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C A M B R ID G E U N IV E RS I T Y P RES S

C . F . C L A Y, M A N A G E R

L O N D ON F E TT E R L A N E, E C 4 . .

NE WY O R K T H E M A C M I L L A N C O .

B O M B AY
CA L C UT T A M AC M I LLA N AN D C O L .
, T D .

M AD RAS
T O RO NT O T H E M AC M I LL N C O O F A .

CAN A D A L , T D .

T O KYO M A RUZ E N K A B U S H I K I K A I S H A
: - -

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11 . 1 3 851 458 .
T HE O WL
A ND

T H E N I G HT I N G A L E
E D IT E D WIT H I N T RO D U C T I O N , T E X T S,
N O T E S, T RA N SL A T IO N A N D G L O SSA RY

BY

J . WH . M A . A T K I N S, . .
,

R E EL R O E SS O R E N L I S H L N
ND P F OF E N LI T ER T RE I ERSI T
G A G U AG A D A U , UN V Y C O LLE E G
OF W LE S E R S TW T H S O M E T I M E ELL O W
A , AB Y Y .
JO H S O E E F O F ST N

C LL G , CA M B RI EDG

M es n il
a fable d c fo lie
11 i1 ne n ait il
p h o so phc i
Ma rie de Fr nc
a e,
'
Tsopet, P ro ] . 2
3 4 .

CA M B RID G E
AT T HE U N I V E RSI T Y P RE SS
1 92 2
P REF A C E

H I S e di t i on of T he Ow l and the N ig hting ale is m ain l y

bas e d u pon t he w o rk s u b mi tte d as a F e ll ows hi p d isse rta


t i on at St J o h n s Colleg e C am

, b ri d g e som
,
e y e ars a o and sin c e
g ,

l ai d asi d e for var iou s reas ons In t he m . ean t i m e th e


p oe m h a s

re ce i ve d c onsi d e rab l e at t e nt i on m , or e es e ciall


p y a t t he h a n d s
of Am e ri can and G e r m an s ch ol ars . U s e ful e d i t i ons h av e
appe ar e d by W e ll s and G ad o w : fu rt h e r lig h t h as fr omt i m e

to tim e b e e n t h r o wn u pon d ar k p l ac e s in t h e t ext and :

al t o g e t h e r it m a safe l y be s ai d t h at t h e p oe m t o d a is be t t e r
y y
-

un d e rs tood t h an e v e r B ut it is e qu ally tr u e to say t h at mu ch


.

re m ain s t o be d o n e . T h e re are m an y d espe rate p l aces in


th e t e x t s awai t in g s o lu t i on b e si d e s d i fc ul t i e s c onn e c t e d wi t h
,

al m os t e v e ry as p e c t o f t h e w or k : and i t is in t h e h op e o f

c l e arin g u p som e of t h e s e d i fc ul t i e s t h at t h e p re s e n t e d i t i on

has at l e n gt h b e e n u n d e rt ak e n .

As t o t he met h od s e m pl oy e d in t h is e d i t i on it may at on ce
,

be sai d t h at t he m ain e ff o rt h as b e e n c o n c e n t rat e d u po n


p ro

vid ing a r e l i ab l e t e x t : and h e r e t h e a cc u r at e w o r k o f W e ll s

has b e e n of c on si d e rab l e assi stan c e t h o u gh it m


, ,
u st al so be
add e d , b ot h M SS h av e bee n c are fully and in d e pe n d e n t ly
.

e x am in e d T h u s t he t w o v e rsi on s h av e b ee n g i v e n as the
.

si mp l est w ay o f p r ovi d in g all t he avai l ab l e d at a : t he t e x ts


are r e p re se n t e d s u b stan t i all y as t h e y s t an d : a ll d e pa rt u r e s

fro mt he M S r eadi n g s h av e b e e n car e fully n ot e d : w h i l e t he


.

em e n d e d for m s h ave b e e n in d i c at e d by b e in g p l ac e d in squ are


b rack e t s As for t he e me n d at i ons t h e m
. se l v e s t h e y are con
,

c e rn e d for t he m o s t p ar t wi t h t h e C te x t as b e in g t h
.
,
e e arl i e r

and m o r e c ons e r v at i v e o f t he t w o c op i e s : but w h i l e t h i s C t e x t .

t h us b e c om es t h e m ain s u b e c t o f s t ud y t h
j , e J v e rsi on wi ll be
.

fo u n d u s e ful for p u rpo s es o f c oll at i o n and c o m pari son I n the .


vi

s e c on d p l ac e t he e m,
e n d at i ons are m ad e m ain l y in cas e s w h e r e

s c ri b al e rror may be s u sp e c t e d on p al ae o g rap h i c al g ro u n d s ;


so t h at al l ch an g e s aim at r e st o r in g e i t h e r t h e w or d in g or t h e

r am m at i c al c on st r u c t i o n o f t he o r i g in al N o at t e m p t ism ad e
g .

at o b t ainin g a n or m al i se d sp e ll in g T he t w o o r t h og r ap h i e s o f
.

C and t he l at e r s p e ll in g s o f J t he F r e n ch sc ri b al fo r m
.
,
s and ,

t he n u m e r o u s v ar i an t s fo u n d in one and t h e s am e t e x t h av e

all be e n all o w e d t o st an d : for all su ch form s h av e t h e i r


h i st ori cal v alu e T h ey are l an d mark s (
.

in sp i t e o f D ry d e n )
so s ac r e d as n e v e r t o be r e m

ov e d I n cer tain se cti ons of C


. .
,

it is t r u e t h e r e are r e as ons for s u s p e c t in g t he or i g in al sp e ll in g


,

t o h av e bee n p re se rv e d B ut t o n o rm . al is e t h e s p e ll in g on

t h os e l in e s w o uld h av e be e n t oo h az ar d o u s a v e n t u r e : and it

has fo r m e d no p ar t o f t h e p re s e n t e d i t i o n .

T h e n ag ain t he in t e rp r e tat i on of t he t e x t has be en


, ,

at t e m pt e d in a s ome w h at wi d e se nse Efforts h ave n at u rall y .

be e n m ad e t o d e al wi t h d i fc ul t i es o f a v e rbal k in d : and it

is h op e d t h at s olu t i ons h av e b ee n fo u n d for m o s t if not all o f, ,

th e e x is t in g ob s c u ri t i e s n o t ab l y in t h
, e em e n d at i ons p r op os e d

l n 1 1 6 51. 7 48 991 1 3 1 92 0 1 3 2 2 1 400 1 58 6 and in t he


, , , , , , ,

exp l an at i ons g i v e n o f 1 1 42 7 8 81 6 1 1 2 8 1 2 06 1 2 3 0 1 7 54
.
, , , , , .

B ut t he tas k of in t e r p r e tat i on has b ee n t ak e n t o m e an s om e

t h in g m or e t h an t h is t h o u gh no at t e m p t has be e n m ad e t o

d e al sy s t e m at i call y wi t h t h e p h ono l o g y o f t h e p oe m a t as k
al r e ad y p e r for m e d by W e ll s and o t h e r s T he aimhas rat h e r
.

bee n t o d e al wi t h t he p oe mas a p i e ce of l i t e rary art illustrat ive ,

of t h e c ul t u r e o f t h e ag e t h at p r o du c e d it : and an at t e m p t has
t h e r e for e be en m ad e t o V i e w t h e p oe m in it s h is tori c al se t t in g
and t o r e g ar d it as a h u m
,

an d o c u m e n t o f it s ow n p ar t i c ul ar a e
g .

An d in t h is w ay it is be l i e v e d s ome fres h re s ul t s h av e b e e n
, ,

o b t ain e d A par t fr omthe qu est i on o f au t h ors h i p w h i ch m


. u st
s t i ll remain a d ebatabl e p oin t fre s h l i gh t has b ee n t h ro wn
,

upo n t h e g e n e ral si g ni c an c e o f t h e p o e mb a d e t ai l e d in
y
ve st i at ion o f it s s o u r c e s it s fo r mand it s t h e m and t h e s e
g , e

r e s ul ts are no t wit h ou t t h e i r be arin g o n t he in te ll e c t u al


vii

c ti v i t i es o f t he ag e I f as m a t r ul y be sai d so m e k n ow l e d g e
a y .
, ,

o f co n t e m p orary c o n d i t i ons is nee d e d for an in te ll i ge n t re ad in g


of t h e poe mit is e u all y t r u e t o say t h at t h e po e mint e lli
, q ,

g en tly read is c ap ab l e in its t u rn of add in g to our kn owl e d g e


,

o f t h ose c on d i t i on s by its r e e c t i o n fro mne w an g l e s o f t h


, e

s oc i al and in te ll e c t u al l i fe o f t he t i me s An d t h at a mor e .

ad e qu ate app r e c i at i o n of t h e in t e ll e c t u al a c t i v i t i e s o f t h at

pe ri od is one of t he d esid er ata of En g l is h s t ud i e s at t he


p re sen t t i m e is I v e n t u r e t o t h in k a s t at e m
, ,
e n t t h at wi ll,

scarc e l y be d e nie d .

I t now re m ain s for m e t o r e c o r d m obl i g at i ons t o v ar i o u s


y
s ch ol ars w h ,
o fr om ti m e to t i m e and in d i ff e r e n t way s h av e

assiste d in t h e p r e p arat i o n o f t h is w ork To m y old Cam .

b ri d g e t each e rs t he l ate P rofe ss or W W S keat S i r I srae l . .


,

Go a ll n c z a d
n P r o fe sso r H M C h ad w i c k .I wis h in t he rs t
.

p l ac e t o ackn ow l e d g e m y d e e p in d e bt e d n e ss T o t h e m I o w e .

no t on l y an e ar l i e r t rainin g but t h e g u i d an ce and t he


,

st i m ulu s w h i ch only g e n e ro u s t each e rs can g i v e : and t h e i r


in u e n c e is s u ch as no l apse o f y e ar s can l e sse n T o P rofess or .

W; P K e r I ow e fu rt h e r mu ch e n c ou rag e m
.
, , , e n t and ins p i ra

t i on . M ore t h an any o th e r l i vin g re p re s en tat i v e o f En g l i sh


s ch ol arsh i p h e h,
as h e l p e d t o br in g l i gh t in t o d ar k c o r n e rs o f

th e l i t e rat u r e of t h e Mi ddl e A g e s : and h is assis t an c e t o m e

has no t be e n c on n e d t o h is w ri t te n w ork My be s t t h an k s .

are al s o d ue t o P r ofe s so r W A C rai g i e o f O x fo r d and Mr G G. . . .

C oul to n of St J oh n s C oll e g e C am
b ri d g e b o t h o f w h omh av e
, ,

been m ost g e n e r o u s in s u pp l y in g in fo r m at i o n an d c ri t i c is m on

po in ts c onn e c te d wi t h t he t e xt s : al so t o m y A b e ry s t w yt h
c oll eag ue s P ro fe ssor An d r B ar b i e r P rofe ss or E B e nsly Mr , .
,

L C J an e P rofe ss o r S Robe rts and P rofe ss or H J Rose


. .
, .
,
. .

wh o h av e c o ns i st e n t l y p l ac e d at m d i sp osal t h e i r wi d e s ch ol ar
y
s h i p and l e arnin g : and ab ov e all t o Mr B r u c e D i ck in s o f t he
Uni v e rsi ty o f Ed in b u r gh w ho has b ee n g ood e n ou gh t o r ead
,

t h rou gh t h e b oo k in p r oof and w h ose c ri t i c is m and s u


, gg e s

t i ons h av e bee n of a m o s t v alu abl e kin d T h e re ye t re m ain s .


viii

t o be mn t i e ned
o my in d
d n e ss t o Mr J B all in g e r C h i e f
ebt e .
,

L i b rari an of t he N ati on al Li b rary o f W al e s and t o Mr R ,


.

Farqu h ars on Sh arp D ep u t y K e e p e r o f P rint e d B ook s in t he


,
-

B ri ti sh M u s eu m frombo t h o f w h omI h av e r e c e i v e d s u b
,

st ant ial assis t an c e in t h e m att e r o f bo ok s as w e ll as u n fai l in g

c ou rt esy in r e sp onse t o m an y in qu i ri e s .

An d l as tl y I h av e t o t h ank t he S y n d i c s o f the U ni v e rsi ty


, ,

P re ss for u n d e r tak in g t he p ubl i cat i on of t he p oe m and in


W
,

p ar ti cul ar Mr A R all e r for h is g e n e ro u s and jud i c i ou s


, . .
,

ad v i ce on var i o u s p oin t s c o nn e c t e d wi t h t h e w or k and t h e ,

s t aff of t he P re ss for t h e i r ski ll and c onsi d e rat i on s h o w n in


th e ac t u al t as k o f p rin t in g .

J . W H A
. . .

U N I ER S T Y C O G
V I L L E E or WA E L S,

AB RYST WYT H
E

mb
.

D ece er, 1 92 1 .
C ONT ENT S
P AG E

I N T RO D UC T I O N
1 T H E H I ST O R I CA L S ET T I N G OF T HE P O EM
2 T HE MSS . xx i

53 T HE T E X TS
T wo xxv

4 T HE D EO HAT F T E P O EM , / xxx iv
5 T HE A H O R
UT I II
XXX V

x l vn

Iv
lx i

l xx iii
A BBRE V I AT I ON S E MP L OY E D I N T HE N OT E S x ci

T E X TS AN D N OT E S
TR AN S L A T I O N 1 52

B BLI I O G RAP HY 1 82

AP P E ND I CES
I N O T E S N T HE L A N G U A G E OF H C T E T
O T E . X 1 87

II T HE N I G HT I N G L E E P I S O E A D 1 94

H OW FA C O N E A L
.

I I I V E RS I O N S O L AN
F T E D L B E 1 96

I V VER S O N S F H CA
I O N F ox F A L E
T E T A D B 1 99

V NO E ON CORNI F I CI AN
T I 2 00

AD D I T I O NA L N OT E S 202

GL OSSA RY 2 03
I N T ROD U C T I ON

1 . T HE H I ST OR I C AL S E TT I N G OF T HE P O EM
S O M E p i c f l it at u a l w e t h an t h e in c m
e es o er in g t o
re re s o r o rs o

t he i w n and T h Ow l
r o ,
n d th N i g h ti ng al i e u edl y ne fa e e s a ss r o o

th e l w f t d k ind U n t h e d in t h 1 8th c nt u y af te a
s o -
oo e . e ar e e r r

l ng p e iod f n gl ct it w md acce ib l t h ug h th lab u


o r o e e ,
as a e ss e ro e o rs

o f M id V ic to ian c h l -
by t h e nd f t he 1 9t h c ent ury i t
r s o a rs : e o

h d c m t be
a o g d ed
e o a w k f c n id e ab l e l in g ui t ic
re ar as or o o s r s

inte t but it i
re s nl y f l at e y ea
: t h t it s o l v alu ha b gu n o rs a s r ea e s e

to be pp c i t e d and a fai
a re id a f md f it im
a p tan c in re r e or e o s or e

E ng l i h l ite atu Wit h r g a d t o it int in ic v al u ne f t he


s r re e r s r s e, o o

m t c nt timat i p obab ly t h b t I t h b n d c ibe d


.

os re e es es s r e es as ee es r

th m t m t h md ie v al
.

a s

i ac ul u p i c
e os f r o s e e o e e

E ng l i h boo k and t h st at mn t w ill tan d w it h out any so t



s s : e e e s r

o f v t i n B ut a a h u man d c umnt a w ll t h p mi
r e se r a o . s o e s e e oe s

hig hl y ig nicant p c i ll y w h n vi w e d in it p op p p c tiv


s ,
es e a e e s r er e rs e e .

B l nging a it d
e o to a b a
,
s n p i d f u l ite t u
oe s, it h l p r re er o o o r ra re , e s,

f or on t h ing to c e c t ou n ti ns to t h l it y ac t i v it i f
o rre r o o as e e ra r es o

e t im
,

th e I t ugg t f in t nc t hat t he E ng l i h g niu v n


s e s s, or s a e, s e s, e e

c pabl f me t h ing m
.

th n w e ,
as a o th n th O m
e o u lu m so v en re a e r or e

t h B ut t h t t h fabl an d d b ate f m w
e r : a e n t c nn d t o e e or s e re o o e

A ng l L a tin A ng qo- mn w it or an d if w my jud g f m or a r e rs : e a e ro

th t ist ic m i t
e ar f t h w k it i m er o e t h an l ik l y t h t it w a
s o e or s r e a s

p ced ed by ea l i x p imnt w h i c h h av in c b n l st B ut
,

re r er e er e s e s e ee o

t h p oe mha ye t m
.

e g a t e i n t
s e t f d nar ad s i
ren t h at i t r er s or o er e er

f md i v al l ife an d t h u g h t a l i
,

tand f a ph a t h an t h at

m
s s or se o e e o e r er

w h ic h h a be co m fam s il ia i n t h p g ef Ch uc G eat t h ing r e a es o a er r s

W
.

w e re h ppe ni ng in t h 1 2 thand ea l y l
a nt u i Wit h the
e r e r es .

pas ing f t h D k A
s o e M c m
ar e {I t w a th ge o s e a

ll i n w hi c h R o m
I

w hn a n w m
.

ab o v e a an c w a b rn u ic w a e s o : e _ .. e s s

h a d t h ug h ut W te n E u p w h uin w e ula p i it w
e r ro o es r ro e er a e s c r s r as

ch ll e ng ing t h l d el ig i u t ad it i n and t h md i v l g nius


a e o r o s r o ,
e e e a e

w a nd ing x p
s i n in a n w a t a nd n w l ea ning A nd t h e
e ress o e r a e r . se

t h ing a s c te d to m x te nt in T h Ow l nd th Nig hting l


re re e so e e e a e a e

W hat ab v all mak t h t udy of md i v al F nch w k


.

o e es e s e e re or s so

att ac t i v e and p
r fit b l
w ite Ga t n P a i
ro i t h fa c t
a e, so r s s o r s,

s e

1S B ib l i g phy I
ee K
o ra E g li hL i t t u M d i l p 1 81
.
2 er, n s era re e e va , . .

b2
x ii In tr oduction
t h at t h ey re v eal b et t r t h an all h isto ic al d o cument t he
t o us, e r s,

nat u e o fr t h e m a nn e s t he t h o u g h t s a n d r s e n t im e n t s o f o u a n c es r

m
, ,

t o rs 1
a n d t h is i i n t he h ig h e s t se n
s se t r u e o f o u p es e nt p oe r r

I t en able us to see as it w e e into 1 2 th cent u y m


.

s ind s t o l ea n
r r r

m m
, , ,

som et ih n g of t h i h i t l u t l k n d t h i r p b l
e t t e t e e nr a oas o o a
s, e r o e s r .
,

N or can q uit e t he am e e v e lat ion be said t o e x i t anyw h e e e l se


s r s r

in c onte m p o a y E ngli h l it e at u e Am
r r o ng t h
s e st o f t h r e ve r r r

t o app ea af t e r t h N o m an C on q u e st t h is p oe m
.

n acul a w o k r r s r e r ,

al on e ca ries u bac k t o t h
r e b e ginn ing o f t h in gs
s T h e n again it s .
, ,

has al w ay s se e m e d s t ange t h at E n g li sh al one of t h r e l it e at u es o f r r

t he W e st sh ould h a v e fail ed t o r esp on d t o t he e p o ch m ak ing in -

uences of 1 2 t hce nt u y F an c e Y e t if T h Ow l and th N ig h r r ti ng al e e e

be re ad a igh t t h at f ailu re w ould seem t o h a v e bee n m


.

r o e app are n t r

h ow n h ims l f t o be al ive t o t he main


,

t h an e al : if o o u p o t h
r a r r e s s e

ac t i v it ies o f h is ag e an d his w o k is t he E ngl ish c on t ib u tion t o


,
r r

t h g eat E u op ean c on c rt
e r r T he e a in fac t but fe w if any
e r re , , , ,

l ite rary w o k p odu c e d in med ie v al E ng lan d t h at a e bet te


.

r s r r r

w o t h r ead ing t h an T h
r e Ow l a n d th N ig h ting a le W h e th e r w e e .

h a v e in mind it s meri ts as a p iec of a t o t he signic an c e it e r ,


r

p ossesses f o mthe h istori cal p oint f y iew t he p oe mw ill be found


r o

t o c om
,

pare favou abl y w it h the b est t hings d one b y any of Ch auce s


r r

c n t mpo a ie w h il e it has feat u e s w h ich e nd e it u nique in t he


o e r r s, r r r

annal o f o u l i t e at u e
s r r r .

I n app oach ing a w o k o f t h is k ind no ap o l ogy i t h e re f e


r r ,
s or

n e ed e d f o at t e m rp t ing to call t he main f at u es of the age t hat re e r

p od uced it T he h i to ical bac k g ou nd for one t h ing w ill h el p


r s r r

f t he poe m B ut inc e t he
, ,

e m
.

t o b ing o ut t h
r any sid e d int e e st -
r o s

poe mis w it t en da k ly in all ego ic al fash ion t he p esen ce of su c h


.

r r r r

m
, ,

a b ac k
g o u n d r b e c e s a b so l u t l y e sos e n t i a l i n d e ed i t i s d oeu b t fu l :

w het he ap r t f o m h isto i c al
r, a c onsid e at ion an in te ll ige nt
r r r s,

re ad in
g o f t h e p o e m i s p i b l a t a ll I t i s t h e e fo osse p r o p o s
ee d b y r r

o f in t odu c t ion t o m ak e an at te m
.

m
,

wa p t at p l ac ing t h p i n
y r , e o e

it s p p e h ist ic al e tt ing A nd t h at e tt in g w ill be o b taine d


ro r or s . s

n o t w it h E ng l an d onl y as a bac k g o un d but w it h W e ste n E u rop e r r

e 1 2 t han d ea l y 1 3 t h c e n t u ies w it h it c m mon


,

as it w a in t h s r r s o

i nt e ll ec tual l ife it c om mon el igious t hought and t h ose v a i us


,
s r , r o

a c t iv it i in l ite at u e w h ich w e e sh ared in b y all p eo p l e s of t he


es r r r

W est al ik e T o vie w t he w o k as an E ng l i h p odu ct m e e ly i s


r s r r

to m i sm uch f it s m
.
,

s eanin g and v al ue
o F o t he c ivil isat ion of t he r

m
.

1 2 thc e nt u y w as inte rn at ional in k in d a com


r
p n sp i ri t i g n ed : re

1
G P . ari s , L a L i tteratur e f rangaise

an my n ag p
o e e, . 32 .
x iv Intr oduction
n h a gy of t h
w h il e t he C hu ch h u i g i ff t l t h
n o w as t
e e e r
B ut s rg
D a k Ag e a yet mo e moment ous c h ang e w as tak ing pl a c e in the
r s, r

k
aw a e ning o f t h e p p u l a c l a s e To h i m o v e mr e n t w h i c
s s h w a.
s s ,

g e n e a l wr a s t h o u t c o m e i ne p a t o f t h e l a w l e s s n e o f f erud a l c o n ss

m
,

d it io n L o ng su j
s .
b c
e t to e x a c t i n o f t h e o s t u n s c u p u l
o o u ss k in d r ,

t he t o w n o f E u o s p in t h e 1 2 t
r h c e n
e t u y o se u p g a a i n t t h i r r s s

y y F m t h i f u d l l d s t h y c l aim ed e
r e gn
i f t ann o r o e .
e a r o r r

g u a n t
raee a ain st a
g s b i t a r y e x p l o it a t io
r n a rn d i n t h e e n d t h e y :

we e u e s
r cc s f ul i n w sin n in g c t a i n m e a s u r e f au t
a o n o
erm y a s w e ll o ,

om c h h l b i B t h
e og n i t i n f t i i t s a n d i e t e s u t e e w e e r r r
a s s e r o g o e r r

m m
.

ot eh c au e
r at w o
s s k i n t h i s t e mr a n c i p a t i o n o f t h Crso o n e s:

and m o t a c t i v e and p t e nt o f al l w a s t h
s e e c on om
o i c e v o l ut ion of r

t he e p i d w
r o h i c h i v a ll e d i n i t s e rff e c t t h e e c n o m i c d v e l o p m e n t s s o e

of m
,

od n t im e
er W h er v e w l ook in 1 2 th c ent u y E u op e w e
s e r e r r ,

h it h e to w ant ing f c omme cial ent e p ise and l ife


.

n d sig n s, r ,
o r r r .

T he pi it o f t he t im

s r e w as o n e o f a d v n t u e I t w a an ag o f e r . s e

p ilg imag es t he c nt u y of t he C u ad e s A nd w it h t he e v e
r : e r r s r . r

in c e asing int c ou se b e t w e e n t he E ast an d t he W e st n e w m


r er r a ke ts r

e ch an t c l ass w as fo m e d ; w h il e f esh im
,

w e re O p e n d a n e w m e ,
r r r

t u w a a l i v e n t t h e v a iou l o c al in du st ri e
o w h ich n o t o n l y
r s s,
p e s s so g
i n c e ased t h e i out p ut in esp on e t o t he ne w d m
r r r an d but al os e s, s

t ansfo m
r e d t h eir c aft by w h at t h ey had l ea nt f omt he E ast
r r s r r .

T h us I n d u t ry f ll ow e d C m s me ce and the e c onomic v l ut ion


o o r : re o

w as c o m p l t N e ew e e th . e e ffe c t
or sl o w t o a pp e a i n so c ial and
r s r

p ol it ical S p h e e In c ea e d p p it y c h ang d t he l ot of all the


r s . r s ro s er e

me chant t he a t isan an d the se f w h il e a new b gg g is c l ass w as


r r ,
r ,
o eo

fo med w it h an e nt i el y new out l ook on l ife S t ngl y ent en ch e d


,

r r . ro r

in t h e i g uil d s an d in du st ial c or p o at io ns t he t o w n sfo l k p e se n t e d


'

r r r ,
r

a ne w p o b l e m t o t he f ud al l o d of t he ag e and it w as a p o b
r e r s : r

l e mw h ich c ould on l y be s l v d b y t h g ant in g of lib e t ie s and o e e r r

r igh ts I n t h i w ay a n ew fac t o e n t e e d m
. s e d ie v al p ol it i c rand r s:

w it h it t h e w n t a n e w se c ul a sp i it w h i c h w as t o ch ll e nge
re e r r ,
a

aut h g ri t y i n a l l i t s f o m a n d t o o pp o s e th
r e v e y p rin c ip l e s and
s, r

fac t s up on w h ic h t he M iddl e A g es re st ed
I n t he m a si m
.

e ant im e h ow v e il a aw ak e ning n o l e ss im
,
e r, p or r

e t im
,

t ant w as t ak in g p l a c in t he int e ll e c t ual l ife of t h


,
e e and :

ind ee d it i h e e t h at w e n d t he nest f uit of t he 1 2 t hc e nt ury


s r r s

Re na cen ce in t h aw ake ning of t he eason t he g ro w ing f ee dom


s e r , r
_
o f t h o ug h t and i n t h e e v i val f l e arning w h ic h b u g h t in it s
r o ro

o e h um
,

t ain a w id e and a m
r r an e c ul t u e r N o a e t he c au se s o f r r r

M nsm
.

t h e s c h ange s fa t o see k in d s e x p an d e d w it h t he e p an

e r . e x

sio n o f t h e w o rld b ey o nd t h e se as T h ey w e e e nc u age d t o m . ak


e r o r
T he Historical Se tting f
o the P oe m xv

a be ginning f t h ink ing for t h e msel v es a a re sul t f t he ne w l y


o s o

A t t he am e t im
,

a q ui e d l ib e t ies of a po l it i ca l k ind
c r r e too . s , ,

W te n t ho ug h t w a be ing fe til i ed by contac t w it h t h East


es r s r s e .

A abic l re p ou ed in t h o ug h Co nstantin ple S ic il y and Spain


r o r r o :

w h il e f u t h e i nsp i at io n w a d e i v d f o m
, ,

r r t he w o k s o f A rist ot l e
r s r e r r

many of w h ich w e e x po und ed by A v e oe now fo t h t


,

re rr s, r e rs

t im e N . must the act iv it i of ch o l s li k e Cha t es and P a i


or es s o r r r s

be al tog t h fo g otte n no t he w o k f t he ne w l y f und ed


e er r : r r o -
o

U ni v e it ie Bo l og na P a is a nd O x f d in t he ce nt u y w h ic h
rs s r or r

f ll w ed A ll al ik e w re ce nt es w h ic h f te e d or d iss em
,

o o . e i n at e d r os r

t h n e w l a ning and g av e bir t h in d ue c o u e t o 1 3 t h ce n t u y


e e r rs r

Sc h ol a t ic i m A f t he e ul ts of t h is g eat mo v eme nt t h ey
,

s s s or r s r

my easil y be t ace d in t he int lle c t ual ac tivit ies of t he t ime w h ich


.
,

a r e

we e m mof
,

r ainl y c n ce ne d w it h t h e ol o gic al st ud ie t h
o r e o ne f s or

k n w l ed g e w hich led to t h s l v at i n O f man U p t o t he 1 1 t h


o e a o .

c nt u y h ow e v e p at i t ic t h e l gy as e x po und ed by G eg y had
e r ,
r, r s o o , r or ,

be e n hand d on unch ang ed A nd it tood fo a c eed t h at w as


e . s r r

r oo te d in aut h it y a l ig io n in sp i ed by t he t e o o f H e ll from
or ,
re r rr rs ,

w hi ch t h e w as no e cap e e x ce p t b y pe nan c
er and t e a
s T h en in e rs .

th e 1 2 t han d e a l y 1 3 t hc e n t u ie g ea t ch ang es too k p l ace


r T he e r s r . r

w as a g ad ual c a t ing of L at in Ch i t ianit y in an int ll ect ual


r re s r s e

a w e ll a an m
s o t io nal e n e
s I t w as as if t he m
e e d ie v al m
s in d nows

f o t he t t im e im
.

r e h ad fo un d it se l f and w as set t ing t h


rs p ess of , r

i t s g e niu on t he p at i t ic d g m as and d oc t ines I n t he h and of


'

s r s o r s

Abe l a d fo in tanc d iai lept ic be c ame t he accep m


.

d
W
r s e, te eans of
r ,
n

EE{Ers Scholast icism


.

at ta inin g t ut h in bo t h se c ula and


-

r r

ag ain aim
,

e d at gi v in g a at ion al exp v eal ed t r ut h by


i '

,
lanat ion o f r re ,

re conc il ing c u e nt d oc t ines w it h A is t t l e s t each ing A nd in


rr r r o

im
.

t he h e i o f t h t im
res es e il a ac t i v it ie s w e e al so d i p l ay d
e s r r s e

T h y al l g av e v id e nc e of t he am
.

e e inte ll e c t u a l un es t of e ff o t s
e s r r

to p l ace Ch ist ianit y on a m o e at io nal foo t ing w h il e e l im


,

r i n t ing r r a

m measu the u pe st it i n and t he d ead l ea ning w h ich


,
!

in so e re s r o r

g a t h e d o u n
re d t h e c ee
r d N w as t h is pa t i t i c t e ach in
r s
g . m o di or r s

d o nl y in an int ll e c t ual sens


e T o t h anc ie nt d oc t ines w a
e e e r s

f e h emot i nal v al ue T h ey w e sh ow n t o be capabl e


.

a ls o gi v e n a r s o . er

o f app al ing to w h at w
e d ee p es t in the h ea rts of men t h ough as , r

th e l v e and p it y t h
o e be au t y a nd t h e m y ste y e nsh ined in t heir r r

A nd in t h i im b uing of ea l ie d oc t in s w it h h um
,

t h ug h t
o s an r r r e

lements lay p e h ps t he g ate st achi e v ment of t he Middl e Ages


.

e r a re e

B ut w h il e L at in Ch is t ianit y w as und g oing t his h um


.

ani in
'

r er s
g
p oc ess a im
r il a ch ang w as at w o k in t he se c ul a st udi es of t h
s r e r r e

t im
,

e T o t he 1 2 t h ce nt u y in h t be l ongs a g eat re vi v al of
. r ,
s or ,
r
x vi

l t te
e ul
rs, t o f a ch
t he an g e d a t t
res it u d e t o w a r d s t he l i t e at u e o f r r

ant iq uit y N O l ong r ega d ed a m l y a p ed ag ogic in t um e re nt r s e re s r

t h t a c h ing of g am ma and h t o ic L atin lite ratu w a


.

f or e e r r r e r re s

m
,

n w a o pp r oa ch d f m t h h um a ni t i cep o in t O f v i w ro i t w a s co e s e :

mend ed and tudied a a mans f di cipl ine and g ene al cul t u


s s

e o s r re .


S lac e in g i f c eation in l ab u ch e rful ne in p v rt y
o r e ,
re r o r, e ss o e ,

mod t y amid ich and d l igh t fait h f ull y a b e t ow d by


es r es e s, re s e

l tt
e w ot J h n of S al i b u y t h g eat e t f 1 2 t hc e n t u y
e rs : so r e o s r ,
e r s o r

h umani ts and h w a not al n in f el ing t h p ell f t h


s e s o e e e s o e

c l as ic H i h umani mw a h a d by B e n a d Sil e t is t h
s s s s s s re r r v s r ,
e

G i al d u C am
.

int e rp e t e r f V i g il b y t he v at il b n i by '

r o r ,
e rs e r s re s s,

A l anu d I n ul i B e rna d O f Ch a t
s e s P e te o f B l oi G il be t d
s, r r r e s, r s, r e

la P and c ount l e
o rr e th t h ug h n t he t h h and t h ss o er s : o o o er ,
e re

w m w ho sc n d t he c la ical tudi I t w a t comb at


e r e so e or e se ss s es s o

it i n f such m
.

th e p os en C ni iani a t h ey w e re c all ed t hat


o o or c
2
s

J hn of S al isb u y w ot e hi M tal g i u
o r t hu p ening th
r s e o c s s o e

t p ha e of th c nt v y b t w een the Anci n t and M od e n


rs s e o ro e rs e e s r s

A nd t h h u m
.

ani t ic p
e it i n a a r ul t w a w ell d f nd ed w h il e
s os o s es s e e

b cam a c mmonp l ac e at
,

o ne at l e a t of t h w i t a g umnt

s e r er s r e s e e o

a l at e d at Be na d f C h a t e u ed t o ay so w ite s J h n
r e .

r r o r r s s s ,
r o

o f S al isb u y t h at w l ik d w a f ate d on t he hould



w r , e e re e r s se s e rs

and t h is d ic t umw h ich w a d u b t l ss w ll k no w n t



O f giant s : , s o e e o

1 2 t h c nt u y sch l a e
wa e u c it at e d b y V i v
r o and again at
rs s r s s e s,
,

t h e n d of t h 1 7 t h c ent u y w h n the d i p ut e b t w e n t h A n
e e r , e s e e e

c ie nt and t h M o d rn w a f u gh t

s e ut an ew
'
e s s o o .

S uch t h n w e s m of t h m e ain f ea tu es of th 1 2 t h c en t u y
re o e e r e r

R na cen c e a mov ment w h ich aff ct d all p h e OT aTnte m


-
'

e s e e e s er s
_

w h ich l d to a g e ne al e m
_

p a
or r
y i f e, an c ip at i n in c ial p l itic al
e r o so ,
o ,

a nd i nt ll e c t u al p he and w h ich b ug ht w it h it a ne w l f
e s res, ro se

c n c iou ne a n w at t it ud e t l if I t w a n t l ng h w ve
o s s ss, e o e s o o o e r,

b f re t h i f r eing of th h uman p irit gav e i e t a d i fo


.
,

e o s e e s r s o es re r

1 P olicr a ticus, P l (M ig n ro . e, P at . L at . 1 99, col . q u t d by T yl


o e a or ,
M ed i eva l M ind II 1 1 5 , . .

2 S ee App nd ix v e .

3 Me t l gi u
a o III 4 (M ign
c s, e, P at L at 1 99, col

C f N k mD N t mI ch 7 8 H c l ti f b ul ill t ngi t qui


. . . .

4 ec a e a Rer u ae re a o a osa os a
um
.

g l i m l ii d b it mi n
.
, , . . .

p a um
alior l b int nt a o res ra e s, or a un t t n f
a s e a se r es ra s erre
um h um
.

ut ait p hil osophus u q u i nani t nt up




Et n

os s s as s a es s
m
er ero s

g i gantu
C f W mu t h v m [ kn wl d g ] th nth A c i nt b c u w h v
.

5
. e s a e ore o e e a e n e s, e a se e a e
t h A dv nt g b th f th i
e nd u
a wn w h ic h i c m
a e mnly illu t at d by th
o o e rs a o ro s o

S imil itud f Dw f tand ing up n a G yant h uld


, o s r e e
e o a nd ing m ar s s o ss o ers , a s ee ore or
f th than h (T mpl E y d S pinga n (Ox f d )
ar er e

e e, ssa s, e . r or ,
T he H istor ica l S etti ng o f the P oe m xvii
se l f x p re
-
e h e e w e h a v e anot he aspec t of t he R nas
ssion : and r r e

c e nce its w o nde ful d e v e l op m e n ts in l ite at ure and a t


r Earl y r r

in t he 1 2 t h c e nt u y t he m had alread y be c om
.

ed ie v al ge niu r e s

art ic ul ate v oicing it s h p es and it s fears in fo m of it s ow n o r s

d e vi ing A nd t he st and mo t ch arac te istic v l at ion had


,

s r s r re e

be en in t he a ch ite c t u of t he p e riod in t he n b le Romanesq ue


.

r re o

hu ch es a nd t he stat l y G ot h ic c at h e d ral s all al i k e y m


,

c r ,
e b ol of ,
s s

t he e l ig iou fait h of t he g e H e e ind e d c a v ed in s to ne l ay t h


r s a e . r ,
e ,
r ,

r eal poe t y of t h pe riod 3 poe t ry w it te n i n ch a ac te s t h at al l c ould


r e r r r

read w hil e ugg est ing by it g ac ious fo mit w eal t h of d etail its
s s r r s

w o nd e ful e ffe c ts O f c l ou and l ig h t s m


, ,

em
,

r e t h i ng o f t ho y tic y earn
r o s

i ng s o f t he Ch ri st ianit y of t he ag e Of l e s pe rm
,

ane n t v al ue p e h ap s s r

but t ill of c onsid e ab l e n ot e w as t he m


.
, ,

s e di e v al L at in l it e at ure con
r ,
r

n ec te d w it h t h is d a te f o i n t h at w o k w e see th e f r e e in o f t h
r e sp i it r r
: g ,

i n t he b ak ing up of t he b al anc ed p e iod o f c l as ic al p ose and in


re -
r s s r

po it ion fo w h ich no mod el s


,

th e c re at io n f ne w k ind so f p ose c o m o r s ,
r

e x is te d am ong c l assical fo m s I nsta nc es o f t h is o cc u in t he D r . r e

P la nctu N atu a of Al anus d e I n ul is in the M ta log i a of J oh n


/ r e s ,
e c s

o f S al i b u y and i n t hs e c ont e m
r po ary w o k s of ot h e r E ngl is h r r

I n t he L at in v e rse h ow e v e t he e m an c ip ato ry m
,

s c h ol ars o ve r,

ment i yet m e cl ea l y seen T here may be t raced the aband on


.
,

s or r

~m
.

e nt o f c l assic al m et e s and t h e a d p tion o f ac c e n t ual and hy m


r in g o r

f ms mo e c apabl e of e x p es ing Ch i t ian e mot ion and t h ough t


,

or

Wo k s l ik e t he Anti laud ian u it is t rue p es r ve the old c l assical


r r s r s .

r c s, , r e

t adit io n but o n t h
r e ot h e
: h and t h e e a e the p l end id L at in r r r s

hymns of Abe l ard and Ad amd e S t V ic to as w ell as t h at mas


, ,

r, s

o f s t ud e nt s ng th e Ca m i na B u an a (
o 1 1 50
s, w h ic h point
r r

l a ly enough to ne w d v el op ments Ind e ed t he ongs fo mone


c e r e se s r

e m
.

o f th o t st ik i ng p h e nomna o f t h
s e t im
r e W it t en by t he e . r

w an d e ring c l e k s fo un d e v e ry w h e e at t h is date t h e y p a od ie d in
r r r

f rmand d ic t i n t he L atin hymns of the c ent u ry and c onsist ing


, ,

o o :

o f d i nk in g songs f ull o f am
,

r o o us a nd c on v i vial d ia bler ie t h e y int o r r

d uced i nto m
,

ed ie v al L a t in lit e at u e a n e w se c ul ar and sat i ic al r r r

n te w h ic h is found e l se w h e e o nl y in t h
o , e n ug a am a tor i a o f t h e r e e

sch o la rs and in t h e G ol ia d ic
,
de bate s al so d ue to t he v ag rant

r

pe n s .

B ut afte all it is not in t h ese L atin w o k s t h at t he ag e nd it


,
r , r s s

most comp let e and tt ing e x p re ion F o t h at w e mu t t u n t o t he ss r s r

v e nac ul a lite at u e t h en c oming in to being and mo e p a ticu


.

r r r r s : ,
r r

l a l y t o t he l it e at u e of F anc w h e e t he sp irit of t he ag e is
'

r , r r r e, r

r e e c te d i n all i t v a i ty and c ol ou r I n t he Cha ns n d g este


s r e . o s e ,

f or in stanc e w ill be f oun d d e p ic te d t he l a w l ess p ass ions and


,
XV III
m ne f ntemo
n a c rs o p a y f u d a l io m j u t a i n t h
r e f glia
ra l u ew i ll s s s x

m
,

b d c
te t
e d a n
e w e
~Lc el n t a e a lei t i c a ns d cy ni c
i ar l t a t e n t
o e, r s a re

f t h b u g i l if
o e o f t h t im w it h i ts c u tom it h umu
r eo s e o e e, s s, s o r s,

n d it
a v i c a w
s e ll S t ill
es m isg n ic n t h w e v w a t h l o vo re s a ,
o e r, s e e

m
.

/ d h i c h i h d t h h u t t h w h O l
p t b
u w u e u g o o r s ro e e
I oe ag s,

f t he 1 2 t hc nt u y and w
o a e c iat d w it h t he n me f William
r ,
as sso e a s o

C unt f P iti
o o t g th o w it h B t an d e B n B n t d e
e rs, o e er er r or ,
er ar

V nt d u
e A na u t
o D n
r, i l a n d h urn d a d f t h a b s eide I n re s o o e rs e s .

t hi p t y m
,

a b n n w ning i n u n
e se ec e a t w k e id anred :
1
e s or : e as
s y oe r

nt im
se e n t w h i c h t h n ws p n t t in g c e rt a in
e st t f
e re c i t y e e ra ra a o so e ,

an d gi v ing t l if a m pi it u l maning Fo mo t mng


o e ore s r a e . re s a o

i/ t h s w a t he n w c ul t o f w m an t h d c t in f g t lyd oy ~
'
e e s e o e o r e o co r e,
,

w h i c h w a c nc i v d i n c ul t u d c i c l s a an nn b l ing p a i n
s o e e re r e s e o ss o ,

n in p i at i n t
a s h ig h d d and g n u t h oug ht A nd t h i
r o o ee s e e ro s s. s

f md t h c mmn t h m f t h P v nc l ly ig w h ic h t
or e e o o e e o e se ro e a r
z
s, rs

I v eax p ee i n t t h c
r ss oh i v al u c d f o t h e M id d l
e A g e w h i l ro s o e o e s, e
g
f und in g th t ad it i n f ne :a t N w a it in t h i T ubad ur
o e r o o a r r . or s s ro o

p oe t y al on t h t t h new c h i v l y f un d t i t ic x p i n I n
r e a e a r o ar s e r ess o

ld of n fab l ing t h 1 2 thc nt u y man c t h ame


.

W
t h at w

or e ,
e e r ro es, e s

in ue nc k f t ed O S Of r bl p t n


e n at w es a r e s e or ,
os e r io e a ro s

l iv in a n w s n t o t h ing f t h pi it T h u l v u nd
a e e e se s o e s r . s o e, er

d iff nt f m ll t h omanc e f B enoi t d S int e


e re or s, s e r M an d s o e a o re

C h t i n d e T roy by w h mw e na at d m f t h g reat
'

r e - ,
es, o er rr e so e o e

w ld to i t he d e t hjessj ag e di f C id a f Guin v
or -
s r es a r es o r e ss O e e re,

L o v again i t h t h m f tal s b ug h t f mt he
,

and I ul t se e, s e e e o e ro ro

Ea t of w hi h t h m t n t bl p h ap
,
.
_

t h Fl

s ,
z e os i nd o a e, er s, ar e e or s a

B lEun he u t y an d t h w n d e ful Oh
c r s or a n t f bl f Au e in and o r e -
a eo cass

N i c l tt e B ut w h at v
o e b th ig in f t h i v a i g at e d me er ate ial
e e or o s r e r ,

mant iquity f mC l tic O ient al t o in


.

w h t h e d aw n fe r r ro ro e or r s r e s, 4

ca e it w a f h ion d in acc d an c w it h b nt m
,

s s re as e o r ar
p y or e o e

id l i t w a p u e d int t h muld f 1 2 th c nt u y
e a s, s o r o man ce e o o e r

ro

:

and it e n h i n a a s ul t t h l i v ing sp i it f t h
r e s, s er es , e r o

it p irati n it qu t f b uty nd t ang ad v


s as o s, s es or ea a s r e

all t h t w a f igni c an c in t h 1 2 t hc ent u y t t it ud t l ife A nd


a so s e e r a e o .

t h in uen c e f t h i n w l it at ur w e o fel t t h oug h out W te rn


s e er e as r es

Eu p T h l o v e f h n ou
ro e

nd t h h n u
e of l v
o b c m t he r a e o o r o o e e a e

t h em
.

e of t h M inn s inge in G m
e any f t h T oub ad ou w ho
es rs er ,
o e r rs

ang in I tal y P
s t ug al and Sp ain a w ll or of p art ic ul a p oe t s e as r s

l ik W l f mv n E c h nbach and W l t h v n d V g l w id
, , ,

e o ra o s e a er o er o e e e,

ll f w h mc nt inu d w h t C h ti n d e T yes h d b g un I n
a o o o e a r e ro a e

e man t im
.

th e t oo f h insp i ati n h d b en gi v e n t v e nac ul a


e , , re s r o a e o r r

li te at u gene all y f it w n w t h at t he Nib lung n L i d


r re r : or as o e e e
T he H istor ical S etting o f the P oe m x ix

assu md e x t an t fo mt h at Spain p od uce d in t he Cid its t


i ts e r ,
r rs

great ep ic w h il e fa t h e nort h t he Mabinpg i n and t he E dd a w e e


,
r r ,
o r

t h frui ts of t h e nat io nal a c t iv it ie


e o T h us F anc e h av ing ou ed
r s . r ,
r s

mm
he e l f by he o w n e ne gy ou ed E u o pe af t e w a d b y he

m
rs r r r s r r r s r

x amp le A new a had g u


,

e . lit at u e in t h ve rn a ulars
er pr r e g :

ad c o m w it h thSw i R e na nce in
,
- -

r
'

ag at l ite a y R na c e n c h
re r r e s e e sce

so cial and inte ll e c t ual ai A nd o f t h i mo v e me nt F n c e w as a



rs .
,
s ,
ra

t h c e nt e and al so t h in pi at i n I f t E u o pe o f a l a te d ate h
e r
:
e s o r r er
r . o

li te at u e ha c o nst it uted a e c nd ant iq uit y t E u op o f t he 1 2 t h


r r s s o ,
o r e

c ent u y he g av a n w a t a n w c ul t u a ne w p h il o ophy
r s e e r ,
e re , s .

S uc h t h n w e e t he E u p an co nd it ions w h n T he Ow l and the


,
e ,
r ro e e

N ig hti ng a l p p ea ed and i t e m e a ains t o in q ui e h r o w fa E ng l n d


: r r r a

ca n be said t o h av e c m e un d e t h am e i n u n c e s an d t h av e
o r e s e o

s h a ed in t he inte ll e c t ual ac ti v it i of t he t ime U p n t he oc i l


r es . o s a

an d po l i t i c al c h ang e s in E ngla nd t h e i no ne ed to d w ll T h e re s e . re

w a ab o ad in t h
s r e l an d t h e sam e sp i i t f p og e s t h e w a t he r o r r s : er s

sam g o w t h o f t w n
e r th e am e a w k n in ion e g a d t o b o t h in
s, s a e r r
g
d u t y and c o m
s r me c e and t h is w as ac companied by a ti ing of r : s rr

th e p ol it ic al w ate by ad mini t at iv e e f ms und e H en y II rs, s r r or r r ,

w h i c h w e e t o l ead o n nat u all y t r th e em an c ip at i n o f t h e r o o

C mmon L e s O b v iou pe h ap s a e t he inte ll e ct ual a chie v me nt s


o s . s s r r e

of th e ag e T h ey a e ind ee d but faint l y e e c te d in c o nt m


. r po ary r e r

E ngl ish l ite rat u e so t hat it has b e c ome al mst the fa hion to
r : o s

r e ga d rt h is pe i o d in E ng l n d as int ll e c t uall y o b sc u e an d
r a e r

ba en not ab l e fo many t h ings it may be but not for its c ul t u e


rr : r r .

Y et t he e a e m
,

e ut m
,

any eas n f o ad o p t in g t h i v ie w w it h t h
r r r ost
o s r s

caution and f ant ic ip t ing g eat d v e l op ment s in b t h l it e a


,
or a r e o r

tu e r nd l ea n in g
a It wa u e l y no t f o n ot h ing t h at a apid
r . s s r r r

g r o w t h o f t he p at o na g e
y st e m w a s w it n s e d u
r n d e H nry } s e s r e

a nd Ad el aid e an d lat on und e Hg ggyj l and E l ano o er r e r : r

em
, , ,

t h at ag ain t h o ug h o ut t h sam
, ,
e c e nt u y E n lan d
r ain ed in e r ,
g r

c l o e to uch w it h F an c e t he l it e a y c nt e of E u p e T h 533 0
s r
,
r r e r ro . e

co unt ies fo me t ime w e e p ac t icall y


r ,
r so un d on ki ng ,
r r er e :

T oubad ou
r a nd F e nch sc h ol a rs f e que nt ed t he E ng l ishc u t
r rs r o r :

E ng l ish mn oc k e d t o the sc h ol f Fran c e all O f w h ich mu t


e o s o : s


h a v e aff e c t ed E ng l i h inte ll e c t ual l ife N w as it w ith F an c e s or r

al on e t h at E n l i h mn h
.

g a d l at i n s A t t hse c o u t o f H
e n y II re o . r e r

ll nat ions of E u ope had t h e i ep n t at i v e H nry n v oy s



a r r r rese s: e s e

w e e t o be found ab o ad i n e v ry q uart e
r and w h il e i nte c o urse
r e r: r

1
Wll (0 E N p xxx i) q u t th t t mnt f J J c b (T h F bl f
e s . ( . . o es e s a e e o . a o s e a es o

A eso p I 1 80) t th ff c t th t tw th i d o f t h F nc h w it
e e e f th p i d a o -
r s o e re r e rs o e er o

E ngli h mn mn c nn c t d cl ly w ith th E ngli h c u t


.
,

( 1 1 54 1 2 06 )w
-
e re s e or e o e e o se e s o r .
h the fa E ast w as b eing o p ened up by t he C rusad e rs t rav e ll e s
w it r ,
r ,

l ik e A d el ar d of B at h Mich ae l S cott and D aniel M o ley w ere r

b inging bac k f omBag d ad f omS icil y or Sp ain much of w h at


, , ,

r r r

A nd i f m en s m
, , ,

w as v alu ab l e in A ab i c l e tt e and l e a nin g in d s



r rs r .

w e e e x p and ing a a e s ul t o f t h is i nt e nat ional t afc at h m


r s r e r r ,
o

t he e w as al s d awning a n e w nat ional se l f c on sc iousn ess Rac e


r o -

e co m
.

ant a on i mb t w h e No m an and E ng l ish se ct i n s o f t h


g en t s e e r o

munit y w as apidly b co ming a t h ing f t he p a t ; t he foundations


r e o s

o f o u n at i nal inst it ut io n s w e
r o being sl ow l y but t ul y l aid I n
'
re r

o c iall y i t w as an ag e o f e nl ig h te nm
.

sh o t p o l it ic all y and en t and

fp og ess in E ngland : and in inte llectual matt e s t oo the same


r ,
s
o
r r r , ,

im p u l ses w e e a t w o k r r .

An d t h is is seen in t he l it era y outp ut of t he p e iod w h ich in r r ,

E ngl an d w a a c onsid e ab le a it w as v a ie d in c ha act


s s r No s r r er .

w h e e e l se sav e in P a i
r we e o m
,
any w it e t o be fo un d m
r s, en r s r rs ,

ll ed w it h an ard ou for l ea ning o d e v o ting t h eir w h ol e n rgies


;
r r r e e
V t o l it e ra y w o k I n c e tain d ire c ti n ind e ed E ngl an d m
,

r r r a be sai d o s,
.
y ,

t o h av e led t h e wa
y T h e L at in Ch o nic l e f or i n t an c e G e o ff r e y r rs, s

o f M on m o ut h W ill iamo f Mal m


.

e b u y H en y o f H un t in g d on
, s r ,
r ,

B ened ic t of P et e b ough and the est must c e tain l y be eg a d ed


r or , r r r r

a o ut t and ing d u ing t h is p riod


s s T h e e w as not h ing e l se w h e e t o
r e r r

c o e sp ond t t h i achie v e ment o t o d i p ut e t h e i up e mac y in


.

rr o e r r s r s r

T h e n t oo E ng l and at t he t im e h om
,

thi o t of w o k
s s r r e w a th e of s

e m
.
, ,

V th ed iev al fab l e All t he imp ortant y e ions of Aesnp w e e d ue


. rs _ _ r

t o w it e s w h o b e l o ng e d t o 1 2 t h c en t u y E ngl an d and it w as t h
r r e r :

l t c oll ect ion of A l f ed of E ngl an d t og et her witht he An ng mus


os r o
,

N v l ti of G ual t e iu A ngl ic u and t he Ysop e t of Marie d e Fran c e


e e e r s s, ,

t h at in t od uc e d t he A e op ic fab l e t o W e st e n e ad e
r B ut in t he
s r r rs

g ne al ac t ivi ti of t he t ime E ngl and al so p l aye d a con p ic uous


.

e r es , s

p a t T h ere w a no b an c h of l it e at u re t h at w as not ul t i v ate d


r s r r c

b y he men o f l ett e w k s of t he ip est c hol a sh ip fan c iful


.

r rs : or r s r

c oll e c tions of st ies and l egend s oman c es and lais L at in hymns


,

or r

and l y i c s l e tt e s an d c om monpl ac book s d ebates and fabl es all


, ,

r r e -
, ,

w e e e p e e n t e d e it h e in L at in o A n l o N o m an fo m
,

r r r s
g : and t h
r r r r e
-
,

e ul t w a a s tand i ng w it n
r s s s t t he w id e i nte e st o f t he ag e and es o r s g , ,

t o t he vg gsai g Of t he d e t ail s o f
ilg e nius

t h i l it e at u e but l itt l e n ee d h e e be aid


s r r I t w as assoc iat e d w it h r s

t nam
.

g e a r es l ik e J o h n o f S al isb u y and G i al d us C am bre nsi : it r r s

t oo k i t s c ol u ring f ro m ourt c ast l e and m


o onast e ry w h il e i t w as
_c :

e m ain m
, ,

o ve m
i

e p rese nt at i v e of al l t h
r e n t s of t h e ag e M u ch of it .
,

f or i nstanc e w as c on c e n e d w it h sat i e w it h h ew d e e c t i ns r r s r r o

on m
, ,

en an d t h ings t h e p od uc t as a l e o f an al e t and c ul t u re d r r
g , , r
xx ii In tr oduction
a cc un t o f t h A ng l o S x o n an d N o m an k ing s d o w n
()i v A n o e a r
-

to t h a c c e ssion o f H e n I I I
e A F poe( if 2 2 9 . . .
-
r . r s .

() v T h O w l a n d th N ig hting a l (
e ff 2 3 3 e e

un f U e L a d y W
.

S e v e n sh o t po e m ( L ng L if O i il l
()vi

an d W
r s o e, r s o r

i t D md ay D ath T n Abu s A L u t l S th S m
,

oo s wn) e e es, e o er

v l ume and by Mo is in
, , ,

i nc l ud e d by W ig h t i n his P e cy S o r r c . o rr

Old E ng lishM i scellan y 1 87 2 ) (


ff 2 46 .

( ) v ii C hard ry

s

d b at
e e .

L e P eti t P let . A F .
-
r . ve r se
(
ff 2 4
.9

T he C . te tx of The Ow l an d the N ig hti ng ale is i n a sing l e h and


w r it ing st h al f f t he 1 3 t h c e n t ury and it has t he
Of the r o ,

foll ow ing c ibal p e c ul ia iti an d abb e v iat ion F o w t he O E


s r r es r s . r . .

r unic y m b ol ( w n ) i em
s p l oy ed w it h a d t abo v e t o d isting uish
e s o

i t f mt he o t h e ru nic l e t t e (
ro th n ) o f im il ar f or m W h e n t he
r r or s .

d ot i mitte d as is not inf equ ent ly t he case (cf 1


s o ,
t he r . .

sy m b ol s a e ap t t o be c nfused O c ca ionally t he F e n ch w is
r o s r

pl y ed and w h il e t h is w mig h t al so st and fo r on (of w l l 3 1 )


.

em o : . .

som e tim e a sing l e u ( v is u e d t o d e n o te O E w


) s
(c f v te l 3 58 s . . . s e .
,

u ichl th b ot h 1 and 6 are used t h o ugh t h



s Fo OE I
.
) r . . e ) ,
) ,

l at te o c c u onl y af te 1 91 1 O E
r rs i s e p ese n te d b y t w o r r r r

bol s u and occu i nd i c iminat ely (c f i ui 1 6 1 7 v om1


. . .

sy m
.

: 9
) r s r . .
,
r .

O E pal g i e p sente d by 3 (
. .

v e y a l y y as in y l
s r re w h il e r r re e .

y mb l s f
.

t h e e a e al o t w
r r sl(ong and sh o t ) Of t he abbre
o s o or 8 r

o t c om
.

v iat ion t he foll w in g a e am


s ong t h e m o mon bu h(bu 3) r s : ,
r ,
r

is d enot d b y 1 w it h a h o iz o nt al st o k e t h ough t he l o w e p a t of
e ) r r r r

t he l e t t e a t by 1 w it h a h o rt o bl ique t o k e nd ing in a h oo k
r: ) s s r e

p l ce d ab o v e A na al is p e ent ed by a w vy l ine
a . s p l ac e d re r s a

ab o v e t h e p c e ding l e tt e i re e b y an i w it t e n abo v e t h e r: -
r ,
-
r or e r

l t te r follo w ing
e by an obl iq ue st ok e w it h a h o k at t he e nd
: -
er r o :

a n d by t h e u ual sy m bo l t h oug h t he f r ma n is al so fai l y


s o r

c ommon T he p oemis mo e o v e d iv ide d int o p a ag ap h s f nu


. r r r r o

e q ual l ng t h t h e i nit ial c ap it al of each p a ag


e ,
p h be ing in ed ink r ra r .

T he spaci ng i s as a ul e c o e c t and eg ul a ( cf h o w e v e r 1
r rr r r .

A oug h at t emp t at p unctuat i n ha b een mad e by means of st ops


.

r o s

p l ac ed at t he e nd s of t he l ine s and t he ab se nc e of suc h stop s :

( c f 1 6 6 7 ) ig h t l y d no t e un o u l ine s
r C o e c t io n aee o cc as io n s r -
rr s r

all y m
.

ad e by m
. .

ean s o f p wncta d l n ti a ( c f etud and t h e e e e e r

f e q uent ma ginal c o e c t ion d u t o a l at e h and


.

a re r r rr s e r .

T he J e u M S ( J c on ist of t w o qua t o MSS part l y p ap e


s s s s r r,

pa tly p a ch ment bound tog et h e T he pap e p ar t b el n gs t o t he


. .

r r r r o

1 5th c entu y and c on t ains one it mo nl y i


, .

r t he st T he p a c h e e r r

ment sect ion contain nume ous ite ms all w it t e n in one and t he
. .
, .

s r , r
T he M anuscr ip ts xx iii

sa m h nd e a and is c atal gu ed
ce ntu y o as bel o ngi ng to t he 1 4th r ,

t h oug h i t w o uld see mt o be m e co


,

c tl y d esc ibed b y M o i or rr e r rr s

as l at e 1 3 t h c e nt ury A t all e v e nt s t h i po rt io n o f t h M S an d
.
,
s e .
,

t h e e fo e t h
r e J te x t r f T he Ow l a n d th N ig hti ng al is c e t ainl y
o e e, r

l te t h an the C t x t ment ioned abo v e T he M S itsel f as is


.

a r . e . .
,

st ate d on a y l e af w as p e se n te d t o J e u -
C llege O x fo d by r s s o r

T ho W il k in L L B e c t o B M up e M nte in A gro G l am
, , ,

. s, . o gar r . . s r o r

ne ns i c 1 6 6 0 and l ik e t h Co tton M S it i c l ea ly an d eg ula l y



: e s r r r

B ot h a e in fac t e xcell ent pe ci m


. .
,

w rit te n . r e ns o f 1 3 t h c e n t u y s r

boo k h an d l es g and t h an t h at of t he 1 2 thce nt u ry le s p l iant


-

,

s r ,
s

t h an t h at o f t he 1 4th

.

T he c onte nt s o f t he J e su M S a e as foll ow s s . r :

()
i A Ch o n i c l e o f t he K i ng s o
r f E ng l an d 90 0 1 4 45 (If -
.

1 2 1 6 )
()
ii The P f O L
as si on o
u r or d (ff 2 1 7 .

The Ow l a n d the N ig h
'

()
i ii ting a le ( 229
A g r up c on i t ing mainl y f E ng l i h p m f w hi c h
.

()
i v o s s o s oe s, o

a ll e x c p t ne a p i nte d in M i s O H Mi lla ny pp 58 (f
e o re r o rr

. . sce , . .

2 42
v
() L e D c trinal
o
(
ff 2 7 4 .

() vi C hard ry, L a vi e de set Do man r s . A F .


-
r . ve rse
(
if 2 8
. 0

( ) vi i C hard ry, L a vi e S ei n t J osap haz . A F .


-
r. v e rse (if . 2 96
3 1 7)
C har d ry , L v e rse ( 31 7 e p et t
y p le . A F .
-
r .

T h i M S it w ill be not ic d c ontains no t onl y t h t h re e Cha d y


s e e r r

po m but al i of t he se v e n sho t p oe ms t h at appea in 0


.
,

e s, so s x r r

Am f atu es t h at call for not ice i t he s tate me nt made


.

o ng ot h e r e r s

by T h s Wil k ins ( o n e t ime o w ne r of t h e MS on f 2 2 8 h


)
l
o t e -
r

t at e m
. . . .
,

s e nt be ing as f o ll o w s :

On p a te O f a b oak n l eaf of t h is M S I fo und t h ese v



r r s e e e rs e

w i t te n w h e e by t h A u t h o m
.

y bee g ue t at

r ,
a r e r s

May te r J oh an e u g e t ]? of G uld euo d e 190


s r e r .

An d ndel on t egg en pat syng n ul he no


se ) o s e .

Ac on h is e w i e he w il l e nd y hi song s s e s

G od loue d of H e ue ne b o v all e am
.

o ng
r e s

Ame n
, .

T h is re f e nc e t o a b oake n l eaf e
er

is at h e p uzz l in g as
r r r ,

no w h e e d e t h e re app e a any t ac e o f a l af cut o ut o to n


r o s r r e r r

d oe h ow e v e r e xist s me i egul a ity in t he MS as W ll s


.

T he re s, , o rr r .
, e

W ll (0 d N Int p xxv ii) d c ib th n t b ing p b b ly


1
e s .
'
. ro . . es r es e o e as e

ro a

du t Th e Wilki n M Ric h d E lli f J u C ll g O xf d ha inc


o os . s . r ar s, o es s o e e, or , s s e

d nit ly id nti d th h nd w iting


e e e b ing th t f Wil kin
e e a r as e a o s .
x x iv Intr odu ction
pointed out w h ich seem to t h w me l igh t u p n t h d ii
l
,
s ro so o e

c ul ty T h u it i c u i u to note t h at f 2 53 v c ont in a f g~
s s r o s . . a s ra

ment ry p o m(O H Mi c llany X X I ) w hich b eak s Off ab up t l y at


.

a e s e r r
,

t h bo t t o m f t h at p age w h il t h f ll ow ing p ge (
. .

e o f 2 54 ) b egin e e o a . r . s

f a p m(
,

w it h t h la t 7 1 1 e sO H Mi X I) th . o t 1 1 11 f oe . . sc .
,
e rs . o

w h ic h a found on t h l ow e h al f f f 2 6 1 v T he p ob bil it y
re e r o . . r a

t h ef er i t h at c tain f l ios f t he MS h av e be e n d i p l ac e d in
o re s er o o s

v id nt t h at f 2 6 1 v mu t in any
.

t h p oc e se f b ind in g fo it i
r s o r s e e s

c a com b fo e f 2 54 r B ut if f 2 6 1 i m
. .
,

se e e r o v e d t o t h i ea l ie . s s r r

p o ition in t he M S t h e n if 2 5860 mu t al o g o w it h it in c e
. .

s . . s s , s

th e e qu n ce o f v
s s eis u n b k n t h u g h out t h o e p age e r es t h at ro e ro s s:

i t say on po emb gin at t he t op f f 2 58 r and f omt h e e


s o e e s o . . r r

on t o f 2 6 1 v t h po e m o v e l ap f omp age t o p age as d o al o


,

e s r r , s

t he p o m f omf 2 54
. .

e st o f 2 57 v
r . r . . .

T he pag es as r t o ed w uld t h e fore un as foll ow es r o re r s:

() f 2 53
i
m
. .

()
ii A p ib l g p t o all o w f
o sso t he c o pe l e t i n of t h e f rag
a r o

mnta y poe mon f 2 53 v


e r .

i ff v
() ii 2 58 6 1 r

m m
. . .

()
i v A n o t h e g pa f o t he c p l e t io
r n o f t h e p o b e gu n o n r o e

f 2 6 1 v nd end ed n f 2 54
. . a o . r.

v 57 v
() if 2 54 . r . .

A ft r t hi w uld c me f 2 6 2 r w h e e t he i eg ul a ities c a
e s o o . . r rr r e se,

e x cep t fo th fac t t h at f 2 6 2 b eg in w it h t h cl ing l ine of


r e r s e os s

poe m t h at y t an t h er g ap em l ik ely h e e H ence it w ould


. .

a so e o se s r

mt h at in t h M S as it st and t h e e a p obably t h e gap


.

se e e s, r re r r e s,

tm
.

I t i n t w t hy t h at im
,

all of w h ich su gg i ing l a v es il a ss e es . s o e or s r

lac un a a fou nd in t he F n c h ct ion O f t he M S and it is


e re re se s .
2

p bably to ne O f t h (
ro l o ?) l eav in t h E ng l i h sec t i n of o se es e s

t h M S t h at T h s W
o ese o

e . il k in in hi not e feo . s s re r s.

W it h gard to the c ib al p ecul iarit i s f t h i J t ex t f T h


re s r e o s o e

Ow l an d th N ig hting al it w ill be f u nd t h at t h y m
.

e b l s and e, o e s o

abb v iati n mp l oy ed a much t he ame as t h of C T he


re o s e re s o se

F en ch w h ow v i m
.

r o e c on i t e nt l y u e d ; and w hil e t he
e r, s r s s se

y mb l b (
,

s tho
) i a r ul e p v d t o th
s e e xc l u i
s a o n o f O s p o a d i c re se r e , s

r

f m of thd occu ( T he sy m
,

or s c f 1 1 1 2 06 o b l y al so app ea s
r . .
, o r

S 1 Wll 0 d N Int p xxviii


ee e s,
:
ro

m nd P ti t Pl t d J K c h (H il
. . . . .

S 2
Ch d y J
ee ph t D
ar r , osa az , se or anz , a e e , e . . o e

b nnro ,p ii d u ch u i n v n blatt n ind d i g . v : l uck n r a sre sse o er s re rosse e

en st tand n w l c h in di e ,J 7 51
e 8 7 4 1 3 82 1 51 0 und P t Pl t 440
e e vv568 os . -
e e

A n t t th m ff c t i l in t d n
.
, , .
,

vo n L ( i MS . s . . o e o e sa e e e s a so ser e o
th in ide f th b in di ng f th M S by J K c h 1 87 6 I t i
s e o e t t d th t ol f e o s s a e a a ea
i m
. .
, .

s i ing b tw n H 2 2 8 nd 2 2 9 2 3 2 nd 2 33 2 47 nd 2 48
ss e ee . p ctiv ly a , a , a res e e .
T he T w o Tex ts xxv

f q u nt ly f i nd g ul a ly fo O E p l g (c f y de l 6 1 y d
re e or a re r r . a .

. se .
,
er

t h am pa ag ap h d ivi i n a in C
.
,

l. Th e re a re ach l in e s e r r s o s s . : e e

be gin w it h a c ap ital and t h init ial c ap ital


s f t h pa ag aph s ,
e s o e r r are

c l ured l te nate l y bl u and red


o o a r e .

3 . THE T WO T EX T S
In d ying t h te x ts f any l ite a y w k t he st and fo
st u e o r r or r re

m t Obj c t i t d i c o v a ac c u atel y a pos ibl w h at t he aut h


os e s o s er s r s s e or

ac t ua ll y w r t I n t he p ese nt in t n c w h a v t w o v e ion
o e . r s a e e e rs s,

c p i d at d iff nt dat and it w ill t h f e be neces a y in t he


o e e re es : e re o r s r

t p l ace to i nv stig ate t h g n i of t he t w t x t i t h rel a


rs e e e es s o e s, . e . e

t i n in w h ic h n t e x t tand to t h
o o ee ot h and t h e re l at i n f
s ach s er o o e

to t h o i gin al
e r .

E R R E L AT I O N S H I P
()
a T H I .

()
i F r m w hoat h a al ead y bee n aid w it h eg a d t o t h s r e t w o MS S s r r .

it i cl a t h at J
s e r
p n t a l a t v i n th
r e r ese a n C T he p e c
st i v er er s o r es e

h and w it ings mak e t h i c l


. .

r w h il th e pe ll in gs w ill al o be
s e ar, e s s

fou nd to poin t in t he ame d ir c t i n s e o .

()
ii I t i e q u asll y c e t ain t h at th t t a i n d e
r
p n d n t pi s e ex s re e e co e ,

and t h at J is not bas d o n C T he v id nce f et h is i a f ll w e e or s s o o s:

a f w l in s t h at a e m m
. .

() J a sup pl i
. es i sing f Ce vi e r s ro .
, z .

ll 86 7 7 0 7 7 1 and t h l at te half f l 1 2 54 and t he e r o :

fa t t h at t h l in f md p a t f t he o iginal poemand
.
, , , .

c ese es or e r o r

a n me r c ibal in e rt i n i p v d b y t h hy me
re o e s r s o s, s ro e e r s

m
.

C ain e f u n d C ab e nt f J h ch
(B) t er o i n a rr o rs w i re s ro

c l a l y t h iginal fo ms F o
.

ag ain upp l i w h at ws es e re e r e or r . r

instan ce t h sc ibe of C occasi nall y w ites e f


r t and . o r r or ,

i n t w p l ac an f o t w he J ha t he t co ct ly E o
es or re s rre rr rs

n t un c m mn ow ing t o t h imila ity


. .
,

f t h i k in d w e

o s re o o o e s r

f th sc ib al f m f
o e t and and (
r T ) Ex C In
or s or r , ,
: . : . a /r ,

J bat (l . C i w a t J w a (l . C tes J
. r e, . rr e . . sor , .

tt (
sol es C an J t ( 1 1 1 47 6 M eo v e o, o or r

e J m
. . . .
,

C ad t h ng ( . re l s

1 t n ( l
o wh e . s or e . er . or e

c ect ly ha anh ng a t u and t h d tail po in t


o rr s o e, s or e: ese e s

t o t h in d p n d n c e f J e e e e o .

w h il J is a l ate r an d in d e p nd e nt v e i n it is c l a
()
iii B u t e e rs o e r

c p i d f ma mmn rig i n a l f bot h C


.
,

t h at b th t ts w
o ex er e o e ro co o o or

c tain fault y ead ing in c mmon pa t f moth


.
,

and J h a v e er r s o a r ro er

d tail w h ic h ugg t t h i commn igin


.
,

e s s es s o or .

() E a n u r
rroe a d i n g a
eo c m m n
s to C a n d J T h u b t
s h re o o s o

m
. .

MS S ad b f bu ( . l 805) f f f (l
re e or an f . or or ox . or r

( 1 .n n f n ( 1 Ce e a d he 3 b J h
or w ] f e . . r s o e ,
. o e : or

hg } o G b b J b ba t f bab
s ; M . 0 e, . eo or e o re

v e C and J read ba l f hul (


o r . l w he
. th r e or e . re e er o r
xx vi Introdu ction
is d ue t o t he bricat o w h il e in l 1 7 1 1 b ot h c ibes ru r, . s r

gl y b g a ne w pa ag ap h
w ro n e in r r .

B oth MS S a e Ob cu e in muc h t he same p l ac s vi r s r e z :

C J w o d om
.
, .

es, it te d w it h bl add e d in l at
r han d es er

o d om
. .
,

( 1 C chi l J c h id ( l C i n un J w i t ted e, r

i n m add d l at
. .
. .
, . .
,

C f u 3 l J fu l ( l
o
(1
e e er e e oe

In m
.
. .
, .

C d ach J th he (
. re l e, any o t h e p l ac e t h
. e
ec . r s

J c ibe had a v oid ed d if c ul t ie by sub stit uting d iff en t


s r s er

w o d s fo fo m
.

r s o b c u e in r E : C b ech J b h
r s r x . . r e, . ec e

( )
1 l 4 .C f 3 J so p : (
1 . 0 e, . e .

(
7) M o eo v e t he f
ra c t t h a t t herM S S i n w h i ch t h e t w o v er

i ns a e fou nd c on t ain e v e al it e m in c o m mon (ee


.

s o r s r s s

I nt od uc t ion 2 ) ap a t f om
,

r T h Ow l an d th N ig hting a l r r e e e,

ee m t o sug g e st t h at t h ad b e f o e t h emon e and


,

s s e sc ib e h r s r

t he sa m MS e .

()
8 A n d t h is is su pp o te d by th x i te nc
r e e s e o f or t h og aph ical r

e c ul iari t ie s in
p c e tain id n tical cti
r e se on s of C and J . .

v b e l ow
( ()
see i ) .

()
iv L l y thi c mmn ig in al f C and J w as not t h
ast s o o or o e

md iat p y f t hat te xt T h i i ug
. .
,

a ut h s t x t but an i n t

or e er e e co o s s s

m
.

es t e d b y t h t w y t e f o t h g ap hy f ou n d in C
o s s e w h n e s o r o r e re o
g .
,

s p l ling e x t end o v c t ain s c t ion f t h t xt w h il an t h


e s er er e s o e e e o er

s y te mis f und in t h e m
s o aini ng ecti n
( () b e l ew ) T h i
r s o s se e 0 o s

d ub l y t mof p ll ing e m to p int p t ty c n c l usi v el y t


.

o e s s e s e s e s o re o o

th w e k f t w diff nt c ib
or o o B ut uch c ll ab at i n i im
e re s r es . s o or o s

po ib l w it h ega d t C i t l f f t he h and w iting f t h at t t


ss e r r o se or r o ex

i t h am T h d o ub l e y te mm
.
,

s e th
e s ug h u t ro u t t he f
o h av e e s s s r e ore

x i t d in th t x t f mw h ich C w a c pi d and inc it i nu


.

e s e e e ro s o e s e s
l ik l y t h at t h aut h h im l f w ould mp l y t w p lling t h
.

e e or se e o o s e s, e
o nl y p ibl e i nf
oss nc i t h at C w a c p i d f ma c p y f t h
e re e s s o e ro o o e
te x t and t h at t h i in t e m
.

aut h ed ia t te x t w a c o p ie d by t w

or s ,
s r e s o
d iff nt c ibe w ho und to k d iff nt ct i n f the w k
e re s r s, er o ere se o s o or

o ne be ginning w i t h t h t l in th t h e h al f w a t h ugh t h
e rs e, e o r
y ro e
poe m and t an c ib d t h i o ig inal in acc o dance w it h t h ei
-

r s r e e r r r r re

s ec t iv c i b al p ra c t ic
e s r es
p .

N d t h ab n c e of t hi s d ub l y t m f p ll ing f omJ
or oes e se o e s s e o s e r

e c om mon ig in f C and J T h
.

r ai se an y d ifc ul t ies a to t h s or o

y t emof J w h ich i c n i t ntly u d t h ug h out i


. . e
s ing l e s s s o s s e se ro s
,
id nt ic al w it h n eit h e r f t h C o th og ap h i
e a nd t h p o b ab il it y e r r es : e ro
i t h t t h J c i be w ho md e ni d nd c
.

t he f r e o re s a e . c te d hi
s r , o r se a o r re s
t x t al
e ,l v ell d all v ariat ion in p ll ing a h w ent al ng On
so e e s s e , s e o .

th th
e o h and t h a ig n t h at t h J c ib t oo ha w k ed
er e re re s s e s r e, s
f oman iginal t h at contained m v ariet y f c ibal p ac t ic
, .
, or
r or so e o s r r es .

T h u it i c h a a c t e i t i c o f t h o e
s s r c t ion f C in w h ich t h c nd
r s s se s o e se o
y te m f o t h ograp hy (
.

s s o r i e B s p xx i x )app ea t h at abb v iat i n


. .
, ee . rs, re o s
a re u ed f s ba t and por w he a l w he in C t h e w d a e er , re s e se re os or s r
w rit t n in f ull B ut in t h J t x t a im il ar p ac t ic e m
.

e a be t a ed , e s r l
y r ce
. .

S W ll 0 t N n t 1 902 1 ee e s, . a . o e . .
T he T w o Tex ts x x vii

t he bb e vi at i ns are e mp l y ed in t h se c t io ns c o re pond ing to


a r o o e r s

t h e of C in w h ich t h am
os e abb re v iat ions o cc u ; a nd o nl y in e s r

A nd t he inf e n c e t o be d aw n f o mt h e e fa c ts is
.

t h se ec t ions
o s er r r s

c l a I t w ould se emce tain t hat bo t h c ibe s had be fo e t h em


.

e r . r s r r

a v e rsi n f t he o igin al te x t w it te n by t w o 0 py is t
o o an d t h at
r r 0 s:

w hi l e t he c ibe of C ha fait h fully p od uc e d t h d iffe e nt p ell


s r . s re r e r s

ing s o f t he t w c py ist t he J c ib e ha p e e v ed but one o f


o o s, . s r s r s r

th e pe c ul ia i t i f o ne o f t he Oopy ist s H e n c t he g e nesis of C


r es o e

a nd J m
. .

ig h t be b ie y e p ese nt d as foll o w s
. r r r e :

A ( ig inal t x t ) or e

B (
inte r md i e ate te t ) x

b
() T H E T wo V ER S I O NS
W h en w e t u n to c on id e m c l o ely t he t w o MS S d esc ibed
.

r s r o re s r

e p oe m
.

abo v w e sh all nd t h at t h e y c o nt a i n t w o v e rsio ns of t h


e,
,

d iffe ring in v a i ous d e t ail s and t h at w h il e t he C te x t o n t he


r : .
,

w h ol e upp li es t h
,
s e be t te v e sion t he J t e x t is t he ul t of a r r . re s

f ee h andl ing of the o ig inal and t h us c ontains mod i cat ions


,

r r r

w h ic h d e t ac t v e ry c onsid e rab l y f omi t s v al ue as a c o p y o f th


,

r e r

or ig inal te x t .

()
i I n t h e st p l ac e t h e J sc rribe w ill be fo und t o m i t f o re

H e om
, .

q u n tely c ta i n n c er a y w o ds it s it i t u e o nl y o ne
e ess r r s r

l ine (1 1 3 08) c mp l te l y but his t o tal omi sions a e c onside abl e


.
, ,

o e : s r r

an d a e f a m o e num S omet ime he d op s


.
,

r r e o us t h an t h o e of C
r r s s r

met ical easons in o d e t o O btain w hat


.

a w o rd appa e nt l y f o r r r r r r

be eg a rd ed as a m H e ee m
,

r o e e gul a l ine s t o h a v e d isl ik e d t h


r r e r . s

e l isio n o f unst es e d v o w e l s w h t h e al o r be fo e
( r i n
se i on ) a n d e r x r r :

in o rd e t o gi v e a t e s t o t h ese l ig h t y ll ab l es b e f e q ue nt l y o m
r s r s it s r s

unim po rtant monosy ll abic w o ds f o mt he t ex t Ex r r . :

C no bu hauest w el ha pe cl aw .
,
sc r e .

J no bu hauest scharp e claw e (l


f such o m
. .
, .

T h e e a e o v e ft y c a e
r r r i io ns in J t he w o d s s o ss r s

w l and u e b ing m
e c r ost f e q ue nt l y d opped t h oug h n o 3st ba t
e r r

m
, , , ,

f or ;] a n d u t a e al l t e a ted i n r
si i l a f a h io n Ex r J l 2 8 3 r s : :

u t l 444 : sum 1 1 040 c f al o 1 1 6 1 5 6 6 7 7 1 4


. . . .

[ f orb ] l 3 56 [ ] [ :
] : s

1 02 2 1 2 07 Many of t he se o m issions it m
. . . . .
, , ,

, . ig h t be add d sp oil t he ,
e ,

s ca ns io n an d t h e e fo e can sca c e l y h av e be e n ch arac t e is t ic o f


r r r r

T h e n again a w o d i o c c a io nally o m it t e d f o m
,

t he ig i nal te x t
or

r s s r

J be cause it meaning w a app are ntly unfamil ia to t he sc ibe


.
, ,

. s s r r :

E x [ h 3e] l 7 01 [ l ] bles (in l ate h and ) 1 7 48 ; w h il e in ot h e


. : o . i es r . r

1
I t i f c u p ibl th t m f th mi i n w d u t th f t th t a so ere e o e ac a

a y
s o o r se oss e e o e o ss o s

m
,

in th c i b p ini n uc h w d w d und nt nd unn c



e s r e s o o s a or s ere re a a e e ss r co

mn c u f mi i n f mL tin MS S
,

o a se o o ss o ro a .

c 2
xx viii In tr oduction
ca es no d oub t the om
s ission m a
y h a v e be e n d ue t o c are l essness .

Ex [ ubs] l 66 7
. s . .

b e id s o m ng w o d s t h e J s c r ib e i s O fte n fo un d
()
ii B u t it t i s e r ,
.

i nt od uc ing int his t e x t ch


r ang s i n th o d er a nd h O f w d e e or c i ce o or s .

h f oll o w ing a e in t an c e s of such ch ang e s i n t h w o rd


() T e a r s e

rd e an d it i
o ig ni c ant t h at in ea ch c a e t he rhy t h m
r, of s s s

t he l ine i n J sue a s a e sul t o f t h e ch ange : E x



. rs r .

C T o me heo h i mon send re e

J T me h i e mone he o send (
. .

. o 1 r . .

C H e f be laue d ies t o m e m en h ro c

J H e of t o me be leued ies h e mmnch (


. .

. r l o e . .

T h e e a e h ow v e o t h e in t anc e s w h e e t h hyt h mis


r r ,
e r, r s r e r

p ese v ed in pite of ch ange in t he w o d o d e Cf


r r s s r -
r r . .

B)
( I nst an e s o f t he c
ang e of w o r s are st i ore nu e r ous ch d ll m m .

F l
ai ing t o n e rstan a w or u d
in his o i i na ( a w or d d rg l d
g e ne ra res e r e ll y p
i n t h e s ri e w o u so eti vd
es J c b ld m m
m
.

b
s u st it ut e a w o d w it a to t a i fe re nt ean i : r: h lly d f ng Ex
m
.

C bov n e str in d , bouhof lyn a (


'
ba nn e, bar e J l C J
m
. . . . .

l C ( J
cho k er i n e,
g co h er i n g (
e ay telen , l C
J mahte b (
. . . . .

l eo

O ag ain t he sub st it u t io n m
. .

r igh t be d ue t o t h d i t e e s re o

e p l ac e a w o d t h at w a
r p o sib ly b e co m ing a ch aic b y r s s r

o ne o f a m o e fam
,

il ia k ind E x C chan ling J cha ng r r : . : .


,
.

l ing ( l C w 3 J b ( l . C i tid J i w u j . e e, . er e . .
,
. r i

l( C unhw a t J un hap (l C w u p hipe e, r sc

C mi m m m
. . . . .
,

J t v hip (l . re
psc J i n y ( l e . . sr e e, . s e .

C an f ale l n d J of all l nd (
. l o e, . e o e .

I n eac h of t h e e c a es i t i hig h l y p obab l e t h at


s rat h t h an s s r er

J p esent t he o igin l f m: and t hi i sug geste d by t he b eak


r s r a or s s r

d o w n Of t he hyme in J in simil a cases w h e e t h va iat i n o cc u s


r r r e r o r

yming p osition E x
.

in t he h

r .

C manne. ba n n J ma n ba m e
(1 1 3 8 9 90
) e . ri e r .

C l ue e eu e J lu t on r
(1 1 4 5 7 8 ) e e e e

m st mst (1 1 92 3 4)
-
. . .

C n or . e J n b eo er . or, e er .

Cf al so
. 1 3 56 1 57 8 589 90 1 1 4950 1 2 7 7 8 , , , , ,

1 487 8 .

A nd , J c b
t er, t he c s ri e h ly fu r h
as onsist e n tc i n tr od u ed i n to
m m h ch h h y cc
.

his tex t od ern i sed f or s, w i , w e n t e o ur at t he e nd o f a


l f q ly
in e, re ue nt inj hym
ure t he r x e c n ml y m
T he e ist e n e o f o r a rh e s
g lf m
.

ch c
i n su C p
ase s in oint s t o t he r e t e nt io n o f t he o ri ina
.
or s in
h v
t at e rsion Ex : . .

C ha 3t . w ajt J hayht
e w au h t ( 1 1 1 0 5 6) r e . e r e .

C da3 .
-
l a3 J
d y
e l w
( ll 1 1-
4 1s 2) e . a e s a e .

C f uli b. ul i O J vlwl
e

uli j ( ll 1 2s3 9 40
) e

. o e e az s e ) .
xxx Intr odu ction
consonants to d enote a sh ort p ec e d ing v ow e l ( c f C d dsp l l r . o e e

l 1 2 09 hw uc h l 93 6 3a e l 1 2 2 2 C d d l 1 543 c e rr o

ap h y m
. .
.
,
.
,

Of t he t h ee y te m t he (
.
,

h g ust i n al l p o b a
B) o rt o s s s, r r r

bilit y be d es c ib ed as be l ong ing t o t he ea rl ie t d at e I n fac t t h at


r s .

s ste m i
y w ll be o f u n d t o c o in c id e i n a l mo st a l l i t s e e n t ia l d e t a i l s ss

c f h e t eat m e nt o f O E a co h w m e d ial g ) w it h t h e sp e ll in g s
( t r

cha acte ristic of w o k s w ri tten abo ut 1 2 00 e g O H H mili s


. . .
, , ,

o e

W
r r ,
. . . .
,

S J ulia na S aw l a d and A nc en Ri w le ( es T it u s M S ) A n d r r .

if a fu t h e su gg est ion m
.
, ,

r ay be h aza d d it is no t at al l unl ik e l y
r r e ,

t h at in t h ose se c t ion o f t h C te x t w h re t h is ort h og raphy


s e . e

appea s w e h a v e t h r e t e x t fait h full y re p od uc e d i n it s o iginal r r

fo mas it l e ft t he aut h o p en
,

r r s

On the ot h e h and t he () o t h ography su gg ts t h at som


.

r e a r es

am o un t o f m
,

od e rnising h as tak e n p l ac e in t h e se c t ion s in w h ich it

is found T he use of 3 ( . for O E hand O E g gu t t and p al ) be l o ngs . . . .


,
. .

to a l igh t l y l at e d ate t h an t h
s e o t h og ap hy : t h
r e appe aran c e r r

h p s t o f urt h e r sc ib al al t e at ion w h il e t h
of w
(f o O E w ) oi n
r t e r r :

for O E do)al so ee m
. .

un u ual an d rat h e p uzz l ing u e f o ( s t o po int s

e d i e ct io n W
s r s o

in t he sam h at t he sc ibe of t he inte me diate co py has


. .

r . r r

app ar e n tl y d o ne in t h e l att e instanc e s is to su b st it ut e for t he r 0 cc

of h i s o igin al t h sy m r bo l s being e qui v al e nt in Angl o F e nch fo ms


e -
r r

p oems
.
,

I n L a Vi ale S in t J osap h a e fo e x am pl e (eone o f t h e A F z, r -


r

forms in and co o ccu as v a iant s


. .

in c l ud e d in t he C and J . o r r

o f as fo m e c om mn ound v alue of all t h ee p obabl y being


.

s th r ,
o s -
r r

Ex C quo J qu o C . : . n J n : C a vog l
er , J a vo g le
. e r : . soe seo e, . e :

C d o l J d oel C j evn jeovn J jofn I t i mo eo v e not w it h


. .
,

.
, . : . o e, e, . e . s, r r,

o ut it s signican ce t h at in t h e C t e t of T h e Ow l an d th e N ig h ti n x

al t e nat i v e fo r m in a
, .

g al e, r
(f or c a ) cc a s i o n a ll y o c c u r c f
s bo s o : e

o ag ain fo m in
.

l( (f r
o c f s h (l rw e l n s so r eor e o c e

he mfor ho m(
. . .

(l . l o w h il st w de ( l n od ( 1 3 88) . o . e .

hav e in each case an e p lac ed afte t he ( in a l at e T h e se r o r

fo m t h en p oint to t he confu sion w h ich p e v ail ed in t he c ibal


r s, r s r

e o fo rm
,

use o f so a and o and t h e re fo re th s in t h o t h og ap hy


, s : e
() -
a r r

must be regard ed a so many F ench sc ibal sp ell ings w h ic h h a v e s r r


2
,

1
S imil v ar ariants o ccu r el sew h ere . In D mSi i (Dig by M S
a e r z . 86 ) the s ric b e
wri te s as (
for G oed (
O E G od ) . . r oed (
OE . . r ed
)1 2 54 :
. noen (
O . E nOn)
.

l 43 3 ; w il e h h
oe oc urs reg ul arl in l a e of heo is hoe ( c
al ong sid e heo) is y p c Th
m
.
.

f
al so ound in L a3a on s

ru t ; 30 c ( =heo ) o urs in Ro e rt o f l ou e ster s

B cc b G c
C hronicle And w il e in O E H o ili es the or s soven ( h
O E seof on ), son ( OE m f m
m B
. . . . . . .

) (
si on , nod e O E n od
) a e ar , i n L aga on s r ut, again , t he s e ll ing so i s

. . pp p
f q
re ue ntl ound in l a e Of oyf p c
F c h c ib l f m
.

2 F or o th er r en s r a or s, see App end i xI .


() (
a ii) .
T he T w o Tex ts
bee n ubst it ute d fo the no mal eo f rm found in t he (
s r B) sec tion r -
o s s

of C an d t h ro ug h ou t t h
.
,
e w h ol e o f J .

B ut w h il the () eth o g ap hy t h u be ars e v i d e nt t race s o f


a or r s

mod e ni ing t he ame an be said f the J te x t and w it h ye t


r s s c o

m
.
,

g re a t e ce rr t ain t y T h e d e v l o p e n t o f . t he d ip h t h o ng s a n on ey e , ,

()ci b e f e g u t
ort an d p al h t h e u se f y i n p l ace of an ea l ie 3 o r r

e m
, . .
, ,

a nd t h e ch an e o f O E g to w af t e l and and in t h ed ial r r,


g
posit ional l t h ese d ta il be l ng to a l ate d at e t h an t he fo rms
. .

e s o r

o f e it h e th e ( o h h og ap hy
r
) t t a r e or r

F romt he abo v e consid e at ions it t h e e f e be come cl ea t h at


.

r r or s r,

in t h m eat te of p ll ing C suppl ie a mo accu ate copy of t he


r s e . s re r

C ep od uc t h doubl e y ste mof pe ll ing w h ich


,

o i ginal t h an J
r r r es e s s

p obably gu ed in t he inte md iate c opy w h e e one sc ibe had


. .

r r r e r r

at te m pted t o md e ni e t he ot h e be ing c ont ent t o copy the te x t


,

o r s r

e in te m
,

as it st ood J o n th e o t h e h and gi v es us t h
. e diat e t e x t af te
r r ,
r

so m e am
.

ount of e v i io n and a fte it s p e ll ing in pa t ic ul a had


r s ,
r s ,
r r,

bee n b oug ht u p t o d ate H nc t he se ct ions of C in w h ich t he (


r B) e e .

may ea onably be eg a d ed as e p od uctions


.

o t h og ap hy a ppe a
r r rs, r s r r r r

of th e aut h o t x t t he () se c tio ns g iv e us t h at o iginal in a



r s e : a r

sl ig h t l y m od i ed f m w h ile J suppl ies a v e rsion t h at ha u nde


or : . s r

gone a sy ste m at ic ch ange o f pe ll in g S .

S R B A L E RR O RS
()
d C I

I n t he fo g ing e ct ion s t he m
.

re o ain feat u e in w h ich t h


s e C and r s

J te x t d iff f o mw h at may be ega d ed as the o igin al v e sion


, .

s er r r r r r

ha v e bee n n te d W
.
,

e h a v e se e n v e b al ch an ges in J
o . o th og ap h i r r r

cal m o d icat io n in bo t h C an d J and i t no w


s em ain t o e x am ine r s

t h o e d e p a t u e f mt he o iginal w h ich c am
.

s r r s ro e abo ut in t h e p oc s r r es

o f c o p y ing and w e e d ue t o , c ibal e ro S uch e o is ine v itab l e


r s r r r . rr r

i n all t an c ip t ion of M S S
r s r but in t he p ese nt instan c e t he r i k . : r , s

w as in c ease d o w ing to t h
r e fac t t h at b o t h M S S w e e b ased o n an
, . r

inte m r ed ia te Co py w h ich i t sel f d o ub t l e s c o ntained om , e am o u nt of s s

inacc u ac y H e nce t h e a e t w o so u c e o f c ib al e o in C and J


r re r r s s r rr r

So me e h av bee n tak e n o v e f omt he co m


. .

mon o iginal
.

rro rs e r r r

b o v e fo e x am p l h l h a e c l ea l y d ue to
( see 3 ()a a es ) w i e o t e s,
r r r r

e l at te it m
,

t h c i be s f C and J t h e m
e s r o se l v es an d of t h
. . a be aid
y : r s

t h at w h e rea s t he e o o f J a e l a g el y d u t o th sc i be s at t e m pt
rr rs . r r e e r s

at i m p ovi ng his te x t t h ose of C a e mainly of a mc h anical nu


r , r e

co n c i u k ind t he esul t of an at te mp t t o c opy ath e t han to


.

s o s r r r

im
,

p o v e t h te x t
r e .

I n g e ne al t he sc i bal e o rs w ill be foun d t o be t h ose c om mon


,

r r rr

to all t ansc ibe rs but t h e y a e by n o m


r r ean
: w it h o u t a S pe c ial r s

in te es t for apa t fr omt he m


r , o e o b vio us e m
r e nd at io ns t h y sug g est r e ,
xxxii In tr odu ction
h y
t e a e n ot w i t o h
r u t t h e i v a lu e i n c l e a ri n g u p d i f c ul t ie s c o n n r e c t e d
w it h c e rt ain l i d esp e at i oc r .

T h u w e n d inst anc es of s :

()i D i tt g ap y h Ex C oo n r n 1 44 6 C a n
.
d J n n .
1 : 1 3 5.
8 e o e . : . . e e . :

C and J lu te i (
.
fo l u t i ) l 1 3 88 C of f l 1 46 9
. s s s r s s . : . o . .

()ii H ap l g ap h y E x C b [ ]
o r s n g 1 1 1 .
J n u b [ f o
. : n u . o er e s o . .
,
e r

C h l 6 C h i [ ] h ld l 1 7 1 3
b ) 1 2 05 : e cl i
. u es
[ ] a p 1 6 7 .
s
r e c r e . : . s c e e . .

Cf al so 1 7 6 7 (ee n ote ) and l 930 (e e note )


. . s . s .

()i ii T r ansp i ti o n f le tt e E : Cos b u t e


( f o L u s
o t e ) l 2 4 9 : rs . x . . re r r .

C blod (. fo b ld ) l 3 1 7 C wr l ( of o w r ap) l 1.
2 1 8 C h l a
: d ( f o . or ) r . : . r

hald ) 1 1 5 7 6 C i h c
(f o : G [ a r t f
( o r t ) 1 r1 7 2 1 p e r o e . .

W
.
. .

()
i v ong d ivi i on f w d s Ex : C is h l ( f o i h t )1 2 3 C o or o e r s o :

m
r s

m
e

m
. .
. . .

is t u n g ( f o is tun g )
e e l 51 5 C r a n i i n J n y in e
( f o a n t i n e) e e, o e r e

l 7 59 se e no t e C and J mnn h n de ( fo mn n h
. .
.

on d
) l 1 4 0 2 o es o r o es e :

r m
:

fo h g l ) 1 1 6 02 C m
.
. . .
,

C and J h 3 1 h w } (
. . o e ), o an n nn e ; ( f r an o e . : . e e o

k n n e) l 1 7 2 5
e . .

v si m
1
() C o nf usi n o f il a l t t s o r e er

() 1 w i t t
a e n f o r h E) x C r ( f o h e s
) l 7 4 8 se e n o t.e : C . : . es r .
,
.

b ] (
u f o b u h ) 1 1 1 2 5
r ; 6 1 4 0 5 1 4 2 8 r: C ,
n b r ( f o n h ) .
, ,
. o r e

G i nn ( fo i n noh) .C hp ( fo hh) o r . e r e

I 1 405 C h o ud ib . J houbsyl e ( : fo h uhij ) l 1 586


. s e, . y r o s ye .
,

se e n o t e c f al o 1 6 51 . s . .

h w itte n fo Ex J bihouhte (for bihouhte) l 1 99


r r . : . .

C f loh ( for op ) l 92 0 C bun ch ( for bun h) 1 1 1 6 49 : c

note ) J mith
.
. . .
,

1 6 51 s e al so C hw i t tu l 1 3 56 (
: e . es . : . s es

l 1 2 06 (note ) . .

c o n fuse d
C
(y) w and 1 E w ri t
( f i t ) 1 1 7 1
) o . x . : . s s r r s e .

C bin n ( f w i n n e) l 6 7 0 C bi (
.
, e fo or l 905 . : .
,
r . .

and r c o nfu e d E x C ) C
()
8 t d a t
(f or d a l 1 1 s0 6 : . . : . r rr . .

wa t 3 a t (f o w a r s,3a e
) 1 1 1 2 2 1r e 1 2 2 2 : C h i
r t ( f o rr e, rr .
,
. e r

hi ) 1 1 3 41 C aw t ( re fo a w er ) C wbt( : fo e r e s r

w b ) l 1 3 60 C m i t m fo m mp )
. . .

e er pe ( .i : se e. s e r sr e e

al so C bar f a t l 91 8 C a h fo t a ch e ) l 1 449
( b ) e ( or : r c e r e

m
. . . . .

m
,

and u c on fuse d Ex C
() n e : f on
( f
f o o
) 1 1 1 3 5 r r r

am m
.
, . . .
,

1 6 1 4 C hn ( fo h ) 1 88 : 1 C h i n ( f o o h i ) 1 8 90 r : r :

C w i do n (fo w isd om) I 1 482 : C un (f um) 1 1 598


. . . .

s r s or s :

C inmaj (
. . . .

f o wnn ab ) l 1 6 1 8 C w on hd (
. e ie r f r e e . : . r e e e o

w r ueh ed ) l 1 400 see n ot e o e .


, .


() d i f Ex C (o w n b ) l 901 : C
3
3 d f

w t t e n o r w n r . . : . e e r e c . .

1
See N pi a er , OE . . G lasses, p xxxi .
,
f or si mil ar s ri al errors c b .

2
S inc th
y d i tinc ti n b tw n th tw l tt w th d t pl c d b v
e e o nl s o e ee e o e ers as

Wll h w v f qu tly d
e o a e a o e

I(
) f w ) th c n f u i n i
or ily i t ll ig ib l
, e o s o s eas n e e . e s o e er re en re a s
w in t d f p in p l c
s ea wh th p w itt n w
o p b bly ig in l ; c f p a es ere e r e as ro a or a . ane

l 1 65 See n ote

m t x clu iv ly in th
. . .

3
T he use of

for b) is
3 ( f ound al os e s e e (
B) or t h og ra phy of
T he T w o Tex ts xxxiii
Od er
( f or 11 9 03 ,
90 5 : C . .
( f
f or ul i e b)

l . 1 2 3 9:
. fo r sul ie o)
C su l ied ( 1 2 40 :
"

l . see also C h oud s i lw . l . 1 586


( no t e ) .

i t w rit te n fo r u : C and Ex J fo r bih


biha i tes t ( a ues t )

J m
. . . .

l
1 322 :
. s i thes (fo r s nu w es ) . l . 1 2 06 , see no t e : see a so l
n ote s ll
7 59, 7 6 3 , 1 1 89
m
.

mi t
.

0
() 8t a nd 3t co n fused . Ex . : C . s
(f or i jt) l . 78: C .

n u3te
(
f o r n us te ) l . 1 7 51 : see a so l 1 1 6 42 , 1 3 00
. .

Of t he e rro rs mnt i
ve t ho e incl ud ed und e ( ev) a e o ned a bo s r r

T h e y a e all p resum
m
,

w rt h y o f l ose att e nt i n
o c abl y d ue t o bad ly o r

w l t te s in t he in te m
.

fo r e e diat e copy
r an d an insp ect io n o f r

se e f a i m
,

t he h and w i t in g h a act e i t ic of t he pe i od (
r c ile ) w i ll r r s r cs s

s h ow how easily such e rs migh t a ise w i th a a el e ly cop i d rr o r , c r ss e

te x t to w o k f ro m M ost o f t he e o r it w ill be not ed oc u in rr rs, c r

B) s ct io n of t he t e x t t h at ect ion in w h i h t h s ibe aim


.
,

t he ( e ed ,
s c e cr

at m e re copy i ng and t oo k no l ibe t ie s w i t h h i t x t B ut w h at i


,
r s e . s

pa t icul a ly val uabl e in connect ion w it h t h ese sc ibal e s is t he


r r ,
r r ror ,

fac t t h at an acq uaintance w it h t he main te nd e ncies w ill h elp


g eat ly in t he sol ut ion of te x t ual d if cul ties I n mo e t h an one
r r

p assage e me nd at ion suggest t h emse l v es fo ead ings w h ich see med


.

s r r

hope lessly c up t (e g 1 1 C 7 48 J 1 2 06 C 1 3 2 2 1 400


orr :

mend t h e ms l ves
,

em
. . . . .
, ,

w ill be fo und t o com


.

and t h es e n d at io n e s e

becau e t h ey a e pal aeo g ap h ically easy


s r r

By w ay o f umma y it can no w be tate d t h at in C and J w


.

s r ,
s . e

h ve t w ind epe nd ent c p ies of a ce tain t e xt 0 d at in g f omt he


.

a o o r r

st h al f J f o mt he cond h al f of th 1 3 t hcent u y T he te x t
.
,

r r se e r

f o mw h i h t h y w e e b t h p ied w as it sel f a opy of t he o ig inal


.
, , .

r c e r o co c r

p e m and it w as p bably w it te n by t w o c ibe s ne of w h om


o : ro r s r o

ai m
,

ed at in t od ucing a m od e ni e d pell ing w h il e t he ot h e w a


r r s s ,
r s

co nt e nt to co p y t h e t e x t as it stood Th e C sc i be in d ue ourse r c

mad e a t ans ipt o f t h i composite t ex t o t h at in his ve sio n w e


. .
, ,

r cr s s r

have a d oubl e sy ste mo f t h og aphy p ese v d T he J s ibe o n


,

or r r r e cr ,

h and aimed at mak ing a t h ugh e v ision he e w ote


. .

th e ot h e r o ro r : r -
r

e w h o l e poe m in a m e md e n sp e ll ing and al t e ed t he


,

th d ing or o r ,
r re a s

w h e e ve h e a w t
r H e has t h e e f e t ak e n nsid e abl l ibe t ie
r s . r or co r e r s

w it h t h e te x t H e has f e q ue nt ly o m it te d w o d w hich h con


. r r s e

sid e e d unn ecessa y o w h ich p es n te d d if ul ty


r he ha ch ange d
r r r e c : s
,

th e wo d o d in pl ces f e q ue nt ly t t h inj u y o f t he m
r -
r er et e a r o e r r :

he has int d uc d n w w o d s fo v a io u e as n and t t im


,

ro e es h ee r r r s r o s, a

is found co nf using t he ol d e ine ion I t i t h e re fo 0 w h ich r x s . s re .

MS . C . and w as p ro bably charac e ris ic o f the second scribe o f t he i nte r t t md i e a te

t xt
e .
4 T HE D
. AT E OF T H E POE M
I n t he v a iousr at t e mpt md f mt im t
s a e ro e o ti mt d e o ate the

p oe mw id e d iff en of pinion h av b n v al d T h a l ie t e ee re e e e e r s

w d W
,
er ce s o .

e d ito S v
t en nr, f lle sot o n i n
,
nn o t in g oit w i t h
e t he ig n ar co ec re

of R i h a d I
c
( 1 1 8 9r T n B in k M i a n d S k e a t pl a ede i t r ,
or r s c

a bout t h m id d l o f t h 1 3 t h e nt u y and ( o d in g t S k at )
e e e c r ,
acc r o e

e t ainl y n t l t e t h an t h t im e of H en y III

p t iv d it ions of Wa ton
r
c r o a r e

w h il M ad d n and H az li t t in t h ei

e e r r es ec e e r s
,

H i t y a igned as it d at e t h b g inning f t h e ign f E d w a d


s or ,
ss s

e e o e r o r

I
not l at e t h n Ed w a d I

(1 2 7 2 O t h ag
n e rs

hav in l in d to t he a l i d t e Wigh t M at ne and W


,
or r a r

l k
'

e c e e r er a . r z r c er
,

o nn ct ed it w i t h th e ig n f J hn ( 1 1 99 e B e ch ug o o rs s

W
c e r

g te d 1 2 1 8 2 5 M b h and Hall 1 2 2 0 e ll
es ors ac1 2 1 6 25 0 s ,
,
.
,

w h il Gad o w w o ul d pl ace it i n t h e on d
e t h i d d ad f t he e s c or r ec e o

1 3 th e nt u y c r

I n inv t igating an w t h i q u t i n f d ate a t a t m


.

es e ay p e h p s es o o ,
s r r a s

s afe ly b m ad e f emt h fa t t h at th h and w iting f t he a l i MS


ro e c e r o e r er .

l g h h l f h h nt ury F om h i i t
( i e b o n t o t e
e t s f t 1 3 t rs t a o e ce . r s

f ll ow th at t h iginal t t m
. .

o s eu t h av b l n ged
or it h t thex s e e o ,
e er o e

O pe ning d e ad f t he 1 3 th n t u y
c es o t o th nd f th e 1 2 th ce r or e e o :

f or s in 0 i a ce py f a py f t h at o iginal m t im m
s co o co o r so e e o re

t h t an m i io n t be m
.
,

o l r w oul d h av e t o be all ow ed f
e ss n
ad e or e r s ss o .

A nd t h i i ugh ly bo ne ut by t h
s s ro t h og p hi of t h C t x t
r o e or ra es e e

S uch m
. .

od e ni ing pp ea in t he () ti n be l ong to t h
r s s as a r a se c o s e

ea l ie h al f o f th 1 3 t h nt u y w h il e t h B o t h o grap h y w h i h
r r e
() ce r e r c

may reas n bly be eg d ed a met hing lik t h o igin l be


,

o a r ar s so e e r a ar s

c lo em bl anc t o t h p ell ing h a


se r e s e te i t i f w k e s 1 2 00 c ra c r s c o or s c . .

T he i t h i h ow ev
re s t o be dd d t h at t h m e p b abl d t e
s, e r, a e : e or ro e a

i s af t a t h
er , r
e t h n b e f 1 2r 00 f i n at h (B) t h g ap
or e , h y w : or e or o r e

nd a i n l f
occ s o m in n O E a or p ll ing n t f und in
s
1
o a s e o o

t in f m in
. .

1 2 t h nt u y w k a w ell a
ce r or
2
,
sOE ) w hi h s ce r a or s
3
o . it c

h and t h omp a at iv
.

a r e rar e in t h 1 2 th nt u y On t he t h e ce r o er e c r e

f F n h w d f omt h v abul a y f th p oe mand


.
,

ab n
se ce o re c or s r e oc r o e ,

t h d l it y w it h w h i h t h
e e e Ol d E ngl i h in i n l y te mh bee n
c s ex o a s s as

1
Cf houle (
l l
p r oud e (
m
. . .

2 S eeM b hME ors ac Gr a 1 21 a 1


C f mn (l m (l
. .
, . . .

3 co e
. . co e .
T he D a e o t f the P oe m xxxv
pres v er ed , see mt l o
y e n d su pport to t he ear l ie r d at e In an case ,

g m
.

n it h
e e r of t ese ar u h
e nt s can be ca e d d e cisi e ; and al l t a t ll v h
can safe ly
be said is t hat t he an d w rit in and t he or t o ra ies h g h g ph
of g h k m p
t a e n t o e t e r , see p
t o o int to t he e ri od 1 1 901 2 1 0 o r
(
l at e ) as t h at in w h i h t h poe mw as mo t p obably w it te n
r c e s r r

Wit h ega d to e vid ence of an inte nal kind the poemin t h


.
,

r r r , ,
e

st place contai ns a efe re nce t o a ce t ain K ing H enry w hi h


r r r c

ha an im
, ,

s po t ant bea ing on t hi question of d at T he eference


r r s e . r

i as foll o w s
s :

at be K ing H e n i
pat und e
y r r

J su hi o ule d me ci ! (
,

1 1 1 091 e s s s o r .

and f om it v e y na t u e it can o nly all ud e to a d e p a ted m


r s r ona ch r r r

e fo mo f be ne d i t ion be ing one t h a t w as use d i n co nnec t io n


, ,

th r c

w it h t h e d ead T h at it fe s to H en y III ( d 1 2 7 2 ) i at any re r r s,

p o sible fo uch an a sump t ion w o ul d t h ow t he p oe m


.

at e im
.

r ,
s : r s s r

int t he l a t q ua t e r o f t he 1 3 t hce nt u y a d ate ul e d o ut by t he


o s r r r

e v id e nce abo v e T he all usio n m us t t h e e fo e be


. o nn ected w i t h r r c

H en y II (d 1 1 89)5 w it h th at gen ous p atron of l e t te rs w h ose


r

er

munice nc is comme mo ated by mo e t h an one w iter of t he


.
,

e r r r

pe iod and w h ose l e gisl ative efo ms const it ute a l and ma k in ou


r
2
,
r r r r

nat ional h i t o y B ut if t he H e n y all usion be t h u inte rp e te d


s r r -
s r

t he fo w a d l im it of t he d ate be om
.
,

e s th e y a of H e n y d e at h :

r r c e r r s

t h at i t he poemcanno t h av e be en w ritt e n be fo e 1 1 89
s, A nd r

w it h e q ual c rt ainty it m
.

igh t be ad d e d it cannot h a v e bee n


e

in t h at y ea H n y III cam
, ,

w i tte n aft e 1 2 1 7
r f r e t th e t h on e
: or r e r o r ,

a nd w it h t h
, e lat e H e n y e ig n ing t h e fe e nce w o ul d not h av e
r r r e r r

be e n f ee f omso m e am ou nt o f am
,

r r big uity T h pe iod 1 1 891 2 1 7 e r

e ee mt o be a l ik ely on fo t h
.

w o ul d t h e e f r or e com
s p osit ion of t he e r

p oe m a d t e in cl ose ag em e n t w it h t h
a e e v id en e se t o ut abo v e re c .

T h e e i h o w e v e ye t anot h e
r s, on t e m p ary all u ion t h at callr, r c or s s

f r o n id e at io n I n t w o pl a es in t he te x t e fe e n e is m
o c s r . ad e t o c ,
r r c

a Maste N ich ol a f G uil d f d H e is d esc ibe d as a l e i t h n V


r s o or r c r c, e

living at Po t i h amw ho had n t h it h e t o eceived t he e cognition


.

r s ,
o r r r

he d ese v e d and t he q ue t io n t h e e fo e ari es w h e t h er it i


r : s r r s ,
s

possibl e to id nt ify t h M as te N ichol a t h u me nt ioned o as to


e e r s s s

t h ow so m e m
,

r e l igh t o n t h at t e of d at e I t w o ul d h av t o be a r . e

1
J H t (S l ti n f mE l y Mid d l E g li h II 56 6) th t m
all sugg e s s e ec o s ro ar e n s a so e

f H n y p t ti n f m
.
. ,

nt in t n
re ce s a in t l ice of d t in 1 1 1 093 e r

s ro ec o o s re s s re e rre o

m min t l g b tw n [ i ] v d by th int v nt i n f K ing


. .
,

wh e re so e

s re o -
e ee s sa e e er e o o

H y th S nd f mth v ng n f w ng d hu b nd
,

e nr e e co , ro e e ea ce o a ro e s a .

C f G ui t d P vin L B i bl
2
. ol 31 8 ; l in P t
e d Bl i D ro s, a e . a so e er e o s, e

p res tig iis f or tuna e .


xxxvi I ntrod uc t ion

l
c e ri c o f the na m e of N ich olas, o ne asso ciate d w it h the diocese of

Sal isbury ,
in t he h Po tishamand G uild
j urisd iction of w h ich bot r

f d t hen
or l ay w hil e his co nd i t io n in t he ea ly p a t of t he 1 3 t h
: r r

e nt u y o e a l ie o ul d h av e t o be uch s t o sugg e st ne g l ect at


c
( r
) w r r r s a

th e h an d of t h aut h o i t ies s T he ch ance s are l e a l y again t u h


e r c r s s c

o ul d se e m o h av e be e n d on e w it h o m
.

an id e nt i at io n : e t it w t e s
y c

am o unt of plau ibil it y and w i t h sul t s no t w it h o ut t h e i he a ing


l
s re r r

on t h e q uest ion o f d ate T h u i n T h Ch a t a n d D o umn t . s e r er s c e s

i llustr a ting the H i s tor y of the C i ty an d D i o cese f


o S a li sbu r y i n the

1 2 tha nd 1 3 thCen tur i es , 2


e nt ion is ad e of o ne N ich ol au s cap el m m
l an u s arc hid i acon i w ho app ea a w itn to a d o umnt
rs s e ss c e 0 1 2 09
y t ak e n at G od l ming (
. .

L v e nt in in o d in n a G uild f
3
at er on , an a e
) or r r

1 2 2 0 re fe e nc is al
, mad e t one Nickolaus u bmni t cap i ta li
r e so o s o or

Gud ef d w ho i aid to h av e b e n connected w i t h t he C h ap e l of A ll


or ss e

Sain ts H e t m I f as ee ms at l east
,

e fo t he t w o p e ce d ing y e a
r r, r r rs
4
s

p ossibl e t he a ch d eacon ch aplain of 1 2 09 is t he submonito of


, .
,

,
r s r

th e C hap t r o f G uil d fo d i n 1 2 20 w e t h e n h av e cogn i an ce of a


4
e r s

J cl i Nich ol as by nam
,

e r c, e wh o up t o t h e y ea 1 2 2 0 h ad ass iat ions ,


r oc

w it h t h e d iocese o f S al i bu y and w it h G uil d fo d in p a t icul a ands r r r r,

wh o h ad h e l d d uring t h at t i m e no v e y l uc at iv e of ce I t is t ue r r r

t h at no con t m
.

p o a y eco rd of his connection w it h Po ti h m


e r r r r s a

ha as ye t om s e t o l igh t t h ough t h
c e N ich ol a i n q u st ion m a h av e
y ,
s e

sid ed t h e e be fo e p rocee d in g t o H e t m
re r e i n 1 2 1 7 ; a ch ang e
r r r

w h ich m a h a v e e sul t e d f o m h n g f b i h p B i h p H bert


y a c a e o s r e r o s ,
s o r

P oo e being succe d ed by his b ot h e R i h a d in 1 2 1 7


r e I n t h at r r c r

e v e nt so m
.

e d at e be fo
, 1 2 1 7 w o ul d be t he t im t o w h ich t he neg re e

l e ct all ud ed to in t he p oe mw oul d nat u ally apply and t h ough t he r :

e v id e nc
,
i im p e fe t inc the id nt icat i n is not compl e te y t
e s r c ,
s e e o ,
e

it is not w it h out i ts v al ue in ad d i ng t o t he p obabil it y of t he r

o p e nin g d ecad e s o f t h e 1 3 t hce nt u y as t h app ro x im at d at e o f r e e

t he co m p o it ion of t he p oem s .

A nd in k ee p ing w it h t h at d at e a e t ain ot h e consid e at io ns re c r r r ,

no ne o f w h ich i co n cl usi v e but w h ich t ak e n t og et h e


s affo d r, r

e v id enc o f a cum
, ,

ul at ive k ind
e T h u t he p oe t m igh t w e ll be e . s x

p e ct d to be t ay incid e nt ally om
e e k no w l e d ge o f e ve nt s connecte d
r s

w it h t h e pe io d : and so m e such h isto ical


r em inisce nce ee m s to r r s

S WG d w Eul und N htig ll pp 1 2 1 3 w h th


1
ee a o ie t t d ac a ere e case s s a e
th t tim
.
, , .
, ,

f or e rs e

Ed WD M
.

2
y L nd n 1 891 I 7 3 acra o o

gi t m d WJ n
. . .
, , ,
. .

S V tu
3
ee S i b i n
e s re L nd n 1 883 I 2 97
s ra ar s er e se , e o es , o o

I t m t ibi p ll d H tm d O mnibu S ti l ign d hu


. . .
, , .

4
e es ca e a e er er , e anc
s s: ea a

q u mt n t Ni h l u ubmnit p ituli d G ud f d p d imid i m


c,
a e e c o a s, s o or ca e e or arca ,
mi mt n ti d u bu nni
, ro a
t t nuit
e e ea a ra sac s o s a s .

I ntr od uc t ion

of consid e rab e l mat u ity r and l e arn in g


h ich w can scarce ly h av e

ckam ag
,

be e n w r it t e n be fore 1 1 8 6 , w h en Ne ,
ed 2 9, re t urne d to
E ngl and afte ho lp p ent ab road t he o f P a ris

r a e ri od s at sc o s .

T he use m ad e o f t h is so u ce s o n e a g ain a p t w i t ing r ugg e ts s ,


c ,
oe r

t o w a d t he e nd r f t he 1 2 t h e nt u y
s e a ly in t ho e fo ll o w ing c r or r

c nt u y
e I t is t ue t h at t he d ebt to M a ie d e F an e (e I nt o
r . r r r c s e r

d u ti n c 8 p l ii ) w it h
o g a d t o th e n igh t ingal e e p i od e and
x re r -
s ,

nam
.
, , ,

t h u e of Al f e d e i n co nn e t io n w it h t h p o v b of

e s r s c e r er s

t he p oemare bot h om pat ibl w it h an e a l ie d at e ; fo L au ti c e r r r s c

app ea ed c 1 1 7 5 r nd a v e i n of t h P ov b f A lf d has
a rs o e r er s o re

om d o w n f o mt h
.
,

c e e 1 2 t h e nt u y r Y e t t he ad op t ion o f t he c r

d ebat e f o m
.

a f mwh ich ou i h e d o n t he Co nt inen t t o


r or r s

w a d th r e cl o s f t he 1 2 th ce nt u y an d m
se o o e p a t icul a ly t h e r ,
r r r

massumed by t he d bat e in ou p esent p emt h e e


,

e l ab at e f or or e r r o ,
s

ag ain a e a g um e nt
r f o t he l ate d at e as i al so t he e fusal on
r s r r : s r

t he p a t o f t h e N igh t ingal t o a e p t e o d eal by bat t l e



th
r a a e cc r s

Way of s t tl in g t he d i p ute (ee 1 1 1 50 if no te ) T h at t he C MS


e s s . .
2
. . .

it el f w a w itt e n soon af t e 1 2 1 6 is sugg st e d by t he fact t ha


s s r t r e

t he sh o t A ng l o N m r an C h on icl e o f E n g l i h K in g
-
or w h i h p re r s s, c

c a i e o u p o min t h at M S b e ak s o ff ab up t ly at t h
s r e e yea 1 2 1 6 r r r

leav ing om pace fo the c nt inuation f t he Ch onicl at a


, ,

s e s r o o r e

l at d at and h e e again it w ould see mt h at t he p oe m in all


er e : ,
r ,

p obabil ity had been compo ed ome fe w y ea s ea l ie


,

r ,
s s r r r .

S o t hat e vi e w ing t h e e vid e n e a


r a w h le h w e ve incon c s o o r

e l usiv e e ach d e t ail m


, ,

d se mt o be
X

a
y in i t l f app e a a a e w o ul se r, c s e

est abl ish ed fo pl a ing t he p oemin t he a l y p a t o f t he 1 3 th


r c e r r

ce nt ury and f or p o int ing t th e e ign o f K ing J o h n 1 2 1 7


(1 1 99 ) o r

e p oe m
,

as t h e p e iod in w h ich t h r wa m ost p obably w it t e n s r r .

5 . T HE A U T H OR
Wh o the aut ho r of T he Ow l an d the N ig hti ng al e actua lly w as,
canno t be stat e d w it h an
y ce rt aint y In n e it he r o f the t w o M S S
nite a ti n md e t h e i n ont emp o a y ef n
.
.

is an d
y e sse r o a : er s o c r r r e re ce

to uppl y t h inf m
s at ion n ha t ad it i n any t h ing t o y n
e or : or s r o sa o

t h i p a rt i ul a po int
s c r .

I n any d i cu ion of t he que t i n h w e v s t he ss t w o name s o , o e r, re a re s

w hi h bv i u ly
c ll f on id ation On i t h at f J h n f
o o s ca or c s er . e s o o o

G uil d fo d w ho i d ibed in t he J e u MS a t h w ite f


r ,
s e scr s s . s e r r o

1
S N kam D N t R um d Wight (
ee ec R ll S i ) P f e a er e r o s er es re ace

H ll ugg ti n (S l ti n f mE ly Midd l E ng li h II 56 6 )
.
, .
, , .

2S l ee a so a

s s es o e ec o s ro ar e s

f n i md t th g d p a k pt by th Ju ti i rHub t
.
,

th t in l 1 7 32
a

Wlt d u ing Ri h d th Fi t b n f mE ngl nd in 1 1 94


, .
,
re ere ce s a e o e oo e ce e e s c a er

a er , r c ar e rs s a se ce ro a A D . .
T he A u th or xxx ix
c e rtai nve es contained in t h at M S t he ot he i N ich las of
rs : r s o

G uil d fo rd w ho i ment ioned at m l e ngt h in T he Ow l an d th


s so e e

N ig hti ng al its lf A nd ince S te v e nso n t ed ite d t he p oe m


e e s rs ,

t h e e t w o nam
.
,

es h av e be n d i cu sed in co nn e ct io n w i t h t h e

h ip but w it h ut any d ec i ive resul t Wh ile t he ea l ie


s e s s

aut h ors ,
o s . r r

sch ol a rs o n t h e w h ol ,
incl ined to a ce p t N i h ol as as t he aut h o
e, c c r,

r e ce n t ed ito rs h a v e o n id e e d at h e m o e se io u ly t h e cl aim o f
c s r r r r r s s

J h n t h ugh all alik e h av ag re ed t l eave t he q ue tio n an op en


o o e o s
'
,

o ne

minly
.

I n t he t pl a rs ce , the case fo r J oh n of G uil d f o r d res t s a

on the f ll w ing
o o co nsid e r at io ns :

()
1 I n t he MS ( see I nt rod uct io n
no te co n t ain ed 2) i n t he J e sus .
,

w e h av e d e nite e vid e n e o f t h e fa ct t h at J o h n o f G uil d fo rd w as c

a 1 3 t hce nt ury w rite r o f v e rse I t is t r ue t h at t he st ate m en t t o .

t h is e ffect h as com e d o w n in a 1 7 t hce nt ury h and : but t h e re is

no re aso n f o r d oubt ing t h e e x pl anat io n gi v e n by t h


(
e w rit e r at

t h at t im e o w n er o f t h e MS am e ly h at he h ad co p ied h
) n t is

ad com
, ,

s ta te m e nt f o m a broake n l eafe of t h e M S as it h

e in to

r .

his p osse ssio n T he p ese nt co nd it ion o f t he M S w it h its se ve ralr ,

l acun ae and it s d e range m


.

e nt o f fo l io s (see I n t od uct io n mak e s r

mi mi pl mnt s
,

it at po l east ssi b l e that o ssio ns a nd s ace e had cc

cu ed in t h p
rr e r oce ss o ly l nd upp t
f bind in g : and h
t us ind ire ct e s s or

xi t n k n l af T h n to t h l in gui t i

to t h of b
e e s e ce a ro a e e e . e o, e s c

n te m
,

f m f t h f u l ine qu ted a
or s o e o r p aneou w it h t h J u
s o re co or s e es s

M S T he p assage i w n t ing in C and in all p obabil ity t he l in


.
1
s a . : r es

we i gi nally
re o r p i d add ed by t h ibe of J H en t h y
co e or e scr . ce e

supply l ea 1 3 t h e nt u y vid n a t t h activity f J oh n of


c r c r e e ce s o e o

G uil d f d a a v e w rite of t h t im
or s e rs -
r e e .

()
2 H i t h w i t
ee fsa t l ea t o n
e f th ve
r pie e o iginally
r o s e o e rse -
c s r

in l ud ed in t he J e u M S
c t h i al i x pl i it ly ta t d in t h
s s : s so s e c s e e

n te re f
o ed t o ab v e rr o e .

()
3 H i na m ugg s t om t e sf n nect i n w it h N i h l a
es s s f e so r o co o c o s o

G uil d f d n wh o be h l f T h Ow l an d th Nig hting al w a b


or o se a e e e s o

m m m
,

v iou l
y w it t n
s T h ir e d iat e o b.j t f t he
e p w a t o w in e ec o oe s

reco gnit i n f Ni h l o and it w ul d nat u ally h av e b


or c o as : n w it t n o r ee r e

by m n inte te d in his w l fa u h J h n f G uild f d


so eo e re s e re , s c as o o or

migh t easonably be tak n to be


r e .

h f h b gg h at t h d i l f h C
() I d 2
4 t a u t e e n u
s, t e r t r, t te s es e a ec o e .

C f th f m h t i ti f J u (C w ) M y t (C M i t )
1 . e or s c arac e r s c o e . o , a s er . a s er ,

G uld u d ( e C G uld f d ) nd d y y g w h th g p lling (in t d


or e . e or e , a en ,
s n e, e re e o
s e s s ea

of C i) . u occ r .

I

1
by P. ef . C igi A pp nd ix I ()
ro es so r ra e , see e . a .
x l

x
te t h a t a f sK e n t
r i h p e
ce s o u l ia i t i ( A pp e n d
s i x I c a n d r es see .

h
t at t h p mmay t e h oe f e h a v b e n i g i n a lly w
e re o r i t t e n i n t h at e e or r

pa ti ul a d ial e t T h i w ul d mak it p ibl f t h aut h o t


r c r c s o e o ss e or e r o

h av b n a G uil d f d manJ h n f G uil d fo d f in tanc


.

o o r or s e
e ee or ,

wh m ll h v p y h N h l
n t a t o i f i n d i o a in D o se t
co s r e c s r
a w e a e se ,
o
y
wh e e it w u d b
r l p i d
o b y i b e e co w h w u l d en at u ally giv scr s, o o r e

it t h ut h w
e so te n p u l
- ia it ies i t n rw p e e n t
ec r es o r s s .

On t h t h h and t h a er t a i n g a v d if u l t i
e re w h i hp
r e ce r r e c es c re

v nt us f m ga d ing J h n f Guil d f d a the aut h f u p e m


e o ,

o o or s or o o r o :
e ro re r

() b g i it h t h i t h i n g i n t h i b a l n t e t n o o co

W
1 T n w o e n e e re s o scr
,

imd ly h h h l k

n ect h n it e w i t eT h O w l a n d t N i g t i n g a l e i in e e . s

t anr i p t
scr f t h a t n t ao pp a n f 2 2 8 o e n d a i t t and
e i
rs ot . r . a s s s,

f appa n tly t t h p
re e rs re ding v e o t h at i e to T h P a i n
r ece rse s, s, e ss o

L d h gh h i t h h l i u n l ik l B u t t h n t h i l
of O
w s

ed by W
t e
u r t u or ,
n e o e y s o o s e .
,

i n t it s o i ginal p it i n it ha be n t an f
s o r os o : il k in s e r s e rr s

f m a b aken l af
ro

ro a nd w h i h v e e of t h e

ig inal f l io m
: a
y c e r e or o s

h av e be en p e nte d by t h at b oak n l afe it ann t h av


re r se

r e e

c o e

be n aem n g t h e po i t o f 2 5
os 3 w h e t h
r or t i g u l.
a ity
,
er e rs rr e r

oc cu Irsn t.
h e w d toh n t e
r c a nn o t orh a v b s, n o ig
e i n a lly o e ee r

in t e d in t h n igh bo u h oo d f T h
ser e e e Ow l and th e N ig h
r ti ng al o f e, or

t hat po m m t o an nd on f 2 41 ve co es m 1 2 f l io b f t h
e so e o s e o re e

gul a iti b gin M ov e had a ef en t o ou p mbee n


,
. .

irre r es e . o re r, r er ce r oe

i nt e nd ed t h i bal n t e w oul d u ely h av bee n w it te n at t he


e scr o s r e r

m
,

e n d o f t h p in t hee b l a n
oe k p a e l f t a t t h e fo t f f 2 4 1 vs col 2 c e o o . . . .

H en w m
,

a af ly inf e t h at t h s e e f n w a i nt e nd e d t
r re e r e ce s o
ce y e

apply n t t ,
T h Ow l an d th N i g hting a l b ut t
o o e me t h p m e e, o so o er oe

in t he MS .

()
2 A nd t is is h l
a so su ggested by t he te r m f
s o f r e e r e nce . T he
p mall ud ed to in t h n t
oe a d ip e o e is d e scribe d a s
a son g

: e scr

ti n m
o in k p in g w i t
or e h m e f t h e h t
ee e p oe m s
(ff 2 43 7 2 ) so o s or r .

t h an w it h T h Ow l an d th N ig h ting a l e e e .

I t my b th t W
1
ilkin h d
a mp ile a nf in t ing th n t w h s a so e s e c a reaso or ser e o e e re

h d id thu pp
e ntl y ibing th Ps a i t J hn f G uil d f d F
are in
ascr e ass on o o o or or

2 3 1 ) p int d ut th mt
.
,

tn
s a J K h (Ang l B ibl
ce , as oc f th f u e XX I o e o e e re o e o r

m th t f th P i n nd thi my h v w igh d w ith


. . .
.
,

l in i thes s e sa e as a o e ass o a s a a e e e

Wilkin A t th m tim th um
,

s n f thinking thi
e sa e pti n t e ere are r easo s or s ass o o

b highl y im
.

e p b bl T h t n ipt w p b bly in t d w h it t nd
ro a e . e ra scr as ro a se r e ere s a s

for reaso n f p th g t p t f f 2 2 8 nd th w h l f f 2 2 8 v
s o s ace , e re a e r ar o a

v it i igni nt Wll p int d ut th t


. r . e o e o . .

h ving b n l ft bl nk M
a ee e a ore o er s s ca as e s o e o a

it v y im
, ,

p b bl th t
.

th n l u i n f th P
e co i ni
c u h s o t do e ass o s s c as o ren er er ro a e a

y u hmtt i q u t d in th n t w tt h d t th t p m
an s c a e r as s
(
S o e e o e as a ac e o a oe ee

Wll 0 t N p xxviii ) S th t th w h l th w uld mt b n


.

e s, . a . . . o a on e o e ere o see o e o

case f nn ting J hn f G uil d f d w ith T h P


or co ec i n f Ou L do o or e a ss o o r or .
T he A u th or x li

()
3 N o d t h e tabl i h mnt f J hn f G uil d f d l aim
r w o ul e s s e o o o or

s c

to ne f t he o th
o op m w ant a l aimb ing ad v an ed f er oe s arr c e c or

himin nne t i n w i t h T h Ow l
co nd th N ig h
c ti ng ale
o Th i e a e e re s

m (ff 2 43 7 2 ) to ugg t t h t ny n f t h em
.

n t h in g in t h
o e p oe s .
-
s es a a o e o

w a d u to t h aut h o of
s e u p oe m O n t h en t a y in ubj ect r o r . e co r r s

mtte t eat mnt and g n al ut l k up n l if t h e i a w ld


,

a r, r e e er o oo o e, re s or

p e t iv w k mk ing it h igh ly im
,

of d iff e n e b t w n t h
er c e ee e r es c e or s, a

p babl e th at t h w it f t h so ng w as al o the ut h o f
ro

e r er o

e s a r o

The Ow l and t e h N ig hti ng al e .

()
4 N or d oes t he p rese n ce l K enti h fo m in ne of o ccasiona s r s o

o f t h x ta nt e e p i p v e mu h in nn t i n w it h the aut ho h ip
co es ro c co ec o rs

o f t he poe m E v n if t he K nt i h i ginal be g ant ed f


e th e s or r or e

gumnt t h l aim f J oh n f G uil d f d w ul d h a d ly be


.
,

k f e o ar e e c s o o or o r

um ably h ail ed f rom


,

t ng
s ro t h an t h e o f N i h l a
er F bo t h p
os c o s . or re s

t he S E d ist i t ; bo t h w ul d t h r c f e b f mil ia w ith K nt i h o e re o r e a r e s

fo m nd it is a easy t imgin N i h ol t h ough e mv ed t o


.

r s: a s o a e c as, r o

D orse t v t ing to hi n t iv d ial ect in at te mp ting a ve nacula


re er s a e r r

p e ma it i to imgin J h n e mpl y in g t h K e nt i h d ial e t fo


,

o s s a e o o e s c r

t te m
,

a im s il p t at G uil d f d On t he ot h e h and it is ig ni ant


ar a or . r s c

t w h o v e h my h av e be e n h o w s t h at h i w e ll aw a e
,

t h t th p
a e oe e r e a ,
s e s r

f t h v al ue f v a i nt f o m in h lp ing out hi h y m (
,

o e o r a see I nt r s e s r es ro

d uct i n 9 p 1 x vii) A nd it my w ell h av b n t h at t h K e nt i h


o , , . x x . a e ee e s

f m d i h g d t h i f un t i n in t h o iginal v e i n T hi w o ul d
or s sc ar e s c o e r rs o . s

im ply an iginal w it t en in d ial e t th e t han K nti h th


or r a c o r e s e

so ut h w te
-
n d i
es l t f irn t n e an d in t h at cas
a ec t he w igh t of
or s a c e, e

t h v id e n e w ul d
e e ct w it h N i h l a w h w o ul d n at u ally be
o re s c o s, o r

f m
a il ia w it h bo t h d i l t e m
r ploy d a l imt h at oul d n t a ec s e c a c o

d n it e ly b m
,

e ad e n be h l f
e f J h n I n any ve nt t h e
o K nt i h a o o e se e s

l ment l v u v y mu h a b f
.
,

e e s ea e st h e y anno t b
er aid t o c s e o re : c e s

t e ngt h e n t h l i m f J h n
s r e c a s o o .

T h i t h en i t h a e f
s, J o hn of G uild fo d T h e is n t h ing
s e c s or r er o

im
.

nt m
,

w h i h d nit ly po in t t h
c e e a th ut h o ; t h ugh a a s o s e a r o s co e

e sam MS a a p
,

p o a r
y p
roe t w h v e w in l ud ed i n t h
o se rse s m e re c e s oe

l k of t h m u nam h my
.
,

d v t ed t t h inte
e o o t f e re s s o a c er e sa e s r e, e a

p ibly h ave be n t h w ite f t h l at t poe mas w ell B ut t he


o ss e e r r o e er .

th e ory l k p babil ity it i a ba p ibilit y and n t h ing m


ac s ro : s re oss , o o re .

T he a fo N i h l a
c se f G uil d f d on t he t h h an d i
r c o f a
s o or ,
o er , s o

d iff nt kin d and e t


e re nt i ly n in t
,
nal vi d n r Re f
s s e n re o er e e ce . e re ce

i m
s ad to h i min t w p a
e g f the poe m( 1 1 1 91 o1 7 46 iii) ssa es o . .

T he h i d
re eibe d a a w ll k no w n cl i
s e scr t h n l iv ing t s e -
e r c, e a

P o t i h min D
r s a t; man it i tated f con id abl p ts
o rse a ,
so s s ,
o s er e ar ,

famou fo hi w it ing (
s r 1 1 1 7 56 8) and h
s i ta te i n l ite a y
r s .
-
s s r r

A . d
I n t r od uc t i on

mt t a e rs 11
( g h ig hly est e med fo his ip
1 95 besid e s be in e r r e

w isd om his sound j ud g m


.

e nt and h i v i t uou w ay of l ife In s r s .

e um
,

th e p e mh e gu e as t h
o pi e ag ee d up on by b t h d isputant s
r s r r o :

an d it i n ot w it h out sig ni can ce t h at h


s i ch a a t i d sc ib d s r c er s e r e

at con id e abl e l e ng t h and h


s ri qu l it ie s a e p e e n t e d i n a m ost s a r r s

favou abl e ligh t S t ill m


,

r o e sig ni nt i t h h in t t h at is g iv e n o f r ca s e

his negl t a t t h h and s f t he auth o i t i s D i t ing uish e d m


.

ec e an o r e . s

t h ough he w a he is aid t o hav e been sad ly in w nt f p at onage


s, s a o r .

H e ha but one l ivi ng t o t he g eat sh am


s e of t h e bi h o p s an d o f r s

iman d o f w h at he ha d one (

al l w h o h av e h e a d o f h r 1 1 1 7 60 s

Whoeve may h ave be n the aut h of t he p oemone t h in g at l ea t


.

r e or s
,

i s ce t ain an d t h at i
r t h at o e
n bj e ct t h e m a i n o bj e ct of
s, o -

t he w it e r w as t o o m me nd t he ca e of N ich ola t t he p op
,

r c s s o r er

q ua t e fo p efe men t S uch a concl usion is inevitabl e f o mt he


r rs r r r . r

n at u e a nd t h r e pe ist e n y o f t he all usio n N nee d s uch a n


rs c s. or

o bj e t be c gard ed a in any d eg ee u p ising T he id ea of


re s r s r r

iman d
.

ch ing a p erson as an h ono an d as m


oo s e an o f p aising h r a s r

fu t h e i n g his w l fa e see m t o h av e been gene ally t he m


r r e r o t iv e s r

h oo ing t h j ud ge in t he P ov encal p a timn T he same se em


"
,

fo r c s e r r e . s

t ue fo t h
r e m ost p a t o f t h
r e Ol d F e n h j u p ar ti S o t h at t he
r r c e

p oe t w h oe ve he w as in t h us ad vocat ing t he cl aims of N ichol a


, ,

r s,
, ,

w a b ut e m
s pl oying a famil ia l ite a y d evice of t he t i m e fo t h e r r r r

p a t icula p u p ose he had in v ie w


r r r

I n t he ab n e o f any d nite tat e m


.

se e nt as t o t h
c e aut h o sh ip e s r

of t h e po e m it w a p e h p inev it abl e t h at t he quest ion h o uld s r a s s

N ich o l as h i m l f m
,

b e raise d a t o w h e t h e s igh t no t h av e bee n t he r se

e p oe m A nd i nd eed t h is po s ibil it y h
,

w it e
r of t h r as be e n
. on s c

s id e e d by m r o t o f t h os w h h a v e d e l t w it h t h w o k
s T he t w
e o a e r . o

e a l i st e d it o s w
r e e i ncl in d t o fa v o u t h r e t heo y er b ut sin e t h e n e r r : c

t he v e rd ict has som e w h at ch ang e d and so m e o f t h l ate sch l a ,


e r o rs

h ave p ef ed to j e ct t he id ea I t w ill t h e fo e be nece a y


r e rr re re r ss r

in t he t pl ace t o e x am
.
,

rs ine t he g o und ad vanced f th e co n r s

f or W
, or

d ent ej t ion of N i h ol as a a ut h o
r ec ii l ke and T n B i n k
c s r : c r e r

bo t h e g a d e d t h im p o sibl w h il e Mat ne t h ugh


e id e a as

r r s e, z r, o

r at h e mo e caut iou al o incl ined st ongly t o t he s me opinion


r r s, s r a

T he m a in a g umnt b ough t fo w a d fo
.

r d is d it in g t he N i h ol as
e r r r r c re c

t h eo y w a t h at t he el f p aise t h u invo l ve d w oul d be i n ed ibl e


r s s -
r s cr

nnect ion w it h such a m


, ,

in co an a N i h l a w as said t o be H is s c o s .

s l f p ai e w o t e M et z ner w o ul d su p i e us i f h w e e t h

e -
r s ,
r e ,
r r s e r
,

S 1
Wll 0 t N p xxvi n 1 w h Kn bl h D i S t itg d i ht
ee e s, a
:

e re o oc e re e c e

im
. . . .
, , ,

l i hn und A l tf n b i h n p 48 nd S l b h D S t i tg d i ht

P n rove z a sc e ra z s sc e ,
.
, a e ac , as re e c

in d A l tp
er n li hn L y i k 1 7 7
rove z a l qu t d sc e r , , are a so o e .
T he A uth or xl iii
A ccord in g to Wl k ii c e r, a ain , g it w o u d l p v ro e himt o
h av e be e n
o ne of the mt os co n ce ite d o f m en Or , as T en B ri n k
p ut it mnn in w h i h hi vi t u hi j u t i p ud

t he a er c s r e s, s s ce , r e n ce ,

nd w i d m it i m
,

a d w l t up n mk
s o a re p ibl t g d e o a es o ss e o re ar

m
,

[ N i h l c
] t h
o asp t h i l f bas u u h el u d t i n w ul d ill
oe se ,
e ca se s c a a o o

a g w
re eit h t h B ut i t m y f
ose i ly b k d g u a a r e as e are ar

mnt u h t h uf i t ly n l u iv t w nt t h u f t h
, ,

e s s c as e se s c en co c s e o a r ra e se o e

im p ibl ? T b gi w it h w ng i f n mt

w ord
oss e o e n a ro n ere ce see s o

h v b d w n f mt h l f p i f N i h l g nt d t h t it
,

a e e en ra ro e se -
ra se o c o as, ra e a

w as h w h w t th p m I t i l
e o t h t hi mt iv in
ro e e oe . s c e ar a s o e so

w ri t in g w ou ld
l g n f pe n l v anity but the
be , n ot t he ind u e ce o rso a

f a d n ite mt i l e nd H e m
,

at tainmn t e o eigh t t h f j u t ly a er a e re o r e s

be t a x d w it h be in g am
.

e bit iou h w d and p a ti al but it w uld s, s re r c c : o

n t n ec
o a ily f ll w t h at h w
e ss r exc iv ly v ain B ut ap a t
o o e as es s e . r

f m upe i l
ro s so nin g i t h re an yt h ing in t h nat u e
r c a r ea f t he ,
s e e r o

cas e t h t ul o ut N ich l a a
a r ut h
es f t he p oe m ? T h ha g o f s s a or o e c r e o

e x iv e v anity e v n if it ul d be maint ined w oul d h a d ly be


cess e co a ,
r

mod t y ha n t p ved t o be an ent ial ing d i nt


,

d e i iv e f
c s or es s o ro e ss re e

in t he a t i t i t e m pe amnt I it t h n t h at a se n of t n
,

r s c r e . s e se ess,

m upl of n i nce w ul d h av p v ented any w ite fro m


, ,

so e scr e co sc e ,
o e re r r

ad p t ing t h i d e vi e in
o d to fu t h e his o w n int e
s c t s ? B ut t h at
or er r r res

i u ly to test t h m
s s at t e b t he appl ic t i n f me od n t and d r a o o er s ar s
re
y
pe iod in w h ich imagin t iv e w iting w
.

It wa s a r t a l ge a r s ere , o ar

e xte nt n ny mu and it i u l y n ot incon iv abl e t h at in an


a o o s: s s re ce

it y an abl and am
,

f anony m
,

ag e o bit i us w ite f tt ing und e a e o r r, re r

o f unm ite d ne g l e t m m n of w inning e


,

se n se igh t er so t t c re r o ea s r

gnit ion w h ich al t h ugh th ey c uld n t b qua ed w it h mod n


,

co , ,
o o o e s r a er

co d w ul d i nv l v e n o g eat sa i ce
e, o f se l f esp e t und
o 1 3 th r cr o -
r c er

c nt u y
e nd it i n
r I t w uld t h e f e ee mt h at t h
co o s h s be e n o re or s e re a

v tate ment f t h a in mintaining it t o h ave b n i m


.

a n o e rs o e c se , a ee

pos ibl f Ni h ol a t h av e bee n the ut h at l t f t h


s e or c s o a or e as or e

r ea ns peci ed
so A nd t h am h ol d t ue of t h t h e
s bj t ion e s e o s

w h en W
e s r r o ec

xampl mint in d
.

t h t h v bee n ai ed
a a e ii l ke
r f s as c r or e e, a a e
, ,

t h t N i h ol
a and t h p oe t
c tood f
as tw o pa at p on ince e s or se r e e rs s, s

t h poe t i p res nt t h ug hout t he d bat e w h


e s e a Ni h lro i e e re s c o as

s

po k n of a n ab nt p e n w h d w l t t P t e h am
,

al w y

a s s e s a se rso o e a or s .

B ut t h e i u ly nre al d if cul t y h
s s re f t h d i p ut an t
o re e re : or e s s

t h ugh ut a
ro p e nte d un n i us f t h p en f t h
o re r e re s as co sc o o e re s ce o e

poe t w h v h ea t he d i p ute f ma pl e of n alm


o o er rs e nt ( 1 s ro ac co ce

H ad t h p t e v al ed h im l f at any t i m an d h d a f e nce
.
,

e oe r e se e, a re e r

h p b n I 40 B i t ag I 7 0
1 2
A l t ng l Sp e . r ac P ul u B un
ro e , . . a . ra e, e r e, . .

3
E l y Eng li hL i t t u (B hn) I 2 1 7
ar s P B B I 70
era re o ,
. .
4 . . . . .

d 2
xliv I ntr oduc ti on

t h en been m ad e to an abse nt N ich o l as t h e case w o ul d h av e bee n ,

di ffe ent T he e x i te n e of t w o sepa at e p e sonal it ie s w ould t h e n


h av e be en e tabl ish e d E qually i el e vant to o is Wiilck r s
r . s c r r

s rr ,
e
.
,

furt he a g ume nt rel at ing t o t he fact t h at at t he close of t he


r r

poem( 1 1 7 89) t he d i p ut ant s a e re p esent ed a se t t ing ut to t he


.
s r r s o

abod e of N i h ol as I f he [ i e t he aut h r w ho w as p e ent] w ite s



c o r s r

Wiilcke w e re one w it h N ich olas w hy shoul d [ he] let t he bi d s


. . .
,

r
r,

n g fo t h f omh s con ce al m
,

o a w a y i n st e a d o f com i i e nt o wh y r r r
g
B ut h e e again t he an sw e seem
,

co ul d h e no t t e ll us t h

e ve d ict l s l r
r r

plain I t w as no pa t o f t he d ebat e conv ent ion for t he p oe t w ho



r

,

e v eal h im
.

o v er h ea d t h e d i p ut e t o
r sse l f t o t h e d isp utant s n or w as
,
r ,

it at al l nec a y fo any v e d ict t o be giv e n


ess r r I n accord ance w it h r

s m
.

ul es o f the l ite a y d ebate t he p oe t aim e e ly at p ese nt



th e r r r

,
r r

ing a case at gi v ing t he p os and cons of t he quest ion at issue r

A W
.
,

e ll s co e t ly stat e s th e p oe t h ad no int e nt ion of gi v in g


s rr c :

a d e nite ly f o m ul at d st at m re nt o f h i sol ut ion o f t he q ue st ion


e e s

t h at he h ad aise d r

T h ese t h en a e t he a g um
,
e nt
,
w h i h h av e be en advanced t o
r r s c

p v e t hat N ich ol as could not p o sibly h av e be en t he aut h or and


ro s :

th e case cl ea ly est s on no v e y substant ial g ro und s


r r I n f act r .

aut h orsh ip m
,

t h ere see m s t o be n o d e nit e eason w h y t h e a


y n ot r

be at t ibute d t o N i h o las w h il e on t he o t h e r h and t h e e a e


r c : , ,
r r

e t ain consid e at io ns w h ich end er t h at t h eo y not at all un l ik e ly


c r r r r .

()
1 I n t h e st pl ace w h il e u nrd u e im p o t ance n ee d not be r

e m e re stat e m e nt o f T h o m as W e n am
,

at t ach ed t o t h righ t t h at th
e ,

of N ich ol as o f G uil d f o d app e ars in t h e p oe m rin a w ay w h ich


w oul d l ead any o n e ac quainte d w it h t h e m anne in w h ich w rit e s o f r r

t he M id d l e A g s nam e t h e me l v es t o be l ie v e h
e im t o be t he aut h o s , r
3
,

y e t it e p r
ese n t s t h er c on v ic tio n o f o n e w it h a w id e k n w l e d g e of o

med i val t ext and is t he efo not w it h out it s d nite v al ue


e s, r re e .

h o t h e r h and t h ere i t h e un d oubte d f ac t t h at t o w a d


()2 O n t e ,
s , r s

th e e nd o f t h e 1 2 t hcent u y w h en t h e oral t ad it ion w as b e g innin g


r , r

to d e l ine an d inc ase d p at o nage w as being e xt e nd ed t o p oe t s


c ,
re r

f or p ol it ical an d p e so nal se v ice w e nd aut h ors beg inning t o


r r s,

inse t t h e i nam e s in t o t h e ir w o k s in som



r r e fash io n o ot h e r r r .

S uch efe e nce w e e no t al w ay s as d i e ct as t he w e ll k now n


r r s r r -

stat e m e n t in O m ul um I n t h e p ro l og ue t o D oon d e N a nt ui l

r . / e ,

1
P B B I 70 2 Wll 0 mp N xxvi
T Wight B i g B i t L i t (Ang l
e s,

mP
. . . . . . . . .

3
. r , o . r . . o -
Nor . e rio d ) p 43 8
, . . L ond on, 1 846 .

4
G P i E qui hi t iqu d l
ar s , s sse s or e e a li tt f rangai se 1 3 P ar is, 1 91 4
T hi b k i ll d O mul umb
.

m mp
.
, . .

5
s oo s ca e r ecause Or co osed it
P
( re f . 11 . 1
xl v i I nt rod uc t ion

A nd in t is h ew d and h um h oro us p e sonal it y w e m


s r a
y p e h ap r r s

d e te t t he N ich ol as of the p oe mw ho a co d in g t o d e sc ip t ion has


c ,
c r r ,

many of t he cha act ri t i s t h at h av e bee n a c ibe d t o the aut h


r e s c s r or .

T he p o t ait of N i h ol a it i t ue is p os ibly o f a at t e in g k i nd :
r r c s, s r s r

but t h at p a t of t he d es c ip t ion e l at ing t o v e i abl e fact s m


,

r ust r r r ,

s u l y be acce pted a t ue and aut h e nt ic


re ince d e p t ion in t h e e
s r s ce s

mat te w oul d d e feat t he obj ect of t he p oem T h us w e may t ak e


,

rs

it fo g ant e d t h at N ich o l as o f G uil d fo d w a a cont e m


.

r r po a y le i r s r r c r c

o f onsid e abl e l ea n ing w ho e m


c r e it s h ad bee n i g no ed b
r y t he,
s r r

e cl esia t ical aut h it ie


c s T h at he w a con e rned w it h l e gal
or s s c

business m a o n ably con cl ud ed f omt h


.

ay be re e p assag e in w h i h
s r c

e fe e nce is m e so und j ud g m
,

r r ad e t o t h e n ts he h (
ad w itt e n 1 1 1 7 55 r

is i m
.

T h at h w as so m e t h in g o f a p oe t m
e o e ov e pl ied in ,
r r,

1 1 1 95 6 : and if any v al ue is t o be at t ach e d t o t he obj e ct io n s


.
-

r ai ed by t h
s e Ow l 1 1
( 2 0 2 t h e n w a e t u nd e stand t h at h e e r o r

had gu ed as a m
.

an o f t h e w o ld in hi yout h had d e v o te d


r r s

h imse l f t o n ug a ama t i a and a such had ac qui d an uncl e i al


,

e or e, s re r c
,

k now l ed ge of l ife w h i h l ate r on w as e x t end ed in t he urse of


,
c , ,
co

his j ud icial l abo u s I t t h e e fo e e qui e n g eat st e t h o f t he


r . r r r r s o r r c

im ag inat io n t o e e i n N ich ol as t h aut h o of t h


s e p oe m T h e d ev i e e r c

t he e in ad op te d m
.

r igh t w e ll h av e app eal e d t o his sh e w d n ess and r

sense o f h um our H e w oul d m e e ly h av e be n ad ap t in g t o h


. is o w n r e

uses a g o w in g p act ice of t h


r e t im e a nd l ik e H am
r l et he migh t :

h av e ex used h im
, ,

sel f sit h h e h ause and s t e ng t h and w ill


[ ] ad

c , c r

t o d o it
Wh th my b id nti d w it h t h
.

e er h
t is N ic h ol as of G uild fo r d a e e e e

h d ea h apl ain of 1 2 09 and t h ubmnit f 1 220 i f



ar c co n s c e s o or o s, o

course, h oul d b a e
uncer t ain s: but , i t
o e an s s e d d d it i by n m un
t f mt h ub d in t
,

l ik ly T he t he o y d e iv e suppo t a ea ro
e . r e s o a e
r s r ,
t l s , r

posit ion h ld by t h is N ich ol as bet w ee n 1 2 1 02 0 w h il e as ch ap


e :

l ain t o t he arch d eacon w ho in t h o d ay w a t he l egal of ial f ,


se s s c o

th e d ioce e h e w oul d n at u ally acq ui e a sp ecial k no w l e d g e o f


s r r

l egal mat te s and w oul d p obably be esp onsibl e fo r t he d aw ing


,

r r r r

up of m
,

any j ud g mnt s o nn ecte d w it h e c l e iast ical ase s o f t h c

d iocese W
e e c s c

it h a fai am oun t of pl ausibil it y t h e fo e t hr e p oe m er r

may be asc ibed to N i holas f Guild fo d ; and he in his t u n may


.
, ,

r c o r r

possibly be N ich olas t he a ch d eacon h apl ain me nt ioned in the ,


r

s c

y e a 1 2 09 Ab ol ut e e t ainty as t aut ho h ip is o ut of t he q ue s
r s c r o rs

t ion but N ich o las of G uild fo d m


.

: ust at l east be said t o h o l d t he el d r .


xl v ii

g6 . T H E F OR M OF T H E P O EM
T he t ype l it h N ig hting a le hi h The Ow l an d t e

m
of e ra t ure to w c

,
m
be l ongs na ely , t he d e bate w as one w h ich w as spgg ig lly p hara c ,

u
-

a f TO

h
t ce nt rig
s r w it h t h
h

te rist ic of t h e 1 2 th n t h
a g e e e

Ch ansonsde g este , t h e f abl i au x and t h e P rov e n c al l yrics t h e d e ba te

may be regard ed as t he nat ural e x pl es sion of t he med iev al ge ni us


,

v e come d o w n,
_~

W

at t h at p art icul ar pe riod : and of t h e w or k s t h at h a

T he Ow l a n d th e N ig h ti ng a le re p r ese n t s n ot o nly t h e e arl ie st p oe m

of t h e k ind in E ng l ish but a l so o ne o f t h e g reat e st if no t act ually

t he g reate st , of al l t he m
,

I ts formis t h e re fo re o f
,

ed ie v al d ebate s

e o r igi n and d e v e l o p m e n t of t h at form


.

co n sid e rabl e int ere st : an d t h

a re al so m at t e rs o f t he g re at e st i m p or tance F romt he Caro lingian .

o n w ar d s poe m s of th e k ind h ad be en const ant ly app eari ng i n ,

Lat in for t he most p art t h ough occasionally in the v ernacul ars as


,

w e ll : and w h il e t h e 1 2 t h an d ea rly 1 3 t h c e nt uries w i t ne ssed t h e

g reatest po p ul arit y of t he formit is re p resent ed inte rmit te nt ly ,

ri gh t on t o t h e e nd of t h e M id d l e A g e s T he d e bate h ad t h us an

e x te nsiv e v o g ue : and it w as k n o w n und e r a v arie t y o f nam


.

es t h

m
e

m
con ic tus, cer ta mne con ten t o , i d isp uta ti o, al ter cati o, estr if p le t
l l mnt w a
,

m
, ,

ve y t he t he

mm m
d isp u toison . B ut in e r case , e sse nt ia e e e s sa e:

t he r l
as a w a s a s y irit ed co n te s t in x erse be t w e e n t w o or m o re b

i
mm m
d isp a e ld

fo r mw e must t h ere fo e g o
.

F t i al
or g r
-

back at l east t o t he C arol ingian e ra t o t h ose sch ol a ly act ivit ies , r

as sociat ed w it h t h e nam e o f A l cuin w h ich h ad f or t h e ir obj ect t h e ,

st ud y o f Lat in as t h e key t o t h e v ast l ibrary o f p at rist ic t h ough t

A nd am e l ite ary w o rk s w h ich h av e co m


.

o ng t h e d ow n f ro m
r t h at
d istant p e iod are t w o Lat in p oe m
r s O f g r eat h istori cal v al ue o ne :

th e Oonf l ictu s ver is et h iem i s ascribe d to A l cuin o r to som e m em ,

b e r of his sch oo l ( 8t h ce n t ury ) t he t h e r D e r osae li li ique ce ta ,


o , r

mi ne d ue to Sed ulius S cot u an I rish S cot grammarian w ho i s,

ourish ed in Lo rraine d uri ng t he 9th cent ury Wit h t h ese t w o 1


-

p oe ms t he v ogue of t he med ie val d ebate may be said to h av e be gun


.

B ut t h e y t h e m
.

se l v e s w e re r e p re se nt a tiv e o f a e t ea l ie r t rad it i n
y r o

wh ich w e nt b ack to t he p asto al ecl og ue s of T h e ocri t us and V i gil


( r r

and m
,

o e p art icul arly t o t h o se V irg ilian e cl o gue s co nsist ing o f a


r

conte st be t w e e n t w o sin ge s an d concl ud in g w i t h a j ud gm e nt p ro


r

n oun ced b a t h ird p arty T hi s cl a ss of w o r k be l o nge d f


1
y o t .or ,

1In upp t f t hi s t t mnt A J an y L a T n n p v ncal


or o s s a e e see e ro

e so ro e e

E F a a] in R m a nia m pp
.
,

Annal d Mid i II 28 1
( ee a and J H r o

Han f d C la i al l gu and md iaeval d bate (R m


. . . .
, .
, , .

or ,

ss c .
ec o ani Rv w
e e e

o c e ie , 11 .

pp 1 .
-
2 2 9y
x lvn l

e xampl e the t ird ve nt h E cl ogue f V i gil : and sim


h and t he il ar
se s o r

o f e a l y im
,

con te st a e t o b e f o und in t h w o k
s r it at o s C alp u e r s r r r

nius ( l t ce nt u y ) and N e m
s esi anu r
(3 d cent u y
) f o i nstance s r r r :

st ill l at e i n V sp a s J ud i ium O i t p i t i jud ic Vu l an



r e c oc e s or s, e c o

h y as w ell a h at f am E cl o gue o f T h e o d ul us
( 4 t ce n t u ) r i n t
,
ou s s

w h ich in t h e 1 2 t h cent u y app e a e d i n t h e t e x t b ok s o f t h r r o e


-

hool s T h i t h en w as the Lat in t ad ition w h i h m e im me


, ,

sc s, r c or

d iate ly l ed up t o t he m A n d it is im
.
,

e die v al d e bat e p o t ant t o r

e e a l ie t e am
.

note t h at t h pl e ( i e t he Oon i tu o f A l cuin and


r s x s . . e s

t he ta mn o f S e d ul ius S cot us) w e e as t h ei subj


cer / e t s ugg e st r r ec s ,

l it t l e mo e t h an l it a y e x e ci s of t he ch o l s p ed agogic e ffort
,

r er r r se s o ,
s

sim il a in k ind t o t he d e l am
r a ti n t he id d l es a id t h e nug a
c o es , r ,
r e

p o t ei ae cul t iv at e d by ch l a s o f t h at ag
c s o r e .

H o w t h n are w e t account f or t he g e at p op ul a it y o f t he d
e o r r e

l
"
bat e in t he 1 2 t hand e a ly 1 3 th ce nt u ie fo r t he f a t t h at it t h e n r r s, c

becom e t h ough o ut all W


s r e t e n E u op e o n e o f t h e h a act e istic s r r c r r

f m of l ite a y e x p e s i n ? T h e xpl anat i n is t o be ought in


, ,

or s r r r s o e o s

th e i nt e ll e t ual l ife o f t h e t im an d t h e key se e m t o l ie i n t h

W
c es e : s

act i vi t ie s o f Abel a d w h o d om inat ing the 1 2 t hc nt u y w it h hi


r e r s

p e so nal it y an d fo ce gav e t med ieval t h ough t a


, ,

m
r r ,
o

and a ne w m H e it w a w ho t o ut o n a sh
m
e t h od a o s se re r r

it at iv e d ct ine cu r n t at t he t im
.

a of aut h eor o r s r e

A nd in hi fam
.

o us S is tN n h is m e t h od i e x pl aine d a nd ill ust at e d


ce o s r .

H e h el d t o beg in w it h t h at an at t it ud e o f d oubt sh oul d p


, ,
d r e ce e

al l scient i se a ch f o t ut h c ince d o ubt le d t o inq ui y and inq ui y


r r r s r r

mo eov er t h at t h i h ealt h y s ep tici mw as best ind u d


,

t o t r ut h 2
r s c s ce

by oll at ing d i co d ant o p inion d a w n f omecogn i ed aut h o it ie


c s r s r r r s r s,

h e min a p osit ion t o acqui p ut t re

t o s h a p e n t h ei w it s as a esul t o f r r r

I n sh o t the st key t o w i d om
r , ,A b e l a d d e ned
r s r

b l ittl d ubt th t p t f mth in t n f und in th V i


m
e e o a a ar ro e s a ce s o e r

t m mili jitp a yi mi n hsi in T hi t


y

g il ian e cl ogue s , th w
e cer a f e a ar r r or s a
x
;
l e ast is sug g e s e t d by t h f ll w ing f e
(du t P
o f o H J R ) re eren ce e o ro e ssor . . ose :
Asell io S abino ses te rtia d uce nta d onavit p ro d ial og o in q uo bol e ti e t ce d ul ae
e t o streas e t t ur d i cert a en ind ux e rat

( m
S ue tonius, d e V i a T i beri i , t
On the d i f usion f of the t mn i
cer a e n a g re at nu mb er o f l iterature s see G reif
s
account in Z ei tsch f ur verg l ei chend e L i t tu g er a r esc hich e N F t 1 2 89 95
md
-

m ni mu
.

mp
. .
, .

2
D ubitand o e ni a inquisitione ve s: q
in uirend o ve ri tate
mu
er
cip i s

(
S ic et Non, ed . V . C o usin, p .
xl ix
as

unt irin g and pe rsi ste nt q
in uir y
: an d on h t is basis w as e rect e d
[ I that y of dial g t ig w h i h int od uced
st ud to 1 2 t h ce n c r by A be l ard
h ola s to o k t he pl ace of g am ma a t he mi t e ss st ud y f
,

tu y r sc r r r s s r -
o

Of t h subse q ue nt d e v e l o p m me t h od t h e e i
,

th e a e g . e nt s O f t hi
e s r s

n ne ed t o p eak I t w a at nce appl ied to t he st ud y f t h eo l gy 2


o s . s o o o

a nd l aw it w a t he inst um s
: e nt e m pl oyed in t he Summa T h la
s r e eo

g i e a
o f t he 1 3 t h e n t u y t h se e n y cl o p a e d ic
c w o k s i n w hi
r ch o c r

S ch ol ast i i m eac h ed it s h igh es t po int A nd in al l t h ese applica


c s r

t io ns o f t he m
.

e t h od t h e re w as p ese nt t h e oll a t ing of d isco d an t r c r

O p inion a ec mmnd ed by Abe la d B ut at te mp t w e re al so


s s r o e r

s

mad e to econcil e t h cont ad ict io ns t a i ve in t he e nd at s me


.

r e r o rr o

p ositiv e t ut h a p oce s w hich inv ol v ed a d p a t u e f omthe


,

r r s e r r r

o igi nal m e t h od I n A be l a d Si t N n no u h h a mni ing



r r s c e o s c r o s

p ted t he aut h o had aimed not o much at t he


.

had bee n at te m : r ,
s

im p a t ing of t ut h a at t he h a p ening of t he w it of be ginne


r r s s r s rs

i n p h il osop h y A nd t h i w a t h m
,

e t h od t h at in uen ed f or t h s e s e c

most p a t t he inte ll ect ual act ivi ties of 1 2 th cent u y sch ol


.

r It r ars .

e v e yw h er e d e vel o ped t h
r e ta te f o a g um e nt and f orm al d i w sion s r r s ,

a nd it est abl ish ed incid e ntall y t h e v ogue o f t h e 1 2 t h cent ury

d bat e Wi t te n at st as a m
e r e re e e rci e in t h e n ew st ud y of
r x s

d ial ect ics t he d e bate soon be am e m


.

W , e o ne of t h ost po p ul a of c r

fo m s B efo e t he end of t he 1 2 thcent ury it had apidly


r . r r

d e v e l pe d and had beco m


o e o n e o f th e m ost ch a a t eg ist ic typ es in r c ,

t he l ite at u of t h
r e p e i od re r .

T he h isto ry of t h at d e ve l op m
_

e nt h a e t t o b e w it te n and t o s r
y
d ea l w it h it at all f ully w oul d be o ut of pl a e h e e Y e t som e kno w c r

l d ge of it s main feature s is need ed fo an app e iat ion Of ou


.

e r r c r

poe m: and in ge e al it may be aid t h at t he d ebate in t h 1 2 th


r1 r s e

a nd ea ly 1 3 t h e nt u ies becam
__

r e e v e y w h ere a fav ou i te l it e a y
c r r r r r

d e v i e and t h at m
c , any of its them es ci cul ate d t h ro ugh out W es te n r r

Eg op e bo t h in Lat in an d in t he v e nacul a
r as f ee l y as t h e r r s, r ro

mances t he han ons and t hef abliau Among the mo t familia w e e


,

, c s c
c s r r

t he d ebates be t w ee n t he S o ul and t he B od y be t w ee n S um mer and


.

Winte Wate and Wine Ph ill i and Flo a all of w h i h appeared


,

r, r ,
s r : c

1
H ae c q uipp p im pi nti
e r a sa e ae cl a vi s d enitur : assid ua s cilice t se u fre
qu n e a in te rr og atio
2
E g P t L mb d B k f S t ne er o ar oo o en e ces

G ti n D tum ut C n d i d i d ntium n num


. .
, .

3
E g ra a ecre a o co r a scor a ca o

I t i p h p w th n t ing t h t th mth d
. .
, .

1 s er pp in B n E y
a s or o a e e o re a e ars aco

s ssa s,

wh th
e re p nd n f th v i u ubj t
e d v l p d in a
ros a d co s

o e ar o s s e c s are e e o e cco r

n
a ce w it hB n m k n th ntith f thing w hi h pp a t th
aco

s re ar s o

e a es es o s,

c a e ra e

en d f th ix t b k f th A d n mnt f L
o e s ning ( B n Wk d
oo o e va ce e o ear se e aco

s or s, e .

E ll i nd S p d
s a g v l v pp 47 2 e , o . I . .
1 I n trod uc tion

se v e al v e p
h g i w
rsio ns
n e e o sses ed o f sp e cial sig ni
Ot s
in r e a a rs r

m
.

cance T h e g o.w i n g p o p u l a i t y o f r t h e f o f o in s t a n e w a r r ,
r c , s

ll
i ust at ed by r t h e V i i P h i l i b t i i n w h i c h t he O E
s o ( a n d L a t in
) er

m m
. .
,

A dd of th
r ess e S ou l t o th e B d y w a t a n sf o e d f o a d ia l o gue o s r r r

in t o re ug l ar c n t n ti o f o m T a ceso o f a ep a s t o a l o i gi n ar r r r re

fo und in t he bscene Al te ati o Ganymed i t H l nae w h il e t he


.

o rc s e e e :

C a ol in gi an u e of t he d ebat e as a l it e a y e x e ci e i ill ust rat e d


r s r r r s s

in t he cha m ing d i p ute bet w ee n t he Vi ol t an d th Ros


r s I n t he e e e .

1 1 th cent ury Conf li tu vi t li n i a f e h v a ie t y f t h e m


c s o e h ad s e r s r o

becom e visibl : w h e eas t h e G l ia d ic n ot e is h e a d in t h


e r e sat i i o r r r

cal Gal i D ia log u i n t de ag uamet vinum A s f s t he t h e m


er es . or

t h em se l v e t h ey a e a v a ie d as t h y a e n um
s, r er u s S ome f o r e r o s r

in tance w e e of a p e sonal k ind and as an e am


.
,

s r pl e migh t be
r : ,
x

tak e n t he d i p ut e bet w e en U ban II and C l e m


, ,

s e n t II w it h eg a d r r r

t o t he p o ion of t he t ipl e c o w n
sse ss Ot h e s m o eo v e r r r ,
r r,

l ik e the D i p u tati i n t c et o ulumo C ha d y P tit P l t w e e


s o er or c r r r

s e e r

o f a p ure l y d id actic k ind t he fo m e d eal ing w it h t he q uest ion : r r

w h et he t he h e art o t he ey e w e e t h
r e g e te cau e O f sin t h
r e r r a r s ,

l atte w it h t he ld cont est bet w een op timist ic yout h and a d e


r o

s airing old ag e I n th e G ol ia d ic D O l a va ll n i bu t Cl uni a r e re e s s e


p
h and may be h ea d e ch oes of ea l ie
.

en ibu s o n th
c s e ot h e ,
r ,
r r r

monastic d iffe ences w hil e in D e Mau t Z il and D e P by tr ro e o o r es er o

et L og i o a e d i cu ed f u t h e m o f in t e e st t o conte m
,

c r at t e s ss r po a y r rs r r r

cl e ics r N o w as the t h e m e o f l o v e w it h o ut a pl ace in t h e se d e


r

bat s I n o ne ca e t he d isp ut e w a o nce ne d w it h t he i v al laim


.

e s s of sc r r c

in the A lt cati G an ymd is t H l na )


.
,

Lo ve and Gold el se w h e e ( : r er o e e e e e

it is a quest ion of t he l ov e o f yout h as o pp o e d t o t he l ov e of s

w om en : w h il e in t h e fam ous D P hi ll i d e t F l or a and in t he l ate r e e

v e sions of t h at d ebate it i t he e sp e tive me it s of t he cl e ic


r
1
,
s r c r r

and t h k nigh t as l o v e s t h at a e un d e d ebat e


e r r r

B ut if t he t h e m
.

es w e e of t h is v a ied k ind so w e re al so t h r r e

fo mand t he cond uct o f t he d ebat e w h ich in gene al consist e d O f


,

r , r

m
, ,

a sh or t int od u t io n d esc ip t iv o f t h
()1 r e s ce n ec a n d c i cu s t a n ce r e r s

of t he d isp ut e a sp i i te d d i cussio n w it h som


, e am oun t O f
r s

d ram at ic incid e n t and ( 3 ) a b ie f j ud g m e n t p o nounce d b


, y an r r

appo int ed j ud g e t h o ugh t h e j ud g m e nt w as not b a n m e a n s


y y
In to t h is f ame w o k h ow ev e migh t be w v en a
,

a l w ay s give n . r r , r, o

g eat v a ie ty of d et ail t he mo t l abo at and p ict u es que re sul t s


r r ,
s e r e r

b eing p esen t in t h l at e i e t he v e na ul a fo m
r e s B e t w en t he
r, . . r c r, r . e

1
E g C n il
o c e de Rmi mnt (
L
e re o at ) Fl or enc e et B lancheour B l anche
R mni
. .
,

our et F l or ence A
( ~ Nor M el ior et Yd oine (
A S ee E F aral , o a a,

mpp
. . . .

x . . 47 4 ff .
T he F o r mf o the P oe m li

Lat in and t he ve mp i gp typg


a i l
'
s, in d ee d , mny b a ro ad

sib e. l T he l ff and co nvent io nal


a tt e r, as a r u e , are l l ess st i : 2

he cl as sical all usions and refe rences t h at abo und in t he


w o k s t h e y e l abo ate t h
r e na rrat iv e and t h e d am a t ic e le
r r

t h e y int ro d uce so m
,

e am o un t O f l oca l col our and ai m al t o

at a m
,

o re oll oq uial st yl e I t w as but sel d o mt h at a Lat in


c .

op e ned w it h o ut a d e scr ip t iv e in t rod uct io n of som e sort o r

ot he r, t h o ug ht h is is t he case in t h e D i sp u ta tio in te cor e t o cu lum r .

k s pl a e und a sh ad y t he d is ute t a p e c er

in i t s m any col ou e d obe o th e s e ne -


r r
2
r c

migh t b a mead ow n a a h d y b oo k o a ga d en full f f a


e e r s a r
3
,
r r o r

r

g ant ow e o el se a w ood c ntaining all t h t e s k now n to
rs r o e r e

l a sical to y T hen too the poe t might be ep ente d a ove


,

5
c s s r r res s r

heari g the d bate f ro m a p la ca of c oncealm


.
, ,

rr e e n t o t h d isp ut an t s r e

migh t appea bef e m


,

h n th e cou e o f a v i io n i
i i
r or nd i n ne rs s a o

s uch v i ion t h e poe t i w aft e d up to t h t h i d H e av e n w h e e h


s s e e r
, r

h e a s t h case a gued befor t he d ivine t ibunal Af t e t h ese p e


r e r e r

r r

l im
.

ina i es t he d i p ute w oul d b


r ,
a ied n w it h but a m
s inim um e c rr o

o f na at ive o d am
rr at ic in id e n t I t is but s l d omin t h e e Lat in
r r c e s

ny ci um
.

al t a ti n s t h
er c at o e stan t ial d e tail a co m panies t he d ia
a rc c

l o gu e t h ough an x ep tion must be mad e in the ase of D e P hi l


,
e c c

l id t F l
e e a w he e l abo at e d e c ip t io ns o f t h
or e y o un g gi l
re and r s r r s

t h ei e q uip m
,

r e nt a e fo und as w e ll a o f t h e Co urt o f Lo v e t o w h i h
r ,
s c

t h ey t u n f o a d cisio n of t h e i q ua e l
r r F o t he m t p a t h w
e r rr r os r o

e a g um
.
,

e ve th
r, e n ts o f t h e d isp utant s foll o w
r n w it h o ut inte o r

rup t io n each a g um e nt be i ng co m p ri ed in a x d numbe of


r s e r

l ine s and all bei ng d aw n f omB ibl i al or classical so u c A nd


,

,
r r c r es .
,

in t h i gul a fa hib the d ebat e w oul d move t o a convent ional


s re r s

e app o int ed j ud g e w h m
,

cl ose w it h t h e v e d i t of t h r cigh t e p re o r

it he som e p erso nal it y such as P al ae mn t h


,

se nt e r e p oe t t he Po p e o , ,

o r th e D e it y o el e t ain ab t a ti ns l i k e R e aso n o
,
r se U sus
c r s r c o ,
r

et N at ura .

I t is to t he h e e med i val d ebate t hat


ve r nac ul ar g ro u p of t s e s

Th e Ow l a n d th N ig h ti ng a le ob vi usly be l ong s f ro mt h
e e Lat in o :

t ype it i m a k ed o ff b s c t a in l ea d iff n ces I t s f amew k er r or


y r e e c r r

it is t ue re m ains m e am
.
,

r u h th e t h e e i still t h in t od u to y c s : r s e r c r

n e to a f o m
,

de ip t ion t he d i p ut e and t he l osing e f


scr ,
s al , c r e re c r

1 Con ictus veri s et hi mi


e s.
2
D e rosae t min l i l iique cer a e .

3 D e P hi ll id e et Fl o ra .
1 D i p u t b tw n t h V i l t
s e e ee e o e a nd t e h R ose .

6 D Cla reva l lensi bus Cl uniacensi bus


e ct

md i mt m
.

A l t ercatio G any e s .
7 G oliae D i alog as i n t er aq ua e vinu .
l ii I n trod uction

j ud g me nt mnt i md i d in v B ut t he t r eat e s o e ari o us p art i ul a c rs,

nd t h ul t imt f mi mthing quit d iff f omt h at


.

a e a e or s so e e e r e nt r of

t h L tin C ni tu
e S m f th m g
a lp o c s
. o e o e o re e n e ra o in t s o f d ist inct ion
h av al e read y been h inte d at . I n T he Ow l a nd the Nig hti ng ale t h e re
i s, f o r inst ance, nabsence o f c assica
{i
h rase an d all usi ng
q , t hose l lp Of
m
g

n u ero us r e e re n ces t o i r i , O id , T ibu us, ound i n t he at in


f V gl v ll f L
i w o rks f romt ime to tim
T hen e th e t oo, is e nl i ve ned by d ial ogue
L
i t he in t rod uction of narrat ive an d d ramat ic d e tail s : it becomes
.
, ,
/ 1 /

l ess stiff and for m al b


y eason o f t h e v ari d l e n gt ha d
e p g g n of t h e
r

se v e al a rg um F resh col our again is add ed by t he numerous


,

r e nt s

e fe r e nce s t o cont e m
,
.
,

r
p rag m
o li f e an d sgg ne s : a n d w hi l e t h e d i sp ut e

gains in vivacit y in conse quence of i ts more famil iar st yl e it is


M W 4 M

al so w ort h not i ng t h at t h e argum e n t s are no w supp o rt ed no t by


m
,

B ibl ical o r cl assical ari th it y but by reference t o t h at inedg y


fount o f w isd omk no w n as T he P over bs of A lfr ed But t h ese
,
/

?
r

d e p ar t u e s f omt he Con ictus t ype d o not al to ge t h e r account for


"
r r

t he n ov e l t y in t he f or mo f T h e Ow l an d th e N ig h ti ng ale T h e re
a e s t ill po int s o f d iffere n ce som
.

r e o f w h ich sugg est t h e in ue nce ,

Of t h 1 d Fr enahly ric S uch at l e ast is h igh ly p robabl e in con


e
2 .

ne ct io n w it h t h e o p e nin d e sc ip t ion t h e r eal ist ic d etail s O f w h ich


g r

mmn t m
,

a are co o o the a u bes, t e p asto u r elles and t he h


c ansons dra a

ti ques, w h i h p ang f omt he p p ul a d ance song s o f t he May d ay


c s r r o r - -
"

festivit ie s T h e n t oo t he fact t h at the p o t agonist s a e bi d s is r r r

e sam
.
, ,
\
al so sugg e t iv e o f t h e in ue nce : t h e nigh t ing al e in th

s e se

M ay fest ival s and al so in ont em p o ary F en h ly i s w as f e


, c r r c r c r

q uent ly e nd ow e d w it h a sy mbol ical meaning and st ood as in t he


,

p e ent p oemf oL the a dvo cat e n r messenger of l ov e Wh et h e


, ,

r s r

t he fo mo f T h Ow l a nd th
.
,

r e N ig h ti ng ale o w e d any t h in g t o t h
e e

in u nce f t he ou t ly t enpon o j u p a tis is p h ap s m


e o c o e
r s r e x -
r er r

d if cul t to say it is n ot unusual in such d isp ut es t o n d a con


:

t em p a y p e onality nominat ed as j ud ge and al so t o nd j ud g


or r rs

ment w it hh eld at t he e nd of t he d ebate T h ese feat u es a e p esent


,

. r r r

in T h Ow l and th N ig hting al e and t h y re p e se nt d e p a t u e


e e e r r r s

f mt he Lat in t rad ition On t he o th e h and it w o ul d e qui e


ro . r , r r

no g eat me a u e of o ig inal it y on t he p a t of t he p oet t o h av e


r s r r r

d e v ised t h ese d etail s f o h imel f r s

T h e e y e t em
.

ain s h o w e v e
r o ne o t h e r ch a act ri st ic fe at u e i n
r r, r e r
)
9

e formo f t h
.
,

th e po e m a f at u e w h ich is p e h ap s t h e m o t d is ,
e r r s

t in ct ive and i nt e e st ing o f al l A nd t h at fe at u e has e fe e nce t o


r . r r r

1
S ee Introd uction, 9, p l xxv
C f imil md i v l Di ti h
. .

2 . s f
ar re e re nce s in Chard ry

s P e ti t P l t t e o the e e a s c s o f
Ct a o .
l iv I ntrod uc t ion

1 . 550, ) h at it i n o w
see n o t e
h w aka uw heya ta
m
er t urn t o , and a : h t
e s r

o pp o ne nt I n v i t ue of t h is igh t t H KO e rp t t k r s c

e pl aint i ff w it h m an y m
. , ,

an d i n t h i sh e ch a g es t h is
1
e p t ex ce o r

d manou s T he Nigh t ingal e foll ow s w i t h he



li i
gqn in
e e r .
a r re c

w h ich sh e d e f nd s h e l f against t he cha ge o f t h w l and t h en


e rse r s e :

t h ase d eg ne at a s f eq u nt ly h app e n e d int o a l e i e g ul a r e oos rr r


e c
q eg r , ,

d i p ite inw h ibht he pl e ad e s ac use o ne anot h e in t e nuo u


l h d '

s i r c r s r s

t e m e h o ne st iv ing t o c nfut e t h
r s, ac e ot h e so as t o w in in t h
r e o r,

e n d a j ud g m e nt in h e fav ou T hi is w hy in t he l at t e h alf of r r s r

t he p o mw e nd t he a g um
.

e e nt l e s l ea and coh e e nt T he r s c r r

N igh t ingal e it i t ue e x p sses e t ain v ie w s a t o t he l ov e t h e m


.

s r ,
es re c r s -

t he n cu e nt and t he q ue t i n of sup e io it y is n v e allo w e d t o


rr ,
s o r r e r

r e ce d qui te into t he backg ound B ut t he p o e ed ings a e now


e r r c r

fo m
.

c nd ucte d w it h a l e s p un ct il io us
o ega d fo al it i s sand r r r r e ,

tow d s t h ar e e n d t h e e are p assag e o f i nd is im inat e e vil ing r s cr r s .

And w h il e init s b oad out l ine t he d e bat e t h us f ll w s t he l ines r o o

p o a y law suit e qually cl ose is t he esembl ance w h en


, ,

o f a c nt e m o r r -
,
r

w e con id e th e m s e t h o d and t h e sp i it i n w h i h t h
r e d isp ute i r c s

c ond u t d T h o ugh out t he act ion bot h pl ead s a e anim


c e r at e d er r

e s m
.

w it h o ne and t h e obj e ct ea ch t i v es t o cat h h e oppo ne nt


a : s r c r

t ipp ing and e nd a v urs to p oint t o som t ech nical e o in h


r e o e e rr r r

pl d ing A mistak e in pl ead ing w oul d be l ik ely t o hav e ve y


,

ea r

E ve y mist ak e in pl ad ing ev e y mi ken ning o


.

ous esul t

se ri r s . r e , r s r

s tu l til qu i um b o ugh t a n a m ce m
o e nt o n t h e pl e ad e
r if t he er r,

mistak w a t o be et ieved and bot h of t he d isputant s a e


e

s r r r

e v id e nt ly aw a e f t h at fact H e n e t h i pl ead ing is l ik e a


r o c e r

fe n ing bo ut bet w e en t w o w a y and easoned sw d men t h e e


.

c -
r s or s : r

a e l unge s
r ip ost e s and fe int and ea h o ne
r em ains o n gu ard s, c r

e f am
,

a gainst t h il ia t ick s O f l e gal d ebate ( p la i t s wr n hr e l r e e c

Am e at te m
, .

o ng t h e e co g ni e d t i k s f pl e ad in g w as t h
r p t t o sh o w
s r c o

t h at t he ch a g e w a n t a bon a d app eal b ut w as o n t h


r s e ot h eo e , r

h nd t he out come of {33 1153 and h at ed (d iumet


,

a T o es 1 1 r o

t abl i h t h is p oin t w o ul d m
,

s e an t h e b e ak d w n of th e ca e an d r -
o s ,

th e Ow l e o t t o t h e e t a t i s in l 1 1 83 w h e e she a cu
r s r s he r s c c r c s es

an ie n t m et m
.

Opponent of a ld nibe ( al i ce
) Y e
o e g e n e a l w a s t h e c r r

m
.

t i k f ange ing an O pponent and O f ausing himas a e sul t t o


r c o r , c r

mak e a ist ak e in pl ead ing T his al w as at te mpte d by t he


, ,

so

me measu e she succ ed ed (l


.

O w l an d in ,
so B ut t he N igh t r e .

1
1 1 556 6 6 8 ; 83 7 93 2
.
-
.

2
See P oll o ck and aitland , H is M t
or y o f Eng li hL s aw , II . 61 5 . Al so 1 1 7 07.

83 6 ; 955 1 042 -
.

3 P
oll ock and M ai tland , H is t or y o f Eng li hL s aw , I I . 51 9 .
4 I bi d . II . 61 4 .
T he Theme of the P oe m 1v

in gal e is aid to h av e see n t h ough the t ick in t ime she re called t he


s r r :

ayi ng t h at ng y m ld oma good pl ad e (


s th e an is

a 1 1 943
r se e r .

a nd o sh m s anag e t o stead y h e
e e lf bef o e e p lyi ng to h
s e O ppo ne n t rs r r r .

T h N igh t ing al
e on th e oth hand i m e, o e succe s f ul in h e er s r s r

W
,

t a ct i as a pl ead e
cs wh n h e co nv ict s t he O w l of a tul til qu i um
r, e s s o

and cl aim t h at t h
( 1 . e s

bo a t ing of he o w n d i g ace
s r T h is claim ad vanced by s r ,

th e N ig h t ingal e i n o t w i t h out its im po t ance it is e nd rsed by


,
s r : o

th e ne igh bo u ing b i d wh j oi e t h at a d eci ion has at l engt h


r r s, ? o re c s I

be n e ach ed and w it h t h i t he l g al di p ut e com


e r : es p a t i ally s, e s r c c

t o an e nd w it h t he N ight ing al e t ium ph ant r

T he f mO f T h Ow l a n d th N ighting ale is t h e e fo e one o f con? S u m


.
,

)

or e e r r

s id e able inte e t
r O i g inally a d ve l p m
r s e nt o f t h e p ast o alr n e o r l

l ate L at in l it e atu e i t became f romt he t im of Al cuin ne of I


.

r r e ,
o

g ni ed md ie val g n
, ,

th e re co s un t il in t hee 1 2 t h and e arl y 1 3 t h I e r es, ,

c e n t u i s it e ach ed t h
r e ,
e h e igh t o f it p op ul a it y w h n i t appe a ed
r s r e r

i n t he v e n a ul a s as w e ll as in t he o i gi nal L at in I n it s ge ne al
r c r r . r

o ut l in t he poe mt h u
e e c ll s t he ea l ie Con i tu and ta mi na
s r a r r c s cer :

b ut in it v a iou d e tails it p oint t o a d e v e l p m


s r s e nt o f t h ose s o

e a lier t yp
r I ts t eat m e nt
es for instance is fre e r and m
. r o e , ,
r

o i gin al
r it has bee n in ue nc d in pl a e by t he ly rical p oe t y o f
: e c s r

France it p oce d u e has bee n mod ell d on t h at of cont mpo a y


: s r r e e r r

l a w uit s and al to ge t h e t he fo mis f ull of h i t o ical inte es t


-
s ,
r r s r r ,

w h il e i t is al so e x e ll e nt ly ad ap t d f o t he pecial Obj ect in


c e r s

Vle W .

HE M E OF T H E P OE M
g7 . THE T

N o t l ess inte e t ing t h an t he for mis t he t h em


r s e of t he p oe m ,

w h ich w ill be f ound t o d e al w it h o ne o f t h e o uts tand in g d e v e l op

ments in t he lit e at u e of the age I t w as usual fo uch d bat es


m
r r . r s e

t o tak e up quest ion of co nt e p o rary int e t a nd T h e Ow l


s nd re s : a

th e N ig h ting al is ce rtainl y no e x ce p t io n to t h
e e g e ne al ul e As r r

em
.

to t h e act ual na t u e of t h a th e th e e h as b ee n so m
r e d iffe e n ce r r

Ea l ie inte p e t at ions fo t he most pa t h ave


,

o f o p inion r r r r r r

a ss um al f o m T h
.
, ,

e d a ge n e d ispu t e h
era bee n said t o stand fr s or

t he old con ict be t w e e n pl a urea n asce t icism be t w ee n c abb d


.

d
1
e s ,
r e

a e and y o ut h be t w ee n g av it y and ag ain i t h be en as


g , o r r ,

d esc ibed as A rt again t P h il o op h y t he aes t he t i as o pposed t


r s s
"
c o

a m t he s t i t m
,

or e se rio us vi e w o f l ife o n as t ic pa t y on t h e one ,
r c r

T n B ink E ly Eng li hL i t
1
e tu (B hn) I 2 1 5
r , ar s er a re o , . .

S int bu y S h t H i t y f Eng l i hL i t
2
a s r tu p 60 , or s or o s era re, . .

K Eng li hL i t tu M d i l p 1 83
3 e r, er a e va

Wll Ow l d Nig hting l p l i


s re e , . .

e s, a e,
:
. x .
l vi

si d e, t he m l or e at it ud inar ian a mng t h l gy n t h t h ; nd


o e c er o e o er
1
a

f or eac ho f ggest io s e e s o
t he se su o e a o n th i mthi ng t b id t h ugh
r s e s , ,

it m ust al so be ad d ed no o e e se e s o s a e e a s n f th m m t uit l l t h d t il
o

i t h p mw h i h
,

of t h e ca e I nd ee d t h e e a e s ec c r e en es n e oe
s .
,
r c p i f
r e r c

se e mt o p oint t o a subj e ct l e s gene al and in spite of t he s r :

e l a bo a te f rmo f t h d e bat e in spit e t o


r o of t he id e i sue s and
e o, s s

t he pe sonal it ie in w h ich t he d isp utant s ind ul g e t he m ain t h e m


, ,

r s e ,

v e al s it e l f w it h t ol e abl e cl e arne ss a s a q ue st ion t h at st ood in

1
r e s r
, ,

int im at e rel at ion t o t h e ag e

I n t he st pl ace it w o ul d see m l ea t h at t he d ispu t e is con


.

r c r,

ne d p im So m
,
!
a il w it h t h ng o f t h bi d u h
gig g i
L c e tw o r s c
l er
y r e r .

might rezsdhably be gat h e ed f o mt he ch oice of bi d s as d ispu


r r r

t ants w e re it not al so d nit e ly t at e d by t h


,
e p o e t h im se l f e s , ,

be fo e t he cont e t be gi ns (
r 11 1 1 B ut it is f u t h e sugge st d
s .
r r e

by t he o p ening w o d s of t he pl aint iff in w h ich acco d ing t o l eg al


r r

e pl aine st o f t e rm
,

cu t omit w a ub al io i i e t o b e sta t e d in t h
,

s s b s .

T h u t he N igh t in gal e op e ns t he p ocee d ing s w it h e m


,

s a k on t h e r r r s

Ow l s o n g (

11 3 5
s l ate on she begins her fo mal pl ea w it h a r r

mo e d etail ed indictment of t he same (1 1 2 1 7 41 1 Hi) A nd


.
,

ha ges a e al so b ough t forw a d f omt ime t o


. .

al t h ough ot h e r c r r r r r

t im e t h e y a e m ly incid e n t al : i t is w it h t h

r e re e sing in g of t h e

O w l t h at th pl ain t iff is p im
,

ea ily conce ne d w h il e an ar aig n r r r r

ment of the N ight ing ale s ong is t he main l ine of t he d e fe nce


,

s .

y h
T he ke to t e alleg ry w ill t h e e fo e be found in t he co nt ast
q u
r r r

of t h e t w o songs and a h i nt as to t h e nat u e of t h at cont ast


: r r

may furt h er be gat h e e d f omt he particul a bird s ch sen t he r r r o

O w l wit h he fabl ed w i d om t he Nj
m gh e associat d w it h
r tipgal s , e

e so l ut ion ne e d no t be base d o n m

t hep assio
M e B ut t h e re

t he p o mit sel f is suf cie nt ly e x pl icit n t he p oin t


.

co nj e ct u e r : e o

Fromt he t h rust and pa y of t he d bat e t he d ift of t he ll egory


.

m
rr e r a

becom
,

e cl a and t h e d i p utant s can be un ask ed b n otin h


@
at
s e r,
y g w
s .

i st of t hei song and second ly O f t h ei pe sona li tie


,
r , r s, r r s

T o beg in w it h t h ere an be n m
,

i t ak e about t he cl aimO f t he
.

, c o s

Ow l w h e n she stat e s t h at her ong s u g e m


, en t o ep e n t and n d s r r

pa don fo t hei sins t hat t hey i nspi e good mn w it h l onging and


r r r , r e

ll t he w ick ed w it h te o of t he e vil s t o come (


,

1 1 86 9rr r

e N igh t in g al e be m
.

92 7 No an t h r c i und e sto od w h e n she p o s r r

t est s t h at h e s n gs b i ng d e l igh t k n tin g e l 986 t o m h


r
( o
) r e n an d t a t s e , .
,

it is of l uue ichsin ge ( l T he cont ast is of a su e ty



sobh

. r , r

e b o ad issue w oul d se emt o l ie be t w e en t wg


,

suf cient ly pl ai n th : r

t e s of p oet s and p oe t y be t w e e n t h e lig i us d id act ic p oe t r


yp e r r o
,
y
C u th p Hi t y f E ng li hP
1
o r t y I 1 34
o e, s or o s oe r , . .
The Th eme of the P oe m lv ii

c ha acte i stic of t he M id d l e Ages and the ne w poe t y w it h its


r r r

l ove mot ive w h ich o iginate d in t h cent u y 1 1 501 2 50


,

-
r e r

A nd t h i in te p e t at ion m
.
,

s a be co n iste nt ly appl ied t h ough out s r


y r r

th e poe mto w h at is said o f t h e so n gs an d the disph tants ali k e


Wh en the N ight ingal e fo instance atta k s the Ow l fo he l ugu
.
,

,
r ,
c r r

b ion singing w h ich t e o i e


r s and d e p e se s all w ho h e a rr r s s r s r

m
,

( 11 o w h e n s h e co pl ai n s
r t h a t t h e O w l s in g s o n ly in

of m
.

t im e f t ro ubl e a if en v ious o f t he h app ine


s o s
(
e n 11 41 2 ss .

at m
,

t he efe e nce i obv iously to t h


r r ed ie v al relig io us p oetry w h ich
s , ,

m
based on p at ist ic teach i ng sough r t by t h und e i ng and t h eats ,
r s r

t o bd g Bu t t he Ow l t oo lay s st ress on t h
'

ein t o G o d .e didact ic , ,

qual iti s of he ong ( e 1 1 53 5 ill ) on t he k now l ed ge she po sesses O f


r s .
, s

t he y m bol ical m
s eaning of t hi ngs ( 11 1 2 1 3 w h il e sh e is found

edi e v al a cet i te m
.

be t aying t he m
r p er w h en she ch a ges t he N ight s c r

ak in g use o f w ant o n t h em
,

in gal e w it h m es t o t h e abuse of y oung

mind (1 s I t is t he re l igious p oe t a oppo se d t o t he se cul a s r

A nd t he cont ast is fu t h e em
.

p h as i ed by t h pe on r r r s e rs

w hich t h e di p ut ant in d ul ge T h u in t he efe re n e s to s s . s r c

th e t y annical be h av iou o f t h ll and h l ly


r e Ow l
( 6 1 if ) e u nc e an r .
,
r

w ay s 11 91 t w e h av e bv ious all usion s t o cl e ri cal abuse h


( ) f t e o s o

t im
.
,

T h n too t h e a e t he O w l boast s of he p e fe ence fo


1
e e er r s r r r r

e ti em
.
, ,

a l ife o f e nt ( 1 1 2 2 7 if ) of her w ell o d e e d inging at


r r .
,
-
r r s

reg ul a h ou s 1 1 3 2 3 and h e care for t h e fab ic of t h C h u ch


( r r . r r e r

H e e it cannot be d oubt ed o ne o f t h e re gul a cl e y


( 1 1 60
. 9 iii ) r , g , r r

A nd w it h e qual cert ain t y t he N igh t ingal e m


.

i m
s eant .
, a
y be d e ,

scr ibe d as t he se ul a l v e p oe t H e song s a e said to be ung c r o -


. r r s

o nly in ult g ed ci c l es ( 1 1 1 03 1 if ) he t ech nique is cl aim


r rc e d to be . : r

ne t h an t h at of he opp onent (1 1 48 7 59 ff ) he d efence of l ove


r r : r

m
.
,

7 d p i y ut t e an ce s of cont e m p o a y
( 1 1 1. 3 8 if ) n s a co u n t
. e a rt n a n r r r r

l ov poe t s : w h il e l ate on she i ind ire ct ly a us d of being a1


e -

,
r ,
s ,
cc e

unih od e d l( t h at is be in g not o d ained sh



. e d oes not po se ss ,
r s

e p iest ly p re og at iv e of ut te rin g a cu T h e e is but o ne



th r r rse r

p a sage in t he poe mw h ich seems to be inconsiste nt w it h t h i


.

s s

1 F or o w l =

mnk o

An lmin Mig n P t L t 1 59 l 699 d
see St se e, a a co

u i u ly m
. . . .
,

2 Courthope Hi t y
( s or f E ng l i hP t y I 1 3 4 n ) h
o i int
s oe r , . . as c r o s s er

p re ted thi p s as sag e . H t n l t


e ra F p t wik i hw t bu d t (l 1 1 79)
s a es or re s e s e c a es .

as

I know thou d oe s t f th
so k f p i t d w ll ing
or In lity th
e sa e o a r es

s e .

rea e

d uties and th e Ow l , in stead o f reg arding the Nig htin


w ord w i ke : ofce s

or

gal e as a cl eric w ho ai

m
ed at w inn ing a rie st s d w ell ing , is , on the contrar , p y
co nd e m ni ng her o one nt for e r or pp
in g the ri estl y unction , be ing as she p f m p f
was, a1 uni hod ed (
i e unord ain ed ,

not unheeding ,

as Co urthope
mmd i
. .

translate s) T he taunts . of the Ow l , w hichi e ate l yf oll o w , su pp y v l e id ence


on this p oint. S
(ee ll 1 1 80 if . .
)
I nt rod uc t ion

gene al interp etat ion and t h e e t he d if ul ty i mo e app a e nt


r r r c s r r

um t h an eal I t is w h e e the N igh t ingal e cl aim t h at she t oo sings


,

I
r r s ,

s to e m
,

and t h us see m
.

of ch i ch e son ge

r

l( -
p h asi e the s

Y e t t h is p ass ag e is by no m
.

n d id act ic q ual it y of he inging r s e an s

e p oe mif int e rp re t e d in t h
.

o ut of k ee p ing w it h t h e rest o f th e
,

spi i t o f ce tain l ine s w h ich p e ced e i t (


r r cf 1 1 7 1 6 w he e th r . . r e

N ight ingal e stat es t h at since al l e a t h ly ong s are a p ep arat ion r s r

i fo t he harm
f
r on ies o f H av e n t h e re fore h e sing in g is no t w it h out
e ,
r

is e p eat e d w h e n t he r

Nigh t ingal e cl aim s t o t each t h e vir t ue of d e l it y ( l and .

th e t ansit o in es o f ea th
r l y p a sion (
r I s An d t h is he d o e
r s s s

mainly fo a t act i al p u p os in d e t o mee t he d ou oppo nent


.

r c r e, or r r r

B ut t he p oint score d is o m
,

a it w e e o n h
s e r o w n gr oun d r e t h ing s

more as w ell it is an a gument d raw n f omt he teaching of Lat in


.
,

: r r

C h i st ianit y acco d ing t o w h ich t he N igh t ingal e w as p aised not


r r r

e m
, ,

as t h essenge of l o v e b ut as t h e song t e ss o f t h
r e g l o ie s o f,
s r r
,

t he C reato I t is as t he ong st e s o f l o v e t h at t he N igh t ingal e


r
1
s r s

g u es in the p re sent po e m: but t he Old d id act i not ion is also


.

r c

util ised as a sort of p as a d o in a bo ut o f d ial ect ics s

T he d iscus ion in t he p emm


.

a
y
s t h e e f o e b e said t o d e al w i t h o r r

th e e sp e ct iv e m
r e it o f t w o d iff e re nt t yp es of p oe t y t h
r s e ld r o

r e l igiou s p oet y o n t h e o ne h and r th e n w l o v e p o et y o n t h e ,


e -
r

t to consid e t he at tit ud e t ak e n up by r

th e poe t o n t h is p art icul a question I n acco d ance w it h t he r . r

d ebate conv ent ion n o d e nite d e cision is g iv n at t he e nd of t he e

p oem t he d iscus ion is b ok en off ab upt ly befo e the umpi e


,

: s r r r r

ha t im s e to p eak Y et t he symp at h ie s of the poe t can be read


s

be t w ee n t he l ines and t he st ate mnt m


.

ay be h aza d e d t h at al t h ough
,
e r ,

t he bal ance is h e l d fai ly be t w e n t he t w o d isp utant it is t he


r e s,

N igh t ingal e w ho in t he e nd se em s t o g et t h e be tt e o f t h a g um e nt r e r .

F o o ne t h ing it i not w it h out it s sig ni cance t h at t he N ig ht in


r s

gal e gure s as plaint i in t he law uit : she i out to e m


,

ed y an
'
-
s s r

abuse t o ri gh t a w o ng and t o l aimfo l ov e p oe t y it s rel ease


r c r -
r

f omthe h eavy h and of t adit ion T h en t oo it is not e w o t hy t hat


, ,

r r . r
,

t he N igh t ingal e is rep e e nted on t he w h ol e as t he bet te te m


,

r s pe ed r -
r

of t h e t w o com batant s : she i s t he m ore at t a t i v e pe so nal it y sh e r c r

sh w s m
,

o o e sel f re st rai nt t h an t h
r e Ow l-
and sh e in d ul ge s t o a ,

l esse ext e nt in v il e pe rsonal it ie and abuse A nd in t he e nd it is


r s

o i m ad e t o t ium
.

t he N igh t ingal e w h p h she accuses t he Ow l of


s r
2

a t e h nical bl und e r and


c laim fo h ersel f t he v ict o ry w hich i c s r s

j oyf ully endo ed by the company of at t end ant bi d s I ndi ect ly


,

rs 3
r . r .

1
Se e note , 1 . 7 36 .
2 S e e 11 . 1 6 49 ff .
2 S ee 1 1 1 6 58 if . .
T he Theme of the P oe m
t h e e fo e t he poet may be aid to have giv en his v e d i
r r s r

d ecl ared again t t he m on po ly o f re li gio us t h e m


,

s es in o

and h a a ll ed at te nt io n t o t h
s c e

re o gni tio n
1
c .

B ut w h il e th is is t rue i t h o ul d also be ad d ed t h at t he N ight s

ingal e and co nse q ue nt ly t he poe t has in id e ntally om e crit icism


,

c s

to m ak e o n t h e love t h e m es t h at w e e h aracte istic of t he ly rics


Whil e commend ing love poet ry she d oes so wi th rese va
-
r c r

of th e ag e .
- r

t io n : sh e h as a p t t to m ak e against t h e a t i ial co n ve nt io n al
ro es r c

t h e m w h ich gu e d in so m
es any o f t he F re n ch ch an sons and w h ich
r ,

a lso gav e a bia t o T roubad ou w o k I n t he ancie nt ch


s a n on d c r r s s

d am se w h i h acco m panied t he May d ay fes tivit ies the co m mon


.

c -

th m e w as t h at of la m al m ac o d ing t o w hi ch m
,

e a i arri ag e /r e, c r ,

w as rep re se nt d a a h i te fuf fO mof slav e y and t he h usband as


'

e s r r ,

an od ious t yran t l vil ai n te ) h h i


( g l o w o w as w o n t t oeil l t re at e s -
s

l o t hin g he bad ly of t tim


,

w i fe c es beat in g h e r and p utt in g h e -


r r

k and key T his subj e ct m


, ,

und e l r oc at te r e nte e d i nt o t h e ch a n ons -


r s

d am
.

r atiques : and t h e t rad it ion pe rsiste d in t h e co urt ly poe t y of r

th e T ro ubad ours as w ell as in t h e d oct in es fo m ulated i n t h e r r

Court s of Lo ve T h us l ov e w as se l d omce l eb ate d sav e in opp o


,

sit iou to m or ac com


.
,

ar iag e th e l o v e w h ich p reced ed


r panied V
ma iage be ing gene ally e xcl uded I n court ly lyrics ma ied
,

rr r rr

w om
.
,

e n al one w e re id ea lise d and t h e ir e x pl oit s w it h l o v e s sung r :

w h e reas so ngs in h o nour of y ou ng gi l s w e re com p arativ el y a e r r r

A nd ag ain in t he Court s of Lov e it w as d ec ee d t h at a m


.

an coul d r

l ove o nly a ma ried l ad y w hi le l o ve in ma iage w as d ee m ed i m


,

r ,
rr

po sible I t w as against thi art icial cod e t h at


s s

ee m
.

s s t o h av e ut te ed h e r p ro te t H e r y m pathies r s s

of m
.

aid s l o th e peccad ill oes o f w iv e s sh


( f . r

ll ure ment of fool e ve n t h ough he m


a ar iag sh ould han to
s, r r e c ce

be unh appy ( l w h il e a v i rt uous w i f m igh t al o t aste of e s

l ove and y t e main fait h ful to he ma riage vo w (


.

e r 11 1 3 40 r r s

pl ea fo a more at ional t eat mnt t hat t h


.

It i in sh t
s, or ,
a r r r e e

N igh t in gal is h e m ak ing f l ov e t hemes mo e in k pin g w it h


e re or -
r ee

o d ina y m e poe t w ul d see mto h av e h


,

r o alit y and t h at t h
r r : ad o

t his obj ect in m ind is l ea ly uggeste d by minis nces of t h c r s re ce e

mal ma i mot ive f und he e and t h ere in t h poe m


r e o r e
2

T he m ain t h m of
.

u poet is t h e re f re o n o f c n ide abl


My e e o r o e o s r e

p ec tive m
,
inte est H e d iscusses t he
r e i ts of t w o t y pes f p oe t y r es r o r :

d e nite ly om mending th poet y t hat too k l ov fo its


.

an d w hi l e c e r e r

S n t 1 1 7 94 1 ee S Int d u ti n
o e, 8 p In
. .
2
ee ro c o , , . .

6 2
lx

th eme as opposed to the ol d e so t f a el igi us k ind he al so r r o r o

passes j ud gment on t he cont emp o a y l im itat i ns of t h at t h m


, ,

e r r o e

a b oad e and a h e al t h ie t e at m
,

and ar gue s f ent N o n eed w e


or r r r r . r

be g eat l y surp ri sed at nd in g an Eng l ish w i t e of t he e ly 1 3 th


r r r ar

ce nt u y h and l ing in h
r is p oe msuch ubj e ct s as t h e s and h an d l ing s e,

t h em t o o in so o iginal and st ik ing a fash ion T he ch all n ge of t he


r r . e

ea lie r ligiou t ad ition had al ead y gon fo t h in actual l it e a y


r re s r r e r r r

d e v el op m e nt s : and n al e r t o nt e m p o a y such as our poet musto c r r

u ely h av e be e n co ul d p o ibly h av e re m
,

s r ain ed i gno an t o f t h e ss r

h ange t hat w e e t ak ing place at t he t ime Of t he natu e of t h o e


,

c s r . r s

ch anges som e t h ing h al ad y be en said o f th e w o k of t h


1
a s e re : r

T ro ubad ou w ho sang f l ov e t o t h e m
rs a cul t al m ost a e l igi on
o r

e nt t h at m lyri s omet h ing


,

w it h a beaut y and a enem ad e t h e i r r c s

n e w in t h e ach ie v e m ent s o f m an : O f t h o e w o nd e rf ul om ance s r s,

t o in w h ich l o v e appe a e d not m


o e e ly as t he art i cial c n v en t ion
r ,
r o

O f t he ly ri cs but a a t mend ous my st e iou s fo ce p ot e nt fo


,

s re r r r

go d o e v il in its in uen e on mank ind A nd such w o k s coul d


, ,

o r c . r

no t but com e in t o v io l e nt on t ast w it h t h e l ite at ure t h at h ad c r r

sp ung f omt h p at ist ic t ad it ion w it h such w


r r e k s as t h D i
r r ,
or e es

I a the M o al Od e t he Le ge nd s of t he S aint
r e, r ,
w it h o t h e w hi h s, o r rs c

d eal t w it hV isions of H ea ve n and H ell w it h V i s and V i t ues ce r

N or coul d t h o se d e v e l op m
, ,

an d t h e S e v en D ead ly S ins
2
e nts on

F en h soil h av e been unk now n t o ul t ured E ngl i h men of the


.

r c c s

t im e f or E ngl and und e H e n y II had be c m


: e a t ue col o ny o f r r o r

France in mat t e s O f t ast e and t he l at ion bet w een t he t w o


r re s

co un t i es w e re o f a m
,

r ost int im at e k in d T h e e i t h e e fo e n o t h in g . r