen. C. S. Harris) comprised all the Some units became available too late for training and con-
Army and Marine Corps AAA assigned to Tenth Army. sequently devoted their remaining time to preparation for
mounting out.
Mounting Out Liaison between Tenth Armv and AAA units on Oahu
The AAA units for the operation were gathered from a and.the Marine AAA units on Kauai presented no problems.
number of sources. Those units initially attached to Army Frequent visits served to keep the subordinate units fully
divisions for the assault landings had participated in the abreast of plans and developments insofar as permitted by
Leyte Campaign and mounted out from the Philippines. rules for security. Subordinate staffs were briefed as neces-
Lack of facilities and time for rehabilitation and traininao sary.
handicapped these units in their preparation for the Oki- Early liaison with units on Leyte was inadequate. Ex-
nawa campaign. change visits could not be arranged. The Army AAA Com-
The l\hrine assault AAA battalions attached to the III mander and two staff officers proceeded to target via Leyte
Amphibious Corps (Marine) were more fortunate. One where personal liaison was established while the units were
Hq mul Hq Btr)', 230tl1 AAA Sit Bn (Lt. Col. A. E.
7th lilt Div
502nd AAA Gml BII (LI. Col. M. V. Dough/s)
861st AAA AHI Bn (LI. Col. L. W. Bvers)
Btr)' A, 295tl1 AAA SIt BII (less 21;d Plat)
l\ Brt)' C, 866th AAA AW Bn (Capt. H'illie Davis)

96th lllf Div
504th AAA GUll Bn (Lt. Col. J. B. McCumber)
485tl1 AAA AHI BII (Lt. Col. A. H. Ganley )
Btr)' C, 294th AAA SIt BlI (less 21/d Plat) (Capt.
Hersel S. Harley)
III Amphibious Corps (Marille)
Hq and Hq Btry, 1st Prav AAA Gp (Marine) (Col.
K. ,\1. Bellner)
2nd Marine AAA BlI (Lt. Col. M. C. CIUlpmml)
16th Marine AAA Bn (Lt. Col. A. F. Pemold)
After a heavy preparatory bombardment of the beaches,
the assault on Okinawa began at 0830. Landinos were made
on a two Corps front, four divisions abreast. Before noon,
reconnaissance parties of the 861st and 485th AAA A\V Ens
o '000
''''?''' were ashore and selecting positions. By nightfall three bat-
teries of these units were ashore and operational. The re-
mainder were landed the next day and, together with two
gun batteries, were operational by evening. By the night of
4 April all assault AAA units with the XXIV Corps had
landed and were operational.
V/ith the exception of the first night when one enemy
plane was destroyed by 1\'1-51'sof the 861st AAA A\V B~,
The assault landing beaches, Division zones of action, principal
there was little enemy aerial activity within range of the
Jap defenses and AAA positions on Okinawa and Ie Shima ten
days after each landing. AAA units during the assault phase, 1 to 4 April.
On the 5th all Anny AAA units ashore on Okinawa re-
mounting out. Although this left much to be desired, the verted to XXIV Corps under control of the 97th MA
deficiency was overcome through the splendid preparations Group. Units were displaced to cover the Yontan and
made by the Commanding General, XXIV Corps and his airfields, both of which had been captured on
Staff, as well as the Commanding Officer, 97th AAA Group, L-Day. Protection was provided for the field artillery areas
Colonel Lawrence L. Clayton, who displayed commendable and one gun battery was detached to Corps for field artillery
judgment and resourcefulness. support. The 97th AAA Gp assumed responsibility for co-
ordination of AAAIS within the Corps area.
Principal Operations The heavy strikes against Japan by planes of the Fast
The principal AAA operations in the Ryukyus campaign Carrier Force prior to L-Day, together with the protection
t.ookplace on the islands of Okinawa and Ie Shima. L-Day of the beaches by combat air patrols, prevented any effective
for the landings on Okinawa was 1 April. Landings on Ie Jap air attack on Ok~nawa during the assault phase. How-
Shima commenced on the 15th. The operation on each ever, on 6 April there was a marked increase in enemy aerial
island had its assault phase during which certain'AAi\ units activity. In the early morning hours, one Zeke strafing
were attached to the Corps and Divisions. At the end of Yon tan from 1500 feet and one Kate over the field at 3000
each assault, these AAA units reverted to the control of feet were picked up by spread beam searchlights and en.
Tenth Anny AM. After the capture of Ie Shima, the gaged by AAA fire. No damage was observed although both
AM activities on both islands were closely related and planes departed when fired upon.
merged into a single series of operations, all of which can In the late afternoon a flurry of activity occurred with
best be considered chronologically. damage to both sides. At 1605 one Jap plane was shot down
The Headquarters of Tenth Anny AAA Command and as it attempted to crash dive a battleship off the beaches.
53rd AAA Brigade (Brig. Gen. J'vlorris C. Handwerk) ar- At 1617 another enemy plane at 7000 feet was destroyed
rived at Okinawa on the day of the landings, 1 April 1945. over the transport area by ship and shore AM. One minute
Other AAA units participating in the assault on this island later a friendly Navy plane approached the beaches at about
were initially attached to the Corps and Divisions as follows: 1500 feet altitude from the southeast. \Vith no attempt at
recognition, a machine gun of a non-AAA unit near the
XXIV Corps beach opened fire and gave the signal which set off a heavy
Hq mul Hq Btry, 9ith AAA Gp (Col. L. L. Clayton) volume of fire from the ships and other automatic weapons
on the beach. The plane lost altitude as hits were registered,
then burst into Hames, headed downward and crashed.
\Vithin the hour a Zeke was engaged over Yon tan by
A\ V fire and destroyed. This was followed three minutes
later by the destruc~ion of an enemy plane over the north
end of the transport area. Then over the beach from the
south came a?other friendly Navy fighter which immedi-
ately drew fire from every type of AA weapon mounted on
shipping, plus some machine guns on the beach. The plane
took evasive action and attempted to show its markings, but
lasted only a few seconds under a tremendous volume of
fire which resembled a volcano in eruption. The firino con-
tinued until the plane crashed, with Navv 20-mm, 4a-mm
and 5-inch projectiles landing directly i~ the area a few
hundred yards inland from the beach. An ammunition
dump nea'r Kadena was hit and exploded, an oil barge was
destroyed and casualties to personnel ashore were estimated
at 7 killed and 90 wounded. Shortlv thereafter one Zeke
M-51, Buy C, 861st AAA A \Xl Bn at Kin Airfield.
at 1200 feet over Yontan was probably destroyed' and a few
minutes later one of three Vals in a oolide over the anchor-
a~d dive bombed Yontan and were engaged by AAA fire
age was destroyed by 90-mm fire.
WIth no damage noted. At 0407, one Nell crossing the island
During the engagement of these two friendly planes,
at 2000 feet was illuminated and destroyed by machine-gun
Army AAA expended only one round of 40-mm and about
fire.. It. was followed by a Tony at 5000 feet which escaped
500 rounds of caliber .50 ammunition before the planes
by dl\'Ing and maneuvering. At 0430 one Betty at 1500
were recognized and firing stopped. None of this fire was
was illuminated and probably destroyed after droppino
responsible for bringing down these planes.
bombs in the vicinity of Yontan. An hour later, two Ton\~
Unloading of the Marine AAA with the III Amphibious
flying low, one strafing Yontan, were both destroyed by A\\'
Corps was delayed because of poor landino beaches and
fire. JlIst before dawn another Tony showing improper
higher priority. traffic across them. Reconnaissance parties
running lights approached from the east at 3000 feet and
from the Manne group and each of the two battalions
was destroyed.
landed on 3 April and began to select positions. Landing
During the evening of 12 April an enemy plane of un-
of the battalions started 8 April and all Marine AAA units
known type was engaged by radar controlled gunfire and
were operational by 12 April. Headquarters of the 53rd
destroyed. Just before midnight three raids penetrated the
AAA Brigade, with the 162nd Opns Detachment, began
gun defended area but AAA was in Control GREEN and
unloading on S April.
not p~rmitted to fire. One of these planes showed friendly
On the night of 11-12 April the Japanese launched an
IFF Signals and dropped bombs in the vicinity of an AAA
3er~al attack in great force. Although the fighter screen
position without damage.
whIch bore the brunt of this attack claimed the destruction
Although several alerts and a few minor raids occurred on
of 108, several enemy planes penetrated to the gun defended
13 and 14 April, the Japs renewed their attack on the eve-
area.. During the early morning hours four planes strafed
ning of 15 April with considerable aerial activity. At 1840
two Oscars and one Zeke approached from the east while a
Hamp came up from the south, at low altitude. All were
d~A ,
yOROttQ ?estroyed by MA fire. At 1920 two Bettys flew across the
Island at 7000 feet from the west. \Vindow was dropped by
?oth planes with, little effect on radar tracking. AAA was
/ ~-:HEOO PT
In Control GREEN and the raid was not engaged. At 1946
Q or, one Oscar strafing ground installations was illuminated,
engaged and probably destroyed. Ten minutes later two
planes of unknown type strafed Kadena airfield and one
----------- BOLO pT-
~ was destroyed by A\V fire. At 2100, four planes came
over the gun defended area and were engaged. One was
C'\KU'" c>iONACHI~/
\J ~ __________ destroyed and two probably destroyed by radar controlled
"D. N 90-mm fire. At 2140, after orbiting 15 miles east of the
.<fi' Il I ) island, an unidentified enemy plane came in at 15,000
to V /
K.ERA"': AETTO feet and was fired on by 90-mm guns with unknown results.
I Sim~ltaneo~lsly one Betty was engaged and damaged. This
---- J 20

30 40 50
was Immedlatelv followed bv the destruction bv radar con-
trolled gunfire ~f an enemy' plane flying over the island at
6000 feet. .
Locations of early warning radar and fighter direction picket
ships off Okinawa as of 25 April 1945. The assault on Ie Shima by the 77th Infantry Division
was engaged by radar controlled fire at 1700 feet. Between
00 15 and 0330 nine planes attacked. One plane \Vas de-
stroyed and two damaged by gunfire with VT fuze.
• 1\ leanwhile on Okinawa the unloading of Hq and Hq
Btry, 53rd AAA Brigade, and the establishment of com-
munications and AAOR had been completed. The AAA
on Okinawa reverted to control of Tenth Armv AAA On
20 April and was attached to the 53rd AA£\ Brigade. 1\ larine
units were attached for operational control only. Air warn-
ing teams which had been with XXIV Corps reverted to
0 control of the Air Defense Command. The positions of
0 1\AA units and their responsibilities remained unchanged.
As the ground fighting progressed and the front moved
•• forward, additional AAA units arrived at Okinawa and the
J 0
• • 0 outlying islands. The builcl-up of the AAA defenses on all

the islands was phased to keep pace with the base develop-
0 ments and to provide I\AA protection for the ever-increasing
0 number of installations to be defended. The garrison AAA
units, with arrival dates and locations, were as follows:
866th AAA AW Bn (less
Btry C) 5 April 1945 Okinawa
(Lt. Col. Adolph C. Nasvik)
o 8th Marille AAA BlI 19 April Okillawa

YAAOS Hq mId Hq Btry, 136th

o A" GUN BTRY. POSITION AAA Gp 27 April Ie S11ima
• AAA AW BTRY GENL. lOCATION (Col. l-Iarry iVfartill)
834tl1 AAA AW Bn 27 April Okinawa
Hq and Hq Btr)', 137th
AAA Gp 3 Mav Ok.inawa
505th AAA GUIt Bn 3 Ma)' Kerama Retto
Antiaircraft Artillery positions on Okinawa and Ie Shima as of (Lt. Col. Beaver)
30 June 1945. 779th AAA A ~V Bl1 3 May Okinawa
5th jVfarine AAA Bn 5 May Okinawa
began on 15 April. AAA units attached to this division were 870th AAA AW Bn 10 May Kera11laRetto
the 93rd AAA Gun Bn CLt. Col. A. H. Vail), 7th AAA (LI. Col. H'. F. L1lcas)
AvV Bn CLt. Col. R. F. Murphy) and the 2nd Plat, Btry A, 388th AAA AW Bn 15 May Ie Shima
295th AAA Sit Bn. Because of the slowness of the initial (Lt. Co!. Malcolm F. Gilchrist)
advance from the beach, no AAA was landed on the first 98th AAA GUl1 Bn 7 Jllne Okinawa
day. On 16 April, certain A \\1 elements were put ashore 948th AAA Gun Bn 7 Jlme Ie Shima
and became operational. Personnel of the gun battalion also Hq and Hq Btr)', 44th
were landed and assisted the shore parties as infantry in ...
AAA Gp 8 J line Kerama Retto
repelling Jap counterattacks during the night. Unloading (Col. R. \V. Argo)
of AAA equipment progressed slowly during the next two 503rd AAA Gun Bn 23 June Okinawa
days partly because the beach area remained under inter-
mittent sniper fire. Movement into position was hampered vVith few exceptions these units disembarked, moved intJ
by the great number of mines that the Japs had emplaced positions, and participated in combat soon after arrival.
throughout the island. Reconnaissance was made difficult On the evening of 20 April, between 1911 and 2335,
by the necessity of remaining on roads which had been the enemv, staged an extended air attack with more than ~
cleared and marked. However, by 19 April all AAA assault 50 planes, the bulk of which penetrated the gun defended
elements were in position and operational. The two AAA area on Okinawa. This operation portrayed vividly some
battalions had removed approximately 56 mines varying in inherent problems in combined fighter-AAA defense of an
size from small box type to 3()().pound aerial bombs. AAA area from which planes have to operate. Day fighters used
units also assisted in clearing out isolated Jap pockets of re- both fields; night fighters operated from Yontan. The
sistance in the vicinity of the AAA gun .positions. On 19 fighter screen was dispatched from both fields to the vicinity
April, the AAA units passed to the control of Tenth Army of the outlying radar picket ships at a radius of about 70
AAA with attachment to Island Command, Ie Shima. miles. Day fighters were landed at dusk and night fighters
The first AAA action on Ie Shima took place on 26 April. were "scrambled" and "pancaked" at odd intervals all night.
Three single plane flights flew over the island, headed for It was the practice of the air defense controller to withhold
Okinawa. They were engaged by.radar controlled gunfire, AAA fire when friendly planes were overhead, regardless
but with no evidence of destruction. On the night of 27-28 of the comparati\'e effectiveness of fighters and AAA.
April the Japs attacked Ie Shima itself. At 2200 one plane Jap pilots soon learned to follow our fighters in and bomb
the airfields while 1\1\1\ was in Control GREEN and not tudes from 2000 to 8000 feet. Radar controlled oounfire
permitted to fire. On this night they did exactly that with destroyed one. probably destroyed one and damaged two.
unusual success. The area containing Yontan and Kadena On )6 1\lay a raid of five enemy aircraft at high altitude
airfields and the landing beaches was the main objecti,'e of dropped bombs on both of the Okinawa airfields. One plane
six separate raids, flown about 45 minutes apart. \ Vindow was damaged by AAA gunfire. That evening 1\\'0 more
was dropped a number of times. The third raid was tracked planes made bombing runs over Yontan and were taken
at 17,000 feet; the others at from 100 to 1000 feet. During under heavy AAA fire but with no apparent results except
the course of the attacks some of the enemy Hew low over the that the bombing was unsuccessful.
airfields with running lights on, circli~g the field with Although raids occurred daily from the 17th throuoh
friendly fighters. They strafed, and dropped approximately 22 1\lay, that period can be cl~ssified as relatively qui~t.
40 incendiary and high explosive bombs. Fires were started However, on the 24th between 2000 and 2400, b~th Oki-
on both airfields, necessitating the evacuation of one 1\larine nawa and Ie Shima experienced the most intense enemv
AAA 40-mm gun position. During the entire period. 1\1\A aerial activity of the campaign. The moon was full and
was held in Control GREEN except for 15 minutes when the weather was perfect for bombing. \Vith seven raids
no enemy planes were in the area. The only AAA firing consisting 0;16 pla~es, the enemy m~de a d~sperateattempt
to destroy) ontan aIrfield and the nelghbonng installations.
was by automatic weapons at strafing planes.
After this episode the AAA Commander conferred with The first six raids were made at medium altitude with planes
Commander Air Support and achieved some improvement dropping quantities of window and approachino from all
in the handling of fighters so as to facilitate the release of directions. Bombing runs were pressed home thro~gh heav\'
AAA fire when required. Favorable results were first dem- AAA fire and bombs were dropped on Yontan and vicinit,:.
onstrated on the night of 27-28 April when the enemy re- The attack culminated in an attempt to land suicide
newed his aerial activity over Okinawa. Aided by clear troops on tl~e airfield. \Vhile one plane at high altitude ap-
weather and a full moon he struck in force at Yontan air- peared dehberately to attract AAA fire by maneuvering
field. Seven raids between 2053 and 2400 reached the south of Yontan, five Sallys approached at very low altitude
gun defended area. A large quantity of window was dropped from the northwest and east. These planes were illumi-
and the use ~f IFF by the japs was reported. Air defense nated by ~pread beam searchlight and engaged by a heavy
control was excellent and friendly fighters were held out volume of automatic fire. Every AM weapon that could
while enemy planes were within range of the AAA. Four be brought to bear was in action. Four planes, exploding in
planes were destroyed and one probably destroyed at alti- midair, crashed and started fires near¥ontan. The fifth was
tudes from 3000 to 9000 feet. This attack on Yon tan car- badly damaged and crash landed on the airfield. At least
ried over into the early morning with two raids at 0252 and eight heavily armed japanese soldiers got out of the wreck-
0301. The first, a bomber at 19,000 feet, was shot down on age and began tossing grenades and incendiaries into the
his third attempted bombing run. The second raid of two aircraft parked along the runway. Two Corsairs, four C-54's
planes, one fighter very low and one bomber at 6000 feet, and one Privateer were destroyed. Twenty-six other planes
made unsuccessful attacks on Yontan. The fighter was de- were damaged. Two fuel dumps also were ignited before
stroved and the bomber driven off. the jap airborne troops were disposed of. \Vhile the actual
The next evening, 28 April, an enemy force estimated at damages inflicted by this suicide squad were not material,
not less than 100 planes started for Okinawa. Of these, 18 the confusion and cross fire put the field out of action until
penetrated to the gun defended areas. Raids ranged from the last raider was killed early the following morning.
single flights to multiple groups. Attacks came from all
directions at altitudes from very low to 15,000 feet and
were pressed home in spite of heavy AAA fire. Violent
evasive action was taken by planes when under fire. Bomb-
ing occurred at Yontan during the first raid when AAA was 2AM""
in Control GREEN, but damage to the field was not great.
AAA fire was released after the first raid and succeeded in
destroying five of the attacking planes, plus one probably
destroyed and one damaged.
O~AUN0~ 3 ~A"URO
During the early morning hours of 4 May the japs again AKA [?
raided installations within the AAA defended area on NAVAL
Okinawa. Bombs were dropped nine times-twice on the o G@505
beach area, five' times on Yon tan airfield, once on Kadena
airfield and once near the CP of the 16th Marine AAA Gun 0 tt. GE~UMA ~ ANC.HORAGE

Bn. During the second raid four different flights were en- $.-1'
gaged by AAA simultaneously. All raids approached from (j
directions between the northwest and east, dropping large
quantities of window and adopting violent evasive action
when under AAA fire. Two planes were shot down by WILES

9G-mm gun batteries.

The Ie Shima phase of this attack saw fourteen planes The Keramo Retto group of islands, showing battery positions
over that island. They came in from all directions at alti- of the 505th AAA Gun Battalion.
One bomb struck inside the bunker of one of the guns,
instantly killing the entire crew. Intense fires from the
explosion consumed all inflammable material and spread
among the wooden boxes where ammunition was stored in
the emplacement. Fires and explosions continued for an
hour before being brought under control. f\Iuch unexploded
ammunition was scattered over the battery position. How-
ever, in se\'en hours the debris had been cleared awav,
damage to fire control equipment repaired and the batte~'.
less one gun, was again operative.
Activities on Kerama Retto

The Kerama Retto is a small group of islands about thiny

miles west of the southern end of Okinawa. The islands
were captured during the period 26 to 30 J\.Iarch, prior to
the Okinawa landings, for the purpose of providing a shel-
tered Naval anchorage and site for a seaplane base. The
IFF Antenae of Hqs. Btry 504th AAA Gun Bn overlooking 77th lnf Div secured the islands with little opposition,
Buckner Bay although several hundred Japs were driven to the hills.
Elements of the 7th AAA A\-\1 Bn provided AAA defense
Of the sixteen Jap planes in these attacks, ten were de- for the landin9s and remained with the garrison force of one
stroyed and one probably destroyed. One plane crashed in infantry battalion until 18 April.
Hames into a searchlight position, killing two enlisted men The Nm'al anchorage grew rapidly and included exten-
and wounding one officer and seven enlisted men. sive Hoating repair facilities required for the many ships
The attacks over Yontan continued after midnight with damaged by Kamikaze attacks. Naval tactics for the air de-
a raid of two planes at 0220. The first strafed the field from fense of the anchorage were largely passive, consisting
an altitude "of 200 feet while the second attempted a bomb- mostly in obscuring the ships in a cloud of smoke produced
inoo run at 18,000 feet but was destroved
, bv • radar controlled by smoke generators mounted in LCVP's. \Vhen Japanese
gunfire. After daylight at 0757 an attack occurred against planes were overhead the sound of their motors could be
our shipping. Although the AAA was in Control GREEN, heard on board the ships but nothing could be done about
one plane came within range of shore A\V, was definitely it. The local Admiral recommended that the base be moved
recognized as a Tony and was destroyed. to another location but Commander JEF disapproved and
\Vhile the attacks and attempted landings were in prog- directed that a battalion of AAA guns be sent to the islands
ress over Okinawa, the enemy made twenty raids on Ie to provide radar controlled fire over the anchorage. The
Shima. These were mostly single plane attacks although 50:;th AAA Gun Bn with one platoon of A\V was allotted
two Hights of several planes hit the airstrips and fuel dumps. for this task. The terrain was especially rugged and the
\-\Tindow was used extensively but damage to installations assistance of engineers was required in building roads and
was slight. The attack continued during the early morning clearing sites for the guns. The A1\A battalion arrived on
with twelve additional raids over the gun defended area. 25 May and the batteries became operational during the
After daylight, shipping was the principal target. During all first week in June.
this activity, the AAA on Ie Shima destroyed eighteen Thereafter, the Jap Hyers changed their tactics and ap-
planes and damaged seven. proached the Kerama Islands at very low altitude, defiladed
The airfield on Ie Shima was on a level plateau in the by the hilly terrain from AAA gunfire. The battalion en-
center of the island. On the north and south sides the ground gaged only two targets but established the enviable record
beyond the plateau sloped sharply to a lower level which of 50% by shooting down one of them. However, this was
cxtended to the water line. On this lower level and just only a small part of this unit's activity. Batteries were so sited
opposite the end of one of the runways was pitched the that a large part of the islands and most of the beaches in-
camp of Hq Battery, 93rd AAA Gun Battalion. At 1130 on side the anchorage were covered by the 1\A guns employed
the 25th, a P-43 taking off from this runway failed to be- as field artillery. The known locations of Japs who had
come airborne and crashed into the middle of the Hq Bat- withdrawn to the hills received periodic harassment. Points
tery camp, immediately bursting into flames. A great deal of along the beaches were zeroed in and surprise fire was
equipment was destroycd, as were the permanent records brought to bear on Jap scavenger parties searching the float-
of over 400 officers and enlisted men. Two men were ing debris and garbage for "Roosevelt rations." Much was
killed and five severely burned. done by the AAA guns to add to the discomfort of these
Although sporadic raids occurred over the islands during people.
June and July, there was no repetition of the concerted air Air Defense Control
activity of the preceding month.
The enemy did succeed in inflicting heavy damage to one. During the entire campaign, the AAA was controlled
battery on the night of 24 June. from the Combat Information Center afloat. Control was
Fifteen Japanese Naval PG 60-kg bombs landed in and exercised by Commander Air Support through his Force
near the position of Battery D, 93rd AM Gun Battalion. Fighter Director. Radar picket ships were stationed in all
directions from Okinawa and furnished early warning data
to the Fighter Director for the control of interceptors and
the release of AM fire. Because of their relative isolation,
these picket ships took a terrific pounding from Kamikaze
attacks. Howe\'er, replacements were effected and the sys-
tem was not interrupted. This feature did lead to the early
initiation of operations to capture the smaller outlying
islands and establish A\VS bases to replace the picket ships.
In addition to the strict control of fire of MA units, exer-
cised by Commander Air Support, Anny orders were explicit
in regulating antiaircraft fire of non-AM units. These
regulations provided that AA weapons in the hands of those
units were authorized to fire on Iv when under direct attack
by hostile aircraft during daylight, and under no circum-
stances during darkness.
I\M commanders on Okinawa can justly take pride in
the fire discipline of their units and in the ability of their
gunners to recognize targets and use judgment before open- Mark 20 Radar and Searchlight of the 2nd Marine AAA Bn,
ing fire. The same cannot be said of gunners in non-A/v-\ Point Bolo.
units, whose lack of fire discipline and failure to observe
Army orders caused appalling results during the first week of coordinated control of fighter aircraft and I\AI\ fire was
of the campaign. developed which by the middle of the campaign, was a
Large numbers of light AA weapons were emplaced model for effectiveness.
along the beach. Service units came ashore and immediately
promoted 1\A machine-gun defense with weapons picked up Ground Activities
from somewhere. Other ground and Naval units were Late in May the infantry units which had been garrison-
, likewise armed. Amtracks, LeT's and small naval craft ing the Kerama Retto were relieved from this duty by th~
had mounted A\V for A1\ defense. vVith adequate training 870th AAA AV/ Bn, under command of Lt. Col. Vlilmer F.
and proper control these gunners could have afforded tre- Lucas. This unit, formerly the Automatic \"'eapons Battal-
mendous defensive fire power. However, they were un- ion of the Harlem National Guard regiment, already had a
trained in target recognition and unfamiliar with Anny fine record of service as infantry in \Vorld vVar 1. After de-
orders governing the control of AA fire. l\llany of these ploying on the principal islands of the Kerama Retto, the
units lacked the communication facilities necessary for battalion initiated an active campaign of mop-up and harass-
proper control. Their motto was to shoot. One burst of fire ment against the remaining Japs. Patrols covered the
I from any gunner against any type of plane set off a terrific islands' perimeters and destroyed suicide motorboats and
volume of fire which, when started, was impossible to stop. caches of ammunition, food and other supplies. On one oc-
In addition to the two tragic instances of firing on friendly casion a pocket of about thirty Japs was located in a deep
planes noted above, the following occurred on 7 April. At gulch on Zamami. After a well planned preparation by
I 155, warning was passed on the AAAIS net that three mortar fire and grenades delivered from the ridges above, a
friendly planes were going to land on Yontan airfield. The patrol advanced up the gulch and killed everyone of the
planes drew no fire as they passed over AAA installations. Japs without a single casualty to our troops.
But as they circled to land, fire was initiated from amtracks Hq and Hq Btry, 44th MA Group, arrived early in June
near the field and was taken up by other gunners on the and was sent to Kerama Retto where its commander assumed
beach and shipping. One plane was destroyed, one crash- control of all garrison activities. One battery of the 870th
landed and the third was damaged. AAA AW Bn had occupied the empty village of T okashiki
I This situation made it necessary for AAA commanders in on the eastern coast of the island by that name, the largest
I each area to search out and take control of AA weapons in island in the group. The Japs occupied positions in the sur-
the hands of non-AAA troops. A few were incorporated rounding hills and caused fire from machine guns, knee mor-
into the AAA control net. Some were allowed to continue tars and snipers to fall within the town. V/ith the arrival in
if it was established that ArttJy orders regarding AA fire were Tokashiki of over two thousand civilians from Ie Shima

being followed. All others were dismounted and stored. with Military Government personnel, the situation became
I Only in this manner was it possible to solve the problem more acute. On 24 June a well planned and effective attack

of insuring the safety of friendly planes operating from two was made by the 870th AAA Bn to oust the Japs from the
airfields in the middle of a highly congested area. principal hill overlooking the village. The attack was sup-
It is true that these incidents contributed to the caution ported by naval gunboat fire and field artillery concentra-
of the Fighter Director in withholding AAA fire and pre- tions by the 505th AAA Gun Bn. Although considerable
venting the full employment of AAA capabilities on a few resistance was offered by Japs in prepared positions, our
occasions during the early days of the campaign. However, troops took the hill and completed the organization of a new
bv close liaison between Tenth Armv AM and Com- perimeter by early evening. Two pillboxes were knocked
~ander Air Support, as well as strenuou's efforts on the part out with flame throwers. Machine guns, mortars and a quan-
I of all AAA commanders, errors were corrected and a system tity of ammunition were destroyed. Our losses were one
the searchlight in a bit of local battlefield illumination.
Rarely did a day pass without an incident of ground con-
tact between an outlying AAA unit and Jap ground troops.
1\ liles behind the front, by-passed pockets of Japs which had
escaped the mop-up were a source of harassment to our
troops. Contacts increased as the campaign drew to a close
and groups of Japanese, escaping from the southern part
of the island, attempted to work their way through the
American lines to the comparative safety of the northern
hills. The need for local security of isolated units was
axiomatic. Positions had to be wir~d in, perimeter defenses
established and active patrolling maintained.

Results and lessons learned

Hesults obtained by Tenth Army AM during the
Ryukyus campaign included 127 enemy planes destroyed,
20 probably destroyed and 56 damaged. Battle.casualties to
M15 Half Track, 834th AAA A\X' Bn (SP) Machinato Beach. 1'\AA personnel totalled 39 killed, 139 wounded and 18
Protecting right flank of the III Marine Corps. injured. Nonbattle casualties came to 289.
'Lessons concerning supply, administration and the tech-
officer and two men killed and nine men wounded. Over nical aspects of ammunition and equipment served mostly
twentv dead Japs were counted. to confirm what had already been known from other opera.
Several instances of ground activity involving AAA tions. The principal lessons learned in this campaign per-
troops also occurred on Okinawa. On 12 1\by, a patrol tained to training and emphasized the necessity in large
from an isolated Marine radar unit near Yontan was am- amphibious operations for,
bushed by a Jap force estimated at fourteen men. In the (a) T/1Orollgh i1/doctrination in target recognition
ensuing skirmish three Japs were killed. The patrol escaped mid fire discipline all the part of AA gllnllers in 1/011-
with only tluet; wounded. Another patrol was immediately AAA IInits, to include complete dissemination of Army
organized and searched out the enemy, developing a fire orders for the corltrol of AA fire to the lowest echelolls.
fight in which the Japs were driven into a cave. One 1\larine (b) Provision of protection from AA fragments for
was killed. After receiving ~einforcements during the night, all troops, especially those near beaches exposed to
the patrol finished off the Japs the next morning. Thirteen Naval AA fire at planes in line with the shore.
bodies were counted and identified as paratroopers, equipped (c) Continued 'Stress on local security of AAA posi-
with demolition kits and an up-to-date aerial photo of Yon- tiO/ls: to ii/elllde offensive patrolling.
tan airfield.
During the latter part of June, a platoon from the 325th The end of the Hyukyus campaign was officially declared
I\A/\ Sit Bn went into position near Yonabaru. Platoon when organized resistance ceased on 2 July 1945. The
headquarters and one searchlight section established a Japanese commander performed his traditional rites to the
wired .in perimeter with foxholes, trip flares, etc. Soon after Emperor by committing hari-kari, and the United States
dark a Jap patrol of twelve men approached and engaged flag was hoisted above his command post. Thus ended the
the searchlight crew in a lively exchange of fire after which last and largest amphibious operation in the Pacific.
the Japs withdrew. The next day a patrol from the light Termination of the major ground combat activities actu-
crew flushed a small group of Japs and killed all except the ally had little effect on the antiaircraft artillery in the
leader, an officer who committed suicide with a hand Ryukyus. Air alerts and occasional raids occurred through-
grenade. The Japs continued the harassment in increasing out July and the first half of August, but with less frequency
strength for three nights. vVhen the searchlight went into and intensity. The AAA units continued in the perform-
action it drew rifle and machine-gun fire. One Jap attempt ance of their primary mission to the end of the war. Head-
was made with a satchel charge to blow up the control quarters Tenth Army AAA Command concerned itself prin-
station. This attack was liquidated by infantry assisted by cipally with preparation for the scheduled invasion of Japan.
l By Maj. V. B. Cagle, CAC
trailers, and acquisition of 400 government owned trailers
One of several approaches to the solution of the to be assigned to the first three I:>orade NCO's as familv,
service housing problem, the possibility of increased quarters.
use of house trailers by service personnel should re- At the same time even', effort was beinoI:> made to secure
ceive careful consideration at the highest level. , rental units in EI Paso. For a long-range solution to the
A centralized purchasing and financing program problem, Fort Bliss encouraged low-cost housing projects in
could bring a trailer within the reach of many EI Paso to supplement permanent type quarters to be con-
service families badly in need of relief from high structed with funds appropriated by Congress. These plans
rents and inadequate housing.-Editor. are now materializing. The Ft. Bliss Housing Service is
doing good work, the Hou~ing Association completed the
l00th prefab on 30 June, and the Post Hou,sing Board is
l\lilitary personnel arriving at Ft. Bliss, Texas, this sum- well along with plans to put up 1200 low-cost homes. In
mer or fall via automobile and house trailer will be glad to addition, the Department of the Army has also recently an-
know that the critical housing situation here has been solved nounced that authority has been granted to construct 72
for them to ~ome extent. Opening in January 1949 with 46 permanent quarters at Ft. Bliss this year.
spaces, the Fort Bliss trailer park has been expanded to pro- Located at the comer of V/ilson Road and J. E. B. Stuart
vide accommodations for 112 trailer spaces, and work is now Road, the trailer park is served by Post shuttle as well as
progressing on 39 additional spaces to bring the total to 151. EJ Paso busses from Biggs Field. It is understood that tele-
Still on the waiting list, however, are the names of 61 appli- phone service will be available soon upon individual request.
cants for parking space. Trailer spaces are 30' x 60' and are provided with water
The trailer park is only one of several means employed at taps, electric outlets and sewerage. Each resident has been
Ft. Bliss, to relieve a critical housing shortage caused by the encouraged to plant grass and flowers, and some shade trees
arrival of several thousand persons to cadre and fill new have been set out, although it will be several years before
units being activated here. On October 15, 1948, Maj. Gen. these will mature.
John L. Homer, Commanding General, Fort Bliss, an- A uniform storage box has been provided at the rear of
I nounced a drive to combat the housing shortage. Among each lot to store garden tools, oilcans and the like. Sturdy
the steps taken to provide housing were two immediate clothes lines have also been installed. Trailers now in the
relief projects: Construction of a park for privately owned park run from small 23-footers up to luxurious 35-foot jobs.

r -r- -._f1lLr J/ .


One of the many types of trailers at the Fort Bliss trailer park, this unit is occupied by the author. The air-conditioning unit
mounted on top keeps the temperature comfortable despite desert heat.
The• larger or these are equipped with showers and 'flush Park Commander 1st Lt. \\1. R. McNeil
toilets. These are connected directly to the sewer system Custodiml of the FUlld Capt. Hr. D. Sowers
on each lot. For the convenience ~f residents, but' used Billetillg Offlcer Sgt. T. R. Roberts
largely by the occupants of the smaller trailers, there are six Utility Offlcer SFC R. S. Merrill
utility trailers scattered through the park equipped with • Park Mallager SFC Thomas i-I icks
showers and rest room facilities. Two additional utility Advisory Members Mrs. M. A. Petersoll,
trailers have been equipped as laundries and the latest typ~ A. C. Miller, P. Michael
washing machines have been installed. The children's play-
ground is at the rear of the park and is complete with swings, Park rules require that one adult member of each family
merry-go-rounds, slides and sandboxes. be present at monthly meetings of the council. Usually
Trailer life represents one answer to the vexing army these meetings last from one to two hours depending on the
housing problem, and while there are some disadvantages, amount of business to be transacted and are very livel"
there are numerous advantages and more and more officers affairs. Improvements are suggested and voted on, rules ~f
and enlisted men are deciding that it is the most economical conduct are established and rents are collected.
and most comfortable way to live and perform military serv- The average trailer coach is 23 feet long and is a complete
ice in the Continental U.S. or am'where in North America dwelling, containing more than 200 square feet of floor
that is served bv roads. \Vhile i; is true that annual state space, comparable to many "efficiency" apartments. The
licenses are req~ired for trailers if they are operated on the front part is usually a living room with a sofa that opens
highway, most residents are exempt from numerous taxes into a double bed, two comfortable lounging chairs and
and assessments ordinarily paid by house dwellers. Omitted usual accoutrements, such as a radio, lamp, pictures, rugs,
too are the expensive utility bills for electricity, gas and and bookcases. The center room, usually called the "galley,"
water. Small utility charges are usually included in the is a compact kitchen, complete with gas stove, refrigerator,
space rental fee. -!\llostof the new trailers now utilize bottled sink and cupboard.
gas of the Butane type for cooking purposes. 1\'lyexperience Most trailers now have an automatic electric hot water
over a period of years is that one bottle costing $1.50 will system. The rear room of the modern coach consists of a
prepare three meals a day for two adults from about six to full-size double bed, two wardrobes, a dressing table and
eight weeks. Heat for the trailer in the winter using oil or sometimes a bathroom. These trailers represent an initial
gasoline rarely runs over $5.00 a month. investment on the part of the owner from $1200 to $4500
Air conditioning of the trailer, both in summer and winter depending upon the size. The average at Ft. Bliss runs
is a relatively simple matter as compared to a house and is upwards from $2500. A large number have been purchased
easy to maintain. Parking fees over the nation average from from dealers in El Paso and have never been moved.
$12.00 to $20.00 per month (utilities included), but of Born in the depression, the trailer coach industry is todav
course Service owned parks are considerably cheaper. At a billion dollar business. Thereare from 300,000 to 500,000
Ft. Bliss the rent has been set at $5.00 per month with ap- trailer coaches on the highways or parked to provide shelter
proximately $3.00 of this amount going for the utilities. for more than one million persons. Today there are from
The balance is used by the park fund to provide orderly 175 to 200 established trailer coach manufacturers in this
service in the bath. trailers, cleaning materials, .and new country. Some of these plants turn out as many as 20
items of equipment. coaches per day. \Vriting for the Trailer Topics magazine.
Administration of the park is the responsibility of the lvlr. Harold I-Ielfer says: "In many ways, the trailer coach
park council, elected by the members of the park to serve for industry is like the automobile industry 25 years ago. Then
a period of three months. Members of the council are, of a lot of people wondered whether the horseless carriage was
course, all residents of the trailer park. At present the coun- here to stay. The pioneers of the trailer coach industry today
cil consists of: are just as enthusiastic and determined as Henry Ford ever


Extract from Special Regulations 405-50-10, Department of the Army, 24 June 1949

1. General.-In order to alleviate the existing shortage of and civilian personnel authorized to occupy public quarters
accommodations available for the housing of families of under provisions of paragraph 3-4, CPR P16.3, for the use and
personnel of the Department of the Army, the establishment occupancy of individual trailer sites, approximately 30 feet
of trailer camps within military reservations will be approved in width and 50 feet in depth, within approved trailer camp
in appropriate situations. In such instances, the Department areas, and to revoke or renew such leases. Leases will be
of the Army will lease a suitable plot of land to interested per- granted under the authority of the ael of 5 August 1947 (61
sonnel and provide necessary utilities and other services to the Stat. 774) and will provide for a uniform rental charge of
lessee on a reimbursable basis. The trailers will be furnished $42 per annum. In no event will the term of the lease exceed
by prospeelive lessees. a period of 2 years. DA AGO Form 373 (Lease of Trailer
Site) will be used exclusively for this purpose. This form will
2. Authority.-Effective immediately, post commanders are be available through normal publications supply channels on
authorized to grant revocable leases to military personnel or about 15 July 1949.
was about his first cars. Thev sa", whatever retrolutionary Some concrete suggestions for improvement of conditions
effect it may have on the cou'ntn: as a whole, trailer coach for the Service trailer resident would be:
life is desti~ed to become an i~portant and integral part (1) Establishment of a uniform mileage rate for all per-
of the American scene." sonnel travelling pes with a trailer at 12 cents per mile.
So far the Department of the Army has recognized the No shipment of household effects would be permitted
need for privately owned trailers by allocating sums of when drawing this rate.
money to construct parks at certain posts, but what about (2) Establishment of a small trailer park at all major
policy on a National Military basis? \\That happens when posts and military schools to provide accommodations, if
a 1st Lieutenant at Ft. Bliss transfers to Ft. McPherson, desired, for personnel on duty for 30 days or more.
Ga., or Ft. rvleade, Maryland? He does not need to ship 0) Establishment of uniform regulations which will
household furnishings at Government expense as other offi- permit officers to retain quarters allowances for a period to
cers do, but he receives no increase over the usual eight cents allow them to dispose of their trailers prior to assignment of
per mile for moving his entire house. quarters.
On the other hand, it may be that there are no Govern- ( 4) Directory service on a nation-wide basis of all posts
ment trailer parks at these or other posts-if not the lieuten- which have trailer parks with brief data on size and rates.
ant must park outside the reservation, for he may endanger (5) A central agency for financing and insurance should
the quarters allowances of other officers on the post. If he is be set up on the same basis as Army Mutual Aid insurance.
an enlisted man he may not be able to pay high trailer rents At larger posts, trailer parks should be complete with
and still operate his car to and from work. (Commercial recreation facilities and children's playgrounds. A com-
trailer parks are usually located outside city limits.) munity house would serve well for afternoon bridge parties,
\Vorse yet-from some viewpoints-the newly arrived offi- monthly meetings and Sunday school services. Lots of shade
cer from Ft. Bliss may find that adequate Government quar- trees, lawns and Bowers will help toward the comfort of
ters are available at certain posts and he is immediately residents and will serve to remove some of the stigma ordi-
ordered into quarters-in which case he has to layout narily associated with trailer parks and trailer people.
varying amounts of his folding money to buy furniture, sell
his trailer at a big discount, and give up his quarters
The life of a trailer coach varies, depending upon the
care and the amount of travel to which it is subjected. Trailer parks are now located at the following major
Probably 10 years would be close to the average life span Posts.
for a house-on-wheels, although some have been on the road Ft. BIiss, Texas Ft. Lewis, Washington
for 15 years. Usually the trailer resident trades in his coach Ft. Knox, Kentucky Ft. Dix, New Jersey
for a new one at the end of two or three years.
Camp Campbell, Kentucky Hanford, Washington
Resale of the trailer coach can be handled probably as
Ft. Ord, California Ladd Field, Alaska
quickly as the resale of a home. That is, the lieutenant could
sell his trailer upon leaving Ft. Bliss equally as quickly as one White Sands Proving Ground, Bolling Field,
New Mexico Washington, D. C.
could sell a house. However, since trailers have a shorter
life than houses, they have a larger depreciation.

The first step in achieving public understanding of your profession lies

in your own understanding. If a soldier does not understand his own mo-
tives, he will never be able to explain them to anyone else. In shore, always
make certain that you are oriented upon the important, basic facts of your
career of service. The next group to be so oriented consists of the men you
will lead-and I doubt that there will be any work you will do which will
be more important than this: to lead your subordinates to a full understand-
ing of the importance of their mission. No citizen is going to respect an
Army which does not respect itself.-THE HON. GORDON GRAY,
Three and One-half Times the Speed of Sound*
Martin Designs and Fabricates the Vehicle, Which Uses a Rocket
Power Plant, Now Being Tested by the Navy

A second Navy Vikillg rocket, incorporating design mooi- next and all succeeding rockets of the Viking series.
fications and improvements prompted by the Bight of the The first Bight was a test of the Viking's propulsion and
first Viking on l\hy 3, 1949, is being assembled for the control systems, both of which performed well. The 51~-
Office of Naval Research at the Baltimore, 1\ld., plant of mile altitude, though sufficient to prO\'e the basic design, did
The Glenn L. !\'Iartin Company. This second Viking will not utilize the rocket's full capacity. It is planned to try for
be test-fired at the \Vhite Sands Proving Ground, Las optimum performance and higher altitude in future Bights.
Cruces, New 1\lexico, where the initial rocket of the VikiJlg The VikiJlg's development and launchings are directed
series reached an altitude of 51~ miles and a speed of by the Naval Research Laboratory of the Office of Naval
2,250 miles an hour on 1\la)' 3. Research. The Glenn L. Martin Company designs and
A total of 10 Viking rockets is to be built and launched fabricates the vehicle, which uses a rocket power plant de-
under the Navy's long-range program which is aimed to- veloped and built by Reaction Motors, Inc., at Dover, N. J.
ward the development of an American high-altitude rocket The rocket is tested and readied for launching by a servicing
that will exceed in performance the German V-2. The de- crew composed of men from the Martin company, the
velopment program provides that the experience gained Naval Research Laboratory, and Reaction Motors. Officers
from each rocket will be used to advance the design of the and enlisted men of the Naval Unit at \Vhite Sands assist in
field operations.
*Reprinted with permission of U. S. Ai, Sert1ice /Ilagazine. Although the Viking was originally conceived and will be
used as a vehicle for carrying research instruments into the
upper atmosphere, its development will materially advance
the guided missile art and the national defense. The 45-foot-
long pencil-like vehicle weighs five tons when fully loaded.
It bums liquid oxygen and alcohol in a rocket engine that
develops ten tons of thrust for more than one minute. Dur-
ing Bight, the Viking is stabilized in pitch, yaw and roll by
means of intemal controls.
The first Viking was accepted by the Navy and delivered
to "Vhite Sands in January, 1949. Servicing shops were set
up, launching area installations were made and then two
static firings were conducted: one in March, the other in
April. In the static firing, the rocket is checked out, fueled
• and fired as for a Bight, except that it is securely fastened to
its launching stand and therefore remains on the ground.
Although the idea of static testing is not new to the rocket
art, the use of static firings as pre-launching checks of the
assembled rocket is a Viking innovation. In addition to pro-
viding valuable data on the rocket's performance, the static
tests indicated that the first Viking was in good operating
condition before its Right firing. Minor defects which ap-
peared during the first static test were corrected before sub-
jecting the rocket to a final, confirming static firing. On the
basis of favorable test data, the rocket was readied for
launching and finally Bown on May 3.
Excellent records of the rocket's Bight performance and
detailed data on the functioning of its various components
and systems were obtained during the first Bight. From
analysis of these data, numerous design mooifications and
improvements have been decided upon, and many are being
incorporated into the second Viking rocket.
The "Viking," constructed for the U. S. Navy, was launched
successfully on May 3, at the W'hite Sands Proving Ground, The first Viking reached its peak altitude 163 seconds
Las Cruces, N. M. Pictures of the initial launching have ju~t after take off. After ascending 15 miles under powered
been released by the Naval Research Laboratory under whose Right, the giant rocket coasted to its zenith and then fell
direction the "Viking" was built. The single stage upper at- back to the earth 10 miles from the launching site about 6
mosphere rocket reached an altitude of 511/2 miles, and attained
a speed of 2,250 miles an hour, which is three and one-half
minutes after take off. The maximum velocity attained is
times the speed of sound. 3~ times the speed of sound.
Introduction To Ramjet Propulsion
By Lieutenant Commander J. P. Field, U. S. Navy

(Author's Note: The first part of this article is a revision and extension of a preceding very excellent article
in the Coast Artillery Journal by Majors O:Arezzo and Sigley, CAC, entitled "The Flying Stovepipe-How It
Works." Those authors are due credit for their contribution to this work. A large percentage of all the ma-
terial presented here was derived directly or indirectly from The Applied Physics laboratory, The Johns Hop-
kins University, and thanks are expressed to members of that organization. However, respoDsibility for
errors and misplaced emphasis rests solely with the author.)


~lodern military requirements for very high velocity pro-

pulsion systems have led to extensive study of several types
of reaction motors. A general characteristic of all these en- "-\
gines is their ability to propel a structure at higher veloci- /1
ties than "conventional" systems are able to match, but
each type of reaction motor has certain advantages and limi-
tations peculiar to it alone which govern the adaptability of
that type to suit particular requirements.
The ramjet engine has attracted close scrutiny primarily I rORCE ACTING TO ACCELERATE JET GASES REACTS

because of its: (1) very high power per pound of weight; I


(2) high power per unit frontal area (implying low drag); Figure I-Rocket.
and (3) extreme simplicity and economy of construction.
The ramjet consists essentially of a shaped duct open at parable to that of the Thunderbolt engine for which the
loth ends through which air passes and is accelerated by exhaust pipe was intended.
the addition of heat energy. It derives thrust from the re-
Thrust Development
action of accelerating combustion gases.
Although the ramjet was first conceived by a Frenchman Like all reaction engines, the ramjet engine derives its
named Lorin almost forty years ago, it was not until the thrust from the increase of momentum which it imparts to
urgent need for a new high velocity propulsion system be- the working medium, in this case, air. Newton's third law
came apparent to military planners during \Vorld \\Tar II of morion states that for every action there is an equal and
that serious development was undertaken. The Applied opposite reaction; applied to this case, it means that what-
Physics Laboratory, The Johns Hopkins University, work- . ever force accelerates the hot gases backward also pushes
ing under contract with the Navy Bureau of Ordnance, the missile forward. The magnitude of this force may be
undertook this task late in 1945, and by June, 1946, it was computed, according to Newton's second law, from the
announced that successful ramjet flights had been accom- time rate of change of momentum of the gases and hence
plished for the first time. Unlike many other new weapon the force pushing the missile can be determined.
developments and in spite of its French origin, the de- The reaction idea as exemplified by rockets is immediately
velopment of the ramjet has been almost exclusively Amer- clear upon first introduction. (See Figure 1.) The unburned
ican so far as we know. fuel is at rest with respect to the rocket, but when it burns
Since the original successful Hights, other government and expands through the nozzle it gains a certain velocity
agencies and industrial concerns having military contracts relative to the rocket. The mass of fuel burned per second
have interested themselves in the ramjet engine, and the multiplied by the jet velocity gives the change of momentum
Applied Physics Laboratory has continued as a prominent of these gases and this is equal to the thrust which pushes
leader in development of this propulsion system. In the the engine ahead. Note that the thrust is derived from the
flight first publicized in June 1946, the ramjet, having been change of velocity of the ejected matter and not from its
boosted by rockets to a velocity of 1900 feet per second, then pushing against the atmosphere or against any other resist-
accelerated under its own power to about 2200 feet per ing medium outside the rocket. If a man jumps off the bow
second or 1500 miles per hour. This is twice the speed of of a small boat in the middle of a pond the boat will be
sound. It Hew five miles, burned one gallon of gasoline, and shoved backward through the water with the same mo-
though constructed essentially of the exhaust pipe of a mentum that the man gained ahead, and this is analogous
Thunderbolt airplane engine, it developed horsepower com- to a reaction engine's operarion, the man representing the

Direction of
Motion of Engine


Air Motion

<=={f Exhaust


Ghock wave on Diffuser further FueI injectors, In combustion

Intake abruptly slows oil' and igniter and flame chamber high
slows oil'. and converts velocity holder introduce pressure built up
increases pressure energy to pressure, losses through by combustion of
downstream. matching combus- drag. fuel sustains tile
tion chamber pres ... diffuser exit
sure. Forward pressure and is
component of this converted to
pressure pushes velocity by
engine forward. expansion of gases
along the duct.

Figure 2-Supersonic Ramjet.

accelerating gases and the boat representing the propelled rates from the walls. Because of !the thermodynamic rela-
missile; but if a man propelled the boat by pushing with his tions between pressure, temperature, and velocity, the
hand against a pier or by pushing against the bottom of the kinetic energy represented by 1\:hischange of velocity is con-
pond with a pole, there would be no analogy. Hence, a verted into potential energy which appears in the form of a
rocket can develop thrust high above the atmosphere or progressive rise in pressure along the duot. At the diffuser
even in a total vacuum; in fact, it will develop about 20 exit the slow-moving high-pressure air discharges into the
per cent more thrust when discharging to a vacuum than combustion chamber. It is one function of ,the diffuser to
when discharging to atmospheric pressure because its jet produce as high a pressure rise as possible for a given change
velocity will be greater when discharging to a vacuum. in velocity. However, the diffuser will not function in this
In a ramjet the same principle applies: namely, ,that an manner to produce a pressure rise from velocity energy un-
acceleration of a hot jet gas produces a reaotion that shoves less its exit pressure is sustained by a matching pressure in
the engine through .the air, but in this case the medium is the combustion chamber. This matching pressure is sup-
not initially at .restwith respect to the missile, as in the case plied as follows.
of the rocket, for it has an initial velocity as it en1\:ersthe The air flowing into the combustion chamber is mixed
intake. Nevertheless, the air undergoes a change of mo- with fuel, ignited, and bums in a very short distance. The
men.tum because the combustion of fuel adds heat energy . increased temperature tends to increase the volume of a
which is converted by the duct into pressure and velocity given mass of mixl'llre and hence the hot expanding gases
changes. The increase in vel06ty multiplied by the mass seek to escape in every direction. Radial escape is impossible,
rate of flow is again proportional to the force that propels of course, because of the chamber walls, and .escape up-
the engine assuming that the gases exhaus.tat ambient pres- stream is blocked by Ithediffuser exit pressure. Due to these
sure. Because the ramjet looks so much like a long open flow restrictions .the pressure in the diffuser chamber goes
pipe it is sometimes difficult at first introduotion to see just up greatly causing the gases to take the only possible escape
where the actual physical pushing ,takesplace. The follow- route out the combustion chamber exit at a very high ve-
ing paragraphs will a.ttempt to make this apparent; but it locity. Now the same high pressure (created by expansion
should be clear that, regardless of;.the physical details in- of the heated gases) that accelerates this gaseous mass out
volved, a force is aotually present pushing against the engine the combustion chamber exit also offers an opposition to the
whenever gases are being accelerated out the exit. This is influx of air from the diffuser causing its velocity to be re-
the salient point to hold in mind during the following dis- duced and thereby further rqising its pressure. This in-
cussion. creased pressure is transmitted upstream through the air
Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the ramjet. The in the diffuser and results in higher pressures throughout
diffuser is a frustrum of a cone with a very small angle, the .the diffuser.
exit area being perhaps 2:J..2or 3 times the intake area. When In fluids static pressure is exerted equally in all directions
the air flows down ,the diffuser it has a greater and greater and therefore Thewalls of the diffuser will have a high pres-
area to fill the farther it flows, and consequently it goes sure acting normally upon them. This pressure may be con-
slower and slower the farther it goes unless the flow sepa- sidered to be composed of two components, one nOIIDaIto
pressure ratio will be maintained; therefore, the only
Aerodynamic Drag
:.. result will be to raise the pressure of the exhausted ga~.
A nozzle may be added to convert this excess pressure into

Motion of
velocity as is done for rockets, but for many cases the added
weight and drag of the nozzle would more than offset the
a~vantage so gained. For supersoni~ ramjets not equipped
WIth a nozzle, the gases at the eXIt plane are invariablv
exactlv at sonic velocity..
Formation of Shock Waves
An introduction to the formation of shock waves will be
a useful preliminary to discussing in detail the history of the
air which passes through the ramjet.
Figure 3-Ramjet Thrust. The velocity of propagation of small pressure disturb-
ances, such as sound, in a gaseous medium is proportional
the diffuser axis and the other parallel to it. (See Figure 3.) to the square root of the absolute temperature of the medi-
Those normal to the axis will cancel out with those on the um. It is a 'Veryimportant thermodynamic quantity not be-
opposite inner wall but those components parallel to the cause of its relation to audible sound but because it places
axis will add together to give a net force pushing the dif- cer,tain limits upon the transmission of pressure changes
fuser forward. This is the force that propels a ramjet. and the flow of gases through constrictions. The term
For a given mass of air flowing per second and a given "Mach Number" is used to define the velOCityof a body
size combustion chamber exit, the pressure in the chamber relative to this velocity of propagation of small pressure
is determined by the rate at which fuel is burned, and the changes. For Mach Number 1, the body moves at the prop-
pressure throughout the diffuser adjusts to match this pres- agaJtion velocity, or. sonic velocity. Mach Numbers less
sure imposed by the combustion rate. Since a supersonic than one correspond to subsonic velocities and Mach Num-
diffuser is designed to produce one particular Mach Num- bers greater than one correspond to supersonic velocities.
~r at its exit and since this Mach Number is actually set Consider a stationary point source of pressure fluctuations.
r the rate of fuel combustion (via the pressure so de- Pressure waves travel out in concentric expanding spheres at
.eloped), it is apparent that only one air-fuel ratio will give a given rate, the sonic velocity. A cross section would reo
r)roper matching between combustion chamber pressure semble Figure 4(a). Now let the source be moving at ap-
and diffuser exit pressure. proximately 0.7 sonic velocity, i.e., Mach Number 0.7; a set
There is a high pressure in the combustion chamber and of circles will still be produced but their centers will be
only ambient atmospheric pressure outside the combustion successively displaced along the path of motion of the
chamber exit. In between, there is the pressure gradient source since their origin moves with ,time. Older circles are
which keeps tlhe gases accelerating throughout the length bigger. (Figure 4(b).) If the source is moving at approxi-
of the chamber. Pressure relations are such that for a ramiet mately sonic velocity, Mach Number 1, the configuration
flying at a Mach Number of about 1.2 and above, the " wil~resem~le Figure 4(c). If the source is mo~ing at super-
gases will reach sonic velocity inside the chamber near "the some velOCIty,Mach Number greater than 1, It will be con-
exit because the pressure available at the diffuser exit plane tinually overrunning the sectors of the circles which other-
will be about twice atmospheric pressure, and the pressure wise would be ahead of it causing them to add together
ratio will produce sonic velocity at the jet exhaust plane. and make a severe pressure wave. The envelope of all the
If higher pressures are produced in the combustion chamber circles vyould form a thin surface representing a pressure
by faster flight and proper heat addition, the Mach Number discontinuity whose intensity decreases with distance from
1 condition will still be maintained at the exit and the same the source. The geometry would resemble Figure 4( d). This

Weaker shocks further Envelope of all circles

'rom ."" •• ~, forms the shell called

(c) (d) ,-
(a) (b)
Source moving at 0.7 Source moving at Source moving at
Stationary Source approximately sonic
sonic velocity. Centers supersonic velocity
of circles displaced. velocity. producing shock wave.

Figure 4-Formation of Shock Waves.

DlrectlOl! of Air Motior. above, a shock wave may occur in a duct even without any
RelatIVe 10 Bodies
obstructions. The gaseous medium uses the shock proceS"s
I as a mechanism for adjusting its pressure, volume, velOCity,

etc., to suit the requirements of pressure and flow area im-
posed upon it. For example, Figure 6(a) shows such a shock
in a diverging duct. It .w:iIl appear \vhen certain conditions
of pressure are imposed at the exit end of a diverging sec-
tion, but for a certain very low pressure at -the exit relative
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
to the pressure at the intake the whole flow may be super-
Thin Wedge Thicker Wedge Stili ThICker Some Wedge Shock from sonic throughout and no shocks at all will appear in this
sorne N<lch no. Wedge Same as (01. higher blunt body
e lorger. Moch 110. Mach no section. For a certain imposed exit pressure, a shock will be
Detached shock. , smaller
present at some place such as shown in Figure 6(a). For a
Figure 5-Shapes of Shock Waves. slightly higher exit pressure, the shock will form as in
Figure 6(b) ..
is known as a shock wave and will be present whenever a
relative speed exists between an obstruction and a stream
of gas because relative motion continually crea"tespressure ~ Supersonic • Supersonic
disturbances that spread in a manner similar to .that just (further slowed
described. It represents a severe discontinu~ty of extremely
small thickness. On passing through it, the air experiences
bJ Supersonic
(slowed by first
by second angle
a very sudden increase of pressure, temperature, densi.ty, angle shock) ~Subsonic
and entropy, with a corresponding decrease of velocity. Un-
less the shock wave is normal to the direction of flow, as it
can be under some conditions, the direction of flow is also
changed on passing through the wave. Real bodies can be Relative
considered made up of many points and hence they form
shoc~ waves similar in origin and nature to, but differing in
shape from, the oversimplified pictures given above for
point sources. Figure 5(a) shows a shock from a thin Angle shock Relatively mild
wedge. Figure 5(b) shows the shock from a thicker wedge from wall normal shock
at the original Mach Number, and Figure 5(e) shows the
shock from a still thicker wedge at the original Mach Num- Figure 7-Multiple Shock Diffuser.

All shocks perpendicular to the flow direction are called

WAVE normal shocks. Normal shocks can be considered as more
I severe than angle shocks since they introduce higher pres-
---,> sure losses than angle shocks; that is, more of the total pres-
AIR MOTION sure of the stream is converted into heat or turbulence and
cannot be recovered as useful pressure. Also, as the Mach
Number goes up these pressure losses increase very rapidly;
and this will set an upper limit on the efficient Right
to) SHOCK TO A CERTAIN PRESSURE AT PLANE 2 velocity of a ramjet utilizing normal shock on the intake.
For this reason, attention has been given to the con-
struction of diffusers which utilize angle shocks instead
of normal shocks to slow down the high Mach Num-
RELATIVE ber air. Since some kind of shock is inescapable in super-
---i> sonic flight, such diffusers as that shown schematically
in Figure 7, and others, have been designed to reduce the
supersonic velocity of the stream in easy stages through
SUBSONIC one or more angle shocks followed by a weak normal shock.
(b) SHOCK TO A HIGHER PRESSURE AT PLANE 2 In this way, more ram pressure can be recovered .than with
THAN IN (a) the straight normal shock occurring at high Mach Nmn-
Figure 6-Normal Shocks in Diverging Ducts. ber. Each type of diffuser has other problems which may
offset this great advantage; for example: instability, lowef-
ber; here the shock has detached itself from the edge and ficiency at an off-design Mach Number, and mechanical
formed a "bow.shock." Figure 5(d) shows the original complexity.
wedge at a higher Mach Number. In general, a higher
History of Air Passing Through Ramjet
Mach Number produces a smaller angle 8 and a thicker
wedge produces a larger angle 8. Figure See) shows the A useful way to summarize all the foregoing discussion
shock obtained from a blunt bodv. . is to follow the history of .the air as it passes through th~
In addition to the shock wav'es originated as described ramjet paying attention to the pressure, velocity, and tem';
diffuser. Both results are undesirable. The greater the ma
Diffuser ~ Combllstlon Cbomber flow ~~ing through the duc~, the greater is the POSSibili~
I of denvmg mor~ thrust: And If th~re is to be a pressure ri~
. I. ahead of the diffuser mtake, there is no way to take ad-

rJ) .a0

I I Pressure
CombustIon Storts
vantage of it; the diffuser might better have been built ex-
tending out to the poir:t of beginning pressure rise in the
UI ..
I Inerea •• I
increase I due to first place so as to proVIde a wall for this high pressure to
OCross the Otff!,ser
push. upon and thus add to the -total thrust developed. If
5 '"~
<> <: Sbock WOVI I Action

I- .<> j : the Imposed pressure at ,the diffuser exit is too low the
rJ) :;:;
shock will then enter ,the diffuser and take some inter-
,..u: mediaJ~eposit~on as in Fi~re ~. This ~ondition is also very
2 .
undesIrable SInce supersomc flow, unlIke subsonic flow ac-
celerates and experiences a pressure drop in a diver~ing
.... duct. Hence, the forward part of the diffuser inner wall will
I- I
« have a very low pressure on it which results in less total
'" thrust; and ~uI\thermore the normal shock .that eventually
does occur Introduces large energy losses into heat and
turbulence because it occurs at a higher Mach Number and
: Speed of A ir Flow
before Sbock this results in lower efficiency of operation.
For these reasons it is highly desirable to design the dif-
fuser carefully to match ,the ram pressure produced bv
flying at the intended Mach Number with the back pressur~
Figure 8-History of Air Passing through Ramjet.
Mot ion of Motor
perature wi,tJhthe assistance of Figure 8 which has some 0(

approximate members. Consider a ramjet using a simple

conical diffuser flying near sea level at a Mach Number
about 1.6. The air ahead of .the shock will be at ambient
atmospheric pressure, about 14.7 pounds per square inch
absolute. On passing through the shock wave there is an
abrupt large rise in pressure and an accompanying decrease
in veloo~tyand -increase in temperature. The air then flows
down the diffuser which further slows it and builds up the
pressure still more with a corresponding slight temperature
increase. This large pressure rise has been derived by the
action of the shock wave and the diffuser geometry from Figure 9-Ramjet Operating With Detached Shock.
the kinetic energy associated with the initial high velocity
of the air relative to .the ramjet; it is because of this method produced by fuel combustion at the intended rate in such
of converting the velocity or "ram" pressure into usable a way that the shock will be precisely on the nose. Once a
static pressure ,that ,the name "ramjet" has been given to certain design has been bujlt, if it is flown at detached
this type engine. I,t is lack.of a source of such ram pressure shock conditi~:ms,,the,total thrust may be somewhat greater
that makes the ramjet ineffective at low velocities; and it is but the effiCIencyWIll be lower than for operation with
largely losses in intolerably severe normal shocks that set the shock on the nose. For swallowed shock, if it operates at all,
upper speed limit for effective use of this type diffuser. the thrust produced as well as the efficiency will be smaller
Now consider again the problem of matching the diffuser than with shock on the nose.
exit pressure and the combustion chamber pressure, since it Referring again to Figure 8, it is seen that when the air
is this delicate dynamic balance that makes ramjet operation passes over the fuel injectors and the igniter and flame
possible. The pressure at the diffuser exit is fixed for a holders which are required to start and maintain flames in
given flight condition not by the diffuser but by the rate of the rapidly flowing gases, some pressure drops OCCurbe-
heat release, and the diffuser pressures must adjust to suit cause of the evaporation of fuel, decreased flow area, and
this imposed pressure at the diffuser exit. If the imposed the dissipation of energy through drag of these components.
pressure is too high the pressures all along the diffuser will Since this drag represents energy losses, it must be kept as
be raised and this will cause the shock wave to be detached low as possible without excluding fulfillment of the difficult
from the nose and moved ahead of the intake a small dis- funotion of holding the flame.
tance as in Figure 9. This will cause some of the air which Where the fuel is burned, there begins a very rapid in-
otherwise would have entered the intake to be diverted crease in temperature followed shortly thereafter by an in-
and spill over the edge of the intake. This "spillover" con- crease in velocity, and a decrease in pressure. Thes~ trends
dition has the effect of reducing the amount of air that continue until the gases reach the end of the tailpipe. From
flows into the ramjet and of increasing the pressure of the published data it can be deduced that conditions at the exit
incoming air by external diffusion before this air enters the plane of the tailpipe are approximately represented by a
II , b

~ressure of 2 atmospheres, a temperature of about 3200 0

r., and a velocity o~ about 2700 feet per second.


Now that it is clearly understood how the dynamic bal.

ance or pressure in the' combustion chamber fr~m burnino
uel aga.mst the ram pressure due to rapid motion througn~
t~e aIr IS able to mamtain on the slopmg diffuser walls a
hIgh steady pressure that pushes the miSSIleforward, let us
consider why this remarkable device attracts such intense
interest of the military planners. First or all, it is imponant
to know that the desire of our armed services for extremelv
high speeds arises from an urgent and real military r~-
quire~ent and not ~'roma juvenIle delight in breaking into Rocket is shown on launching ramp. The rocket is fitted with
a cone shaped dummy nose.
~leadlI~es or s~lashmg new speed records. It is practically
Imposslble to mtercept and attack an offensive mission of
the ramjet has already been given when it was stated that
any son ~nless the intercep~or has a marked speed ad-
a ramjet the size of a thunderbolt exhaust pipe developed
~'antage: 1 he development of high speed bombers makes
horsepower ~omparable to that of the thunderbolt engine.
lm~eratlve .the development of higher speed interceptor
Another baSISof comparison is that in the ramjet Right first
cra~t or gUIded antiaircraft missiles. The development of
reponed by the Applied Physics Laboratory horsepower
a Illgh speed offensive bombardment guided missile will de-
was delivered at the rate of about one horsepower for each
ma~~ developl~e.nt by the defender of a still higher speed h ounce of engine weight. This should be compared with
antlalrcraft mIssIle. And so, the cycle goes round and
a figure of about one horsepower delivered for each one
round: Always, the cry is for more and more speed both for
pound of weight by a conventional reciprocatino engine.
offensl\'e and defensive weapons.
The first column indicates clearly one of the great ad.
The serio~s contenders in the field of high speed mili-
vanta~es of the ramjet, its high power delivered per pound
~ary propulSIon are the rocket, the ramjet, and the turbo-
of welght. This is a most significant advantage. It means
Jet. ~he exa~t qualities most desirable in such engines vary
that comparecl to other available engines a vehicle propelled
~~ewhat with the specific purpose for which the engine
by this engine will be lighter for a given power require.
IS mtended but certain qualities may be considered always
ment. Its wings can be smaller for the same weight sup-
desi~ble. Some of these are: high power per pound ~f
ported and, therefore, the wing drag will be less for the
engme weight; high power per unit frontal area (because
same velocity. This is particularly important at supersonic
at such high velocities a large cross section area means very
speeds. The second column gives an indication of its fuel
la~g~ energy losses from air resistance); operational si~-
phc.Ity;.a?aptability to mass production; reliability; economy;
avmlablilty of fuels; and many others. It must be noted that The important thing about fuel economy is not that less
mo~ey is required to buy fuel, but that the more energy an
no one engine .c~n be expected to satisfy all such require-
ments. The mIlItary planners are obliged to compromise engme takes out of each pound of fuel the farther it can
go on the limited amount of fuel that it carries. The ramjet
and chD?se from the ~rsenal made available by scientists
and engmeers the engme that best meets the tactical situ- uses more fuel than the turbo jet and internal combustion
ation regardless of some undesirable characteristics inher- engines operating at their lower speeds but far less than
ent .in the chosen engine. For instance, reliability may be the rocket when compared on this basis. The amount of
dr~g inherent in size should be considered in interpreting'
sacnfic~d to the need for mass production, or economy may
be sacnficed to the need for high power, etc. thIS column; both the rocket and ramjet have smaller cross
sections than the other two engines, hence would have
. \\lhar-does the ramjet offer? Table P gives some approx-
lmate figures tha.t are useful for crude comparison of sev- lower body drags at the same speeds. The third column
eral types of engmes although direct comparison is difficult gives the thrust per pound of weight and this is a valuable
because of differences in speeds of operation and other measure of engine capabilities. Horsepower, being strictly
factors. sensitive to velocity, gives a different sort of measure than
From the foregoing, it should be dear that the ramjet
Specific Fuel
ConJumplion ThruII gives thrust and power cleliveries superior to any of the
Power (/b fuel per hr (/b IhrUII per other engines on a per weight basis while still retaining a
Type Engine (HPIlb of U'I) per lb IhrUIt} lb U'I)
fuel consumption of the same magnitude as the more con-
Rocket at M 1.8 12.0 19.0 3.0
ventional engines; and it is able to deliver this in a most
Ramjet at M 1.8 25.0 3.2 6.0
desirable range of speeds; namely, in the low supersonic
Turbo Jet at M 0.8. 3.5 1.1 2.0
range. Speeds below this are not sufficient to meet modern
Internal Combllstion 1.0 0.7 0.6
military requirements, and at speeds above about I'vlach
Some idea of the tremendous horsepower attainable with Number 3, other great troubles connected with high tem-
peratures from air friction in the atmosphere and with high
''Y- H. Goss and Emory Cook, The Ram Jet as a Supersonic Propulsion
lateral accelerations may make operation of missiles more

and more difficult. ;\dd to this the facts that (I) the ramjet
has practically no moving pans. no precisIOn manutacmr-
ing problems, no lubrication proalems, which means that
it can be mass produced economically and rapidly; (2) once
designed, no matter how difficult that deSIgn may be, it
will be simple to operate; (3) fuels are the conventional
kerosene or gasoline types, readily available, nontoxic,
easily handled. It is now abundantl\' evident that the mili-
tary'potentialities of this engine ar~ tremendous.
\\'hat are its limitations? First of all, its greatest draw-
back is that it cannot develop thrust From a standstill, and
thereFore must be boosted up to a high velocity before it Largest ramjet flies at supersonic speed in first Navy test.
becomes operable. This means that a rocket booster or cata-
pult of some son must invariably be used, and these add various applications, the best fuels, and so on. But ramjets
additional expense and operational difficulty. Secondly, the have been flying only about three years; the development
ramjet cannot fly out of the atmosphere since it takes oxygen of this new engine is in its infancy. \Ve can confidently ex-
from the air for burning its fuel; and in this respect it is pect that, as time and effort go into further research and
inferior to the rocket. Various experts estimate the maximum developmcnt, remarkable improvement in performance and
altitude to which a ramjet can be flown as between 80,000 capabilities will emerge.
and 100,000 feet, but the optimum altitude may be some- Military Applications
what less. Excluding the case of orbiting missiles, the de-
gree to which the ramjet will suffer from this restriction A few words should be said reaardina
o 0
how the charac-
on its field of operation is not entirely clear. teristics of the ramjet determine its probable military appli-
cations. Since this is a device for supersonic flight and since
Development Problems supersonic flight by humans is rather rare, the discussion
It should not be inferred from the foregoing that the will be confined to uninhabited missiles. Consider first
ramjet is a fully developed completely documented en- the very short range requirements such as direct artillery
gine available upon immediate notice for any or all appli- fire, short air-to-air missiles, and the like. It is obvious that
cations. It is definitely in the stage of functioning regularly, since the ramjet requires a booster it is not likely to become
reliably, and efficiently; but a brief statement of some of effective at these short ranges, because the booster could bet-
the problems yet to be soh'ed will be revealing-not only ter accelerate a \\'arhcad alone than a ramjet and warhead.
of the limitations but also of the future potentialities. At the other extreme, we know that the ramjet can never be
Combustion is one of the oldest yet least understood of used for interplanetary travel or for orbiting missiles because
the processes controlled by man, and maintaining a produc- it can never operate beyond the atmosphere. In the inter-
tive flame in a high velocity stream is a problem whose so- vening ranges, that is from a few thousand yards to several
lution is not understood because combustion in general is thousand miles, there is room for a great deal of discussion.
not understood. This problem becomes even more complex Because it does not have to carry its own oxygen, and
with operation at altitude since combustion conditions are bcc1use no heavy combustion chamber to withstand high
generally less favorable at low pressures and temperatures. pressures is required, the ramjet will become more ec0-
However, as in internal combustion engines, an acceptable nomical than the rocket for flights beyond a certain range.
working solution has been obtained wtihout fundamental The exact value of this range where ramjets become more
understanding and as knowledge is increased performance desirable will depend upon the exact situation, the speed
will improve. Another problem is that plague of all high required, the payload to be carried, etc., but to pick arbi-
powered heat engines, the problem of obtaining metals that trarily an approximate figure, one might say that somewhere
retain their strength at high temperatures. Since gas tem- in the range between fifteen and thirty thousand yards the
peratures around 3500° F. are encountered and most metals ramjet becomes more economical to use than the rocket for
soften in the 1500° to 1800° range, it is obvious that some certain purposes. Beyond some such range for flight within
cooling process must be employed. The exterior supersonic the atmosphere the ramjet will be superior as a supersonic
air stream is itself a coolant, and other methods are also propulsion device to any other engine. However, for very
available. The better the metals developed, the less severe long ranges the rocket begins to have another advantage of
this problem will be. Probably the greatest obstacle to de- its own: for long ranges its flight will be through the strato-
velopment of large ramjets is the tremendous power required sphere where the resistance to its motion is near zero while
for the blast of supersonic air used for ground tests. For a ramjet traveling the same distance will be plowing along
testing the ramjet shown being launched in the photo- through the air down below continually dissipating energy
graphs, the air supply for the blast furnace of a steel mill through air resistance. At some very long range, the amount
was required. For ground testing of a four-foot diameter of energy dissipated through air resistance by the ramjet
ramiet, it has been estimated that horsepower comparable may exceed the amount of energy wasted by the rocket
to the total output of Hoover Dam might be required. through inefficient fuel utilization and by the channelling of
Hence, scientists must learn how to build big ones by thor- its available energy into excessive velocities not useful at
oughly understanding the little ones. There are'many other the target. Beyond this range the rocket may again become
problems unsoh'ed, problems such as the best diffusers for more economical.
The decision to use one or the other of these enoines o
for efficient fuel use, andme:.:hanical simplicity. "For sustained
various applications is obviously not as simple as the fore high ,'eh::ity propulsion no other engine can compare with
going paragraph may seem to suggest. but there is no reason the ramjet." It suffers from its requirement for a boost, and
why in its effective area of use the ramjet cannot be applied possibly from its altitude limitations; but taken altogether
to surface-to-air. surfac~-to-surface. or air-to-surface tY.J;>es
of it is a very strong contender in the supersonic propulsion
missiles. J\ lanv other factors must also be taken iJfo ac- field: and, because its promise is so clear and well-proven
count: guida~ce problems: manufacture, handling, and even while still in the earliest stage of development we may
supply problems: fuel production and handling: and so on. expect new advances in ramjet design and application
But the ramjet is clearly outstanding as a versatile super- greatly to extend its usefulness.
sonic propulsion plant by ,'irtue of its higli power, low drag. Notify the Journal of your change of address.

New Device Rapidly Corrects Firing Errors

Antiaircraft artillerymen at Fort Bliss can now tell almost
e"xactly how close the)' are to scoring a direct hit on a speed-
ing 300-mile-per-hour aerial target 6000 feet in the air.
"Trapped up in a compact unit officially known as a "Firing
Error Indicator," the device infonns a ground control station
of the relative positions of artillery projectile and target
within certain zones.
The radius of each zone may be varied by operating per-
sonnel but the military requirements of automatic weapons
training have indicated that at a range of 1500 yards, a
2Y.1-yard radius for caliber .50 machine-gun fire and 4 yards
radius For 40mm weapons is the most effective limitation
for the "bull's-eve" zone.
The firing e;ror indicator consists of a radio transmitter
(mounted on the plastic tow target) and a receiving unit on
the ground near the gun. Only one man is required to Operator of the receiver of the Firing Error Indicator points
operate the receiver. This operator tunes the receiver to the to the small plastic cased microphones of the transmitting
transmitter, keeps score of each round fired, and informs the portion of the apparatus, as they hang in the midst of the
almost transparent sleeve. In the fOl;eground is a portion of the
gunners of their scoring.
equipment that actuaIly registers the hits and shell positions.
Stripped of technical details, the transmitter consists of
two opposed condenser microphones mounted so their
diaphragms are Hush with a hollow plastic sphere. The as used here, indicate the distance ahead of the target that
shock-waves striking this sensitive sphere actuate the micro- a gun must aim so that moving target and projectile will
phones just as the human voice sets a telephone diaphragm meet in space.)
in action to transmit the spoken word. The counter unit, a part of the receiving set, contains five
The signal reaching the firing error indicator receiving individual counters that register whenever a shot passes
equipment is converted From an electrical impulse to a me- through their respective zones. The receiver picks up the
chanical movement before it is fed into a "counter" unit. transmitted signal from the target on a folding dipole di-
The automatic counter informs the firing battery through rectional antenna.
which of three circular zones around the target the projectile The firing error indicator is used to improve training and
has passed. to furnish a means for determining the results of automatic
In addition to the three radio zones used for scoring anti- weapons training. Its use reduces the number of personnel
aircraft fire, there are also two directional informing zones. needed to accurately observe fire and speeds correct informa-
Their function is to indicate whether the error in a particular tion to the gun crews so they may make corrections subse-
shot is due to excessive leads or insufficient leads. (Leads, quently in a matter of seconds.
The Air Defe"nseof the
United States
By lieutenant Colonel Floyd A. lambert, USAF
The Air Force is intensifying its efforts to defend the during the months of ;"Iay and j une. ;"Iay was devoted pri-
United States against air att~ The erection of the per- marily to the organization and improvement of the elab-
manent radar screen was recently approved by Congress orate communications s\'stem so necessary for an effective
through the enactment of Public Law 30. \Vhile awaiting air defense. j une was &voted to actual Ai'ght tests flown by
funds to be appropriated by Congress for the permanent Strategic Air Command bombers in formations simulating
installations, the Air Force is going ahead with training, enemy :Jir attacks. The SAC bombers flew at times and on
utilizing stations located temporarily on existing government cours~s prescribed by the l\ir Defense Command. but were
owned property. unknown to the units being tested. As this was the first
If war were declared tomorrow. these sites undoubtedlv USAF air defense exercise conducted over a large area
would be used to defend the United States against air attack. since the war, much valuable training was received by the
To add realism to the training, a two months training ma- pilots, radar operators, Controllers, and others.
neuver named, "Operation BLACKJACK" was conducted "Operation BLACKJACK" is the first of a series of air

Fig. 1. A Control Center in Franct: during \X'orld W'ar II. If \X'orld W'ar III comes the Air Force will utilize similar control cen-
ters. Twenty installations of permanent type construction are to be built for the Air Defense of the United States.
defense exercises which will be conducted to improve the similar but will be permanent type installations. The draw-
effecti\'eness of the United States Air Defense System. Sec- ing, figure (2), shows the lines of communication which are
retary of Defense, Louis Johnson, has announced that thou- maintained in a modem ADCC. The lines represent one or
sands of American citizens will take part in September 19{9 more communication channels and not necessarily command
in an air defense exercise called "Operation LOOKOUT." channels. A casual perusal of this diagram may leave the
It will b~onducted under the sponsorship of the Air De- impression that the mooern air defense system is not much
fense Command assisted bv the Office of Civil Defense different from \Vorld War II svstems. This is not an accu-
Planning. The exercise wili be on a much larger scale than rate impression. Different techniques are used throughout
"Operation BLACKJACK." Its object will be to intercept the system. The channels of communications are approxi-
simulated enemy attacks by SAC bombers flying at various mately the same but the speed with which information is
altitudes and in different directions above the United States. transmitted is greatly increased. The radar equipment and
Some of the attacking aircraft will fly over Canada to test the fighter aircraft are to be of advanced designs different
the Canadian Air Defense System as well as that of the from any employed in World vVar II. Many aircraft control
United States. The bombers will be intercepted by USAF functions exercised during World War II by the Control
fighters after they enter the United States. Center have been decentralized to radar stations for reduc-
During the six-day exercise, 1300 ground observer posts ing the delay time between initial target pick-up and inter-
located in ten states will be manned by civilian volunteers. ception.
The Office of Civil Defense Planning is cooperating by The Air Defense Commander or his deputies employ the
ctlltacting the governors of the states concerned to recruit facilities of the ADCC to perform the following air defense
observers. The Air Defense Command between the 30th functions for each area:
June and 1st September will undertake the training of the
civilian observers through direct correspondence with the 1. Command Functions-The Air Defense Division Com-
chief observer of each post. Telephone companies will co- mander commands: .
operate by tabbing OP phones and giving priority to their
calls during test hours. The ground observers are needed to a. The fighter wings and groups assigned.
augment the radar coverage by spotting aircraft not detected b. The aircraft control and warning group.
by radar stations when' flying below the radar optical hori- c. Other units assigned to his command.
zon. They will offset this inherent line-of-sight limitation
of radar and provide information for identification purposes. 2. Operational Control-The Air Defense Division Com-
Individuals selected as observers for "Operation LOOK- mander exercises operational control over:
OUT" will be asked to man their posts in all future times
of need. The ten states in which ground observers will be a. Antiaircraft artillery and other Army units allocated by
recruited are: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the air defense of his area.
York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, b. Aircraft carriers, shore-based Navy and Marine fighter
New Hampshire, and Maine. aircraft and other Naval units physically present in the
The air defense system which the USAF is building up United States available and allocated to him for active par-
is to be organized into a number of Air Defense Divisions ticipation in the Air Defense of the United States.
having authority to take independent action in all matters
pertaining to air defense within their area of responsibility. 3. Control of Deceptive Air Defense Means-The Air
The ultimate number of Air Defense Divisions to be or- Defense Division Commander either commands or exercises
operational control over Deceptive Air Defense means,
ganized in the United States is t\venty, twelve of which
will be Air National Guard Divisions and eight Regular which include:
Air Force. During peacetime the eight Regular Air Force a. Control of radio broadcasting for deception.
Air Defense Divisions will be responsible for the air space b. Control of electronic jamming or deception means.
over the entire United States, but in event of war or Na- c. Control of visual deception, fires, lights, smoke, arti-
tional Emergency, the Air National Guard Air Defense ficial fog, etc.
Units will be ordered into Federal Service and assigned d. Control of heat for infrared deception.
areas of responsibility.
The principal air defense installation required by each 4. Functions Performed by the AC&W Group-The Air-
Air Defense Division Commander is termed an Air Defense craft Control and \Vaming Group Commander deputizing
Control Center (ADCe) manned bv the Aircraft Control for the Air Defense Division Commander exercises:
Squadron of the Aircraft Control anlWarning Group. One
group is normally assigned to each Air Defense Division. a. Command of the Air Defense Control Center.
The group also contains squadrons for operating the radar b. Command of Aircraft Control and Warning Squad-
stations of each division. The ADCC is briefly the com- rons and Radar Stations.
munications or nerve center of the Air Defense Division. c. Ground Control of fighter aircraft by use of GCI radar
AU operational orders received by the forces allocated for stations and air-ground radio.
the Air Defense of each area are issued in the name of the d .. Coordination of antiaircraft fire \'\'ith fighter intercep-
Division Commander or by order of a higher commander. tion.
Figure (1) is a picture of a control center operated in France e. Coordination of Nav;- and ;\larine fighters and AAA
during World vVar II. The USAF control centers will be with other air defense forces.





Figure 2.

f. Control of civilian aircraft through CAA representa- fense.

tive. j. Emergency repairs of air defense facilities.
g. Coordination and utilization of radio intercept infor- k. Decontamination of areas affected by air raids.
mation. 1. Public information, education, and advice pertaining
h. Coordination and utilization of civilian ground ob- to air defense.
server information. m. Radio broadcasting silence during air raids.
i. Coordination of emergency air-sea rescue of military
personnel. In any future war, the operational contrQIof antiaircraft
artillery will not be accomplished as it was in World War II.
5. Control of Passive Air Defense Means-The Air De- Time will not be available to pass radar data from the radar
fense Division Commander effects coordination of passive station to the control center, thence to the AM brigades and
air defense means through State Civil Defense Directors for groups for action. Radar data will be passed directly from
civilian population centers and through military area com- the early warning radars to the ground control intercept
manders responsible for military posts, camps, and stations. eGCl) radar stations for identification, and then direct to
The passive air defense functions are as follows: all local antiaircraft commands. (See channels of com-
munication shown by Figure 2.) Standing orders probably
a. Dissemination of air raid warnings. will be issued to all local AA.A commands to use their own
b. Provision and use of air raid shelters. discretion in firing upon unidentified targets entering their
c. Means to control fires started by enemy bombings. "gun defended area." GCI radar stations will control all
d. Dispersal of personnel, material and facilities in po- friendly aircraft within their coverage area and will notify
tential target areas. local AAA commanders of the approach of friendly aircraft.
e. Means of bomb disposal, incendiary and missiles. If an enemy formation approaches a gun defended area the
f. Evacuation of personnel and material in connection local AM commanders \\'ill be notified and the Bight
with air defense. identified as enemy. A television picture of the Gel radar
g. Enforcement of air raid precautions and discipline scope will be transmitted to each local AM commander
(air raid 1vardensand police). with enemy targets \vell marked. If no ''hold fire" orders are
h. Rail and high\\.ay traffic control during air raid. passed down from the Air Division Commander, the local
i. Emergency air rescue and aid associated with air de- AAA commander may fire at will. \Vhen Air Force fi~hters
are equipped with air-ta-air guided missiles, it will riot be the time he is attempting to release his bombs. It is expected
necessarv to close with the enemy as close as formerly when that the enemy ",ill be capable of dropping bombs from alti-
using a~tomaric weapons. \Vith each local AAA com- tudes of -to to 50 thousand feet and alx>veusing radar bomb
mander in possession of an instantaneous television picture sights. Sighting of AAA guns, surface to air guided missiles,
of the air situation, the friendly fighters and enemy aircraft and air to air guided missiles must also be accomplished by
will be separated far enough to permit both AAA and radar and remote control devices. Radio and radar jamming
fighters to engage the enemy at the same time. should, therefore, prove quite profitable in another war with
It is expected that the accuracy of AM guns and guided so much dependence being placed on electronic sighting
missiles will be much more precise than in World War II aids.
and that the radar picture will show more discrimination The National Guard Air Force and antiaircraft units have
between detected aircraft which will enable accurate and an important function in the air defense of the United
very close control of the fighters. When the fighters and States. In fact, over fifty per cent of the total forces allocated
AAA are working together as a team, the enemy should suf- are National Guard Troops. An article on this subject will
fer heavv casualties and almost unendurable harassment at appear in a subsequent issue.

~ ~ ~

Air Force Guided Missiles Program *

Extracted from a recent address by Brig. Gen. William L Richardson
Development of guided missiles for the Air Force is being trative base for the proving ground.
handled by the same methods as are employed for conven- The Bight test range will extend to the southeast down
tional aircraft development. Industry is invited to participate through tbe Bahama Islands, and out over the Atlantic
in research and development as well as later production. Ocean for several thousand miles. For the first .500 miles
Generally, the aircraft companies and the electronic manu- through the Bahamas, we will have observation stations at
facturers are primarily concerned. Other members of the intervals equipped with radar and other devices to tollm,y
industrial family are invited to participate. the Bight of the missile to tell its location and how its vari-
Educational institutions are called upon to perform basic ous components are funotioning. We hope to complete the
research and to assist in the fields of mathematics, physics construction of this new proving ground and have it in op-
and other pure sciences. eration in about two years..
Government agencies monitor the research and develop- In a project as large and complex as the guided missile
ment and assist in test Bights. They also engage in some ap- program of the National Mihtary Establishment, it is neces-
plied research. sary to go to considerable lengths to avoid undesirable
The successful development of guided missiles, from duplication and make efficient use of the funds and person-
conception of the requirement to the finished operational nel available.
items, requires a large number of varied and specialized Coordination through the Services is largely effected by
facilities. the Guided Missiles Committee of the Research and De-
Among these is the new Joint Long Range Proving velopment Board. The Board reports directly to the Secre-
Ground recentIy authorized by Congress. There is nq ex- 'tary of Defense. The Air Force, Army and Navy are repre-
isting facility in this Country where guided missiles with sented on the Guided Missiles Committee, with prominent
ranges greater than about 100 miles can be properly Bight civilian authorities. The Committee, through its panels and
tested. But the Armv, Navv and Air Force have an urgent working groups, continually monitors all phases of research
requirement for such a facility. Two years ago they pooled and development on guided missiles. It also provides a
their interests and jointly planned a single proving ground medium for the working members of the Services-in the
for use by all three. It is, and will continue to be, a joint presence of qualified civilians-to thrash out any differences
project. It is an excellent example of the kind of voluntary that might arise and thereby insures an integrated guided
unification which the services are practicing but which missile program for the United States. The Guided Missiles
seldom appear in the newspapers. Committee is headed bv Dr. F. L. Hovde, President of Pur-
The technical requirements for a long range guided mis- due University. '
sile proving ground are stringent, and we had quite a time On 11 December 1948 the Secretarvof Defense estab-
finding a suitable site. The location finally chosen will place lished the Weapons Systems Evaluatio~ Group to provide
the launching area at Cape Canaveral on the east coast of
rigorous, unprejudiced and independent analysis and eval-
Florida, about halfway between Jacksonville and Miami.
uation of present and future weapons systems under prob-
During the War, the Navy had an air training base nearby
able future battle conditions. These technical and opera-
at Banana River. This has been taken over as the aclminis-
tional evaluations, prepared on an inter-service basis, \vill
*Delivered at Memorial Day Exercises, Allentown, Pennsylvania, to consider all of the guided missile systems now being de-
civic organizations. Pro~ram arranged by Major General Charles C. Cnrtis,
PennsylvaniaNational Guard.
Joillt A rmll-Xal'Y Task Fori" 011t' Photograph
The atom bomb blew a column of water a mile and a half in the air, and produced radioactivity equivalent to hundreds of tons
of radium.


By Lieutenant Commander H. B. Seim, U. S. Navy
A belief that is fast becoming the central core of our na- such complete reliance?
tional defense thinking appears consistently in many of our No one can dispute the fact that the five publicized explo-
national forums; namely, that the atom bomb is a miraculous sions of atomic bombs have demonstrated almost unbeliev-
panacea for all of our military ills. For example, a recent able power. Observations and reports from the first experi-
article. based on an interview with General George C. Ken- mental blast in New lvlexico, the wartime bombings of
ney, then head of the Strategic Air Command, states that Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the two test explosions at
H ••• today, strategic bombing authorities are concerned with Bikini indicate decisively that mankind has found the key
onlv one'bomb load-the atom bomb." However great and to unleash tremendous force for destructive purposes. The
a\V~-inspiring the power of the A-bomb, it is but simple com- United States Strategic Bombing Survey has estimated that
mon sense to attempt an evaluation before we accept it as to produce results similar to the Nagasaki attack approxi-
the main shot in our weapons locker. This is particularly im- mately 2.200 tons of conventional high explosives and in-
portant in view of the above-expressed tendency to rely com- cendiaries for physical damage plus 500 tons of fragmenta-
pletely and solely on this weapon to preserve our national tion h?mbs for casualties, a total of 270 B-29 loads of 10 tons
security. Are we jeopardizing the safety of our nation by each would be required. The subsurface explosion at
*The .opinions or assertions in this article are the private ones of the Bikini on J 25, 1946, was reported to have been at least
author, and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the as destructive as 20,000 tons of TNT. \Vhen a force of such
National Defense Department. Reprinted with permission of U. S. Naval
lr111il/lle Proceedi"gs. potentialities has been revealed as a part of our arsenal, it
is certainly not amiss to investigate its effects on both the effect is unique to the atomic bomb. The energy released
enemy and ourselves, and the military and political con- in atomic explosion is of such magnitude and from such a
siderations which may govern its employment. concentrated source that its physical properties are of much
greater intensity than in the case of an ordinary bomb. This
Effect On Enemy
is because the energy produced in an atomic explosion results
There are but two examples of the use of the atomic bomb from the splitting of an atom of uranium or plutonium into
in actual warfare-the destruction of Hiroshima and Naga- two major fragments, a process called "fission," whereas an
saki. A revie\\' of the results of these two attacks can provide ordinary explosion is accompanied only by the rearrange-
us with an understanding of the effect of the atomic bomb ment of the atoms of the explosive material. An illustration
when used against urban targets. In addition, certain lessons of this rearrangement may be found in the simple chemical
may be inferred from the meager reports which have been process of burning. For example, the carbon in coal is cum-
published concerning the effectiveness of the A-bomb dur- bined with the oxygen of the air to form carbon monoxide
ing the Crossroads operation. From these experiences we or carbon dioxide, liberating heat and light in the form of
may make a general assessment of the capabilities and limi- fire. The end products-carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide
tations of the bomb insofar as it affects the target. -still contain the original carbon and oxygen atoms. In an
The Hiroshima attack on the morning of August 6, 1945, atomic explosion, however, there is a transmutation of the
caught the Japanese almost completely by surprise; in fact, fissionable material. In the fission of uranium (U-235),
the explosion came 45 minutes after the "all clear" had been typical end products are barium and krypton, two entirely
sounded from a previous alarm. The complacency of the different elements. These residual particles have masses
Japanese population can be easily understood. Hiroshima whose sum is less than the mass of the original material.
had never been attacked in force, but the people were accus- This reduction in mass results in an enormous release of
tomed to seeing stray American planes flying around the city energy. In theory, the matter is converted into energy at the
The U. S. Army Air Force had been using Lake Biwa to the rate of II billion per pound change of mass.
northeast of Hiroshima as a rendezvous point for bombers The magnitude of this potential energy supply can best be
which had assaulted the larger Japanese cities. Therefore, appreciated if we consider that the entire production of elec-
little notice was paid by the Japanese to the small group of trical power in the United States in 1946 amounted to 223
three planes which approached Hiroshima on that fateful billion kilowatt-hours, the equivalent of the energy con-
morning. Only one bomber, the Enola Gay, carried a bomb; tained in about 20 pounds of matter. However, in practice
the other two contained observers and their instruments. there are severe limitations on the amount of energy which
Because of this indifference and the lack of adequate warn- can be released in an atomic explosion. Actually only a very
ing, ,most people had not taken shelter. small percentage of the matter is capable of being converted
The bomb burst slightly northwest of the center of the into energy. The reduction in mass accompanying the fis-
citv. The nature of the terrain at Hiroshima was such that sion of uranium or plutonium varies somewhat according to
th~ blast and ensuing fire levelled nearly five square miles what are the final products, but has an average of about
of the city. The exact number of casualties will probably 1/10 of one per cent. This represents the optimum energy
never be determined. Seventy to eighty thousand people release. Apparently the energy of the bombs used against
were killed, or missing and presumed dead, and an equal Japan was actually less than this because the reaction was
number were injured. The casualties at Nagasaki were not complete. Fission in the Japanese bombs was on1y a
somewhat smaller-about 35,000 killed and a similar num- small percentage of the theoretical potential. In spite of its
ber injured. fractional efficiency in terms of the theoretical potential,
Nagasaki .was scarcely more prepared for an atomic bomb the atomic bomb far overshadows all previous explosives, as
attack than Hiroshima, although three days had elapsed demonstrated by the physical results.
since the first drop. Once again the appearance of the small As previously mentioned, energy release in an atomic
raiding group of only t\VOplanes caused little concern. The explosion is manifested by heat, blast or pressure, and radia-
newspapers had made only vague references to the Hiro- tion. The heat energy alone was estimated by Japanese
shima disaster. The devastation caused by the explosion physicists at the astronomical figure of lO-to-the-thirteenth
was as horrible and complete as at Hiroshima. However, power calories. A fire ball several hundred feet in di-
due to the uneven terrain and the absence of a "fire storm," ameter is formed and the temperature at its core runs
less than two square miles of the city were destroyed.1 Never- into millions of degrees Centigrade. At its edge the tem-
theless the destruction far exceeded that which any con- perature has been estimated to be from 3,000 to 9,000
ventional bomb would have achieved. What are the miracu- degrees Centigrade. The fire ball is in effect a small sun,
lous qualities of the atomic bomb to enable it to inflict such and the heat and light which radiate from it' can cause
tremendous damage? charring, start fires, and kill people. At Hiroshima and
The bomb is nothing supernatural or incomprehensible. Nagasaki charred telephone poles were found as far as
As do ordinary high explosives, atomic bombs release energy, 13,000 feet from "ground zero," the point directly beneath
though on an unprecedented scale. The energy take~ three the center of the explosion. Mica, with a melting point of
forms--heat, blast or pressure, and radiation. Heat and blast 900 degrees, fused on gravestones a thousand feet from the
effects are evident in ordinary TNT explosions; the radiation center of the blast. Victims were charred beyond recogni-
tion in the immediate vicinity of ground zero. These effects
'The Japanese city of Kokura was designated the target for the second are vastly more intense than any which could be experienced
atom bomb. However, the raiding force found the primary target weathered
in,. and thus Nagasaki, the alternate objective, became the hapless victim. from an ordinary bomb.

tain .of the processes huge amounts of power are required,

Pressure at the center rises to tens of millions of atmos-
pheres. At ground zero its force was estimated by the a~~ m others an abundant supply of cooling water is a neces-
Japanese at from 5.3 to 8 tons per square yard. The bla~t SIty. All of these factor~ hav~ potential limitations, especially
effects, with their resemblance to the aftermath of a hum- when they may conflIct WIth other possible wartime de-
cane, were most striking at Nagasaki. Concrete buildings mands.
had their sides facing the blast stove in like boxes. Long The quantity of fissionable material which can be made
lines of steel-framed factory sheds, over a mile from ground available is subject to limitation. So far, onlv U-235 and
zero, leaned their skeletons away from the explosion. That plutonium have been used in the manufact~re of atomic
the blast effect is tremendous can be readily comprehended bombs. Both of them are derived from uranium present in
from the many pictures of the devastated cities that have raw uranium ores. Uranium is a fairly plentiful material
been published, and from the damaged wrecks of the Bikini. -about four parts in a million in the earth's crust more
tests. It is much more destructive than the blast from an or- plentiful than gold, for .example. But only two ores: pitch.
dinary bomb. In regard to the third form of energy release, blende and carnotite, are of value as a source of the uranium
radiation, the atomic bomb is vastly more effective than the metal with the present method of extraction. Usable de-
usual explosive. posits of,these ores are rather limited. Uranium metal a
In addition to the emission of heat and light radiation com~ination of U-235 and U-238, represents only a sm'all
which is common to the ordinary bomb, the atomic explosion fractIOn of the ore. U-235, the part of the uranium metal
also produces dangerous radiations in the form of high-speed which can be used as the fissionable material in the manu-
neutrons and gamma rays. Gamma rays, like x-rays, can be facture of atomic explosive, is in turn present in very minute
deadly. Neutrons also have a degenerative effect on the proportion. Seven-tenths of one per cent of the uranium
body' cells that can be lethal. The high concentration of metal is .U-~35. ~he remaining U-238 can be processed in
radioactive emissions at both Hiroshima and Nagasaki an atomIC pIle to form plutonium, another source of fission-
caused heavy personnel casualties, even though their dura- able material.
tion was very short. The rays proved deadly for an average The separation of U-235 from the uranium metal ex-
radius of 3,000 feet from ground zero, and mild effects were tracted from pitchblende or carnotite could not be accom-
observed on people who had been almost two miles away plished by chemical methods. Instead, other processes had
from the blast. An odd characteristic of radiation disease is to be developed to capitalize on the infinitesimal weight dif-
its delayed effect. People who had survived the explosion ference between the lighter U-235 and the heavier U-238.
itself succumbed to the effect of the radiation overdose sev- Four methods were finally devised-gaseous diffusion, ther-
eral davs after the attack, in some cases two or three weeks mal diffusion, centrifugal, and electromagnetic. All of these
later. Japanese casualties from the air bursts were limited methods called for the mass production of precision instru-
to those who had been exposed to the direct radiation from ments and equipment, some more delicate than any that
the bomb. People in the underground shelters were largely had ever been manufactured for laboratory work. In the
protected, but the thin walls of buildings proved no barrier gaseous diffusion process, for example, thousands of con-
to the invisible rays. At Hiroshima and Nagasaki the radio- tainers about the size of a depth charge case were needed.
active by-products of the explosion and the induced .ra~io- Yet the gas, uranium hexafluoride, was so fiercely corrosive
activity in other substances (water, earth, machinery, buIld- that ordinary metals were unsatisfactory. Only nickel was
ing debris, etc.) were of little consequence. This was not found to be acceptable, but the first increment of these tanks
true in the second Bikini test, however. The explosion of thewould have required all of the nickel mined in America for
atomic bomb under the surface of the lagoon produced in- t\:o years! The problem was finally solved by electroplating
tense radioactivity in the water. It is estimated to have been
nIckel on steel to standards of perfection that were un-
the equivalent of many hundreds of tons of radium. A col- dreamed of in the commercial world. New techniques in
umn of this radioactive water a mile high and nearly a half cutting and \~elding glass piping were developed; huge
mile in diameter rose into the air and then engulfed about numbers of hIgh speed pumps of new design were made.
half of the target array. These contaminated ships became Unbelievable standards of operation were achieved. For
radioactive stoves, and would have burned all living things example, although a vacuum of one inch is very good in
aboard them with an invisible and painless but deadly radia- power plant practice, the gaseous diffusion plant maintained
tion. The implications of possible wartime applications of a vacuum twenty-five million times greater!
such methods of radioactive contamination are awe-inspiring. Tremendous amounts of power are required to operate the
plants at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Though thev were located
Effect On Us in the Clinch River Valley in order to top th~ TV A supplv
A tremendous economic and industrial effort is involved one of the world's largest steam power plants was also erect~d
in the development and manufacture of atomic bombs and there .. In the manufacture of plutonium a plentiful supply
related atomic \veapons. Great quantities of raw materials of coolmg water was necessary. For this reason, the Hanford
in the form of pitchblende and carnotite ores are required Engineer Works was built near the Columbia River in the
from which the fissionable U-235 or plutonium may be de- ?tate o~ Washington. With three atomic piles in operation
rived. Huge industrial plants containing hundreds of thou- In 194), the liberated atomic heat had raised the tempera.
sands of delicate and precision-made instruments and other ture of the river fractionally, even though the water under-
equipment are necessary. Great numbers of men, from went a long decontamination period before flowing back
laborers to highly skilled and trained scientists and top- into the river.
flight engineers and technicians must be available. In cer- As can be readily seen, the development and manufacture
of atomic weapons imposes a huge burden on our economy. limit the use of atom bombs. Undoubtedly it restricts the
The capital outlay for the construction of the plants alone is variety and flexibility of offense, both from a strategical and
staggering. The original cost of the Hanford Works .was tactical vien}>Oint. Strategically, sole reliance on an air-
$350,000.000. The gas diffusion plant at Oak Ridge, only atomic policy would not only eliminate the possibility of
a part of the establishment at that location, consisted of 63 employing the many other forms of military power but also
buildings costing half a billion dollars. It was the world's would exclude the varied use of economic, psychological,
greatest continuous chemica-physical process factory. The intellectual, political, and moral forces. Tactically, it is the
principal building was a 'windowless U-shaped structure, same as issuing an arbitrary ruling to field commanders that
4 stories high, 2,500 feet long, and 400 feet wide. nothing but flame-throwers shall be used in any and all tac-
tical situations and against any and all targets.
Military Considerations We must also note that the use of atomic bombs can,
The adoption of a policy which places sole reliance upon under some conditions of employment, so pollute and con-
the atom bomb would have severe effects on the pace of mili- taminate the objective area that the devastated region is
tary progress, in that it would bring about a stagnation in the denied to us as well as the enemy.
development of other weapons and techniques .• Having Finally, it should be remembered that the atom bomb is
committed ourselves to the use of one weapon and one not economical for use against pinpoint targets. Would we
method of delivery, we would find no incentive to invent employ the atom bomb, capable of demolishing an entire
new and different"means of employing military force. In a city, to destroy an isolated railroad bridge? Certainly not,
world in which scientific achievement can tip the balance when we recall that the bombs may be limited in number
in time of war, we would be channelling all of our effort and that each one represents a large investment in dollars
tovvard one limited objective-progress in atomic explosives alone.
to be used solely with long-range bombers. Thus, in deliberating whether to adopt an exclusive policy
Our own history provides an example of the damaging of absolute dependence on the atom bomb, we must realize
effect of sole reliance on an imperfect weapons system. that from a purely military standpoint such a course can
After the Barbary V\7ars, Congress adopted a "gunboat pol- lead to stagnation of progress in other weapons systems, will
icy" which called for the construction of large numbers of create the danger of impotency due to countermeasures
small non-seagoing coastal gunboats, to the exclusion of sea- against the delivery agent, will seriously limit the diversity
going vessels. It was reasoned that such a force would deter of offensive means, can contaminate an objective to our dis-
an attack from overseas and yet would not permit our in- advantage, and will demand uneconomical usage against
volvement in conflicts in foreign waters. In the later War of certain targets. Employment of the atom bomb is also sub-
1812, however, larger enemy frigates and sloops had no dif- ject to political considerations.
ficulty in deeply penetrating our territorial waters. Wash-
Political Considerations
ington itself was burned by the British. Our internal com-
merce, dependent upon coastwise seaborne trade, was In discussing some of the political factors which influence
paralyzed; foreign trade virtually ceased to exist. The re- the employment of atomic bombs, we must bear in mind that
sultant depression was one of the worst in our history. Our military policy is a means to an end. Military policy is an
fleet of 176 gunboats was useless. Our few naval victories adjunct and corollary to national policy, and is governed
were the result of individual frigate and sloop actions in dis- directly by our broader national aims. Therefore a policy of
tant waters. A few American ships-of-the-line, in place of sole dependence on atomic weapons must be compatible
the numerous small gunboats, and at no greater cost, could with the larger policy.
have stopped much of this, besides affording a reasonable It is a matter of public record that the United States has
measure of protection to our ocean-going coastwise com- encouraged and continues to support the world-wide adop-
merce, and even some support to our foreign trade. The tion of measures which will bring about effective inter-
gunboat policy was a blunder both from the naval viewpoint national control of atomic energy. An integral part of any
and that of national economics. From a purely military point system of international control would be an international
of view, the stagnation brought about by exclusive reliance authority to prevent the manufacture and use of atomic
in a faulty weapons system can lead to fatal weaknesses in bombs for war purposes. A treaty covering this subject
other lines which would cause our downfall. This is par- would guarantee the right of free and full international in-
ticularly true when we consider that the effectiveness of an spection and would provide for deterrents against offenses
atomic assault is dependent upon our means of delivery. and punishment of offenders, without the privilege of a veto
We face the danger of complete impotency if an enemy to protect willful violators or to hamper the operations of the
is able to develop countermeasures against our delivery international authority. Even though the first attempts to
agent. In other words, if we confirm as our policy the sole establish such an authority have met with failure, we have
reliance upon one weapon-the atom bomb delivered bv air- not officially abandoned or reversed our policy. If, in the
craft-an aggressor must merely devise a way to counteract face of this, we adopt a military policy of absolute reliance
either the bomb or the plane in order to render us powerless. on the atom bomb, we are either incredibly stupid or bla-
At present, the development of a counteragent to the bomb tantly hypocritical. Presuming that we are sincere in our
itself seems unlikely. Likewise, under present conditions, desire to establish international control of atomic energy, a
aircraft appear to have the upper hand over the means of clever potential enemy could cause our complete disanna-
defense. Such superiority is not guaranteed. ment by the simple expedient of agreeing to outlaw atomic
There are also several other military considerations which weapons and institute a system of international inspection.
On the other hand, if 'weare not prepared to accept complete cannot be made much smaller or less pO\\'erful than the
disarmament under these circumstances, we cannot honestly Hiroshima or Nagasaki type. Therefore each time a~
continue to support our previously announced national "\-Lomb is dropped, a large area ,vill be laid waste, including
policy. The choice of a military policy of sole dependence without doubt a considerable number of nonmilitary targets.
on atomic bombs \vould be interpreted by most people as a At Hiroshima, out of a total of 90,000 buildings in the urban
,de facto repudiation of our position on international control. area, 62,000 were totallv destroved and another 6,000 se-
, Politically speaking, it wDuld not be necessary to outlaw verely damaged. Most ~f these ~\'ere residential structures,
the use of atomic bombs by treaty to reduce us to impotency. or other nonmilitary targets such as hospitals, schools, stores,
There are many instances in which the employment of etc. This poses the tremendous problem of postwar rehabili-
atomic weapons would be entirely practicable from a mili- tation and reconstruction.
tary point of view but would be impossible from a political Thus, when considered in connection with our broad na-
standpoint. For example, could we justify the use of atomic tional aims, such a policy of absolute dependence is in
weapons III. a "1u k ewarm " waf!'" marked dissonance. It would call for abandonment of our
If in the ideological struggle between communism and announced position on international control of atomic en-
democracy,internal communistic elements should overthrow ergy, would deprive us of the conventional instruments of
the established constitutional government of a friendly na- military force for use in a lukewarm war, would leave us
tion, could we use atomic bombs in support of the democratic powerless to wage war against an aggressor in occupied
forces? Could we drop a bomb in Italy, or France, or Latin areas or overrun countries, would make untenable our
America, if the local communists usurped control of the present strong moral position as the champion of freedom
government? Obviously, no. Nor could we retaliate against and democracy, would condemn to failure a psychological
the tide of communism by dropping an atom bomb on the campaign to exploit a rift between an enemy population and
original source of communistic strength. their leaders, and would cancel out the anticipated fruits of
Even if a "hot" war should break out, we would find oc- victory through the overburdening weight of wide-scale
casions when we couldn't employ atomic bombs. It would postwar relief and reconstruction.
not be politically or morally feasible to use the A-weapons
in overrun countries. Could we have blasted Brest or Ma-
nila into atomic dust in the last war, merely because enemy In this discussion we have reviewed briefly the broad ca-
forceswere using those ports as bases for operations against pabilities and limitations of the atomic bomb. We have
us? Are we to murder hundreds of thousands of former allies examined the effects of its employment, both on the recip-
or friends just because a few of the enemy are in their midst? ient and on the deliverer, and have analyzed the major mili-
Aside from the moral implications of the adoption of a tary and political considerations which govern its use. From
military strategy which places exclusive reliance on the atom this scrutiny we must conclude that the adoption of a mili-
bomb, there are several other practical considerations. Most tary policy of exclusive reliance on the atom bomb would
observers agree that a psychological campaign to wean the jeopardize the security of our nation. The strategy of victory
enemy population from their leaders would be of marked through the sole agent of mass atomic destruction is not
consequence in a future conflict. Some go so far as to say only morally untenable, but has dubious chances of success
that the split already exists, and that the exploitation of this politically and militarily.
fissure would play an important part in achieving victory. However, since the threat of atomic warfare still hangs
Yet, by relying solely on the atomic weapons, we sacrifice over us, we cannot cease to maintain our atomic advantage,
this psychological advantage. An announced policy of mass if only for insurance. Under these circumstances, a sound
population extermination would insure the unity and last- program for national security would include atomic weapons
ditch struggle of an aggressor nation, would weld together as well as the conventional forms of military strength. On
the people and their leaders under the barbaric threat of the other hand, it must be remembered that military force is
wholesale genocide. only a segment of our national power. Military policy must
From a purely material point of view, an exclusive air- be the servant and not the master of national policy; military
atomic military policy would have severe repercussions. might must be used in harmony with the economic, intel-
Atom bombs cannot be made in the small, handy pocket lectual, psychological, political, and moral factors which
size. Due to the inherent characteristics of atomic fission, also form a part of our national strength. We must keep the
the bomb cannot be reduced below a certain critical mag- atom bomb in our arsenal of weapons, but we must also be
nitude. Hence there is also a definite irreducible minimum prepared to fight a war without it. We must realize fully
to its explosive power. It is quite probable that the bomb what an atom bomb cannot do as well as what it can do.
National Guard Encampment at Camp
Stewart, Georgia and Camp
Pendleton, Virginia
Thousands of antiaircraft artillery veterans of World War their equipment. Every man expressed a desire to return.
II will vividly remember the grueling summer sun on the After visiting the units from South Carolina, the editor
firing range at Camp Stewart, Georgia. On a recent visit to visited the units from Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, and the
what had been one of the largest AAA wartime training District of Columbia where he found the same high state of
centers, the editor called upon the AAA units of the South efficiency and morale as was evidenced previously. The
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Mississippi National Guard units from Georgia were under the command of Brig. Gen.
who were undergoing their annual two weeks of field Joseph B. Fraser. Those from Florida were under the com-
training. mand of Colonel Percy L. vValL Colonel LeRoy Mann
The first units visited were from South Carolina, com- commanded the units from the District of Columbia and Lt.
manded by Colonel David W. Bethea, Jr. These units were CoL Benjamin T. Ferguson commanded the Mississippi
engaged in firing at towed sleeves, and so engrossed were all units.
personnel that they continued their practice until 8: 00 P.M. The following brigade, groups and battalions were pres-
without a pause for supper. The instructors stated that the ent at the two camps:
shooting compared favorably with the firings of experienced
units during the war, a statement which can be appreciated 108th AAA Brigade, Georgia NG
when one realizes that a number of the officers commanded (Brill" Gen. Joseph B. Fraser)

or served with similar units during the war and many of the 214th AAA Group, Georgia NG
(Colonel Jack C. Johnson)
enlisted men are old-timers. 227th AAA Group, Florida NG
(Colonel Percy L. Wall)
LONG HOURS-HIGH MORALE 228th AAA Group, South Carolina NG
(Colonel David W. Bethea, Jr.)
One difference between the personnel of these units and 260th AAA Group, District of Columbia NG
those who served at this camp during the war was that the (Colonel LeRo)' )fann)

personnel of these units volunteered to spend their annual 115th AAA Gun Battalion (M), Mississippi NG
(Lt. Co!. Benjamin T. Ferfnson)
vacation at intensive training from sunup to sundown for 101st AAA Gun Battalion, Georgia NG
fourteen days in the sunny south in midsummer. Perhaps (Lt. Co!. Henry J. Ellis)

they considered their obligation to their State and their 250th AAA Gun Battalion, Georgia NG
()iajor Albert J. Twiggs)
Country, but oertainly they love to soldier. 950th AAA AW Battalion (Mbl), Georgia NG
It was late at night before the commanders completed (Lt. Co!. John P. Wallis)

their paper work and plans for the following day, which 178th AAA Operations Detachment, Georgia NG
\-\Tajor Harry 1_. Dirke)')
would begin at 4:00 A.M. 107th AAA A\V Battalion (SP), South Carolina NG
Despite the long hours, all members were in high spirits (Lt. Co!. Thomas H. Pope. Jr.)

and enthusiastic about their assignments. 678th AAA AW Battalion (Mb1), South Carolina NG
(Lt. Co!. )L T. S!lllivan)
Accompanying the National Guard units were 11 Reserve 713th AM Gun Battalion, South Carolina NG
officerswho were attached for the training period. Regular ()Taj~r W. B. Pollard)

Army instructors on duty with the guardsmen were assisted 148th AAA A\\1 Battalion (SP), Florida NG
(lk Co!. Edwarcl F. Henry, Jr.)
bv instruction teams from Fort Bliss. All of these individuals 712th AAA Gun Battalion, Florida NG
~ere lavish in their prrise of the manner in which instruc- (Lt. Co!. Hpnr)" H. Taylor, Jr.)

tion was absorbed and put into practice with a minimum of 265th c.A. Battalion (AMTB), Florida NG
(Captain Henr)" Rotts)
errors or confusion. One captain with an instruction team 260th AAA Gun Bn, District of Columbia NG
commented, "We told them all we knew-thev listened to (Lt. Col. Given W. Cleek)

every word--and then they took over while ,;e observed." 340th AM A\V Bn (Mbl), District of Columbia NG
(Lt. Co!. George V. Selwin)
380th AAA A\"-/ Bn (Mbl), District of Columbia NG

The officers in the Guard were high in their praise of Among these units are men who, prior to or at the out-
Regular Armv instructors, the instruction teams from Fort break of the war, as members of National Guard antiaircraft
Bliss and the Reserve officers. They ,vere particularly appre- regiments, established or strengthened our defenses on the
ciative of the full-time assignment of administrative assist- '\i'VestCoast, Hawaii, Australia and Corregidor; and who
ants in battalions and batteries. \\'ere among the first units to move into Africa. They realize
1\Ianv enlisted men ,vere consulted as to their reaction to that the same lot probably will befall them at the beginning
the f01.i'rteen--dayprogram. All indicated th~t they were of any future .warand they assume their obligation .with an
exceedingly well pleased with their officers, their food and enthusiasm ,,,hich should be an inspiration to all of us.
Over the week end of J~ne 4th and 5th the Organzed Reserve Corps of Western Pennsylvania undertook
a vast defensive operation involving an atomic attack, parachutists and saboteurs.

Although lamentably lacking in AAA protection, the many-sided problem managed to utilize a score or
more of military and civilian agencies in what is believed to be the first such training exercise of its kind. ED.

Two thousand Anny Reservists, backed up by civil de- plant, the Elgin Pottery Works and an auto bridge over
fense forces, turned \Vestern Pennsvlvania into a battlefield the Allegheny River.
for a deadly serious war game early in June. \Vell briefed fifth columnists struck.
They were welding a coordinated defense system for They commandeered radio stations in Pittsburgh, Union-
the district. town, Johnstown, Altoona, Greensburg, Butler, New Castle,
\Vhether war is inevitable or merely a remote possibility, Sharon and Erie.
they know they must be prepared for the worst. For it Propaganda broadcasts began, adding to the panic and
COULD happen here. An enemy could strike suddenly confusion which gripped the living among the countless
and without warning. thousands of dead and dying.
The Pittsburgh industrial district is the "\Vorkshop of the Saboteurs contaminated the water supplies of Pittsburgh,
World." It would be singled out for lightning attack in Erie, Altoona, Johnstown, \Vashington, Beaver Falls, New
an atomic war. Castle, Sharon, Butler, and DuBois. Others blew up tele-
During the last war Pittsburgh alone produced a third of phone exchanges, power stations and bridges.
the vast mountain of steel used bv the American forces. 1\11ysterious trucks appeared at both ends of the Liberty
How would an enemy strike to ~ripple this arsenal? Tubes and the Allegheny Mountain Tunnel on the Turn-
Suddenly, from the air, and with all the one-punch might pike. Delayed action charges went off, sealing the tunnels.
he could muster. There would be sneaking stabs in the Two hours later "enemy" jet troop transports drop two
back by fifth columnists. parachute infantry divisions near Detroit. Another eight
All of us would be in the thick of it. There would be no parachute battalions land near vVashington, D. C.
Many-Sided Problem
General Situation
All this has happened within a few hours. First attack was
These are the considered assumptions, based on the latest launched on 1\'1-Day. The Reserves already had sprung
"refinements" in modem warfare, that the Reservists worked into action.
on in OPERATION COMET. For realism they chose a They assembled for a briefing by military and civil de-
situation which they think is as plausible as it is terrifying. fense experts in Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall, Oak-
Enemy submarines surfaced along the northeast coast land.
and they have begun a rocket bombardment of the Eastern The military situation of OPERATION COMET was
Seaboard. Simultaneously aggressor forces launched a dev- explained by its director, Colonel F. J. Gillespie, and his
astating air attack from island bases.
Jet bombers, cruising at 600 miles an hour and each
carrying two Hiroshima-type atomic bombs, have struck
28 key cities.
Two bonlbcrs appear over the Pittsburgh District. It is
eight o'clock in the morning and just another day to work-
ers in hundreds of humming industries.
One bomber wheeled over Aliquippa. There was a
blinding Rash, accompanied by a deafening concussion.
Another bomb was dropped over the \Vestinghouse Electric
Corp. plant in East Pittsburgh.
Only radioactive dust remains where Aliquippa and East
Pittsburgh once stood.
Also in ruins are the Carnegie-Illinois Edgar Thomson
'Norks, \Vestinghouse Bridge, Route 30 through East Pitts-
burgh, \Vestinghouse Air Brake and the \Vestinghouse
Research Laboratorv. Deputy Chief Herbert Polhmeyer, Auxiliary Police, Pittsburgh,
The second bo~ber dropped its load, intended for the Colonel Sacks, G-5, 2003 Logistical Division, A. \X'. Rainey
of Fire Coordination Department Allegheny County, and Chief
aluminum center of New Kensington, over Ford City. The Kaiser, Auxiliary Police, Pittsburgh, discussing the role Civil-
town was wiped out, along with a Pittsburgh Plate Glass ian Agencies played in "Operation Comet."
assistants,Colonel I\lalcolm Hay, Colonel \Villiam L. Mont- moves of the troops and supplies to repel the attack.
gomery",Lt. Colonel \Villiam J. Ruano and Lt. Colonel Because many of the sending stations were powerful
Daniel J. Horney. enough to reach around the \yorld, precautions were taken
Others who spoke included County Commissioner John J. . to prevent a scare. At the beginning and end of each mes-
Kane, \Vorks Director James S. Devlin, Police Superintend- sage \vas an explanation that it was being sent only for a war
ent Harvery' J. Scott, University of Pittsburgh Physics In- game to perfect \Vestern Pennsylvania military and civil
structor John H. :'\:eilerand Captain Joseph P. Fay, training defenses.
instructor of the Pittsburgh Bureau of Fire. Powerful mobile Army-type radio stations, some of them
Later the Reservists mobilized as units. borrowed from the National Guard, supported this network.
Lt. General Leonard T. Gerow, Second Army Com- \Valkie-talkie sets provided communications among units
mander at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, meanwhile of the ground forces and helped connect them with observa-
declared martial law and Colonel Gillespie, Western Penn- tion planes.
sylvania Military District Executive, assumed combat and The Reservists also drafted about 1000 pigeons for "war"
military government command of the area. duty.
Inteiligerice reports on the attacks streamed into the Pigeon lofts provided two-way messenger service connect-
Army headquarters in the Old Post Office Building. ing the three task force commands. Three loft owners in
As if it were the real thing, Reserve units of civilian sol- Pittsburgh, three in Erie and three in Altoona took part.
diers set up nerve centers throughout the 26-county Western Others in Greensburg, Washington and Beaver Falls also
Pennsylvania "battlefield." helped out.
The 2271st Infantry Training Division and the 2003rd Three pigeons were sent on each message flight to make
Logistical Division set up task force headquarters in South certain at least one got through.
Park, Altoona and Erie.
G-2 Problems
The Follow-up By the Enemy Began
As tactical and supply troops concentrated on enveloping
Parachutists started landing in the Pittsburgh area. A and destroying "enemy" forces, U.S. Counter-Intelligence
brigade of airborne infantry and a parachute artillery bat- agents also had a busy time of it capturing saboteurs.
talion landed along Routes 19 and 422 and Pennsylvania The targets of small groups of highly trained fifth col-
Route 8 north of the City. umnists, directed locally by enemy undercover chief "Adolp
Another battalion dropped north of Johnstown. Still IVlussolini," vvere communications, water supplies, power
another, with heavy guns, dropped near Duncansville. More stations, bridges, tunnels and key industrial plants.
infantry and artillery landed near Edinboro, south of Erie, The Counter-Intelligence men first captured two profes-
and in' Wattsburg. The infantrymen carried automatic sional spies, "Gunther von Mueller" and "Steve Lolich,"
weapons, mortars, antitank rockets and flame throwers. whose primary targets were the Liberty Tubes, Armstrong
These enemy landings were simulated by 80 Civil Air Tunnels and the central signal system at Pennsylvania
Patrol pilots, who dropped 1000 tiny parachutes which Station.
carried leaflets. They also captured but weren't immediately able to
Civilians who caught the 'chutes reported the leaflets, identify a saboteur \vho was caught in the act of "dynamit-
which represented paratroopers, saboteurs and unexploded ing" the Pittsburgh & West Virginia high-level bridge at
bombs, to the nearest Army outfit. Banksville Rd. and Saw 1\:1illRun Extension, West End.
Intelligence men plott~d the information on "enemy"
Applied Unity
activity on their situation maps.
CAP planes also were busy during the maneuver trans- Marine Corps officersand enlisted men also took part in
porting doctors to "bombed-out" areas, flying supplies, carry- the maneuver.
ing messages, evacuating the "wounded," demolishing fa- About 15 officers of the volunteer training unit of the
cilities which would have been helpful to the "eneh1y" and Marine Corps Reserve Officers Association of Pittsburgh
strafing and bombing ground forces of the "invader." were attached to the staff of the 314th Infantry Regiment
Among the installations "destroyed" to hamper the "ag- for the problem. Men of the Signal Platoon, 21st Marine
gressor" was the big Emsworth Lock on the Ohio River at Infantry Battalion also helped with communications.
Neville Island. Tactical maneuvers in connection with the exercise were
run by Co. D, 21st Marine Infantry Battalion in connection
\vith preparations for summer training at Camp Lejeune,
Squadrons of the CAP "mosquito air force" were based at ~orth Carolina.
the Greater Pittsburgh Airport and at airstrips in New Ken- Personnel from the Army Reserve, Coast Guard and the
sington, Coraopolis, Rochester, New Castle, Oil City and Army District Engineer's office patrolled the rivers in six
Mt. Union. All belong to the CAP's Second Tactical Com- privately owned launches to protect locks and river-front
mand for Western Pennsvlvania. installations from "enemv action."
Reserve pilots also ran ~n air pickup and drop of messages
at the South Park Oval. •
Short-wave radio played a vital role in the field training
exercises. Army, police and amateur "ham" operators aired
Notify the Journal your change of address.
messages which detailed "invader" activity and directed
By lieutenant Colonel Alvin B. Auerbach, Engr.

\\'ith the most perfect and complex of the newest sound These two incidents are cited only to develop my first
recorders we cannot produce a single sound unless a stimu- constructive principle: The dissemination of information
lus from some external source has placed magnetic impulses to a public medium shmild be preceded by dissemination
upon the tape. Until recently few have realized that the to the corps of officers.
most sincere and interested Army officer, to speak intelli- Morale is intangible but sensitive to almost trivial impact.
gently and soundly, likewise needs external stimulation in An officer likes to feel that he belongs to the family of pro-
the form of facts. fessional soldiers. It is a slap at his pride to find that his
The policy of directing that the American people be kept family news is coming to him through the public press and
informed of their Army to the maximum possible extent not through family media. He wants to feel that he knows
under security restrictions is a wise one. Equally sound is a little more about new military matters than his civilian
the idea of effective, widespread dissemination of informa- friend-and that he knows it first.
tion through the corps of officers. The complexity of the The urge to know, and the desire to be a source of in-
last war and the feverish international situation of today formation to oth-ers is a powerful, vital force common to
have made the public more demanding of military news. most men, which was indicated by the bumper crop of
A constant Row of questions is directed at both the public rumors during the war. We can and we should exploit this
information officer and the individual officer of any branch normal, healthy urge. The press may feel that it has privi-
who is identified by civilian associates as a professional leges: But so have the officers, along with a far more vital
military man. stake. Moreover, the preparation of information for release
Both groups, but particularly the officer who represents to the corps of officers would be somewhat more complete
the Army to his civilian community, are severely handi- and thoroughly prepared, and this would insure that any
capped by lack of information. To try to answer without digest of these facts given out as a press release would be
facts at hand is simply bluffing. To fail to answer either fullv accurate.
builds suspicion or intensifies belief in the stupidity of the The principle of supplying facts to officers first should
military mind. Yet today the average officerstill lacks a ready not be carried to absurdity. Time is the essence of many
means of getting the information he wants, despite the . announcements made by the Services, and the public press
progressive steps of past months in which the Department must get them immediately, and perhaps exclusively in cer-
of the Army has begun the official publication of Officer's tain cases. But to delay for a week or two the release of
Call and Report to the Army. information on formerly classified developments, both of
The limited Row of information from top to bottom is not equipment and organization, in order to permit officers to
a new problem. That it still is a problem is indicated by a be told about it first, could hardly disturb the amiable re-
quotation from the first issue of Officer's Call: "But it is lationships between the Services and the press.
true of all headquarters and all individuals in the Army If we accept this first principle, then the question of
that they function best when best informed of the ob- timing arises. Basically, \,,'hen should information be re-
jectives ~nd plans of 'higher headquarters.' " leased?
In 1939, when the triangular division was being readied Students and faculties in higher Service schools than
to replace the square division, the students at one service the branch schools are cognizant of the main new trends
school were given instruction from slides made out of an and developments. The major headquarters each contain
issue of Life magazine. The presentation was excellent, officerswith similar knowledge. But these two groups total
for the magazine had combined charts with pictures. But not over three or four per cent of all officers. True, not
this \\'as the sole source of data for the students. every officer needs to know every planned change. But to
In the fan of 1948, the student body of the Command have 96 per cent generally ignorant of changes approved
and General Staff College heard a secret lecture on new in principle is not sound.
developments in ordnance. Part of that lecture covered the In one sense, the readers of the ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL

new ordnance engine. Just two weeks later the same are a selected group. For the Coast Artillery Association is a
engine was presented in Time magazine-with a picture, and voluntary group of readers who profess an interest in the
with more details than the students had been given. Real- military field. It is doubtful whether ten per cent of the read-
izing that a magazine requires some time to prepare a ers can now state \\'ith any degree of confidence the general
technical article. it was apparent that this material had mission and organizational plan of a Logistical Division.
been declassified well before the lecture. Yet this division is one of the soundest postwar develop-
ments in the support of large combat forces. It has been
*Reprinted with permission from July issue of the Infantry Journal. approved in principle officially,and firmly enough conceived
to have been discussed for over a year. It is likely that in the But modem war has made the need for fresh technical
event of another international conflict, a large number of knowledge equally mandatory. The officer in a technical
officers now on dutv will serve in such a division or have service is faced "'lith a big problem in keeping abreast of his
close contact with o~e. Yet almost no information is avail- branch, but he is not alone in that need. The modern in-
able to the average officer, largely because the final form of fantryman wants to know about a new ordnance weapon
the dh-ision is not yet approved. he is to shoot, a new ordnance vehicle that he will drive
This brings us to a second point: General information or ride in, a new engineer map technique that he will use,
about maior changes in the Army should be disseminated a new quartermaster ration he "vill eat in combat. All offi-
-u,'ithout ~miting for approved TO&Es or approved Field cers of all arms and services of the Armv have technical
.Manuals. interests that range through the entire Military Establish-
To pour out through information channels all ideas that ment. They will ride in airplanes and be supplied partly or
have merit but are untried and untested would be just as wholly by airplanes in many operations. In others the
unsound as to withhold news of probable changes. More Navy will provide the means of transportation. Both Air
and earlier information is needed chieHy on approved ideas Force and Navy may furnish powerful support.
and changes. In the past there have been technical branch publications.
The information can be general without being vague. It From before \iVorld War II, there have been infonnal
can, for example, give an organizational scheme 'without monthly newsletters of several kinds. When issued by a
exact details of strengths. To use the Logistical Division as branch, such newsletters keep its officersalert, and give them
an example, a terse presentation much as follows would a strong feeling of a tie between themselves and their chief.
give an understandable meaningful picture of the divisional But the whole question of how to spread the needed in-
mission: formation demands thorough study, keeping fully in mind
"A logistical division is a basic unit of the combined the esprit of all officerson detached duty.
Army services. It will contain a balanced nucleus of some Thus we may take as our third important principle the
17,060 men around which a larger balanced service force following: The technology of modern warfare requires the
can be quickly built by expansion. The division can, by continual dissemination of techniccil information.
proper choice of units, act as the service element of an If every branch of the Army were headed by a chief, it
independent corps or field army; or as an advance, inter- might at first seem appropriate to delegate to him the flow
mediate, or base section of a communications zone; or as a of all technical information to his branch. But the last war
very small communications zone in itself." too clearly showed the interdependence and the interrela-
This is not meant to show the scope of an ideal presenta- tionship of the branches to make such a plan feasible.
tion, but simply as a fragment to show that a sound state- Equally, any solution using the Army Field Forces as the
ment can be made without the detail that will be available parent organization for the combat arms would appear to be
when final approval is given. unsound.
Such advance information on approved ideas would be But the officersof the technical services do need a detailed
of inestimable value to the many hundreds of officers on source of information. They do not need an engineering
duty with the civilian components. Not only would it make specification but a military analysis that evaluates capabili-
them feel that they were not divorced from their profes- ties and limitations, advantages and disadvantages.
sional brothers by their somewhat isolated assignments, but It would meet the needs of all arms and services if each
their instruction would be enhanced by the definite knowl- technical service published for its own officers a monthly
edge that they were always teaching current trends and digest of technical notes. All notes of wide interest and simi-
thoughts. And those they instruct would feel that the scope lar data from Air Force and Navy should be distributed
of their instruction was not merely that of the last-fought quarterly or semiannually by some central agency, with the
'war. Civilian component instruction is, by the limited hours information stripped of technical verbiage and complex
available, ideally suited to general rather than detailed detail, presenting only the clearest possible picture of the
presentations. proposed use, limitations, and capabilities of the item as
Perhaps the biggest problem is how best to disseminate it affects all services.
the information. Officer's Cedl is almost too new to discuss \iVhether this central agency should be a part of the
in detail, but the first issues have clearly showed its con- newly created office of the Director of Public Information
cern with national and international affairs and personal under the National Military Establishment or whether it
problems of conduct and leadership. It has a very real should be the Army Field Forces would not affect the
mission here in reaching all officers with these broad Army soundness of the plan, although the first seems likely to be
problems. And through discussion groups it will further more concerned with policy matters, and not with opera-
promote closer understanding and relationships .• tions. What is important is that the editing be skilled, the
Report to the Army, to judge from the trial issues, will presentation attractive to ensure attention, and the format
fill a lono-felt
need as a source of information for those offi- c()nducive to filing. A standard 6- by 9-inch sheet, punched
cers who do not have ready access to the multitudinous for standard 2%-inch, three-ring notebooks, could be adopted
flow of circulars and letters that give the official changes for as many publications as possible, rather than the differ-
in policy and regulation. Report to the Army should be the ent sizes we now have.
source of all information Army-wide in nature, that officially Recently a radio newscaster described an explosion in an
published in detail elsewhere, but also the approved but not Ordnance plant in Iowa. Mter describing the blast vdth
yet officiallyadopted plans and policies. superlatives, he quoted the officer in charge of the plant as
having said that this was some new, super-secret explosive, If the program for disseminating information outlined
many times more po\\'erful than any used in the recent war. here were made effective, the impact on the various sen-ice
The subject has never been mentioned again, and no one magazines should be most beneficial. The chief yalue of
who heard that newcast has the least idea whether the these magazines lies in their ability to present new ideas.
Army has such an explosive. Officers who heard the broad- The fact that at present they do carry some "bulletin-board"
cast must certainly \vonder why, if it \\'as so secret it was information is but proof of the need of officers for such in-
mentioned at all, or if it wasn't secret, \vhv thev have not formation. Given an increased stimulus of ideas by provoca-
heard more details about it. This is but ~ne of countless tive articles in service magazines, and adequate factual data
minor instances in which an officer wonders just what is by a complete Army information program, the modern
happening in military technology, and wonders even more officer could then have the raw materials with- which to do
just how such information may reach him officially. his own creative, constructive thinking.

Existing conditions which reflect the present attitudes of aggressor nations

would convince any but the apathetic that we must maintain a military
stature-not only as reassurance to ourselves, but as a protection to the eco-
nomic, political and psychological position we are taking in the heart of
We Americans must resolve the conflict between our actions and our atti-
tudes. For we send our resources and our ideas to influence people, while
we hesitate to acknowledge the need for a working combination of military
power and peaceful intention. We must not send our representatives to
world council tables with diminished authority-encouraging to the enemy,
and disheartening to our friends. We must not enter the arena of discussion
with one hand tied behind our backs.
If we Americans intend the direction we are taking today, then we must
assimilate, as part of our leadership, a working union of continuing military
readiness and our peaceful intention. With it, we must have the vision, and
the courage, and the constancy, that inspires reliance on American ideas, as
well as material production.-GENERAL OMAR N. BRADLEY, CHIEF
Excerpts from IS.. STUDY OF ~MERICAN
dated 29 May 1945
By 71st ~ntiaircraft ~rtillery Group, Colonel P. W. lewis, Commanding

Foreword .. Section A-General

The greatest CQncentratiQn Qf American antiaircraft ma- On 4 September 1944 Field Marshal MQntgQmery's
terial was assembled under the cQmmand Qf Brigadier Gen- fO'rces had captured the great PQrt Qf Antwerp practically
eral Clare H. Armstrong fQr the protectiQn Qf Antwerp, intact. The capture Qf this port was a stroke Qf good fQr-
Belgium, against the attack by German V-I Hying bombs. tune, as it was by far the nearest port ,to'the Armies opposite
The ultimate success O'f the antiaircraft defense was at- the industrial Ruhr. It was necessary fO'r the vital How Qf
tested by the fact that this most important port remained supplies. The Germans, naturally, realized this and de-
Qpen and in CQnstant QperatiQn, providing the vital supplies termined to' render it useless to' the Allies.
fQr Qur Armies. Field Marshal MQntgQmery has expressed This port cQmprised some thirty miles Qf docks capable
it in these wQrds: "But this success which has kept in full of handling ocean-gQing vessels, 632 sets Qf hQisting appa-
QperatiQn the main supply base Qf both the 12th and 21st ratus capable O'flQads up to' 150 tQns, 186 acres Qf covered
Army groups, has profoundly inBuenced the present battle shed space, 12 dry docks, 500 miles of dO'uble track railway,
(the march thrQugh Germany) and made the success Qf and Qil storage facilities capable Qf hQlding Qver 100 mil-
present O'peratiQns administratively possible." This success liQn gallQns. The port was capable O'fhandling 90,000 tO'ns
was maintained, in spite O'f the determined effO'rt O'f the Qf supplies each day ..
Nazi regime to' annihilate Antwerp as a functiQning port. The German V-bomb attack started 27 October 194..J.
The success was due to' the effectiveness Qf the cQmbina- and CQntinued fO'r24 hQurs each day until 30 March 1945.
tiQn of all materiel emplQyed: the 90mm gun; the M-9 Di- During this time, 4883 Bying bombs were sent over the
rectQr; the SCR-584; the elaborate Early Warning system, Antwerp defenses. AlsO'during this time, the Antwerp de-
including radars, visual Qbservers, and the efficient CQm- fenses expended 531,968 rounds Qf heavy antiaircraft gun
municatiQns; the pozit fuze; and last but nQt least, the ammunition, Qf which 463,130 rQunds were American
splendid mQrale and esprit of the persO'nnel. 90mm and 68,838 British 3.7 inches. This figure Qf ammu-
This CQncentratiQn Qf antiaircraft materiel from OctQber nitiO'n expenditure covering 154 days may be cQmpared to'
1944 to' April 1945 affQrded a splendid O'Pportunity to' study the figure Qf 67,951 which was the amQunt Qf heavy gun
the effectiveness and stamina Qf American materiel. These ammunitiQn expended during the first 148 days after D-
defenses were under the British High CQmmand and in- day by Qur heavy antiaircraft units with the 1st, 3rd and
cluded British materiel, but fO'r the purpose of this study 9th U.S. Armies.
Qnly American materiel will be discussed except in specific The defenses, "Antwerp X," were under the superiQr
instances where British items were used to' substitute fQr command Qf MajQr General W. R. Revell-Smith, CQm-
American equipment. mander of the CHQ M Troops Qf Field Marshal MQnt-
Due to' the cO'nsistency O'fround-the-clock attacks O'vera gQmery's 21st Army Group. The approximate 22,000 men
period QfO'verfive mQnths, the stamina of both materiel and Qf "Antwerp X" were under the immediate cQmmand Qf
persQnnel was sorely tried. This constant QperatiO'nnaturally Brigadier General Clare H. Armstrong, U. S. Army. The
demanded periods O'f recuperatiQn, but the recuperative IX Air Defense Command Qf Brigadier General William
powers and stamina exhibited by both personnel and ma- L. Richardson, U. S. Army, furnished twO'AM Brigades,
teriel is beYQnd ,the imaginatiO'n. five AM Groups and sixteen AAA Bat,talions as well as
This study is an evaluated cQmposite picture O'fthe ex- many smaller service units; the British furnished Qne Bri-
periences O'f all grades Qf officers and nQncO'mmissiQned gade and twelve Regiments (Qr small portiQns O'f them at
QfficersO'fthis cO'mmand. This evaluatiQn has attempted to' variQus times); the PQles furnished Qne Regiment.
eliminate individual and personal ideas unless thQse ideas
Section B-Characteristics of V-l Flying Bomb
had been proved Qr supported from other sources.
An expressiQn O'fcommendatiO'n and admiratiQn is given V ulnerahility to Antiaircraft Artillery Fire.
to' the many unnamed heroes responsible fO'rcO'nceiving this a. The V-I Bying bomb was definitely a hard target to
equipment-the scientists, the inventQrs, the laboratO'ry tech- kill. With limited experience in the use Qf autQmatic weap-
nicians, the manufacturing and productiQn men; and many Qns against this target it can be said that the M-51 machine
others-withQut whO'm, this success WQuld nO't have been gun was about 95% ineffective in that the rounds had no
possible. explosive power Qn impact with the target and had either
19-/9 43
the tail of the Y pointed toward the directiOl Pages 39-42 inclusive have been withdrawn be- check.
roducing an
Gunnery cause of security. This material was not cleared
1. General.
by the Review Branch of the Public Information )se.
Beginning early in the period, teams of ollie !t the radar
specialists 'worked with range sections through Division but was printed through error. d by setting
mand to correct deficiencies and improve proe. in azimuth
detailed corrections and improvements were ings at the
served to increase technical knowledge of th ~ 1. _ unnpurer.
and the fire control problem generally throughout the ( 11) Moisture in the wiring of the slip rings.
units. Always, stress was placed upon accurate and precise
b. It is believed that, with the present Fire Control
orientation and synchronization of equipment. Trial fire was
equipment and conscientious attention to details of adjust-
studied with the aim of insuring that personnel obtained its
ment of this equipment, an extremely accurate orientation
maximum benefits. A system of firing by salvos was insti-
can be obtained and maintained and such accuracy will
tuted, which is generally believed to have increased all
be directly reflected in the abiHty of the unit to deliver ef-
around effectiveness of the equipment against this small fective fire. -
fast target.
3. Trial Fire.
2. Orientation and Synchronization.
a. The conduct of trial fire \,vas made the subject of
a. Daily checking of the orientation and synchronization study and instruction, especially by the Gunnery Instruc-
of the AA gun battery has long been recognized as vital in tion Teams assigned to the Command. Generally, trial
maintaining an accurately firing battery. Battery officers fire was conducted:
and range personnel were aware of this and strived for
extreme accuracy in their daily checks. In many instances, (1) When a new major lot of ammunition (100 rounds
batteries found it necessary to make 2 or 3 mil corrections or more) ivas used.
in either orientation or synchronization or both almost daily, (2) When there was reason to believe that the met
giving the personnel the impression that the data trans- message was very much in error. (This seldom if ever
mission system did not hold its adjustments. Actually, the occurred.)
selsyn data transmission system was very stable and once (3) To determine developed muzzle velocity after ap-
properly synchronized should not require special readjust- proximately each 100 rounds was fired per gun.
ment. Likewise, -thepotentiometer data system is very stable (4) The ab017efirings normally pr017ided suff1cient op-
and will hold adjustment. When daily checks indicated portunity for firing trial shots} bu,t if they did not, at
that either type of data transmission was unstable, trouble least one problem per week was fired by each bat-
in that system was indicated. Rather than continually mak- tery.
ing adjustments to eliminate the effect of this trouble, it b. In order to determine developed muzzle velocity ac-
was found wiser to analyze the error, locate the trouble curately by means of trial fire, every effol't was made to
and correct it. Daily check of orientation and synchroniza- eliminate errors from other sources. Accurate calculation
tion became a daily check of the data transmission system. of firing data by longhand methods served to eliminate
Care had to be exercised, that no change was made in ori- range equipment errors. Selection of a trial shot point at
entation and synchronization without a careful check as to a short range minimized the effects of exterior ballistics.
the reason for the error. It was found that a few possible All guns were carefully oriented in azimuth and fuzes were
SOurcesof small errors are: set exactly and checked to the proper value. Before and
after each round was fired, the levels of the guns were
(1) Failure to check level before orienting.
checked and the guns laid in elevation with a gunner's
(2) Personnel errors in reading the dials.
quadrant: Where possible, a surveyed base line was estab-
(3) Personnel errors in backsighting.
lished to provide a T angle of a,t least 1000 mils and range
(4) Small inherent errors in either the azimuth or ele-
deviations were determined from both O2 and radar spot-
vation potentiometer at the radar may cause slight
ting. If radar spotting was the only means of determining
variations in synchronization when checked at dif-
range deviations, the 2000 yards scope \vas calibrated. A
ferent points. These errors may be reduced to a
well trained spotter, it was found, could spot bursts within
minimum by synchronizing in the field of fire and
20 yards of the correct range.
at the approximate firing elevation.
c. For utmost accuracy and simplicity, firing data calcu-
(5) A good selsyn system has a 1 mil backlash error in
lations were standardized and the follovving longhand
the fine data. Excessive backlash must be eliminated.
methods were adopted.
(6) A low slant range on the radar potentiometer (less
than 1000 yards) may throw azimuth and elevation (1) Select convenient val'ues of quadrant elevation and
potentiometer data, as read on the AZ and QE dials fuze from FT 90 AA-B-3 corresponding to even
at the computer} off by several mil. values of Hand R. Select a firing azimuth in the
(7) A correction such as battery parallax, wind} or a field of fire. These values are firing data and are
spot left on the correction panel, when checking set on gun and fuze setter without change.
potentiometer synchronization with the computer in (2) List the ballistic effects on altitude} range and azi-
muth of all non-standard conditions and parallax salvo fire against the robot bomb, instead of the normal
based on altitude, range and azimuth selected in "free fire." The plan adopted consisted of firing all four
step (i). guns in the battery at the same instant, usually at intervals
(3) Determine the coordinates of the trial shot point b) of four seconds bet\veen salvos. This increased the blast or
adding algebraically these ballistic effects to the alti- concussion effect at the target and, more important, it fixed
tude, range and azimuth selected in step (1). the dead time factor as a constant four seconds for all guns.
(..J.1 Using the altitude and horizontal range thus de- b. The dead time factor has always been an item WOT-thy
termined, solve for angular height and slant range of considerable attention, but in the case of fire with me-
to the TSP with the Slide Rule, M-l. chanical fuzes, against the fast Hying buzz bomb, it was
(5) Set the slant range to the TSP on the radar and readily realized that its effect on accumte .firehad become
lay the radar on the azimuth and elevation to TSP even more important. It had always been the policy to de-
as directed by selsyn indicator at the tracker. Check termine the avemge dead time for the four guns in a bat-
dial readings at computer in tracker test. The radar tery and use that .figure in the director or computer. That
is now laid on the TSP and may be used to de- d.a:ta, at best, was an average of all guns and not accumte
termine the lateral, vertical and slant range devia- necessarily, for anyone gun crew, and since crews are not
tions of the burst. normally consistent throughout a course, it allowed many
(6) Set necessary corrections for non-standard conditions rounds to be fired with incorrect fuse settings..
and parallax on the computer. If the problem has c. It is believed that .the use of salvo fire eliminated or
been properly computed, any difference between greatly reduced this error. The mechanics of this type of
director output data and firing data originally set in fire employed are very simple. A time interval between
the guns will be an indication of range system er- rounds fired was fixed at four seconds, which established a
rors. If errors exist beyond the director tolerances, rate of fire of 15 rounds per gun per minute and allowed
and the director is known to be in good operating sufficient time for each crew to complete the drill. The drill
condition as a result of check problems, then calcu- consisted of inserting a round into the fuze setter and cut-
lations should be rechecked. ting it immediately, but allowing it to remain in the setter
until the signal for firing was given. By keeping the pointers
d. The above method was easier and quicker than the matched, the fuze was correctly set and, when the signal
old method because there is no double interpolating for QE to .fire was received, a round already in the gun was fired
and fuze. The M-9 Director calculates firing data in this and the one in the fuze setter was removed and loaded.
same manner by applying effects to the point of aim in Crews ~me immediately adept in this <typeof .firingand
order to arrive at the point of burst, and not by applying realized that their actions must occur precisely on time or
corrections to the point of burst in order to arrive at the unnecessary errors were introduced.
point of aim. d. The results of salvo .fireagainst pilotless aircraft were
c. This method of calculating firing data lends itself noticeably more effective than ordinary random fire and
readily to spotting only from 01, If spotting is from 01 and fmther <testswere conducted including the combining of
O2, it is necessary to compute 01-02 data after firing data two batteries into an eight-gun unit. Fire observed from
have been calculated and the coordinates of the TSP de- this battery had an apparent increase blast effect on the
termined. target but tests did not prove that its effect was as great
as that of two four-gun batteries. Sufficient evidence on its
4. Salvo Fire.
performance to draw definite conclusions is not available
a. As mentioned above, it was found that certail1 ad- since the test penod was interrupted by the cessation of at-
vantages could be gained by the conduct of controlled tacks.
**** * ** * ** *** * * ** ** * * * "*

i' **88th Antiaircraft Airborne Battalion *
16 April 1949-Lt. Cot Page E. Smith
~ **l1th Antiaircraft
12 May 1949-Lt.
AW Battalion (SP)
Cot Roy A. Tate *
On Julv 8th four units of the South Carolina National
on the JOURNALHonor Roll:
Guard were entered

*228th Antiaircraft Artillery Group *
Colonel David W. Berthea, Jr., Commanding

**107th Antiaircraft Artillery AW Battalion (M) *

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas H. Pope, Jr., Commanding
*678th Antiaircraft Artillery AW Battalion (M)
Lieutenant Colonel M. T. Sullivan, Commanding *
*713th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion (Ml *
Major W. B. Pollard, Jr., Commanding

**26Oth AAA Gun Battalion (Ml *

District of Columbia National Guard
28 July 1949-Lt. Cot Given VV. Cleek
Still a long way to go!-
Have you helped place your unit in this
space? *
Read the criteria printed below and join *
the Honor Roll of Antiaircraft Journal sup- *
1. To qualify for a listing on the JOURNALHonor Roll, signed officers must be submitted annually by units
units must submit the names of subscribers and total in order to remain on the Honor Roll.
number of officers assigned to the unit on date of ap- 6. Battalions with 90% of officers subscribing will
2. Battalions with 80% or more subscribers among the
qualify for one star placed after the unit's designation
on the Honor Roll. Battalions with 100% sub-
scribers will qualify for two stars.
officers assigned to the unit are eligible for listing,
provided that the unit consists of not less than 20 7. Groups and brigades cannot qualify for one star but *
3. Brigades and groups with 90% or more subscribers
may qualify for two stars by having 100% subscrib-
among the officers assigned to the unit are eligible
for listing, provided that the unit consists of not less
(Units of all components will be listed together in
the order of their percentages, beginning with the unit *
than seven officers.
4. Unit,> will remain on the Honor Roll for one year
with the highest percentage.)
(Each unit listed OR the Honor Ron will be given a *
one-year complimentary subscription to the JOURNAL.)
even though they fall below the 80% requirement
(Name of unit commander and date unit initially
during the year.
qualined for the Honor Roll will be listed with the
5. Lists of subscribers and statement of number of as- designation of the unit.)
********************** *
By Captain Peter P. Genero, CAC

Any skeptic who doesn't hold with the title should be in some other field before being transferred into the supply
present during a joint .property inventory, when the out- room as supply sergeant.
going battery commander is turning over his property to According to the present T /0 & E, a supply sergeant
the incoming battery commander. Let him notice the beads would have ro possess the following characteristics. He
of sweat break out on the forehead of the responsible of- would have to be very industrious with great initiative and
ficer as the total cost of shortages is being tallied. Some bat- attention to detail, but not interested in advancing beyond
tery commanders are fortunat~ in that their unit had been the third grade. He would have to be a responsible NCO
in the field during the preceding thirty days. Others have stymied at the third grade while NCO's with less responsi-
friends in neighboring units or in the local depots or salvage bility were advanced to higher grades. He would have to be
yards. If it weren't for these two loopholes, no one could a hard worker while NCO'sof lesser rank merely supervised
afford to be a battery commander. The fault does not lie in work details. He would have to be an NCO who, after
the supply system. It has been developed over a long period working his way up from the bottom in one section, must
of time by some of the nation's most experienced supply be capable of stepping into the supply room and running it
personnel. The blame does not always fall upon the officer correctly without previous extensive supply training. He
personnel. They are no better or worse than their predeces- would have blind loyalty to his unit, so that he would never
sors. However, paper work and additional duties have be- transfer when the opportunity for promotion in a higher
come more numerous for the line officer. In some instances headquarters, presented itself. He would never utilize hi'
it almost becomes ridiculous. For example, an acquaintance accrued leave or his reenlistment leave. There would be n •
recently had fifteen additional duties, at a battalion level, one to take his place. He would have to be capable of keep
plus the primary duty of being battery commander to a full ing the supply room open while making turn-ins, drawin5
T /0 & E battery. supplies, taking laundry to and from the post laundry and at
Most difficulties originate with enlisted personnel .who the same time be constantly out begging, trading, and
operate tihe unit supply rooms. This lies in four directions. borrowing necessities which somehow were not issued cor.
First the T /0 & E's authorize only the third grade for the rectly or on time. He would have to account for supplies
unit supply sergeant. His only chance for a promotion is which invariably are at two different places, particularly
to be transferred to a higher headquarters. It is odd that a during moves when so much equipment is lost. In addition
man who is accountable for all the property of a unit valued he must be a clerk typist and should possess a typewriter.
at hundreds of thousands of dollars should have a rank He would never marry or raise a family for some posts re-
subordinate to that of other NCO's who are accountable fo.r quire the supply sergeants to sleep in the supply room. This
only a fraction of the property. Promotions to higher ranks may sound absurd, but before passing judgment check your
are now permissible in most all battery sections with the ex- own T /0 & E and post regulations.
ception of supply. This leaves little incentive for both The following recommendations would correct these con-
present and future supply sergeants. Second the T /0 & E ditions:
provides no responsible NCO to assist the supply sergeant.
This is an extremely important deficiency since no man 1. Raise the rank of a battery level supply sergeant to
can be in two places at the same time. This is necessary in the 2nd grade.
routine supply work as well as during moves. A basic or a 2. Authorize an assistant to the supply sergeant in the
filler is the only person who may now be spared to work in 3rd grade.
the supply room. This places the least responsible individual 3. Authorize a supply clerk in the 4th grade.
in the battery to work at a most responsible task. The third
factor requires that a supply sergeant must be a clerk typist. These are the minimum requirements, if supplies are to
This has prevented many an excellent NCO from becom- be accounted for and maintain in the manner intended
ing a supply sergeant. The last and most important de- by the Department of the Army.
ficiency is a culmination of the above three. At present there The acceptance of these recommendations would also go
is no method bv which an enlisted man mav work his wav far, towards eliminating that distastefulness .which many
up to the job of'supply sergeant. He must fi~t show promi~ company grade officers attach to line duty.
A Page of Spring and Summer
Training Activities

An Air Force B-26 lets out a tow target for Automatic W'eap-
ons Antiaircraft training. This photo shows the conventional
type sleeve, and contains the new Firing Error Indicator.

AAA D.P. hidden on desert during training activities. Men

are from 34th AAA Brigade.

U.S. Army Photograph

Corporal Richard Cheney, gun commander on a 90-millimeter

gun, explains the working of the fuze to General Jacob L.
Devers, Chief of the Army Field Forces, during the General's
M-19 inspected by General G. M. J. Revers, French Army Chief
visit to Fort Bliss in mid-April. \X'atching the demonstration,
of Staff, on recent visit to Fort Bliss.
at left, is Major General J. L. Homer, Commanding General of
Fort Bliss.

Salute to the reviewing party as antiaircraft units at Fort Bliss Operations tent of 22d AAA Group in field, plotting course
pass in review before General Thomas H. Handy. of target plane.
By Major General John M. Devine
Department of the Army Memo 600-900--1defines char- interest. The accomplishment of this purpose does not con-
acter guidance as follows: "Character guidance is a term flict with the more fundamental one of raising the general
developed to define all actions which tend to encourage the moral tone of the unit.
growth of moral responsibility, spiritual values, and strong The Information and Education program is intimately
self-discipline in the individual. It is founded upon the wrapped up with character guidance. It is a real test of
assumption that the Army has an obligation to the parent of character to complete a correspondence course. Any man
the youthful soldier to duplicate the wholesome influences who participates voluntarily in an educational program, after
of the home and the community, so far as practicable under a hard day's work, is building character.
condition of military service." A major part of the Special Services program is likewise
This definition is a perfectly good one. It is apparent, character guidance. It is building character to encourage a
however, that its implications have been appreciated by taste for good music, which all service clubs do, or should do.
very few people. In the minds of too many of us, a char- lt is building character to stimulate interest in hobbies of
acter guidance council is simply another term for a VD any kind, to give our soldiers some resources within them-
control council. Such a limitation in meaning has no jus- selves for their own entertainment. Whenever we can sub-
tification, and was never, I am sure, contemplated by the stitute active recreation for the purely passive, we are build-
author of that circular. ing character. Historical tours, trips to places of interest,
Character guidance is an essential part of military training anything of that sort which teaches our own or foreign his-
and must be so considered. We are dealing with men, and tory is like"wisestimulating to the individual, and helps to
in training men we must not only build them physically, make him a better and more alert citizen.
we must stimulate them mentally, teach them the funda- If in conjunction with our sports program we also teach
mental human values, and imp{ess upon them the basic sportsmanship, fair play, we are building character. If at the
Christian virtues. This is character guidance-a positive pay table we can convince the average soldier that it is to his
and aggressive effort tp teach moral responsibility and to benefit to save a considerable portion of his pay, we are like-
encourage the development of the whole personality of the wise building character. If we can raise the standards in our
soldier. barracks to the point where obscenities cease, and a man
The chaplain's weekly hour is the heart of the character can leave his wallet on his bunk when he goes to the show-
guidance program. Here is his opportunity to raise the ers, then we are building character indeed.
social, moral and spiritual tone of the organization; to teach The essential thing is for us to visualize military training
the really important things in life. as a unit. Such training must take cognizance of the fact
But the chaplain alone cannot accomplish very much. that to develop the well-rounded man, we must develop all
All leaders are also instructors in character guidance. By sides of his nature. The training must be not only military,
their words and by their example, they must never cease to but physical, mental and spiritual. We have the agencies
teach high standards to men who never had them, and to to accomplish these things, but the tendency to look upon
help those who do have them to maintain them. The Troop I&E, Special Services, TIP, and the chaplain's program as
Information Program (TIP) Hour is an important part of mere appendages, superfluous excrescences, which contrib-
character guidance. Here the company commander has' his ute nothing to the development of a soldier-this attitude is
opportunity to impress upon his men his own personality, to a serious handicap to the accomplishment of our whole
make personal contacts with all of them, to listen to their mission, because these items are not superfluous at all. Thev
complaints, and to answer their questions, and to acquaint are essential parts of an integrated program for training
them with things of military significance in the world im- young men, and they must be so regarded. When this atti-
mediatelv around them. tude is generally accepted by all our people, and understood
The chief objective of TIP, of course, is to stimulate the from the lowest to the highest, the question of character
soldier mentally, to arouse his interest in topics which con- guidance will take care of itself, because it will be only a
cern him, and to stimulate discussion of problems of national part of an integrated program for making men out of boys.
The Decline and Fall of Flak
44% aged 39 and younger, fit fo~ qctive service;
Extract from a Military Intelligence Report of an 21 % aged 39-48, fit for active service;
Air Force unit in the latter part of 1945. 35% of higher age groups and low medical categories.

Equipment "
Study of a collection of official documents, captured in the The documents include returns at various dates of the
possession of high ranking GAF officers and dated for the number of Flak guns deployed by the GAF. As mentioned
most part shortly before the German collapse, has provided previously, no figures are yet available for naval flak. Only
a great deal of valuable information on the size of the GAF one figure is available for army flak in April 45, this is given
Flak organization, particularly during the last six months of below.
the war, and has afforded a comparison with information Position in February 44
previollsly published on this subject. The documents do A statement dated 18 Mav 45 states that GAF Flak
not, however, give any information about naval flak, and in- reached its peak deployment in February 44 when it had
clude onlv one reference to armv flak. 2,600 heavy Batterien (including 400 Batterien of Home
The f~llowing notes are a r~sume of the various items
Guard and Emergency Flak), with 13,500 heavy guns.
covered. There were also 1,600 light and medium Batterien, which
Order of Battle
would be equivalent to approximately 21,000 guns; other
A return dated I February 45 stated that, at that date, returns of later qate show numbers in excess of this figure
there were still operating: and it is apparent that Home Guard and Emergency Flak
Seven Flak Corps, 29 Flak Divisions, 13 Flak Brigades, Battericn are not included. Large numbers of such units are
160 Flak Regiments, 852 Flak Abteilungen (batteries). known to have been employed.
In addition there were 450 Searchlight Batterien with ap-
proximately 7,000 heavy searchlights and 100 balloon bar-
A statement, dated 6 April 45, of the total personnel of rage Batterien each with 24 balloons. It is known from other
the GAF at various dates gives the following information:
information that the number of balloons was subsequently
Date Flak personnel considerably reduced.
IS Nov 44 803,700
IS Dee 44 816,167 Position as at 31 January 45
IS Jan 45 842,200 A more detailed return was made of the position as of 31 .
15 Feb 45 821,200 January 45, showing the calibres of the various guns, but this
I Apr 45 656,000 return apparently again excludes light and medium Home
Since IS November 44, Flak had consistently absorbed Guard and Emergency Flak. The numbers of the various
around 35% of the total GAF personnel. This proportion calibres were shown as:
became slightly higher toward the end of the period, as Calibre No. of gUlls
was only to be expected, since flying personnel probably in- 2 cm 12,324
cluded a higher proportion of younger men more likely to be 2 em four-barrelled 3,952
affected by repeated "comb-outs" in favor of other services. 3.7 cm 18,36,37 2,915
Auxiliary Personnel
3.7 cm 43 1,040
3.7 em twin-barrelled 366
From time to time reference has been made to the increas-
5em 47
ing manpower difficulties which were being experienced by
the Germans and to their efforts to alleviate the position by
introducing inferior personnel, such as Reich Labor Service 8.8 em 18,36,37 9,930
personnel, women, youths and foreigners. Periodical Sum- 8.8 em 37/41 13
mary No. 17 set out the types of auxiliary personnel being 8.8 em 41' 318
used and the classes into which they were divided. 10.5 em 1,902
The official statement gives the proportions of service per- 12.8 em 570
sonnel and auxiliary personnel in Flak as follows: 12,733
Date Service Personnel Auxiliary Personnel Total It will be seen that the proportion of 2 cm and 8.8 cm
15Nov44 573,000(71%) 230,700(29%) 803,700 guns represented approximately 80% of the total light and
IS Dec 44 569,527 (70%) 246,640 (30%) 816,167 heavy guns respectively, this being somewhat higher than
IS Ian 45 567,900 (67%) 274,300 (33%) 842,200 the corresponding estimates of 70% and 65%.
15 Feb 45 510,200 (62%) 311,100 (38%) 821,100
I Apr 45 368,000 (56%) 288,000 (44%) 656,000 Position as at 18 February 45
A report dated 18 February 45 gives the following num-
Age Groups of Service Personnel
bers of guns in GAF Flak. The number of light guns
The documents show that service personnel in Flak on shown is substantially greater than the number shown for
1 April 45 were made up of: the peak period of February 44, which lends support to the
assumption that the February 44 figure was, in fact, exclu- Army Flak
sive of Home Guard and Emergency Flak, and suggests that Exclusive of the figures in paragraph on "Position at end
the 34,750 guns estimated in 1\1.1.15/1\ & Ap/281/45 was April 45" above there were 6,199 light and medium guns
substantially correct. and 515 heavy guns held by the Army. As these had also be-
, Calibre No. of guns come a \vasting asset in the same way as GAF Flak, it is prob-
2 em 27,759 able that the number of light and medium guns, 12,500,
3.7 em 4,386 shown with the Army and 5S in M.I.15jN & Apj281j45
32,145 was approximately correct. The number of heavy guns
8.8 em 9,793 given in the estimate, on the other hand, must have been
8.8 em-41 251 too low, the correct figure probably being 750-1,000.
10.5 cm 1,097
12.8 cm 661 In Berlin
II ,802 as at 19 April 45, the following were deployed in Berlin:
Calibre No. of guns
Position at end April 45
2 cm 316
A further return was made of the position as at the end of 3.7 cm 123
April 45; it was not a complete return as no particulars were 439
included in respect of one corps and one Luftgau area. 8.8 em 37 293
As was to be expected, the number of guns had become 8.8 cm 41 22
considerably reduced as a consequence of the march of 10.5 cm 55
events. The numbers had now become: 12.8 cm 24
Calibre No. of guns
2 em 17,645
3.7 em 3,381 ***
Of the 394 heavy guns, all the 12.8 cm guns and practi-
cally all the 10.5 cm guns were on static mountings, but all
8.8 em 5,968 the 8.8 cm 41 guns and practically all the 8.8 cm 37 guns
8.8 em 41 92 were on transportable mountings. This state of apparent
10.5 em 964 mobility of the 8.8 cm guns was, however, offset by the fact
12.8 cm 229 that the necessary trailers were available for only 40% of
7,253 them.

The turn of events since the end of the war has placed upon the United States, as the
citadel of freedom and the strongest of the free nations, the major 'responsibility for world
recovery, world peace, and world progress, ap.d at the same time has confronted this nation
with potentially the gravest challenge ever offered to our principles and our way of life.
This situation fesults from the decision of the leaders of Soviet Russia to turn away from the
cooperation which we hoped would prevail after the war, and instead to seek to impose com-
munism upon the world. The consequent resistance of the free peoples of the world to sub-
jugation and enslavement has brought about the world-wide struggle in which we are now
engaged. '
In any such conflict, the first requirement is to understand the nature of the opposing
force. In analyzing Soviet communism, we can distinguish certain basic characteristics or
elements. The first element is a group of ruthless and ambitious men, animated by a lust for
power and bound by a fanatical doctrine which holds that the end justifies the means, no
matter how brutal or unjust. The second element is the seizure by this group of absolute
control of a large and powerful nation, whose strength and resources are used by the arbi-
trary rulers to carry out their aggressive and expansive policies. The third element is the
control and manipulation by these rulers of subservient groups in other countries so as to
subject those countries to the will of the dominant power, as has been done throughout East-
ern Europe, as is being done in China, and as will be done wherever freedom and democ-
racy do not prove themselves strong enough to resist.-Lieutenant General Walter Bedell
Smith, Former United States Ambassador to the U.s.S.R. in a recent address.
Winners of the Coast Artillery
Association ROTC Medal

Listed below are this year's winners of tIle United States months of service in \Vorld \Var II, he saw combat duty in
. Coast Artillery Association ROTC Medal. The recipient of the Asiatic Pacific Theater of Operations and was 'dis-
this annual mvard is selected from tIle swdents in eadl of charged from the Army in February 1946. He is a member
the Coast Artillery Corps Senior ROTC units. of one campus society.
A short sketch of the individual winners follows: Fordham University: Louis R. M. Del Guercio, of Larch-
University of Alabama: Daniel J. ?vleador, of Selma, mont, New York. Cadet Captain Del Guercio was desig-
Alabama. Cadet Meador is 22 years old. He was formerly nated as a Distinguished Military Graduate. He is 20 years
a student at The Citadel and is a graduate of Alabama of age and graduated with a BS degree in Biology. He is a
Polytechnic Institute and is active in four campus societies. member of five campus societies and has accepted a com-
University of California: Robert R. Johnston, of Oak- mission in the Regular Army.
land, California. Cadet Johnson, 20 years of age, after at- I-Iampton Institute: James A. Hammond, Tampa, flor-
taining rank of Cadet Colonel in High School, came to ida. Cadet Staff Sergeant Hammond was in command of
University of California as an honor student. He is"major- the Drum and Bugle Corps during the past year. He is
ing in music and seriously considers the Regular Army as a majoring in Architectural Engineering and plans to make
career. the Army his career. He was designated a Distinguished
University of California at Los Angeles: John D. Stern of i'vlilitary Student and was chosen as Cadet Lt. Coloriel for
Beverly Hills, California. Cadet Captain Stern is a veteran, next year and will hold the position of Battalion Com-
having served in the Army from March 1946 to September mander.
1947. He is 21 years of age, is majoring in Economics, a University of Kansas: Robert C. Bransfield, of Leaven-
member of the local chapter of Scabbard and Blade, and is worth, Kansas. Cadet Bransfield, age 20, after completing
active in several other school activities. high school ROTC with honors, is continuing military
University of Cincinnati: Richard E. Glaser, of Cincin- studies while he majors in Engineering.
nati, Ohio. As a Cadet Lt. Colonel, 24-year-old Glaser leads University of Maine: Parker VV. Gray, of Damariscotta,
a battalion in the University ROTC. He served overseas Maine. Cadet Gray is a 24-year-old veteran of \Vorld V/ar
during "Vorld \Var II in Armored Infantry, being dis- II, having seen service in France and Germany. He is
charged from the Anny in February 1946. He is a past President of an Engineering Society and a member of Tau
Captain, Scabbard and Blade, Scarab. Beta Pi. He will graduate next year.
The Citadel: \~'illiam T. Cooper, of Conway, South University of Minnesota: Girard L. Stewart, of Cloquet,
Carolina. Cadet Cooper is 20 years old and is working to- Minnesota. Cadet Stewart is 22 years old and is an honor
ward to a degree in Business Administration. He takes part student in Business Administrati~n. He served 18 months
in several campus activities and next year, as a Cadet Lt. in the Army in Korea. He was chosen as a Distinguished
Colonel, will command the Artillerv Battalion. l\lilitarv Student and is active in two school societies.
Texas \Vestern College: Stuart fl. Lassetter, of EI Paso, J\'lississippi State College: Joe H. Collier, of Jackson,
Texas. Cadet Lassetter, a 23-year-old veteran of the Army .Mississippi. Cadet Sergeant First Class Collier, age 20, is a
Air Forces, is pursuing a course in business administration junior in the School of Engineering and is a member of two
and hopes to obtain a Regular Army commission. fraternities. He was designated as a Distinguished l\lilitary
University of Delaware: Edward J. Davis, of Newark, Student.
Delaware. Cadet Master Sergeant Davis is 24 years old and University of New Hampshire: Thomas N. Richmond,
is a Junior in the School of Agriculture. During his 36 of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Cadet 1st Sergeant Rich-
mond served tvvo years in the Navy during World War II in the Society of Agricultural Engineers and other campus
seeing action on Saipan. He is majoring in Business Admin- activities.
istration and takes part in school athletics. Utah State Agricultural College: Ralph Downs, of Boun-
University of Pittsburgh: Robert A. Fletcher. Cadet tiful, Utah. Cadet Lt. Colonel Downs is 22 years of age
Fletcher was chosen from the advanced ROTC unit as the and is majoring in Physical Education. During the war,
outstanding cadet. Besides attaining a high scholastic rating, Cadet Downs participated in the Army Student Training
he i.vas active in several campus activities. Program. At college he is proficient in athletics. He is a
University of Puerto Rico: Luis R. Canetti, of Caguas, member of three school societies.
Puerto Rico. Cadet Canetti is a Junior, 21 years of age, Virginia Polytechnic Institute: Wayland W. Rennie, of
and is pursuing a course in Civil Engineering. Since his Richmond, Virginia. Cadet Sergeant Rennie, 20 years of
schooling began. Cadet Canetti has been an outstanding age, has an outstanding record in the Coast Artillery ROTC.
student and is widely known on the campus for his keen Cadet Rennie is pursuing a course in Agronomy. He is a
military bearing. He is active in several campus societies. member of several school fraternities and societies and also
University of San Francisco: F~ncis L. Williams, of San takes an active part in athletics.
Francisco, California. Cadet Colonel Williams is 24 years Washington University: Jack D. Minner, of Clayton,
old, is married and has two children. During the war he Missouri. Cadet Second Lieutenant Minner is 20 years old
served two years in the Air Forces as a gunner and Bight and was chosen as the outstanding cadet in the Artillery
engineer on a B-29. He was selected as the most outstand- Unit of his University. He is active in three campus s0-
ing cadet at the ROTC Summer Camp, Fort Lewis, Wash- cieties.
ington, in 1948. He is a member of Scabbard and Blade University of Washington: Loren E. Radford, of Seattle,
Society. \Vashington. Cadet Radford, 20 years of age, is nowattend-
A & M College of Texas: Samuel H. Barnes, of Chester, ing Summer Camp at Fort Bliss, Texas. His past military
Texas. Cadet First Sergeant Barnes is an Agricultural achievements point toward his being qualified as a Distin-
Engineering student, and was selected from cadets in the guished Military Student next fall. Cadet Radford is con- .
Coast Artillery Unit as being outstanding in scholarship, sidering a career in the Regular Army.
military proficiency and personal qualifications. He is active Notify the Journal of your change of address.

Among the principles on which our postwar training Recognizing that every soldier is an individual who
philosophy is based, three tenets are paramount: (1) has his own aspirations, interests, and desires, the good
the human approach; (2) recognition and protection of leader manifests a high regard for every soldier in his
the dignity of the individual; and (3) provision for command. He realizes that the morale and efficiency of
maximum personal liberty, consistent with the perform- his troops are frequently more dependent on individual
ance of military duties. recognition than on material rewards
The. human approach is manifest in the student- A new approach has been made to the problem of
instructor relationship in the training units. There the moral guidance among troops. The chaplain has been
student learns because he wants to-not because he is made a staff officer, charged with certain troop welfare
driven by threats or coercion. Pride in self and pride in functions in addition to providing religious guidance.
unit instil in the soldier a desire to acquit himself with One of his biggest tasks is the teaching of sex hygiene,
credit, for his own self-esteem as well as for the repu- with emphasis on continence rather than on prophylaxis.
tation of his unit. High standards of discipline and per- In all stages of training, unnecessary restrictions on
formance result from this kind of enlightened leader- the soldier's personal liberty have been avoided. The
ship, developing in the individual a marked degree of average American, it is recognized, chafes under unnec-
initiative and esprit. The same principle applies in the essary restraints but accepts restrictions without com-
soldier relationship in combat units. The new approach plaint when the necessity is clearly evident.
contrasts with the hard-boiled method, sometimes re- I have great faith in the American youth. I believe he
sorted to by incompetent commanders, by which a man is essentially sound, instinctively decent, and will usually
was driven rather than led-induced to obey from com- do the right thing if we show him what is right and ex-
pulsion rather than from his own desire and initiative. plain why we think it is right. Our responsibility is not
At its core, much of today's philosophy of troop limited to teaching military techniques. To make the
handling is based upon a recognition of the dignity of man. a better fighter we must make him a better citizen.
the individual. The military history of this Nation is We must help him relate the task at hand to the greater
replete with evidence that a man is a better fighter when goals of our free American society.-Extracted from
he retains his individuality. This individuality is an ele- Gen. Jacob L. Devers' article aT raining of the Army T 0-
ment of strength that the totalitarian nations do not day" hl the April 1949 issue Army Information Digest.


COLONELR. E. DINGEMAN,Coast Artillery Corps, Director

Seacoast Artillery Firing by Offset Methods: The offset This unit consists of a Remote "B" Scope Assembly CY-
firing system was adapted to Standard 155-mm gun and al- 234/MPG-l to which has been added a Remote Recording
lied fire control materiel; i.e., 155-mm M2 Guns, ANI Cabinet, camera with camera mount and connecting cables.
MPG-l Radar and the M8N Gun Data Computer. The The cabinet contains range and azimuth dials, driven
radar set was modified by installing a different azimurh mark
disc in the antenna ~ssembly to provide three-degree vertical
marks on the tracking scope. Tracking a point in the water
offset from the target was found to be a comparatively
simple problem.
This offset method makes it possible to fire target practices
on a variety of courses from curve-crossing to outgoing (see
cut), as well as at a maneuvering target .

tfl~T FlRl'lG
, - _
---,.- - ~

- -.oF.,fSET fIRING
'. PRESEJ(r RANGE : : PllEsa.r R4toGE !
\ I I I
\ I I I

f I I

1'",' I

I f
I f
\ I

\ I
\ I



Two subcaliber firings and one service firing were con- by selsyns, which present data identical to that 'on the
ducted during the latter part of April. These firings fur- parent radar.
nished sufficient data for completion of both this and the As reported above, the target practices conducted in April
Remote Recording System projects. In the service firing, furnished the information necessary for completion of this
which was conducted on a crossing course at an average project. Results of the test disclosed that the system devised
range of 14,550 yards, fourteen rounds were fired for effect. for remote recording was more efficient and economical than
Seven of these rounds were bow-on hits and two were present standard methods of recording data for the analysis
broadside hits. of firing as well as simplifying record keeping. Using the
It was recommended in the Report of Test that the Hemote Recording System the number of personnel required
method of offset firing be adopted for training of ANI for recording data was reduced from 29 to 16. This system
~IPG-l Radar equipped 155-mm artillery units assigned a was found to be the only means of obtaining complete data
seacoast defense mission. Further recommendation was made for the analysis of firings conducted by the offset firing
that the system be considered for use with any future de- method.
veloped g~n-fire control combinations to which it might be It was recommended that all existing ANjiVIPG-l Radars
applicable. be modified for use \yith the Remote Recording System and
Hemote Recording System for Service mId Target Practice that the system be adopted for use by all ANjMPG-l
Firings: The final development of the remote Recording equipped batteries. Suggested basis of issue was one unit,
System comprises additional selsyn motors in the ANI mountad in Trailer M14, per 155-mm artillery battalion
"'PG-l Radar tracking trays and a Remote Recording Unit. equipped with ANIMPG-l type radar.
Glln Data COII/pllter MSN: During the service test of In a recently completed test it was determined that bv
Gun Data Computer l\18N in 1945. it was noted that improved chassis shielding and installation of filters and
adjacent communication radio transmitters interfered with by-pass capacitors, the l\18N would operate within manu-
computer operation. Several simple tests were made to de- facturer's tolerances in the presence of powerful radios and
tennine the magnitude of this effect, but no specific con- radars. Recommendation was made that all 1\18N Gun
clusions were reached. An 1\18 type computer designated Data C'A)mputersbe modified accordingly.
1'20 has been utilized recently for a thorough investigation Distriblltio/l Box Boat L-73: Service test of the modified
of radio interference and means necessary to prevent detri- distribution boat was completed on May 20th and a report
mental effects on computer operation. submitted thereon.
As a result of the investigation conducted with this com- Conclusions reached as a result of this test were that the
puter, a project was assigned this section to determine the modifications increased the effectiveness of the boat in con-
susceptibility of the Gun Data Computer l'vl8N to interfer- trolled submarine mine operations; and that the L-73 is
ence from radio and radar sources and necessary corrective now more suitable than existing Standard distribution box
action to eliminate such interference. The'; rvl8N has boats.
different ballistic circuits and scale factors than the 1'20 and
is trailer-mounted for mobile use. Although the trailer is
capable of being hermetically sealed and is sheathed with
Notify Journal of your change of address.
metal, it is not as well shielded electrostaticallv as a com-
puter in a reinforced concrete structure . .;

Russian Weapons
-.-Analyzed by British Writer
The Red Army's weapons often look rough and un- However, by the time the second phase of the war set in,
finished, even crude, but they should never be underesti- the newer tanks were ready, and after that the advantage
mated on that account, warns Capt. B. H. Liddell Hart, remained with the Soviet forces. The newer Russian tanks
well-kn'own English military analyst, in the technical jour- were low-built, presenting more difficult targets. lhey had
nal, Ordnance (May-June). The Germans made that error wide treads, enabling them to maneuver on soft ground, par-
-and had to unlearn it the hard way. ticularly in spring, when the sandy soil of the Russian plain
\Vhen the Nazi forces attacked Russia in 1941 thev soon became a miry mud that bogged down the ponderous Ger-
discovered that the riAes and machine guns in the ha~ds of man "Tiger" tanks. These newer tanks ,vere modifications
their Soviet opponents were more modern than their own, of an American model, the Christie tank, which the inventor
with better fire rates .. sold to the USSR after he had been repeatedly turned down
The Russian mortars, states Capt. Hart, "were so simple by U. S. Army authorities, Capt. Hart adds.
in construction and roughly finished that they looked like Like much of the rest of the Russian equipment, their
the product of a village blacksmith, yet they were most effi- tanks had a rough and unfinished appearance. They were
cient. Their apparent crudeness was far outweighed by the not even painted. They were cramped and uncomfortable
advantage of rapid output." inside, exceedinolv tirin£ to anv crews less tough than the
::J" Li' "

The Red Army's great weapon-superiority over the Ger- Red soldiers, and they were lacking in most of the radio and
man foe, however, lay in their tanks, declares the English optical aids considered essential by \Vestern tank command-
writer. This was not true at the outset, for the Russians were ers. But they had good guns, they could be depended on to
caught in a transition period between an obsolescent model keep going, and they could be produced rapidly in the hard-
which they possessed in numbers and a newer type not yet in pressed Soviet factories. Most important of all, they could
mass production. So in the initial campaign tho Nazis fight.
"cleaned up" on the Russians. -Sd~n~e: x,u:~ Lftttr Mall;, 1949.
Bernard M. Baruch at The 25th Anniuersary
Of The Formation Of The Industrial
College Of The Armed Forces*
terest, which is more than can be said for some of their
The Journal seldom finds space to publish in much
By whom have American liberties been threatened in the
detail the great speeches of our times. In makir1g Mr. past? By the military? Or by reckless civilian politicians and
Baruch's address an exception, we pass on to our rabble-rousers? The role of the soldier in the United States
has always been that of the protector of our liberties. In
readers the pronouncement of one of the Nation's times of peace all too many people have tended to jeer at
great leaders at his inimitable best.-Editors. members of the anned forces, to laugh off their warnings,
to give little heed to what they have sought for defense.
Then, suddenly, war erupts! The much-maligned military
are expected to spend billions in furious yet efficient haste,
I should like to say a few kind words for the so-called to recruit and train in a matter of months millions of men
Brass Hats, who are being sneered at and sniped at so who never h~ld a riAe before, to .organize global operations
unjustly. They deserve b~tter at the hand~ of .the public. touching places most Americans had never heard of. Cer-
\Ve should stop thinkmg that the soldier IS set apart tainly it is one of the marvels of American history that our
from the rest of the people. This is bad thinking. A soldier, armed forces have not failed us in time of war, despite the
whether he be an officer or a private, is still a citizen. hi treatment given them during peace. This story is told in
fact, he is first of all a citizen. So is a veteran! Kipling's "Tommy Atkins."
The whole thesis that there exists some deep fllllda- The pay we civilians give our soldiers has never been
mental cleavage between "civilians" and "military" in commensurate with the responsibilities we thrust upon
American life, breaks down on examination. The sold.iers them. That is particularly true now, when inAation has
who have been called tlpon to ftlnction in spheres apart slashed the real value of all pensions, savings and salaries.
from their profession of arms have rung lip enviable rec- Grave responsibilities with inadequate reward and ex-
ords. Our oCCllpati01l comnzand.ers-l'vIacArthur, Clay, posure to unfair criticism is too often the lot of occupants
Clark, Hodge-have lwndled themselves with ability and of the Pentagon-which I hope to see renamed the James
tact, with jtlstice and firmness. They, their officers ana V. Forrestal Building.
enlisted men, have won new respect for the Ulllted States. Not all who have been wounded in the service of their
In Bedell Smith we had' an excellent ambassador to country wear purple hearts.
Soviet Russia. Admiral Kirk is a worthy successor. \Vere taday's abuse of the military merely a question of
There has been no more capable administrator of vet- the specific charges being made it would be of small con-
eran affairs than General Omar Bradley. Less conspicuous, cern since the evidence refuting these accusations is so
but no less real, was the ability shown by Marine General readily at hand. However, the outcry against the "brass"
Erskine as Retraining Administrator in an impossible situ- is the outward sign of something deeper.
ation. In ancient, l1wre primitive times it was often the practice
No Secretary of State has been less militaristic and more to beat or kill a courier who brought bad news. That is
devoted to searching for peace than General Marshall. somewhat the plight of the military in America today. Be-
Our civilian life has been greatly enriched by the ad- cause of the cold war, the atomic bomb and other ocean-
dition of professional soldiers, General Eisenhower being shrinking weapons, the collapse of European ana Asiatic
only the most recent example. power, preparati01ls against war intrude ever more in-
There is no basis for the accusation that our military sistently into all our lives. Before Hitler, defense appropri-
leaders think exclusivelv in terms of "\Var." Todav the pro- ations cost each American only a few dollars a year. \Ve
fessional soldier is trai~ed in the arts of peace ~s well as now pay S 100 annually-each of us. For the first time in
those of war. That, as you know, has bee~ one of the ob- our history, young men have been drafted before actllal
jectives of this Industrial College. war.
I know of no group who has been so loyal to the coun- These and other actions being forced upon us clash vio-
try as a whole. The question never arises of protecting one lentl" with the traditional American hatred of war. ~s it
region-say New York or Texas-at the expense o~ oth~rs. surp~ising that some people should lash out at the mes-
The military has always thought of the whole natIonal m- sengers bearing the sad tidings which make these changes
*From an address by Mr. Bernard M. Baruch at the Com,?encement necessary as if the messengers, themselves, were to blame?
Exercises Commemorating the 25th Anniversary ~f the FormatIOn of the Bear this fact in mind-the American people are cur-
Industrial College of the Armed Forces, at Washington, D. c., June 28,
1949. rently in the throes of tormenting, frustrating readjustment.
Both as a nation and as individuals we grew up accustomed peacewaging must be formulated. I have always believed
to regard war and peace as distinctly separate states, like in civilian control of our national life, both in war and
day and night. Today we live in an around-the-clock twi- peace. But civilian dominance has its price-a readiness to
light of neither war nor peace. Reared to think of war as a make the decisions which the military must have, to carry
brief emergency to be rallied to temporarily, we find our- out their assigned duties. The failure to enact a mobilization
selves confronted bv a continuous threat of war, which re- plan is only one instance of this vacillation and neglect.
quired something' Americans have habitually lacked-a Lack of self-discipline and weird economics, strange
see-through constancy in action between peace and war. ethics and perverted logic, if persisted in, will surely de-
This necessity to adjust to the inexorable continuity be- stroy us. These internal dangers are as great as the external
tween peace and war which prevails in our world will force ones. Still I have never seen a situation that could not be
revolutionary changes in the thinking of the military as cured by competence. And that holds for our problems to-
well as civilians. In the past, for example, defense appropri- day.
ations fluctuated wildly in a "feast and famine" cycle. Un- Materially, we have all that we had yesterday-and
fortunately our budgetary habits are still attuned to that more. The test is one of choosing between the wisdom and
cycle. For the cold war we must scale defense expenditures follies in man's experience.
so they can be sustained indefinitely-paced to the needs For more than half a century I have been associated with
of changing world developments-without overburdening members of the armed forces. In all that time I have never
our economy. met a so-called military man who was not as fervently de-
So much is being spent by all nations today in fear of sirous for peace as the ordinary civilian. I have watched
war. If these resources were turned to peaceful uses, how the defense agencies spend billions and, while there have
many of the world's problems could be solved! been lapses, on ,the whole the record has been better than
Our military strength cannot be permitted to lapse to any comparable operation in civil life. Nor have I ever de-
where it invites aggression. Neither dare we overload our tected in the military any tendency '~ousurp power or to do
economic system with destructive, unnecessary taxes or anything other than safeguard our freedoms.
to divert so large a proportion of our resources from pro- The men who commanded on land and sea and in the
ductive use so that living standards cannot continue to be air and those whom they commanded, gave new dignity .to
lifted. The cold war is as total as actual war. }t requires not the spirit of America. I resent the implication that these war
military readiness alone but a strategy embracing all fronts, leaders are less able or less willing to discharge their duties
a strategy which rises above the race of selfish groups who in peace. I reject the theory that they think narrowly and
seek to better themselves at the expense of others, even to rigidly in terms of war. I oppose any effort to force them
where it endangers our very government. into secondary citizenship.
To arrive at the proper balance will require painful de- You gentlemen can leave this institution with pride in
cisions by both the military and civilians. With the defense :the training you have received and with greater pride in
establishment a unified strategic concept must be agreed what you symbolize-the ability of ,the American democracy
upon, with expenditures restricted what is absolutely to fuse professional soldiering with a love of liber:ty. If at
needed-not what is wanted or even desired. any time in the future you find yourself being called a
On the part of the civilians, there must be an end to pre- "brass hat" take it as a compliment. I would be proud to be
vailing indecisions. An over-all global strategy for prolonged known as one.

Long-range military policy must interpreted by men

with missions, trained and equipped to perform them. Civilians must
set the policy, but they \vill continue to rely upon their trusted mili-
tary advisers for the practical applications. Without sacrificing any
of the economies or progress which can be opened by modem research
and invention, some down-to-earth readiness must be the foundation
of our present plans. This is our most pressing military problem.
Colonel Win. J. McCarthy, Commanding, 12th AAA Group
Lt. Colonel Calvin L. Partin, Commanding, 19th AAA Group

?2ews and Comment Colonel Arthur H. Bender

Lt. Colonel Laurence W. Cummings
l' l' f

Buildings at Bliss Named For 6 AAA \X1ar Dead

Principal Commanders and Staff Officers of the Antiair
craft Artillery and Guided Missile Center at Fort Bliss t>.lemorial Dav observances at Fort Bliss were climaxed
28 June 1949 with special se~ices in which six permanent buildings in
the Antiaircraft Artillerv and Guided Missiles Branch, The
Major General John L. Homer* Commanding Artillerv School area of the Post were formall\' named for
Colonel Bryon L. Milburn Chief of Stoff and dedicated to the memorv of six antiaircrafr'artillervrnen
Lt. Colonel Robert B. Borry, Jr Deputy Chief of Stoff who gave their lives in servi~e during \Vorld \Var II. '
Lt. C%nel Lovell I. Cooley Asst. CIS, G-1 Buildings named and the heroes whom they commem-
Captain Ado/ph Serfin Asst. CIS, G-2
Colonel Daniel W. Hickey Asst. CIS, G-3
orate are: Sylvester Hall for Ist Lieutenant \\Tilliam G.
Lt. Colonel Lincoln A. Simon Asst. CIS, G-4 Sylvester; McNeely Hall for Colonel O. D. i\IcNeely;
Colonel Granger Anderson Asst. CIS, G-5 BJndcr Hall for Chief \Varrant Officer t>.lorris Bander;
Colonel James W. Ross Adjutant General Brady Hall for 1st Sergeant Dewey G. Brady; Cooper Hall
Lt. Colonel William J. Wuest Deputy Post Commander for Captain Robert G. Cooper; and Breitung Hall for Lt.
Colonel Arnold D. Amoroso Inspector General
C%nel Frederick A. Word Quartermaster Colonel H. E. C. Breitung.
Lt. Colonel Lewis G. Bolt Special Service Officer DeJiC:<ltoryservices opened at 9: 30 A.M. on Noel Field
Colonel Nelson A. Myll Surgeon with ~\'lajor Genera] John L. Homer, Commanding General
Lt. Colonel Charles Malumphy Chaplain of the Antiaircraft Artillerv and Guided Missile Center
Major George Burgett Engineer and Fort Bliss making th~ principal dedication address.
Lt. Colonel George W. Durham Fiscal Officer
Major William W. Wipf Judge Advocate Later brief- dedicatory services were held at the individual
Major Edward W. Corcoran Provost Marshal buildings. A bronze memorial plaque to the honored dead
Major Lloyd H. Briggs Transportation Officer was unveiled at each building by the next of kin. In the
Major Stanley S. Ehresman Signal Officer case of Bander Hall, the ne:xt of kin not being present, the
Lt. Colonel Arthur Barratt Ordnance Officer plaque was unveiled by Brigadier General Charles E. Hart,
Captain Herbert Hampton Public Information Officer
A5sistant Commandant of the School. After the unveiling,
ANTIAIRCRAFT AND GUIDED MISSILE BRANCH, the senior officer of each building accepted its custody.
ReTatives of the honored artillerymen who were present
Brigadier General Charles E. Hart .. Assistant Commandant
Colonel John H. Madison Director of Instruction
for the ceremonies included: Mrs. Robert C. Anderson of
Major Charles Jeffrey Secretory Bakersfield, California, mother of 1st Lieutenant Sylvester
Major Daniel B. Williams Registrar and ivlr. Anderson; Mrs. McNeely, mother of Co]onel Mc-
Lt. Colonel Charles F. Heasty Director of Administration Neely, and Mr. and Mrs. vVilliam R. McNeely, brother and
Colonel Laurence W. Bartlett Director, Gunnery Dept. sister-in-]aw, all of Enid, Oklahoma; Mrs. Gussie B. Hunter
Colonel Robin B. Pape Director, TP & A Dept.
Colonel Ernest B. Thompson , Director, Tactics Dept. of Plainview, Texas, sister of 1st Sergeant Brady; Mrs. ana
Colonel John A. Sawyer , Director, Electronics Dept. Gibson Cooper, mother of Captain Cooper, of Chevy Chase,
Lt. Colonel Russell O. Utke Director, Res. & Anal. Dept. Maryland; and Mrs. Lethe Breitung, wife of Lt. Colonel
Lt. Col. Laurence W. Byers .. Director, Guided Missile Dept. Breitung, and her daughter from San Francisco, California.
Commander Keith E. Taylor Senior Naval Instructor, The dedication ceremonies preceded the traditional me-
GM Deportment
moria] services at the Fort Bliss National Cemetery in which
Colonel Charles E. Shepherd Deputy President the dead of all wars were honored. Fort Bliss personnel co-
Lt. Colonel Francis M. McGoldrick Executive operated with veterans' organizations and civic groups from
Colonel Ovid T. Forman Director, AASTS EI Paso, Texas, in the Cemetery memoria] program ..
Lt. Colonel Maxwell A. Tincher Director, GMSTS
31st AAA BRIGADE: f l' l'

Brigadier General Frederic L. Hoyden Commanding

Lt. Colonel Peter Schmick ., Executive GM Regiment Fires First Rocket
Colonel Andrew Samuels .. Commanding, 5th AAA Group
Colonel William H. Hennig, Commanding, 10th AAA Group The first guided missile to be fired by a tactical unit of the
Lt. Col. Henry G. McFeely, Commanding, 11th AAA' Group United States Army was launched at \Vhite Sands Proving
34th AAA BRIGADE: Ground, New MexicQ, at II :OS A.M., Monday, April 9,
Brigadier General Paul W. Rutledge Commanding 1949.
Colone! William McNamee Executive This missile was of a type similar to the \VAC CORPO-
Colonel William McFadden, Commanding, 68th AAA Group RAL rocket used in the record-shattering 2S0-mile-high
Lt. Colonel Lloyd Corkan .. Commanding, 80th AAA Group
flight made by a two-stage rocket last February. It is the first
Colonel Harry R. Boyd .... Commanding, 22nd AAA Group
missile of severa] types to be fired in a program designed to
Brigadier General Robert W. Berry Commanding gain training experience, and for tactical and logistical
Colonel Pierre B. Denson Executive experimentation.
The rocket was fired by personnel of the 1st Guided i\lis-
"Also Commandant. AA & GM Branch, The Artillery School and President.
AFF Board No.4 .. si]e Regiment, perhaps the most exclusive of present army
58 A0!TIAlRCRAFf JOURNAL July-August
units, since it is the only one of its kind. This unit was or- through the Office of Foreign Liquidation, Ordnance shops
ganized in 1945 as a battalion and was enlarged to regi- in United States-occupied Germany rebuilt nearly 38,000
mental size last year. It has been engaged in assisting Army "ehides and trailers of all types in the two-year period end-
Ordnance and some of the foremost American scientists in ing April 1, 1949.
tests conducted in .connection with research and de\'elop- In addition, some 300,000 tires, 93,000 tubes, and thou-
ment projects, with the purpose of perfecting the guided mis- sands of engines, transmission assemblies, axles, and other
sile as a ,,'eapon, and e},.:ploringupper atmospheric regions. automotive parts and Ordnance supply items were rebuilt,
'f 'f 'f reclaimed, and returned to depot stocks in serviceable con-
dition, according to a report by Brigadier General E. E.
Services Take Part In Civilian Defense MaclVlorland, Chief Ordnance Officer, Headquarters Euro-
A nation-\~'ide Government project for planning civilian pean Command.
defense in the event of war, atomic or otherwise, has been o Contribution of the huge "rebuild" program in support
launched by the National Security Resources Board. of the Berlin Airlift, and its benefits to the German econ-
On orders of President Truman, the acting board chair- omy, are also cited in the report.
man, John R. Steelman, has assigned to the Armed Forces From reserve stocks of tractors, trailers and automotive
and other Government agencies the roles they must develop parts supplied by the program, Ordnance outfits were able
for combating sabotage and for meeting attacks of all kinds to re-equip or replace without delay the more than 1,000
-atomic, chemical, biological, or "conventional." Air Force vehicles and truck-tractors and trucks of seven
Steelman has appointed William A. Gill, director of heavy-truck companies engaged in out-loading at the Rhine-
Mobilization Procedures and Organization for the board, as Main and \Viesbaden fields and off-loading at the Berlin
temporary coordinator for the project. Under a permanent terminus.
setup to be established for defending America's millions, the
entire defense program will be placed under civilian control.
Clark B. Millikan Named Chairman of Guided Missiles
Mr. Steelman revealed that the Government also will un-
dertake later to plan a peacetime disaster relief program for Committee of Research and Development Board
reducing the suffering inHicted by such national scourges as Dr. Karl T. Compton, chairman of the Research and De-
Hoods,fire and disease.• velopment Board, National Military Establishment, an-
The brunt of the planning and training for wartime ci- nounced the appointment of Dr. Clark B. Millikan as chair-
vilian defense will be borne by the Armed Forces, the Fed- man and Fred A. Darwin as executive director of the Board's
eral \A/orks Agency, Federal Security Agency, Atom~c En- Committee on Guided Missiles.
ergy Commission, and the Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, Dr. Millikan, acting director of the Guggenheim Aero-
Treasury and Justice Departments. The AEC is now work- nautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology,
ing on an "atomic weapon effects" handbook for the guid- Pasadena, California, has been a member of the committee
ance of civilian defense officials. since its formation. Dr. Millikan is a lieutenant commander
in the U. S. Naval Reserve, which he joined in 1934.
Mr. Darwin, who will direct the activities of the Com-
New Bazooka Fire Power
mittee Secretariat, has been with the Hazeltine Electronics
A "super bazooka" that will enable the Infantryman "to Corporation, Little Neck, New York since 1946. During
carry by hand the punch of medium artillery," has been de- the war he served as a Naval Reserve Commander in the
veloped by the Army Ordnance Department. Electronics Division of the Bureau of Ships of the Depart-
The new weapon fires a 3.55-inch rocket and has more ment of the Navy.
than twice the power of the World War II model, which
fired a 2.36-inch rocket.
Army Creates Separate Command in Austria

Army Vehicle Rebuilding Program Saves Millions in The Department of the Army announced that the long
Germany considered plan of creating a separate Army Command in
Austria has been approved and placed into effect.
Army Ordnance installations in the United States Zone Since Lieutenant General Geoffrey Keyes has been the
of Germany have rebuilt and reclaimed vehicles, engines, High Commissioner in Austria and John J. McCloy has
tools, tires and miscellaneous machine parts having a total become the High Commissioner in Germany, a separate
estimated original cost of more than $1l0,000,000 in the Army Command in Austria is deemed necessary for the
past two years, the Department of the Army announced. efficient operation of the two offices in their relation to the
Cost of replacing this equipment at present prices is esti- State Department and the Department of the Army.
mated at $220,000,000. Restoration was accomplished at The approximately 9,000 military personnel in Austria
an expenditure of approximately $35,000,000, including will constitute a command separate from the European Com-
$5,250,000 for American materials, and $29,750,000 for mand except for certain logistical and administrative support.
German labor and German materials. The principal change in the status of the Austrian Com 0

Working with stocks of American war materials that mand with respect to the European Command is that
remained in Germany after substantial quantities had been henceforth in purely military matters General Keyes will
shipped back to the United States or transferred to allies deal directly with the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
1949 :NE\VS AND CO~1ME:\1'f 59
New National Guard Units fourth volume of the Army's official history of the war
The following National Guard CAC units have been the Department of the ~y announced. The book, en:
Federally recognized since the last issue of the JOURNAL. titled "Guad~lcanal: the Fir~t O~ensive" \vill make public
for the first tune much matenal hItherto classified secret.
Published by the Government Printing Office at $4 a
~ledical Detachment, lOlst AAA Gun Battalion,
copy, the book MIl harmonize in format and binding with
Batterv "C," 250th AAA Gun Battalion, Moultrie. o.thers"of the published ~y histori~. The first "opera-
tIonal volume and the thIrd III the senes was published last
Batte~ "D," 950th AAA AW Battalion, Toccoa.
January under the title of "Okinawa: the Last Battle." The
Illinois. "
first two volumes were issued last year and dealt with or-
179th AAA Operations Detachment, Chicago.
ganization of Army units.
Battery "C," 138th AAA AW Battalion, Bluffton. "1' l' l'
Battery "D," 138th AAA AW Battalion, Kempton. First of 17-Volume History of AEF Published On
Mississippi. Fourth of July
Battery "D," 115th AAA Gun Battalion, Brookhaven. Pu~lication of. ~ 17-Volume documentary history of the
Oklahoma .• AmerIcan ExpedItIOnary Forces in World War I was initi-
Battery "C," 145th AAA Battalion, Vinita. ated with simultaneous release of the first two volumes on
l' l' l' July 4, by the Department of the Army.
ORC Units Combine CPX with Social at Fort Tilden, Subsequen: volume~ will be released individually at inter-
New York vals of approXImately SIXweeks. Volumes I and II deal with
The 1352d AAA Training Group, ORC, Brooklyn, General Pershing's organization of the AEF, and with
N. Y., commanded by Colonel Julius F. Mercandino, held policy formulation.
a CPX at Fort Tilden, N. Y., 8-9 July. The problem pre- Unlike the Army history of World War II-three volumes
sented was the movement of Group and Group Headquar- of which have already appeared-the preparation of the
ters with the assigned battalions, the 1354th AAA Gun Bn history of the earlier war was undertaken after hostilities
and the 1335th AAA AW Bn (SP), from Fort Tilden to had ended. The series did not get under way until 1939,
Camp Edwards, Mass. when the War Department directed that "complete and ac-
The exercise involved all the elements of an actual move- curate accounts of the participation of the military forces of
ment: preparation of march orders, march graphs, strip the United States in the. World War" be prepared for
maps, etc. The. highlight of the CPX was provided by an publication from official records.
inspection by Major General Lawrence C. Jaynes, Com- l\~any hit.herto unrevealed letters between high Allied
manding General, New York-New Jersey Military District. offiCIalsare mcluded among the selected documents which
The General delivered an informal critique for each of constitute the U.S. ARMY IN THE WORLD WAR, 1917-
the three units participating. At the conclusion of the cri- 1919, as the 17-volume history is titled. These documents
tique, he expressed gratification at the progressive program are presented in such continuity as to afford a broad under-
of the Group and pledged cooperation to the Group Com- standing of day to day developments of World War 1.
mander in improving facilities for the reservists in his area. l' l' l'
Combining the social with the training program, the Uniform NME Pay System Effected July 1
officers' families joined the Group at 1300 for a beach party A uniform pay system for the National Military Establish-
at the Officers' Beach at Fort Tilden. Lockers, beach um- ment which will enable soldiers, sailors and airmen to draw
brellas and chairs were available and the Post NCO Beach their pay promptly anywhere in the world was put into
Club's cafeteria furnished sandwiches and drinks. The effect July 1.
evening's entertainment ended with a buffet supper and Ea~h serviceman's pay da~ centralized on a pay
dance at the Officers' Club. card III the finance office of hIS servIce. He may draw it all,
l' l' l' or draw out only what he needs and let the remainder stay
Unit History Exhibit at N. Y. Library in his "d:awing account" if he so desires. His pay card \viiI
At The New York Public Library, the Independence Day be kept m the local finance office until he is transferred, at
week end began with the opening of an exhibition of which time it will precede him to his new station, so that
World \Var II military unit histories. The Library's collec- his re~rds will be instantly available for use in payment.
tion of material on the activities of the armed forces units is Every SIXmonths a new pay card will be issued, and the old
the largest to be found anywhere in the country. one sent to his service's finance center, where it will be kept
The Library has acquired nearly a thousand unit his.' as a permanent record.
tories. Currently displayed in the Fifth Avenue lobby of Advantages resulting from the new system will be more
the Central Building are Army units, grouped by arm of !1niform pay records and procedures, prompt and accurate
service: Artillery, Infantry, Air Force, Airborne, Armor, payment of personnel regardless of location by the utiliza-
T auks and tank destroyers, and the Service Forces. tion of scientifically designed equipment, and more efficient
l' l' l' adminis~ration of a~lotm~nts. No additional personnel will
Army History of Guadalcanal Published in July be r~qUlred a~d d:sbursmg officers will benefit by a sub-
The United States forces' first assault operation in World st~nt13l reductIOn m paper w~rk. Records and equipment
\Var II, the battle of Guadalcanal, is the subject of the WIllbe more compact, and subJect to greater mobility which

should reduce losses incident to operational casualties in the Of 43,334 general purpose vehicles with a value at
field. \\Torld \Var 11 prices of approximately $78,007,249.00 de-
l' l' l' li,'ered to the National Guard bv the Armv, a total of 34,583
35,000 Vehicles \X7orrh 60 Millions Put Into Shape By valued at $58,986,685.00 had 'been rep~ired and were in
Guardsmen training use by National Guardsmen on 1\ larch 1. The
Approximately 35,000 cargo and personnel transpon ve- remainder is being put into shape.
hicles with a value of about $60,000,000 have been repaired The equipment was requested and accepted by the Guard
or put into usable condition by the National Guard and are in NRFI (not ready for issue) condition and ranged from
now being used in armory and field training. new partially assembled vehicles in crates to \Vorld \Var 11
The task was accomplished by personnel of the 61 Na- equipment in varying need of repair. This materiel was
tional Guard State 1\laintenance Shops who are also mem- inspected prior to its acceptance to determine in turn the
bers of the Guard. Guard's capability to effect repair.


Colonel John I. Hincke, CAC, graduated from the Lieutenant Commander J. P. Field was graduated from
U.S.M.A. in 1924. During \"orld 'War 11, he served as Millsaps ('--ollege,Jackson, Mississippi, with B.S. in Chem-
executive officer, Tenth Army, in the South Pacific. At istry. Served as Gunnery Officer, Executive Officer, and
present he is PMS& T at the U~iversity of Pittsburgh. Commanding Officer of destroyers during the war. At-
tended U. S. Naval Academy Post Graduate School and
l' l' l'
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Ordnance Engineering
A graduate of the Naval Academy in 1940, Lieutenant (Jet Propulsion) Course, receiving M.S. degree. Has been
Commander Seim served in South American, \iVest Indian, stationed at the Applied Physics Laboratory, The Johns
and Pacific waters before "'orId \Var 11. He was assistant Hopkins University for 18 months. Now commanding
gunnery officer of the U.S.S. Independence when she was USS Burdo (APD 133).
torpedoed in the Tarawa campaign, and subsequently was
l' l' l'
gunnery officer on the staff of Commander Carrier Division
Major V. B. Cagle was graduated from Mississippi State
4 and 5 in Task Force 38. After Japan's surrender he served
College in 1929 with B.S. in Mechanical Engineering. He is
in the \"estern Pacific, Philippines, China, and Japan, and
a graduate of the Adjutant General's School, Associate Basic
is now on duty in the Office of the Chief of Naval Opera-
AAA Course, Associate Basic Seacoast Artillery Course, As-
tions, Navy Department, \Vashington, D. C.
sociate Advance AAA Course and the Command and Gen-
eral Staff College. Major ~agle is now en route to Yoko-
Lt. Col. Floyd A. Lambert, USAF, is assigned to duty hama, Japan.
with the Operations Division, Directorate of Plans and l' l' l'
Operations, Headquarters, United States Air Force, Wash- Captain Peter B. Genero, CAC, is serving at Fort Bliss,
ington, D. C. He is one of the "old-timers" in the radar Texas, where he has entered upon a competitive tour of
field receiving his Reserve Commission in the Signal Corps extended active duty. Throughout his service, his experi-
upon graduation from Texas A&M College in 1938. ence has been with troops.
DA and AF Special Orders Covering May 1 through
June 30, 1949. Promocions and Demotions not included.
COLo:-:ns Linderger, Lawrence W'., to First Army 1100th McCracken, Reed J., to 4054th ASU AA and
ASU New England Mil Dist Army Base, &s- GM Br, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Armstrong, Marvil G., to AGO, Washington, ton, Mass.
DC. McElligott, Joseph P., to 4404th ASU N Mex.
McCumber, James B., to Far East Comd, Y oko. NG, Santa Fe, N Mex.
Badger, George M., to ret fr active ser. hama Japan.
Cardwell, Eugene F., to 4{)52d ASU AAA and Materi, Joseph T., to 5447th ASU ROTC, Wash.
May, Metticus, to Stu Det Hq Third Army, FI. ington Univ, SI. Louis, Mo.
GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. McPherson, Ga.
Cowen, Edward G., to 3441st ASU Cp Gordon, Mathes, Edward S., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
Nelson, John G., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, hama, Japan.
Daneker, John L., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Japan. Mellett, Earle c., to Div of Fin, Washington,
O'Malley, Charles S., to Far East Comd, Yoko- DC.
Japan. hama, Japan.
Edwards, Parmer W'., to US Army Europe, Brem. Miner, Ralph E., to 4051st ASU Stu Det Arty
Partin, Calvin L., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Sch, Ft. Sill, Okla.
erhaven, Germany. Japan.
Evans William D., to AGO, Washington, DC. Norris, Robinson R., to Stu Det Hq First Army,
Piram, Joseph S., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Governors Island, NY.
Feath~rston, John H., to Ryul...l'uS Comd, Oki. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
nawa. Paciorek, Stanley)., to Far East Comd, Yoko.
Priest, Perry B., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, hama, Japan.
Flory, Lester D., to ret fr active ser. Japan. Pafford, Parnell M., to 1283d ASU ROTC Ford.
Gard, Harold P., to First Army 1204th ASU Ratcliffe, Lamar c., to 4054th ASU AA and GM ham Univ. NY.
NY & NJ Mil Dist, FI. Totten, NY. Br, Fort Bliss, Tex. Pan neck, Theodore W., to 5213th ASU Sr Army
Gleim, Robert F., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Rew, Edward A., to 1242d ASU Off of the Sr Instr Indiana NG, Indianapolis, Ind.
Japan. Instr ORC NY, 90 Church St. NY, 1'0,'1'. Parr, William R., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
Hatch, Melton A., to 5402d ASU ROTC Univ Romlein, John W., to Hq Sixth Army, Presidio Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
of Ill, Urbana, III. of San Francisco, Calif. Perry, Ben W., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Hewett, Hobart, to US Army Pacific, Ft. Shafter, Steele, Preston, to Stu Det Third Army, FI. Japan.
TH. McPherson, Ga. Reed, Henry M., to US Army Alaska, Ft. Rich-
Jacobs, James P., to 5260th ASU S Dak Sr A Underwood, George V., to US Army Alaska, Ft. ardson, Alaska.
Instr ORC, Sioux Falls, S Dakota. Richardson, Alaska. Roberts, Sam A., to 5043d ASU ROTC Ga Sch of
McCarthy, William J., to 4052d ASU AAA and Vestal, W'illiam M., to First Army Stu Det Gov- Tech, Atlanta, Ga.
GM Cen, FI. Bliss, Tex. ernors Island, NY. Robinson, John L., to 4051st ASU Arty Sch, FI.
Shepherd, Charles E., to 4053d ASU AFF Bd No Zeller, Frank J., to US Army Europe, Bremer- Sill, Okla.
4, Ft. Bliss, Tex. haven, Germany .. Shoss, Morris L., to Stu Det Sixth Army, Presidio
Smith, Donald H., to Marianas-Bonins Comd,
of an Francisco, Calif.
Guam, Marianas. MAJORS
Smith, Eugene, to 6601st ASU Calif NG Gp,
Aber, John E., to Hq First Army Governors Sacramento, Calif.
LIEUTENANT COLONELS Island, NY. Smith, Vallard c., to 4053d ASU AFF Bd No 4,
Ashley, Charles M., to 4052d ASU AAA and FI. Bliss, Tex.
Abrahams, Rolland S., to Far East Comd, Y oko.
GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Stabler, Joseph P., to 4054th ASU AA & GM Br,
hama, Japan.
Baer, Joseph c., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Andrews, Charles L., to Far East Comd, Yoko.
Cen, FI. Bliss, Tex. Toomey, Rex F., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
hama, Japan.
Barker, Troy A., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Cen, FI. Bliss, Tex. '
Ashman, Alfred, to Stu Det Hq MDW, Wash.
Japan. Treadway, Joseph E., to Stu Det Hq Sixth Army,
ington, DC.
Bayer, Kenneth H., to 4054th ASU AA & GM Governors Island, NY.
Ashworth, Edward T., to 4052d ASU AAA and Br TAS, FI. Bliss, Tex.
GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Trussell, John B. B., to Stu Det Hq First Army,
Boggs, Kenneth L., to 1202d ASU Rctg Det No Governors Island, NY.
Baker, Philip I., to 1272d ASU Off of the Sr 3, Burlington, VI. .
Instr NG for NY, 270 Broadway NY, NY. Tubb, Hubert D., to US Army Forces Antilles,
Bruns, Stockton D., to 1273d ASU NG Instr for San Juan, PRo
Blumenfeld, Charles H., to 4052d ASU AAA NJ, Trenton, N).
and GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Walmer, Richard, to Ryukyus Comd, Okinawa.
Byrd, Cohen B., to 4053d ASU AFF Bd No 4, Young, Claude c., to Stu Det Hq Second Army,
Brassel, Alfred L., to Stu Det Hq MDW, Wash. Ft. Bliss, Tex.
ington, DC. FI. Geo G. Meade, Md.
Cagle, Virgil B., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Brown, Spencer A., to 2506th ASU Ohio NG
Instr, FI. Hayes, Columbus, Ohio.
Chotas, Matthew E., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Adcox, George E., to 3263d ASU ROTC Fla
Douglas, Marvin B., to Second Army 2502d ASU hama, Japan.
Penn NG Instr, Indiantown Gap, Pa. A&M College, Tallahassee, Fla.
Doyle, Joseph H., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Baray, Albert A., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
Dows, Samuel R., to First Army l108th ASU, Japan.
Ft. Adams, Newport, RI. Cen, FI. Bliss, Tex.
Elliott, Glenn P., to Ryukyus Comd, Okinawa.
Dunham, Charles E., to 4052d ASU AAA and Betts, George, to CIC Cen, Cp Holabird, Md.
Epley, Albert D., to Stu Det Hq Second Army, Bigger, Walter K., to US Army Caribbean
GM Cen, FI. Bliss, Tex.
Ft. Geo G. Meade, Md.
Durschnitt, Samuel, to US Army Antilles, San Quarry Heights, CZ.
Evans, John E., to 2327th ASU Off ORC Instr for Blashill, Norman G., to Far East Comd, Yoko.
Juan, PRo
Conn, Hartford, Conn. hama, Japan.
Farren, James H., to 1156th ASU Off of the Sr Flint, Brilsford P., to Stu Det Hq Sixth Army
Instr NG Conn, 360 Broad SI. Hartford, Conn. Boardman, Dumas H., to Stu Det Arty Sch, FI.
Presidio of San Francisco, Calif. Sill, Okla.
Fisk, Wallace S., to OC of S, Washington, DC. Gildart, William )., to Far East Comd, Yoko. Boller, Quellen D., to 4054th ASU AA & GM
Gilbert Charles M., to Stu Det Hq First Army, hama, Japan.
Br, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Governors Island, NY. Glock, Robert W., to Div of Fin, Washington, Buchanan, Russell B., to Stu Det Second Army,
Grendon, Alexander, to Stu Det Hq Sixth Army, DC.
Ft. Gee G. Meade, Md.
Presidio of San Francisco, Calif. Haviland, Morris E., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Cassell, Robert S., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
Hamelin, Rolland W., to Stu Det Hq First Army, hama, Japan.
Cen, FI. Bliss, Tex.
Governors Island, NY. Johnson, Charlie W., to 3340th ASU III ORC Chilton, Paul G., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
Hampton, William A., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Gp, Chicago, III. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
hama, Japan. Lash, Eugene L., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Japan. Connor, Robert G., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Hart, John E., to Stu Det Hq First Army, Gover- Japan.
nors Island, NY. Lake, Gerald A., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Japan. Dinapoli, Edward B., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
Hudiburg, Howard B., to Army Comd Joint Lanpher, Rollin A., to Far East Comd, Yoko- hama, Japan.
Long Range Pr Gr, Banana River Naval Air hama, Japan. Duke, Thomas A., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
Sta, Cocoa, Fla. Japan.
Lee, Daniel R., to Ryukyus Comd, Okinawa.
Johnson, Bruce H., to 6705th ASU Org ORC Ledbetter, William R., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Finley, William Z., to US Army Caribbean,
Instr Gp, Portland, Org. hama, Japan. Quarry Heights, CZ.
Jordan, Ralph E., to Stu Det Hq Sixth Army, Limberg, Earl W., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Fordyce, Lester J., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
Presidio of San Francisco, Calif. Japan. Cen, FI. Bliss, Tex.
Kemper, Wilmer G., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Linn, Lavon P., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Foster, Jack W., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
hama, Japan. Japan. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Gerome, George W., to 4054th ASU AAA and Reay, Joseph R., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Hall, Thomas J., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
GM Br, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Ceo, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Gilman, Bernard A., to 1202d ASU Det No 1, Shook, Theodore, to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Hickey, Edward ]., to 4054th ASU Stu Det AM
Syracuse, NY. Japan. and GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Hall, James M., to Stu Det Army Lang Sch, Sullinger, CarlO., to Office of the Political Ad- Hoffman, August A., to Far East Comd, Yoka-
Presidio of Monterey, Calif. viser, Frankfurt, Germany. hama, Japan.
Hampton, Herbert B., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Smith, Gerald W., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Jess, James R., to US Army Caribbean, Quarry
hama, Japan. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Heights,a.
Holmes, Robert .M., to OMA, Ankara, Turkey. Smith, James 1., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Jones, Edward W., to 4054th ASU AAA and GM
Jacobs, Harold ]., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Japan. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Spence, Laurence A., to First Army New Haven Kelley, Paul A., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
James, Harry M., to 4054th ASU Stu Det AAA R.ctgDet No 3, New Haven, Conn. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
and GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. St. Ours, Frederick E., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Lindgren, Elmer A., to 4052d ASU AAA and
Johnson, Ralph 1., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, hama, Japan. GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Japan. Surum, Henry, to US Army Forces Antilles, San Lindstrom, William R., to US Army Caribbean
Jones, Philip I., to 109th CIC Det, Ft. Geo G. Juan, PRo Quarry Heights, a. '
Meade, Md. Vandervort, Charles E., to 4052d ASU AAA and Logan, Mehl M., to US Army Caribbean, Quarry
Keogh, William T., to Stu Det Hq Sixth Army, GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Heights,a.
Presidio of San Francisco, Calif. Ward, John ]., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, McDonald, Theodore, to 4052d ASU AAA and
Klein, Patrick L., to 2034th ASU Virginia Mil Japan. GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Dist, Richmond, Va. Weaver, Richard W., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Mecartea, Louis J., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
l.eachman, Thomas E., to Ryukyus Comd, Oki- hama, Japan. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
nawa. Wickert, Howard T., to 4051st ASU Stu Det Melanson, Joseph E., to 4054th ASU AA and
l.ockyer, Robert H., to US Army Alaska, Ft. TAS, Ft. Sill, Okla. GM Br TAS, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Richardson, Alaska. Young, James W., to 4054th ASU Stu Det AAA Monroe, Harry J., to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
l.opez, Raymond A., to 10th CIC Det Fifth Army, and GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Japan.
Ft. Rilev, Kans. Noakes, Ray W., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
McCarty, George, to 4052d ASU AAA and GM FIRST LIEUTENANTS Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Adkins, Clodeon, to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Osborn, Preston H., to 4052d ASU AAA and
McCoy, John P., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Japan. GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Allison, Paul W., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Phillips, Robert N., to US Army Alaska, Ft. Rich-
McGovern, James F., to 5205th ASU Off of the Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. ardson, Alaska.
Sr Instr Mich NG, Lansing, Mich. Armstrong, Rodney M., to New York POE, Piserchia, Joseph, to Far East Comd, Yokohama,
McKenna, John]., to OC of S, Washington, DC. Brooklyn, NY. Japan.
McMorrow, Leslie P., to 7071st ASU, Ft. Belvoir, Baldwin, Broeck W., to 4052d ASU AAA and Richman, Murray 1., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
Va GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. hama, Japan.
Massingill, James H., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Bennett, Hyman, to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Ryan, Stanley T., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
hama, Japan. Japan. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Maykovich, John ]., to 4054th ASU Stu Det Boone, Daniel 1., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Sage, Alfred E., to Stu Det Army Lang Seh,
AAA and GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Japan. Presidio of San Francisco, Calif.
Miller, James 1., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Brown, Vivian
to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Smith, George A., to CIC Cen, Cp Holabird, Md.
Stright, Robert M., to 4119th ASU White Sands
Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Moore, David ]., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Canellos Peter J., to Stu Det Lang Seh, Presidio Proving Ground, Las Cruces, N Mex.
Japan. of Monterey, Calif. Thomas, Frank ]., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
Mosner, Kenneth A., to 4052d ASU AAA and Childs, Clyde F., ,to 502d AAA Gn Bn, Ft. Bliss, Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Tex. Varney, Roderic A., to US Army Caribbean,
Neill, Harold A., to OMA, Damascus, Syria. Constantine, Walter ]., to 4052d ASU AAA and Quarry Heights, a.
Okert, Fred H., -to Sixth Army 6502d ASU, Ft. GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Vasil, Leon N., to US Army Caribbean, Quarry
MacArthur, Calif. Heights, a.
Pashley, WaIter A., to 4052d ASU AAA and Darling, Byron P., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Wells, Edmund 1., to US Army Caribbean,
GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Japan. Quarry Heights, a.
Perrine, Kenneth I., to 4052d ASU AAA and Dick, Arthur J., to 4054th ASU Stu Det AAA Wightman, Joseph W., to Far East Comd, Yoko-
GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. and GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. hama, Japan.
Pinkham, Walter R., to 111th CIC Det Third Gallimoto, Michael R., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Williamson, Robert N., to 4052d ASU AAA and
Army, Ft. McPherson, Ga. hama, Japan. GM Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
Profita, Vincent, to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Gentille, Paul J., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
Cen, Ft Bliss, Tex. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex. SECOND LIEUTENANTS
Pruett, Lloyd 0., to Far East Comd, Yokohama, Giammarco, Dante A., to Far East Comd, Yoko- Howe, Marion T., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM
Japan. hama, Japan. Cen, Ft. Bliss, Tex.
:Ream, Ellis A.. to 4051st ASU Stu Det Arty Sch, Gillespie, John W., to 4052d ASU AAA and GM Keeling, William 0., to Grd Gen Sch, Ft. Riley,
Ft. Sill, Okla. Cen, Ft. Bliss, TeJ;;. Kans.

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OKINAWA: THE LAST BATTLE. B,' aration of an authentic narrative was even concerning matters that were once
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For sale by Superintendent of Docu- one of the most sa,'age encounters in supply, military government of the ci,.iJ-
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This book is the first of the combat total war e:-.:perience of the Americans. treated. Because of the limited terrain
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PRACTICAL. Rube Goldberg had no part in its

* design.
INDISPENSABLE because a good easel is necessary
for conducting many types of conferences and

* meetings.
TIME SA VER because it puts an end to improvisa-

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