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태권도의 독일유입과 변천
(1960 ~ 2000)

Introduction and Transition of Taekwondo in Germany
(1960 ~ 2000)

한국체육대학교 대학원

체 육 학 과


지도교수 하 웅 용

2010 년 2 월

태권도의 독일유입과 변천
(1960 ~ 2000)
Introduction and Transition of Taekwondo in Germany

(1960 ~ 2000)

한국체육대학교 대학원

체 육 학 과


이 논문을 박사학위 논문으로 제출함

지도교수 하 웅 용

2010 년 2 월


Introduction and Transition of Taekwondo in Germany

Kuklinski-Rhee, Thomas

Department of Physical Education

Graduate School of Korea National Sport University

Ha, Woong-yong

Prior to the 1988 Seoul Olympics, the German competitiveness in TKD faced
dramatic changes. While ranking on second place after Korea at the beginning of
the 1980s (in terms of gained international medals), Germany plays just a marginal
role in competition TKD since the 1990s. Which factors could be made responsible
for Germany’s decline in Taekwondo competitiveness, and why was the German
TKD administration not able to compensate for the loss?

In this current study, these and related questions were pursued by means of
social historiography. For this, different time periods were examined, such as the
formative years of Taekwondo in Germany during the 1960s; the formation and
developments of the most important German TKD associations during the 1970s
and 1980s (e.g., Deutsche Taekwondo Union, DTU; International Taekwondo
Federation-Deutschland, ITF-D); and the effects of the German Reunification of
1990 on TKD, together with the prospects of TKD as an official Olympic event
during the 1990s. Furthermore, the current socio-cultural position of TKD in
Germany was tried to determine by comparisons with other Asian martial arts
(Jujutsu, Judo, Karate, Aikido) as well as various European combat sports (Boxing,
Fencing, Wrestling). Research objects and tools included magazine articles, books,
the internet and one-on-one interviews with acknowledged experts of TKD in

The study resulted in four conclusions and two recommendations. First, the
socio-cultural comparisons with related martial arts and combat sports revealed that
TKD had endured a radical image change in Germany. While TKD was regarded as
an extremely effective and spectacularly artistic fighting system in the 1970s, it
became a family-friendly entertaining Olympic event with a ratio of 70% underaged
members 30 years afterwards. It could be assumed that the modern TKD image is
attracting a different kind of athletes than the old one, which in return could explain
partly the decline of German TKD athlete’s competitiveness since the 1980s.

Second, the examination into the formative years of TKD in Germany
discovered two different sources: U.S. GIs stationed in Southern Germany and
Korean coal miners working in hard coal pits in North Rhine-Westphalia. Their
different living situations and motivations resulted in two different habits in German
TKD which determined the transition of TKD in Germanz in the 1980s and 1990s.

Third, the analysis of the athletic records in TKD in the 1980s showed that the
decline in competitiveness beared external factors, such as professionalization of
TKD in other countries, as well as internal factors, such as mismanagement of the
DTU’s directors. Both factors sustained and reinforced each other during the 1990s,
leading to particular disappointing athletic achievements. The ITF-D, on the other
side, was able to manage both kinds of factors during the 1990s and gained top
athletic results in return.

Fourth, the analysis of the latest developments revealed that the DTU has laid its
primary focus on the support of TKD as elite sports, while widely ignoring the
prospects of TKD as recreational and leisure sport. This stood not only in sharp
contradiction to the disappointing athletic results of German TKD competitors, but
also to the socio-cultural image of TKD in Germany as an activity for the whole

This led to the first recommendation. German TKD should lay more emphasize
on the importance of TKD as a recreational activity, e.g. for the silver generation, as
well as on TKD as a joyful leisure time program, especially for children and the

the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) and the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). eventually leading to unifying the different TKD styles into one umbrella administration. which would also have beneficial effects on elite sports TKD.youth. similar to the situations in fencing or wrestling. German Sports History . would probably approach each other more closely in the future. German Taekwondo. TKD would most probably experience a raise of members. instead of regularly applying mutual ignorance. In that case. The second recommendation was based on the assumption that the two world governing TKD bodies. Keywords : Taekwondo. The German TKD associations could already gain a competitive edge by actively seeking more cooperation.

Research Method ·························································· 14 4. Taekwondo and other Korean Martial Arts in Korea ········· 31 1.1. Table of Contents Ⅰ. Combat Sports and Martial Arts in Germany ···················· 46 2.2. Purpose of the Study ······················································· 1 2. Struggling for a modernized Taekwondo ···························· 42 2.1. Original Documents ························································· 14 4. Objectives of the Study ··················································· 9 3.2. Origins of Taekwondo in Korea until 1965 ························· 33 1. Resume ·············································································· 57 .1. Boxing ··············································································· 52 2.1.2. Combat Sports ································································ 46 2.4. Introduction ··································································· 1 1. Fencing ·············································································· 55 2.1.1. Limitations of the Study ················································· 11 4.3. Taekwondo in Korea since 1965 ······································· 39 1. Interviews ······································································ 27 5.3.1. Secondary Literature ······················································· 17 4. Research Plan ······························································ 28 II. Socio-cultural Background for Taekwondo in Germany ····· 29 1.1.i- . Wrestling ··········································································· 49 2.3.

2. Judo ··················································································· 66 2. Labor Migration in West Germany ····································· 86 The Struggle for a Proper German Taekwondo Administration (1964~1971) ······························································ 114 .2.2.2. Korean Migrant Workers in West Germany ······················ 86 3.2.1. Administrational Effort for Taekwondo in Germany (1964~1990) ···························································· 113 1. Karate ················································································ 72 2. Resume ·············································································· 78 3. Aikido ················································································ 76 2. Korean Migrant Workers ·················································· 91 III. "Korean Karate" in Garmisch-Partenkirchen ·················· 106 4. A Lonely Student's Efforts in 1960 ······························· 110 IV. Martial Arts ···································································· 60 2.3. The "Oh-Do-Kwan" in Munich ····································· 108 5.2. How Taekwondo Entered Germany (1960~1965) ··········· 100 1. Korean Migrant Workers Teaching "Korean Karate" in their Spare Time ································································ 101 2.ii - .2.5. Jujutsu ··············································································· 62 2. The Official Introduction of Taekwondo in 1965 ············· 104 3.

1. Inner Conflicts Within the ITF-D ····································· 151 4.2.2. Conflict Line II: Full-Contact vs. Political Reunification ···················································· 157 1.iii - .4. Taekwondo in East Germany ········································ 154 V. German Sports Unification since 1990 ··························· 157 1. Unification in Sports ······················································ 159 . 1. Problem II: Commercial Taekwondo Schools ···················· 144 3. Taekwondo in Reunified Germany (since 1989) ·············· 155 1. South ······································· 144 3. Unexpected Problems ···················································· 120 2. Zero- Contact Competition System ············································· 148 3. Problem I: Lack of Korean Taekwondo Masters ··············· 139 3. Unity vs. Conflict Line I: North vs. Struggles for Independence ············································ 131 2. The Struggle for a Self-Governed German Taekwondo Administration (1971~1981) ··········································124 2.1. Struggles for Dominance ················································ 124 2. Power Struggles in the South ·········································· 117 1.2.3. Lack of Effort in the Center ············································ 114 Conflicts and Problems Within the German Taekwondo Community ································································· 139 3.3. Disparity ························································· 135 3. Semi-Contact vs.3.2.

3.1. recreational activity ·············· 170 2. Conclusion & Recommendation ···································· 177 1. Internal Power Struggles in the DTU ······························· 174 VI. Conclusion ································································· 177 2. The impact of the WTF on the DTU during the 1990s ······· 168 2. Taekwondo: elite sports vs. 1. Athletic Taekwondo Achievements during the 1990s ········ 165 2.2.3. Taekwondo in Reunified Germany: from Unity to Disparity 167 2. Situation for Taekwondo and other East Asian Martial Arts 163 1.iv - . Recommendation ························································· 179 Bibliography ···································································· 182 Interviews ······································································· 192 국문요약 ·········································································· 194 .4.

and for the fact that Germany was not able to recover afterwards? According to Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). Ⅰ Introduction 1. for example. Exceptions will be made for headings and the names of federations and events. in 1985. from now on. Jung (2007). 2 This was pointed out in several interviews. a competition that went 1 This abbreviation has the benefit that it covers the various TKD styles promoted by different federations. see the “Appendix Table: Interviews and other Interrogations. the fact that Park was reinstalled as national head coach just for the TKD event at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. But a closer look reveals that the problems in the German TKD competition teams already began when Park was still in charge.1- . hanja 跆拳道. is spelled Taekwondo. it is one of Germany’s less successful Olympic sports. as was shown by Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). including Wolfer (2007). Which factors could be detected as being responsible for the sudden decline of German TKD competitiveness. TKD)1 was a demonstration sport for the first time.2 Moreover. While Germany had been the runner-up after Korea in terms of medals won at the top international tournaments at the beginning of the 1980s. Park Soo-nam. . In spite of constantly deciding to spell this word with or without a hyphen. 2006~2009” at the end of this study. For more details about the interviews and interviewees. usage of the abbreviation “TKD” seems more practicable. Purpose of the Study Around the time of the 1988 Seoul Olympics where the Korean martial art Taekwondo (태권도. Modern Olympic TKD promoted by the World Taekwondo Federation. the successes of the German TKD competition teams went through dramatic changes. it plays only a marginal role at international TKD competitions since the 1990s. while the more traditionally oriented International Taekwondo Federation prefers to type Taekwon-Do. and Arndt (2009). Since TKD became an official event at the Olympics. one factor was the stepping-back of the successful head coach of the German TKD teams.

but surprisingly. the purpose of this current study was to determine the remaining factors enabling the explanation of the decline of German TKD competitiveness during the 1980s and the German’s failed attempts to recover afterwards. Several TKD masters were among these migrant workers. South Korean migrant workers had come to West Germany working in coal mines. in 1965. most Korean masters in Germany followed the competing world governing TKD body. It would be natural to assume that these men formed a network which would later evolve into one of the first German governing TKD bodies. Moreover. 2008: 128). and many of them settled in West Germany to teach their martial art after their three-year working contracts ran out. But according to Kim Un-yong. this figure would cover only the instructors affiliated to the World Taekwondo Federation. Overall. but not more than one match was won by a German athlete (Markus Woznicki). 4 Estimations about concrete figures must remain vague. which summed up to about eight thousand until 1980. which would be more than 160 instructors.2% of 721. That result was especially disappointing for another athlete. a total of 721 TKD instructors taught in 48 countries in 1975. Michael Arndt.6% of all instructors were supposed to teach in Germany. such as 3 At the 1988 Seoul Olympics. but at that time. Canada.2- . Given an even ratio. the International Taekwondo Federation. reveals that it was not just his physical presence that guaranteed Germany’s successes during his regular term from 1976~1985. who had won the WTF World Championships (heavyweight) in the previous year. the facts contradict this hypothesis. perhaps more than all of them combined 4 . Since 1963. This whole situation seems especially odd considered the fact that at the time TKD was officially introcuced to Europe. . it took several years with no major developments of administrative structures. and West Germany” (Gillis.largely disappointing for the Germans. one-third of 66. thus 22.3 Therefore. “with more than two-thirds of the instructors teaching in the United States. Instead. eight German male and four female athletes competed in TKD. West Germany already hosted more Korean TKD instructors than any other European country. they could sum up to more than 300 Korean TKD instructors in West Germany in the 1970s.

the German branch of the main ITF (ITF- 5 As holding the position of national TKD head coach from 1976~1985. which would probably have included some influence on the administration. he was befriended with the long-time president of the administration. Yet as a payed coach. covers about two thirds of all clubs. the process that German TKD enthusiasts took over the administration in Germany before it worked efficiently happened.conducting referee’s training courses. 6 According to the latest statistics. the WTF. in a very similar fashion. not on the direction German TKD should take. at least twice. Heinz Marx. until the first generation of native German black belts was ready to take the lead in administrating this Korean sport in Germany. the German Taekwondo Union (Deutsche Taekwondo Union. while such a development could be regarded as sheer coincidence with no major relevance. which is affiliated to the ruling world body. His rule was on the national competition teams only. 6 Another major association. This odd behavior that Korean TKD masters refrain from ruling over local TKD enthusiasts could hardly be found in other countries and demands an extra explanation in respect of the situation of Koreans within the German society.3- . setting up a national competition team and organizing national and international tournaments. schools and members. respectively. the DTU featured exactly 59. The hugest of them. They are currently distributed over three different main.5 A gross estimation about the current situation of TKD in Germany would sum up to a maximum of 100. Park was hired by the directors who were running the administration.000 practitioners in about one thousand public sports clubs and private sports schools.944 registered members in 877 clubs in . Park Soo-nam could be seen as a possible exception from this rule. without being a director by himself. on a personal level. Moreover. and about two dozen more minor associations and association-like administrations. However. within the German branches of the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) and the International Taewondo Federation (ITF). DTU).

accessed on 18 December 2009. this would be an average ratio of 250 participants per club and school. 9 Beyer (2005: 18) specifies the number of Kwon-affiliated clubs and schools as 60. Kwon-affiliated TKD schools are usually commercial enterprises. The other two ITF branches are widely ignored in this study. there are at least three different ITF organizations: one headed by North Korean IOC member Chang Ung. To get a more realistic number. LSB). while the other two have only two (Chang Ung) or about a dozen (Choi Jung-hwa) member clubs in Germany (interview Weiler.000 members in about 66 TKD schools. which makes this figure sound unrealistic. plus one in Austria and one in Switzerland. several students of Kwon’s had opened their own TKD schools and had left the Kwon association after a while. However. the Kwon Jae-hwa Black Belt Center. its headquarter is located in Fort Lauderdale in Florida. this would be an average ratio of about 40.Deutschland.7 sums up to about five to ten percent of the clubs.000 members. 2008: 7). 7 Currently. Choi and www. schools and members. and a third one headed by Tran Trieu Quan. However. far more than in the DTU and ITF-D. all further comments about the German ITF branch. ITF-D). thus taking several .itf-d.5 members per club or school. because public clubs have to pay fees for their registered members to the regional umbrella organization (Landessportbund. 8 And up to 15. are associated with the private international association of TKD pioneer Kwon Jae-hwa. The main German ITF branch is affiliated to the third one of these organization. The minutes are available on the official ITF-D website at see the Kwon Jae- hwa Taekwon-Do websites at www. another one headed by Choi Hong-hi’s son.9 2008 (DOSB. ITF-D. It should also be noted that over the years.4- . both accessed on 18 December 2009. For the sake of clarity. about 5-10% of unregistered participants should be added. is related to the one affiliated to the Tran Trieu Quan-ITF. mostly run as commercial enterprises. the ITF-D covered 87 clubs and schools with a sum of 3528 members. with a total of about 15.kwonjaehwa-taekwondo. a more recent online research reveals 66 schools in Germany affiliated to the Kwon association. On the other side. they would contribute to another few hundreds TKD participants.traditionelles-taekwondo. this official ratio of 68 1/3 members per TKD club should be used as a basis for further estimations. which are often omitted in official reports by public clubs in order to pay less fees to the superardinate federation. 2007). which tend to register more people than the public DTU and ITF-D TKD with three additional clubs which failed to give the exact number of their members. 8 According to the minutes of the general meeting on 1 November 2008.

The final According to the rules of their superordinated international organizations. www. but their affiliated schools are also offering . Actually. clubs and schools is divided across a growing number of organizations and networks. Many Korean TKD masters. they are forming tiny networks across their own TKD clubs and schools. are personally affiliated to the WTF or the ITF. where TKD and several other martial arts can be trained. their respected figures can be estimated only vaguely. The sum of those TKD practitioners might sum up to about one thousand. Sometimes. 11 See the Dr. only the first 19 Hyong are actually performed. since German reunification. without formal registration to a German sports association. sparring style with abandonment of substantial protective gear is supposed to be more essential. the DTU features Poomsae (품새. however. called Dr. Also. 10 also. postures and movements are different. 10 Usually. hanja 形) General Choi Hong-hi originally developed are practiced. hanja 品勢) and full-contact sparring with chest and head remains reserved for the day South and North Korea get reunited. resulting in athletic zero-contact matches which are often criticized as unrealistic (Capener 1995). One of the most prominent Korean TKD masters of this kind is Lee Keun-tae. the Dr. and thus without official counting of their members. grandmasters and instructors residing in Germany. schools. for example. who runs a network of commercial schools in North-Western Germany (and. Lee Academy is mainly selling Haidong Gumdo (해동검도). also in Eastern Germany). a less elaborate way is promoted.11 Another one would hundreds of members with them.5- . dobok style and the Korean terminology for techniques. accessed on 19 December 2009. while the ITF-D features Tul (틀) and semi-contact sparring with hand and feet protectors. TKD in these three organizations is very different. the first 20 Hyong (형. hanja 統). Tong-il (통일. Within the Kwon association. Lee Academy. in forms and sparring style. The Kwon organization features a similar dobok style and terminology as the ITF-D. The remaining amount of TKD practitioners. and clubs. Lee Academy website.

several native German TKD masters and instructors dissented from further participation at the German WTF-affiliated TKD body. . the International Budo Association. and with rising intensity since 2000. the International Martial Arts Federation.classic-taekwondo. which are sometimes affiliated to the ITF or WTF independently. the Federation of International Taekwondo in Germany. who is operating several clubs in Southern Germany. the Korean Lee Keun-tae started with TKD. 12 See the International Son Jong Ho Classic Taekwondo Federation website. with no concrete figures about members. accessed on 19 December 2009. According to this website. thanks to an associated Korean TKD master with useful personal connections. Beginning in the mid-1990s. a Hapkido style). Kung Fu. the International Budo Organization. this would sum up to one to five percent of all German TKD practitioners. after severe disagreements about the direction German TKD was taking. 4 in Italy and 2 in Switzerland affiliated to the Son Jong-ho organization. 7 in Austria. www. forming a loose connection to other so-called Independent Single Dojangs (ISD). and given an average membership ratio per school or Son Jong-ho. the DTU. Many of these schools and clubs remain independent since then. the International Mu-do Federation. it would be a reasonable guess that these and other groups cover a few dozen TKD clubs and Kuksoolwon (국술원. Some examples of these new organizations are the European Taekwondo Federation (ETF). Many others established new organizations. Originally. the Global Taekwondo Federation Germany. 12 Although concrete figures about membership can hardly be estimated. there are 11 TKD clubs in Germany. the International Taekwon-do and Budosport Federation and many more. sometimes consisting of not more than one single club or school.6- . and others. the World Association of Martial Artistry.

Furthermore. see also the Association for Traditional Budo Sports. And finally. www. but also joined by practitioners of Brazilian Capoeira. www. But both instructors and participants often have a TKD background.7- .jinjungkwan.13 it is not unusual for a Hapkido club or school also offering TKD lessons. for example.dtsdv. other Korean martial arts with some connection to TKD also cover several thousand practitioners. 14 See the website of the German Taekkyon They are usually filled with TKD practitioners. are organized in several associations in Germany. an unidentified number of people are practicing TKD at public middle and high schools and leisure-time University sports programs without formal association to any sports organization. roughly since the 1980s.koreanischeskarate. hanja 合氣道) and the Jin Jung Kwan Hapkido Federation Germany. www. www. a German Taekkyon (택 견) master who learned the native Korean martial art in Korea is offering Taekkyon classes and training courses all over Germany. the German Hapkido Federation website. but may also sum up to about one to five percent of all active German TKD practitioners. Estimations about the respected amounts of practitioners of all these new groups are virtually impossible. the websites of the German Tangsoodo Federation. Most of those participants could be found in the different German Hapkido (합기도 sometimes performing techniques and forms practically identical to those in old-school TKD. accessed on 19 December 2009. all websites accessed on 19 December for example. www. Such a confusing situation could not be found in other Olympic sports in Germany. And finally. clubs and schools. . and thus could raise many questions. these organizations do not formally offer TKD lessons. an unidentified number of practitioners of early predecessors of TKD. Since 2002. like Tangsoodo (당수도. 15 See. German Hapkido Association To be clear.tangsoodo. hanja 唐手道) and Korean But it just mirrors the situations of other East Asian 13 See. http://germany. www. all websites accessed on 19 December 2009. and the German Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan

What had happened since then? Which processes caused the explosive diversity of TKD organizations in Germany since TKD got Olympic (in 1988) and Germany got reunited (in 1990)? 16 The former German Sports Confederation (Deutscher Sportbund. DTB). the ITF-D. Some remained independent. Before that. like Muay Thai. or the German TKD Federation (Deutscher TKD the DTU. the DTU was the universally present TKD representative. the German Olympic Sports Confederation (Deutscher 16 Olympischer Sportbund. Therefore. the four other East Asian martial arts officially acknowledged by the top German sports umbrella. Jujutsu (柔術). accessed on 1 December 2009. The current situation with about two dozen TKD organizations in Germany emerged successively during the last ten to fifteen years. also deserve careful examinations. and the only competitor.martial arts in Germany. but most of them summed up into ITF-affiliated federations. Therefore. are represented by one huge major association with DOSB affiliation. shortly DOSB). are even not represented by a dominating administration in Germany. . it is a reference to today’s DOSB. a few went abroad. the process of establishment of the DTU and the immediate reactions it provoked.dosb. which can be observed until today. Others. Judo (柔道). for instance. and one to several minor associations which are officially ignored. www. Kickboxing and the several Chinese Kung Fu styles. see the DOSB website. The first separation of individuals and groups from the main German TKD administration happened during the establishing of a proper WTF-affiliated association. in 1981. Several Korean TKD masters did not want to be formally associated to the WTF and left the DTU. Karate (空手) and Aikido (合気道). like the ITF-D (mentioned above). was nearly down.8- . DSB) was renamed in 2006 after merger with the German National Olympic Committee. whenever the DSB is mentioned in this study.

both for the German WTF and ITF branches. determination of the socio-cultural position of TKD in Germany. It closed with the final resurrection of DTU's competitiveness and the realization of the need for structural reforms around the time of the 1988 Seoul Olympics. examinations of the crucial decisions and actions in the establishment and further development of the ruling German TKD body. Second.9- . schools and clubs about the direction the main organization was heading at on the other side. Objectives of the Study The study followed four objectives. the impact of the German reunification and the aftermath on TKD in Germany. as well as an exploration of the socio-political situation related to Korean migrant workers and other foreigners living in Germany around the time of the official introduction of TKD in 1965. the DTU. This step included examinations of particular conflict lines within the German TKD scene and the process of the formal establishment of the German ITF branch. from the time Korean and American martial arts experts residing in Germany started to teach TKD on their own efforts until the sustainable establishment of the main TKD association led by native Germans. the same processes resulted in growing discontent by members. First. This step covered the years before and after the official introduction of TKD in Germany in 1965. Third. This step included an examination about the actual socio-cultural position of other East Asian martial arts and European combat sports for comparable issues. While these processes led to the development of an internationally highly competitive West German TKD scene on one side. This was required to provide a basis for understanding of subsequent processes. Contrary to most other sports.2. an examination about the formative years of TKD in Germany. Fourth. the German reunification proved to be a heavy burden for .

The study closed with four conclusions about the examined subjects and two recommendations for the future transition of TKD in Germany. Especially. . where increasing pressure from outside and existing as well as newly emerging inner conflict lines reinforced each other. In some respects. much to the benefit of non-Olympic TKD styles. the DTU’s responses to these challenges harmed the further development of Olympic TKD in Germany. the divergence of TKD as leisure and recreational sport and TKD as elite sport started to become a major issue. like the ITF’s and others.the main TKD organization.10 - . the DTU.

such odd possibilities need not furtherly be examined. But since it was generally acknowledged that West Germany was the spearhead of European TKD until the mid-1980s and that the evidences of earlier traces of TKD in other European countries would not affect the main results of this study. a Korean student at another European country’s university started practicing Korean Karate even before this happened in Germany. by means of identifying supportive 17 The rationale for this assumption was that officially. Therefore. for example. even before this official introduction. Second. it might be found some day that somewhere else in Europe. others with less important first-hand experiences. many of the German TKD proponents of the early days (including the majority of persons interviewed for this study) were still vivid and actually engaged in several activities during the period of this study. .3. based on the justified assumption that West Germany was the first European country where TKD was introduced. so they might have felt some reluctance to comment on several aspects relevant to the proceeding of TKD in Germany. Some of them did not want their actual lifes getting interfered with old stories.11 - . yet Korean migrant workers as well as American GIs in Germany had taught Korean Karate. But West Germany was the only European country both groups were located at that time. but with a stronger political habit of guiding others in the direction of their own opinions. thus. This danger could adequately be handled by trying to confirm or refuse allegations by external validation efforts. with only rare additional views beyond the border. Contrary to them. However. 17 this study was focused on the proceedings of TKD in Germany. TKD was introduced to Europe in 1965. Limitations of the study First. the possibility remained that. even earlier TKD practitioners could be found. were sometimes more willing to share their views. old problems and old clashes from the past. which was later called TKD. Herein lays the systematic danger that the results of the research about the past might be biased in one respect or another.

Therefore. Those factors would probably bear significant explanational values. Fourth. such as nationalities.12 - . there was just a very limited amount of academic literature about East Asian martial arts and similar areas of sports. where as much data was collected and as many connections were established as possible. Otherwise. especially including comparable social data in these fields. private schools and public clubs and associations. but in the hands of individual persons. odd allegations were not taken too seriously. especially of the top athletes of the national competition teams. the German Olympic Sports Confederation. Third. and family as well as educational backgrounds of the participants. Where the access to original documents could not be enabled. original documents about the formative years of TKD in Germany and later periods were rare and usually not accessible in public museums or archives. These data distinguished between age groups and sexes.or contradictory facts and documents. which could be conducted much easier from within the country than from abroad. and the amount of this access was a function of time and energy devoted into appeasing those subjects. Consequently. social positions. secondary literature and interviews were used as compensations. while the top athletes of the . Thus. many personal visits to Germany had been necessary throughout a period of three years. but were omitting several other social factors. as could be illustrated by the fact that the top athletes of the first and second generation of German TKD competitors were often native Germans situated on a higher educational level and occupying a higher social position. successful research in this field meant access to those documents. the comparative part in this study was based mainly on the basic statistics provided by the official German sports body.

statements and conclusions. the 1990s) would include a rising amount of persons with a foreigner’s background. Kapkowski. Dirk Jung. and Pinar Budak. given the small basis of previous studies in this field plus the limited access to original documents for a researcher from abroad. athletes competing in the 1970s) would include Prof.13 - . Dr. top athletes of the first generation (roughly. but should be regarded as a first step in its congruent reconstruction. since 2000) was virtually dominated by athletes of a foreigner’s origin. and might as well interfere with some of its assumptions. though it would most probably add extra explanational value which could not be provided in this study. Therefore. could interfere with some of the allegations raised in this study. which. that trace could not be followed in this study. 2009). and since it would have been far beyond the scope of this study to gain that kind of information by extra social research. Wolfgang Dahmen. Dr. CEO Michael Arndt. second-generation’s top athletes (roughly. Therefore. future social research on this topic would strongly be admired. and the fourth generation (roughly. . athletes of the 1980s) would include Reinhard Langer. such as Mohammed Ebnoutalib.18 However. Georg Streif. from native Germans to Germans with a foreigner’s background and from higher-level educated athletes to athletes on a more average level. top athletes of the third generation (roughly. Rainer Müller. although it would have been a topic of significant interest.second and fourth generation were typically of foreign origin with a usually unspecified level of education and on a probably average social position. Levent Tuncat. in turn. some aspects of the situation and development of TKD in Germany might have remained untouched on this level of research and might be discovered in further examinations. was also stressed by Gilbert Kapkowski as a general tendency in German TKD (interview G. This social shift in the pool of top athletes. this current study could not claim to reveal the complete truthful picture about all aspects of the historical processing. Moreover. besides rather anecdotal evidences. Aziz Acharki. complete statistical coverages of this kind were missing. Faissal Ebnoutalib. such as Musa Cicek. 18 For example.

reports and books and particular promotion items. Research Method The research in this study was based on three pillars: First. 4. Original Documents Original documents included unintended documents like contracts. published interviews. Hence. photographs of individuals and teams as well as photographic reproductions of original documents. those documents were usually in the hands of their original owners. diaries about particular events. thus making the internet an indispensable source for research. . earlier time periods. such as additional martial arts. like statistical and chronological data. member lists. original documents from the respected time period about the central topic in question. additional commenting and analyzing literature on the subject. core assumptions should have not been based on thereafter gathered documents. finally. appearance sheets.1. It could be assumed that this limited collection usually results from a pre-selection which would guide research in an awkward direction. particularly written explanations and overviews about aspects of TKD. teaching and instructor's licenses. an increasing amount of them was actually reproduced and published on the internet.4. or other regions than Germany. And third. kup (급) and dan (단. Second. as well as intended ones. But fortunately. nevertheless. or in the issues of the originally published media. and. such as pamphlets and advertisements. However. respectively. hanja 段) grade promotion certificates. In case of contemporary history. as well as summarizing literature about related areas which were beyond the central topic. articles. one-on-one interviews with proponents and critiques of the central topics of the respected time period. this affected only a fraction of original documents. letters.14 - . they provided useful additional information.

Taekwondo Aktuell (shortly TA). and Heinz Marx continued to publish the magazine on his own. the leading German TKD periodical. from Karate Revue (in the 1970s) to Karate Journal (1980s) to Karate-Budo-Journal (1990s). such as Carl Wiedmeier (1966) and Kwon Jae- hwa (1971). . 19 The Karate magazine changed its name every few years. launched its own monthly magazine. In 1980. letters to the editor. In the new Millennium. who was running the Taekwondo Aktuell. they got separated after financial disagreements.15 - . In 1993. this magazine played a key role in Park Soo-nam’s crucial stepping back as national head coach of the German TKD competition team in 1985. interviews. announcements. where original documents were regularly published ever since. At the end of 1984. he sold the magazine to Park Soo-nam. since then (Stix 1993: 8. whose German translation was based on the 1972 English edition (Choi. and others about TKD in Germany published in these magazines date back until the late 1960s. the leading German TKD organization. reports. the DTU. In the 1960s and 1970s. the magazine merged with another. Moreover. 20 The Taekwondo Aktuell was originally published by DTU president Heinz Marx in cooperation with publisher Rainer Kawan. to become Karate Budo International. Budo-International. which was its actual name at the time of the study. Kim 1993: 3). the decline of West German TKD during the 1980s and the conflict lines in the 1980s and 1990s could be directly observed at that very source. as it could be shown by Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). A standard source for the official introduction of TKD in Germany in 1965 was Choi Hong-hi’s famous book Taekwon-Do. Published original documents from the time period in question included monographies by proponents of the early TKD years. like Judo Magazin (since 1961) and Karate Revue (since 1975). 1994).19 Articles.20 For example. articles about TKD in Germany were usually published in monthly magazines about other East Asian martial arts.

Likewise. all member associations of the DOSB. As the TA usually presented the official viewpoint of the DTU (i. and Bavaria with 21 The magazine Budo-Welt was published by Rainer Kawan. 22 The Federal Republic of Germany consists of 16 Federal States (West Germany until 1990: 11 Federal States). including the DTU.5 Million) being the biggest ones.21 All the above-mentioned magazines were available in the library of the German Sports University in Cologne. LSB) are administrating leisure and recreational sports. it was the predecessor of the Budo-Magazin. are running subordinated regional branches in the different Federal States. the biggest West German regional DTU branch released its own bimonthly magazine. renegades. but often in disagreement with WTF politics).8 Million) and Bremen (about 700. ideally one LSB in each Federal State. Taekwondo Spiegel (TS). while subordinated regional sports confederations (Landessportbund. although both had different publishers. and sometimes confront each other. The German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) is administrating elite sports in all Germany. the North-Rhine Westphalian Taekwondo Union (NWTU).22 Its articles documented first-hand the numerous clashes between the official German DTU opinion and policy. such as Budo-Welt (since 1982) and Budo-Magazin (since 1987). and its main opposition. North- Rhine Westphalia with its protestant Hohenzollern-Prussian heritage. then co-publisher of the Taekwondo Aktuell (together with DTU president Heinz Marx). with North Rhine-Westphalia (nearly 18 Million citizens) and Bavaria (about 12. which are operated independently. the biggest and (in terms of international medals) most successful regional DTU branch. Olympic TKD in the nutshell. During the 1980s. which started in the same year Kawan’s Budo-Welt was terminated. . This clash reflected the traditional line of conflicts between Northern and Southern Germany.000 citizens) being the smallest. Probably. most visibly between the two biggest German states. German TKD dissidents.16 - . and the City States Hamburg (about 1. in 1987.e. several more magazines joined the above-mentioned. Between 1988~2007. hypocrites or just alternative points of view appeared in competing East Asian martial arts magazines of that time. having always been led by Bavarians.

they were expressed in letters to the editor. dissenting viewpoints could most likely be found on the internet. TA and TS. As noted above. after statements were published contrary to the facts.23 This and other conflict lines were regular subjects in the secondary literature. 23 This traditional conflict line was referred to once in the mid-1980s by the North Rhine-Westphalian TKD president Dieter Jebramcik. headed most of the time by Dieter Jebramcik (NWTU president 1984~2001). Other viewpoints. as Jebramcik once complained (Interview 22. by Park Soo-nam. . this judicial right of reply was ignored at least once. 2009). for example. and since 1993. while DTU president Heinz Marx was in charge of the TA.24 However. At the time of the study. But this happened only rarely. like opinions of the German ITF branch or of minor associations like Kwon Jae-hwa’s or Son Jong-ho’s.2. from 1981~1993.17 - . also appeared there sometimes. respectively. usually written by officials of the DTU (and its affiliates) and the NWTU. were rarely published there. when he refused an offer from the Bavarian DTU president Heinz Marx with the following words: “I’d rather be the King of Prussia than the powerless Emperor of Germany” (interview Jebramcik. clearly dissenting viewpoints and comments. moreover. the TA was published by Heinz Marx.25 or published in one of the competing martial arts magazines. but this should not lead to the impression that there weren’t any dissenting opinions. The TS was published between 1988~2007 by the North Rhine-Westphalian Taekwondo Union. at best. or other experts with inside knowledge. Secondary Literature The majority of the secondary literature was published in the two competing German TKD magazines. 4. 24 A critical review about these sources should note that articles with a critical intention about the actual publishers did not appear in the TA or the TS.its catholic Wittelsbach heritage and close ties to Habsburg. 25 Another way would have been an enforced counter statement. from renegades who left the DTU and joined another organization or remained independent. 2009).

accessed on 10 December 2009. reports. both hyong and poomsae. Furthermore. Thus. the internet discussion board Taekwondoforum. most prominently explanations and analyses about TKD forms. One of them. . 27 Taekwondoforum.kampfkunstforum. www. The discussions on this board have been dominated by TKD overviews. schools. which were the Kampfkunst-Board and the Kampfkunstforum.taekwondo. the internet provided a reliable source of opinions. 27 Similar to the distribution in real life. www. several discussion boards with TKD insiders regularly participating provided relevant research information for the topics in question. most discussion board activists argued in favor of Olympic-style TKD. www. Two other German internet discussion boards have been visited by TKD enthusiasts regularly. 28 They were administered by experts of various martial arts. Kampfkunstforum. accessed on 10 December 2009. clubs and a few individuals who care about TKD in from all over the world. analyses with secondary-literature status. 28 Kampfkunst-Board. www. Besides websites of associations. but viewpoints from the ITF and other styles were also expressed there.taekwondoforum. de. Both of them had 26 See Taekwondo/Taekwon-Do/Tae Kwon Do-Nachschlagewerk. not newbies. including (WTF) TKD. and covered all aspects of martial arts and combat sports. accessed on 10 December One of the most frequently visited independent information websites for TKD in Germany was the Taekwondo Reference Book. even officials of the DTU or one of its subordinated Federal State member associations engaged in discussions.18 - . it provided internet links and postal addresses of TKD clubs and organizations in Germany and world-wide. sometimes. accessed on 10 December 2009. 26 It contained several kinds of information about TKD in Germany and in general. was devoted to TKD only and administered by several enthusiasts from various TKD styles and associations. including pictures and videos.

Kapkowski. However.30 29 For example. Furthermore. On the other side. The regular point of critique was that all TKD sparring systems were unrealistic models for a real-life setting. the internet could provide a huge margin of the explanation about why most minor and dissenting TKD organizations appeared in the New Millennium. thus TKD training would badly prepare for real fights. no matter which style. such as (Kick-)Boxing and Mixed Martial Arts. On the other side. it turned out that TKD competition in general. Hapkido and Taekkyon.19 - . or opening another organization and to stay in contact with other TKD practitioners and the main important TKD information. but provided viewponts from fresh new angles on TKD. 30 For example. for many minor and private TKD organizations. Most participants of TKD-related topics had a background of DTU experiences as well as of other associations. Gilbert Kapkowski. China or Thailand. Hence. postings on these boards often did not reach the quality level of the Taekwondoforum. 2009). Many participants regularly engaging in TKD-related discussions on these boards were also regular visitors of the above-mentioned Taekwondoforum. mostly from Japan. this facilitated individuals and groups to dissenting from established organizations and remaining independent. were regularly the aim of scorn and derision by practitioners from other martial arts with a different sparring system.special sections where topics about TKD and other Korean martial arts could be discussed. once stressed the importance of the internet for his small organization (interview G. Therefore. a number of participants of TKD discussions on these two boards originally practiced other martial arts. and many also had experiences in related arts or sports. such as Karate. . the same argument would be valid for all sports competitions with a fixed set of rules. but often not from Eastern Asia. head of the dissenting European Taekwondo Federation (ETF).29 Thus. internet portals like those discussion boards could be rated as precious sources for minor or alternative opinions about general and particular aspects of TKD. the internet was the only way to spread information.

One of the results was a television debate between the author and the president of the German Taekwondo Union (DTU). and TKD in particular. several experts tried to clarify particular aspects of different martial arts. the German public knew little about those differences. and did not care at all. but also in respect of an accurate historical context which separated the different arts and styles. 1992: 13). More thorough historical examinations about martial arts in general. Goldner’s main hypothesis was that the martial arts boom of the 1970s and 1980s in Germany was not only a reflection of an increased aggressive attitude in the German society. . Hans Siegel. and particularly resulted in severe criticisms by various martial arts practitioners. started with the very critical. mostly about correct performances of the movements and a proper terminology. 31 The first edition of Goldner’s book was released in the Olympic year of 1988 and caused some attention in the public. usually written by acknowledged or self-acclaimed martial arts experts. not necessarily with TKD expertise. Monographies including historical overviews and analyses about TKD in Germany emerged first around the time of the 1988 Seoul Olympics. but also one of its causes (37). Goldner’s main fault was his calculated intermingling of Japanese Karate.20 - . Bruce Lee’s Kung Fu and Western Kickboxing by intentionally ignoring the differences (Goldner. but not very thoughtful. book by psychologist and Karate practitioner Colin Goldner about East Asian martial arts in 1988 (second edition 1992). 1992: XI. see Goldner. in September 1990 – one of the very rare occasions a German TKD official was on TV. together with short passages about the alleged historical and philosophical background of Korea and TKD. both in Germany and on global scale. Korean TKD. Goldner’s empirical research of about 350 martial arts practitioners in the 1980s (49) gained some public attention. Before that. TKD books were focused on names and illustrated descriptions of techniques and forms and reprinted promotion and competition regulations.31 Since then. This was possible because at that time.

several TKD experts tried to clarify particular aspects of TKD history in techniques-based TKD text books.21 - . For the first time in Germany. DTU Secretary for Media in the 1980s. instead. German TKD pioneer since 1964. titled Comprehensible Taekwondo. fomer DTU media secretary Peter Knoll published a monography about the basics of TKD two years after the 1992 Barcelona Olympics (where TKD had been a demonstration sport for the second time). That passage covered about one quarter of the whole book and included a section about the German ITF branch. it explained which techniques and movements could reasonably be expected from the different styles of TKD. Knoll pointed out that “Taekwondo does not elicit violence” (Knoll. written by its head at that time. informing the reader about the past glory and recent decline of German TKD competitiveness. this text book contained a lengthy passage about the history of TKD in general and in Germany in particular. TKD pioneer in Austria and Poland in the 1970s.33 Together with the nice pictures. .32 Generally. for example. as well as about the two competing world governing bodies. Registering the need to explain the public what exactly TKD was (and what it was not). and Gatzweiler (2008). Especially. the reader could get the impression that TKD was an exciting new sport with a democratic openness 32 Peter Knoll. 33 See Knoll. like standard text books.Likewise. so that the reader could establish a proper concept of the possibilities and constraints of TKD. 1994: 13). Paul Weiler (president ITF-D 1989~2007). Lee Kyong-myong. later WTF deputy secretary-general and vice president. did not teach how the different TKD techniques and forms should be performed correctly. This little book. Lee (2000). Gerd Gatzweiler. Knoll (1994). the less historical accuracy can be found. 1994: 74~103. the older the TKD text book.

Wolfer. the earliest possible date for a 50th anniversary of an existing German TKD association would not be before 2017. the publication for the 50th anniversary of the German Sports Confederation. However.36 The anniversary BTU book provides both descriptive and interpretive secondary-level information as well as reprints of original documents. 2000). the inofficial TKD chronist of the biggest DTU branch of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia.safely enough for the whole family to practice. For example. the Bavarian Taekwondo Union (BTU). as was shown in Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). with a clear focus on the chronology of TKD events in Bavaria (by partly ignoring other regions).22 - . followed by the quick replacement of the successful Korean national 34 See. the BTU officials Peter Bolz and Werner Schuldes published a book completely dedicated to the history of TKD in Germany.34 other regional DTU branches did not follow the BTU’s example until the end of the study. in 2008. the decline of German TKD was enforced in 1985 with an act of severe disloyalty by the DTU magazine. passed away after long disease in the same year the BTU anniversary book was published. In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Bavarian DTU branch. .g. Norbert Wolfer. Wolfer had published significant articles about TKD in Germany (e. BTU media secretary since 2003. Taekwondo Aktuell. 2001). That BTU book was written by two outstanding experts about historical aspects of TKD. DSB (Mevert. 35 Peter Bolz. however. Werner Schuldes was a long-time BTU official since 1995. or for the DTU as a whole. for example. 36 For example. therefore also being a primary source for information. far away from the brutal violence Goldner’s book was promoting. was the long-time official photographer for the DTU and BTU with arguably the hugest collection of original German TKD photographs. Although such anniversary books are quite a tradition in Germany’s public clubs and associations.35 Such expertise would not easily be available for other DTU branches. not only in Germany. it is not free from errors or omissions in its descriptive part.

38 This figure covered all diploma and master theses until 20 November 2009. a few words on academic research and diploma.dshs-koeln. Finally. However. three years later. accessed on 24 November 2009.). the general tendency to deliver historically accurate information about TKD in Germany and in general. the German Sport University of Cologne enlisted just three dissertations out of 537 with a martial arts-related topic. which took about one third of the whole book. 2008).38 The most interesting ones for this current study have been Cremer (1985). This whole chain of events was completely omitted in the anniversary BTU book (cf. Likewise. among the 13.dshs- koeln. Jung was replaced by Park. It started with a lengthy introductory part about the historical and philosophical roots of TKD. . accessed on 24 November 2009. 1993).de/Hochschulschriften. 2008: 63ff. Bolz & Schuldes. another one about games and sports at the Japanese imperial court from the 7th to the 14th century (Möller. some biomechanical analyses of movements and strikes in Karate (Pfeifer. see http://zb-sport. 2001). Another step in this direction was the (also in its technical parts ambitious) Handbook Taekwondo by German TKD pioneer Gerd Gatzweiler (Gatzweiler. master and doctoral theses about the topic of East Asian martial arts in Germany. 37 one of them dealing with performance enhancing in judo athletes (Jarmoluk. it 37 On 12 June 2008. 1989). and.846 graduation theses of the Cologne Sport University. see http://zb-sport. deserved full respect.html. with the former flagship athlete.head coach. finally. Arend (1989). The diploma thesis of Leo Cremer sported the most similar topic to this current study.23 - . less than 1% covered the field of East Asian martial arts. Park Soo-nam.html. as could be seen in the books by Knoll (1994) and Bolz & Schuldes (2008). The first observation was that this area is not covered by many academic gradual and resarch writings in Germany. just for the 1988 Seoul Dirk Jung. and Beyer (2005). Nigro (1997). For example.

on page 68.S. many crucial details about TKD in Germany remained untouched by Arend. critical study of TKD in Germany. there is a photocopied reprint of the list of the complete board of directors of the first WTF term from 1973~75. thus delivering first-hand historical information. Roland de Marco from the U. it clearly featured the flaws of a misconducted TKD history which was promoted by both WTF and ITF prior to the 1988 Seoul Olympics. . Dr. Dr. 1997). It featured useful insights into the international Karate administration. 1985).24 - .). Wagner is not mentioned in overviews about German TKD any more. was one of the two initial vice presidents of the WTF (the other one being Dr. However. Thus. the diploma thesis of Ulrich Beyer about opportunities and obstacles for professional TKD instructors provided some insights into TKD as a business enterprise 39 For example. which revealed that the Member of the German Parliament (Bundestag). 1989). Taekkyon master Song Duk-ki (송덕기) was mentioned as a main forerunner of TKD with a causal influence on this martial art (Cremer. 1985: 42). Arend’s study provided a decent basis for comparisons between the developments of Karate and TKD in Germany. Oddly. The diploma thesis of Raffaele Nunzio Nigro about TKD and Karate as competitors for the acceptance as official Olympic events was focused on comparisons between the main governing bodies of these two East Asian martial arts (Nigro. Finally. Leo Wagner. but fell short in terms of providing information about international TKD administrations.39 The diploma thesis of Hans-Peter Arend about the athletic and organizational development of Karate and TKD in Germany and beyond suffered from a lack of details concerning TKD history at all. Written about 25 years ago. but contained a rich collection of details concerning the Karate history in Germany (Arend. since Cremer added several photographies and photocopied documents to his study. For example. it could be used as a reference for individual aspects. the passage about TKD in Germany (82~94) contained so many factual errors that Cremer’s thesis could hardly be regarded as a starting point for a modern.was titled “The History of Taekwon-Do” (Cremer. At best. Likewise.

as it was usually portrayed (cf. That thesis was just partly interesting for the current study.diplom.40 one of them already mentioned (Nigro. 2005). 1986b. see his website at www. For the first time in Germany. 1986a. 1997). 1986d). among diploma and master theses at the leading German diploma website. Gu completed his diploma thesis. Another one was less interesting for the topic of this current study. Gu started in 1992 spreading a paper everywhere he went in Germany (interview Gatzweiler. www. Gu was professor at the Youngsan University near Busan. which covered 11. titled “Aggression. 2007).sportstory.797 files at that time. And the third academic diploma thesis was about TKD as school sport (Radtke. An online research about the topics Kampfkunst and Kampfsport. One year later. who had studied sport science in Hamburg in the 1990s.hessen-tkd. Dr. instead of Subak performed by the hwarang in ancient Gu sported a 6th dan degree in TKD (Kukkiwon) and was an official dan promotion inspector in Germany. accessed on 30 November 2009. Mr. 1992)42. 41 During the time of his studies in Germany. 42 This paper can be found on several websites.25 - . the Hessia Taekwondo Union. Ferger & Shin. dealing with the benefits of Chinese martial art’s principles in the realm of economy (Mack.pdf. The most important academic researches about TKD in Germany could be found in the two academic publications and one preliminary paper of Prof. During the time of this study. titled “Who Fears the Truth” (Gu. Dr. Gu Hyosong. . accessed on 30 November 2009. delivered just three hits. 1986c. 40 See www. accessed on 29 November 1998).de/Geschichte/wer hat angst vor der wahrheit. for it touched this study’s topics only marginally. the two common German translations for “martial art”. a Korean expert openly revealed the real origins of TKD from Japanese Karate.41 Mr. it could be used as a reference point for assessing the role of TKD in the German culture and society. Based on interviews with three TKD school owners from different TKD Germany (Beyer. 2001). for example. see.

. but it got frequently spreaded around on websites and martial arts discussion boards later on. there was no satisfying ground-breaking research about the peculiarities of TKD in Germany which could provide a starting basis for the current study. he published his thesis on his own efforts with limited effects. all crucial research about these topics had to be started at the very beginning. where he analyzed typical martial arts moves in a biomechanical and a broader cultural context (Gu. However. All three topics were dealt with in chapter II. such as the general history of TKD in Korea. In 1999. and had to rely heavily on usage of original data and literature. These papers by Dr. At first. neither about the situation when and how TKD was introduced to Germany (chapter III of this study).26 - . This paper was also spreaded frequently on the internet. 1999). especially since the German reunification of 1990 (chapter V). This thesis included a more thorough explanation about the question why the real TKD origins were kept hidden by the ITF and WTF. nor the conditions and problems of its subsequent transition in Germany (chapter IV). they did not contain much material about the particular situation of TKD in Germany. titled “Combat and Locomotion”. there actually was some influential and particularly interesting literature about TKD in Germany. 1993/94). the socio-cultural comparison between East Asian martial arts and European combat sports. and the situation of Korean migrant workers in West Germany. However. Gu completed and published his dissertation thesis. Gu clearly have been the most influential writings in Germany about TKD history and its origins. other topcs which did not represent the primary focus of this study could have been accessed by way of summarizing and analyzing secondary literature. Therefore. which would be referred to in this study. To summarize. Contrary to that.Nationalism and Martial Arts in Eastern Asia” (Gu.

therefore. as well as critical observers of the changes and transitions during the time period in question. see the “Appendix Table: Interviews and other Interrogations. former and actual leading staff from the TA and TS magazines. interviews had been mandatory. former top athletes (Olympic style) and head coaches. 2006~2009” at the end of this study. outstanding critiques of the DTU and founders of separatist administrations (ETF) or independent TKD schools. only a limited number of classic interviews with key figures of German TKD could have been conducted. where the interrogator designed specific questions which were freely answered by the interviewee.27 - . this method was time and energy consuming. and the leading German Taekkyon expert. Those interviews included early pioneers of Korean Karate in Germany. NWTU. BTU. Interviews had preferably been conducted one-on-one. the German ITF branch and the private Kwon association.4. . Such interviews included proponents and participants of the formative years of TKD in Germany and other critical time periods. Interviews To cope with the situation of a relative small basis of literature about a time period of 40 years. For a complete list of interviewees. However.3. That list also includes several telephone and E-Mail communications with key figures of German TKD. former and actual top officials from the DTU.

5. Research Plan .28 - .

II. Obviously. It is the summer of 2008. for example. from traditional meditative exercises to recreational fitness programs. while filling the acion-lacking boredom of the bout with bad jokes. days might be numbered for his traditional martial art getting sold-out for soft drinks and hamburgers. Socio-cultural Background for Taekwondo in Germany The family is gathered in front of the TV screen. In his gym. he remembers the first public TKD demonstrations in Germany. ranging from a fiercy “killing art” (cf. this was a collection of actual reactions by German spectators of an Olympic high-class TKD match. he hopes. .S.29 - . as he imagines international protests erupting after the obvious match fixing … Although a made-up story.. It was one of the most exciting athletic performances he had ever seen. His little sister likes the artistic moves. is laughing about the uselessly swinging arms of the competitors. which enable elegant quickness dominating over massive muscle power in this sport. with real self- defense situations and stone-breaking knife-hand strikes which could kill a man – but what he sees on TV now bears no resemblance to the furious action of his childhood. allegedly the most successful TKD athlete on the planet. and everybody is following the Games of the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. who likes Bruce Lee and K-1. The son. who is on his way for his third Olympic gold medal in a streak. Gillis. The reporter speaks enthusiastically about the competitor from the U. more than 40 years ago. a Taekwondo match is broadcasted. 2008) to a professionally organized Olympic entertainment event. Kim’s Sports Academy across the street next week. on the various internet discussion boards on TKD and martial arts. Suddenly. a semifinal. dubbing this “take-one-dough” coward dancing and phony fighting. old Grandmaster Kim smiles in his favorite meditative position while listening to the sports news on the radio. she wants to join Mr. there are several images of TKD in the German society. finally. The father looks up. which could be found.

net.bullshido. research in this area might mainly be based on secondary literature. As long as such an exploration would only be a preliminary enterprise paving the way for the core topics of the current study. questionable details and analyses had not been examined here. combat sports and related disciplines in general in the German culture and society. 44 The Martial Arts History Project was a section of a strictly critical. before the official introduction of TKD in 1965. Gu. While this was a field of some controversy (cf. see www. and finally settled by Kang & Lee (1999). independent online discussion board.44 43 Steven Capener (1995) based his arguments on the same source as Gu Hyosung in Germany (1992. 1993/94. namely. brief overviews of relevant aspects should be sufficient. styles . 1994). Furthermore. accessed on 11 December 2009.30 - . 1999). which could be based on recent English literature on this topic. without deeper explorations of critical details. 1997). For the sake of shortness. a rough sketch along the key events and decisions of the development of TKD in and outside of Korea were seen as sufficient. Kim Young-Ok’s book “Principles Governing the Construction of the Philosophy of Taekwondo” (Kim. Capener (1995) paved the ground. as well as an exploration of the socio-political aspects related to Korean migrant workers and other foreigners living in Germany. This internet project covered all disciplines. A careful analysis of the transition of TKD in Germany would require an understanding of the historical situations of both TKD and Germany before they came into touch. Instead. 1990). including big names such as Choi Hong-hi and Jhoon Rhee. A final source of expert knowledge on this topic was the Martial Arts History Project on the internet. the introductory section of this chapter provides an overview about the history of TKD and other Korean martial arts in general. Gillis (2008) added much material by gaining information through numerous interviews with key proponents of TKD. This chapter deals with overviews about the integration of martial arts. Most recently.43 which was further cemented by Burdick (1997) and Dohrenwend (c.

koreataekwondo. some kinds of combat practice had occurred in the areas of ancient . Judo (柔道). hanja 拳法). and TKD history was a regularly appearing subject of hot debatings. Other martial 45 See. for example. and traditions of martial arts. the World Taekwondo Federation (www. respectively. the Korea Taekwondo Association (www. 1. Aikido (合気道) and Karate during the period of Korean occupation would have had a significant impact on Korean martial arts as well. Taekwondo and other Martial Arts in Korea Contrary to official statements of the leading TKD evidences were overwhelming that Korean TKD and Korean Hapkido (hanja: 合氣道. even from more remote countries than Japan. or the other way around. hanja 花郞) of the ancient Silla kingdom were engaged in anything similar like that. shortly. HKD) developed from the Japanese martial arts of Karate and Jujutsu. the German Taekwondo Union ( They had been assigned with different names. as everywhere else in the world. It was not the concern of this study to explore the question if the famous Hwarang (화랑. or that prerunners of TKD had been practiced in several states of ancient Korea by special elite fighting groups.or. it should be expected that they influenced each other during more than one and a half millenniums of coexistence. might also have had an influence on these developments. the history sections of the Kukkiwon (www. Of course.dtu. nor if Korean martial arts had a greater impact on Japanese ones. hanja 手搏) and Kwon Bop (권법. Consequently.31 - . all websites had been accessed on 11 December 2009. but explorations in that direction would have gone far beyond the scope of this study. It could further be expected that the crucial developments of Japanese Jujutsu (柔術).kukkiwon. such as Soobak (수박. On the contrary. Ssireum (씨름) and Taekkyon (택견).kr).45 it was growingly believed that TKD did not originate in a 2000 year old Korean tradition of foot-fighting excercises.

However, the most significant impacts on modern Korean martial arts stem from the
mentioned Japanese arts, as the simple fact revealed that the prominent pioneers of TKD
and HKD, Choi Hong-hi and Choi Yong-sul, originally have studied and mastered
Karate and Jujutsu, respectively, in Japan. 46 It should be mentioned that the regular
denial of Taekkyon experts about Taekkyon ever have been involved in the early
development of TKD was taken for granted here. In fact, proponents of early German
TKD also confirmed that at first, their art was more similar to Shotokan Karate than
anything else, and especially Taekkyon moves and principles, as they discovered
decades later, were totally different from anything they learned from Korean TKD
masters (interview Gatzweiler, 2009).

To understand the situation of Korean martial arts properly when TKD was officially
introduced to Germany in 1965, the historical roots of TKD prior to 1965 was examined
first. This examination led to a discussion about the proper usage of terms like
Taekwondo, Tangsoodo, and Korean Karate. Second, to understand the transition of
TKD in Germany, and especially the influence of the different world governing TKD
bodies – the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF) and the World Taekwondo
Federation (WTF) – on TKD in Germany, the progress of TKD in Korea since 1965 was

Choi Yong-sul (최용술; 1904~1986) is believed to have lived by master Takeda Sokaku (武田 惣角;
1959~1943) since he was 11, and learned everything about Dayito-ryu Aiki-jujutsu (大東流合気柔術) in
that time. His student Ji Han-jae (지한재; born 1936) chosed the name Hapkido (合氣道) for the art, which
has the same hanja characters as original Japanese Aikido (合氣道; since 1945, a more simplified character is
applied: 合気道), but both are significantly different martial arts. Aikido was founded by Morihei Ueshiba
(植芝 盛平), who was also a student of Tadeka’s from 1915~37.

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1.1. Origins of Taekwondo in Korea until 1965

The origins of TKD could be traced down to five Korean martial arts masters. 47
During the period of Japanese occupation of Korea, all of them had learned some kind of
Japanese Karate in Japan or in Manchuria, which was also occupied by the Japanese at
that time. These master’s names were enlisted in the table 01 below, which also shows
the Karate style and other martial arts they had learned, and the name of the kwan (TKD
school) they founded in Korea, and therefore, which tradition (TKD style) they

Table 01. Founding Fathers of TKD and their Traditions

Name Martial Arts Training Kwan/Tradition

Lee Won-kuk Shotokan Karate in Japan by Cheongdo-kwan (1944)
(1907~2003) Funakoshi Gichin (1868~1957) Tangsoodo/Kongsoodo

Ro Byung-jik Shotokan Karate in Japan by Seogmu-kwan (1946)
(1919~) Funakoshi Gichin (1868~1957) Tangsoodo/Kongsoodo

Hwang Ki Kwon Bop (hanja 拳法; Mudeuk-kwan (1945)
(1914~2002) chin. Quanfa, jap. Kempo) Tangsoodo/Soobakdo
& Karate in Manchuria

Chun Sang-sup Judo, Karate in Japan Yeonmu-kwan (1946)
(~1953)* Jido-kwan (1953)**
Judo & Kongsoodo

Yoon Byung-in Kwon Bop (拳法) in Manchuria; YMCA Changmu-kwan (1946)
(~1953) Shudokan Karate in Japan (5th dan) by Kwon Bop (Kempo Karate)
Toyama Kanken (1888~1966)

Sources: Burdick 1997; Kang, Lee 1999; The Free Encyclopedia48
Chun Sang-sup and Yoon Byung-in disappeared during the Korean War.
After Chun Sang-sup’s disappearance, his students changed the school’s name into Jido-kwan.

Much of the material in this chapter is gained from Burdick (1997); Kang & Lee (1999); Gillis (2008).
The Free Encyclopedia,; accessed on 13 November 2009.

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Table 01 shows that two of the founding fathers of TKD actually had studied by the
founding father of Japanese karate, Funakoshi Gichin (船越 義珍, 1868~1957), and
one had studied by the founder of the Shudokan Karate style, Toyama Kanken (遠山寛賢,
1888~1966). Both Japanese masters were born and raised on the Ryukyu Islands,
where they had learned several styles of the traditional Okinawan martial art Tode (唐
手), meaning Chinese hand, because it is originated in much older Chinese martial arts
styles. In the 1920s, Tode was introduced to Japan by Funakoshi, Kanken, and others. At
first, Funakoshi adopted the traditional name of the art, which was pronounced in
Japanese as Karate (唐手). But during the time of Japanese Imperialism in the 1930s, the
Chinese roots had to be cut off, and Funakoshi changed the art’s name into Empty Hand
(空手), which is also pronounced as Karate in Japanese.

In Korean, these names, written with Chinese hanja characters, are pronounced
differently, as Tangsoo (唐手) and Kongsoo (空手), respectively. Consequently, the
founding fathers of TKD named their martial art Tangsoodo and Kongsoodo, while it
was introduced as Korean Karate to foreigners (Kang & Lee, 1999). Another term
sometimes used was Kwon Bob, which is the Korean pronounciation of the traditional
Chinese martial arts style Quanfa (拳法), known in Japan as Kempo or Kenpo.

Based on their various training backgrounds, the founding TKD fathers practiced and
taught different Karate styles, with Hwang Ki’s style being the most significant one
(interview Gatzweiler, 2009). He was also the first who applied a unique name for his
style by using the term of the legendary ancient Korean martial art, Soobak, after he had
rediscovered and translated the old Korean textbook about combat techniques from the
late 18th century, the Muye Dobo Tongji, in 1957 (Burdick, 1997). Before that, he also
used to call his martial art Tangsoodo, which remained the term he used in international
contexts. Later, after the term Taekwondo had been generally accepted, Hwang Ki stuck
to Tangsoodo, which grew into a martial arts style on its own.

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Since the 1950s, there had been efforts to unify the different styles under one umbrella
organization. Unfortunately, those efforts had been sabotaged first by the Korean War
(1950~53), later by interferences of the student revolution in 1960 (Kang & Lee, 1999).

To become a proper Korean martial art, at least two things were required: a unique
name, common for all proponents of Korean Karate, and a unique style in its
movements, shared by all kwans, and which had to be significantly different from any
Japanese or Okinawan Karate style. Furthermore, unique theoretical considerations
about the historical purpose or the function of the martial art could also have been useful
(Capener, 1995).

Ten years after Korean liberation, General Choi Hong-hi created the new term
Taekwondo (태권도, hanja 跆拳道), and on April 11, 1955, it was chosen to unify the
different styles under one label (Kang & Lee, 1999; Gillis, 2008: 64~51). Choi
(1918~2002) had studied Shotokan Karate in Japan in the early 1940s, had gained
experiences in the Japanese Imperial Army, and after Korean Liberation, he had started a
bright military career in Korea.49 All the time, he practiced and promoted Karate. After a
few years, he was a high-ranked member of the Korean army and influential enough to
emerge as the most powerful leader of the early Korean TKD pioneers. Supported by the
Rhee government, he made it mandatory for military training and installed his own
martial arts gym in a military base in Kangwon Province, one year after the end of the
Korean War. 50 Choi named his school Ohdo-kwan (“School of My Way”), and he
centered the military martial arts training there (Gillis, 2008: 43). Eventually, sooner or
later, nearly every young man came into contact with Choi’s martial arts style, including

For the following, see Burdick (1997), Kang & Lee (1999), Choi (2000), Gillis (2008), and The Free
Encyclpedia,; accessed on 1 December 2009.
Technically, the Korean War ended with an armistice between the U.N. and Communist forces on 27 July
1953; see Lee (2005: 380).

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51 Choi had been Park’s senior at the military academy. that he had once voted for Park’s execution. One of the first actions of the new KTA directors was renaming the KTA into Korea Taesoodo Association. . KTA) was established for the first time. Choi’s influence was growing. the term Taekwondo was not yet accepted. For the following four years. Choi got also honorary president of the leading civilian Tangsoodo school. the Korea Taekwondo Association (shortly. Consequently. 2008: 57). “for communist activities” (Gillis. Both kwans consistently applied the new term Taekwondo after its establishment in 1955.members of one of the original five kwans. But unfortunately for Choi. The main reason for their bad relation was.36 - . For some reasons.51 And so. in that same year of 1954. In 1959. Choi Hong-hi managed to get the position as first KTA president. But outside of Choi’s realm of influence. Taekwondo/Taesoodo was carried on without the interference of Choi Hong- hi in Korea. other kwans were pressed to get along with Choi. according to an explanation presented by Choi. he got lost of all his power in the army quickly after the coup d’état led by Park Chung-hee in 1961. but Park was one year older than Choi. who had been a former Japanese collaborateur. shortly after Park Chung-hee took the charge. and the less powerful one had to subordinate under the orders of the new big man in Korea. army general Park Chung-hee and army general Choi Hong-hi didn’t get along at all. However. a name which was made up both to get rid of the Chinese and Japanese connotation. Choi Hong-hi was ordered out of duty and sent to Malaysia as ambassador. not least because the military Ohdo-kwan system accepted only dan certificates from their own students and the associated Chungdo-kwan. as a means to unify all kwans under one umbrella organization. the Chungdo-kwan. as well as of Choi’s invention. Thanks to his raising influence.

described in a famous book of 1968 the Korean martial art as “identical to Japanese karate”. such as the alleged historical roots of TKD Choi was promoting since 1960 – the Goguryeo tomb paintings near Pyongyang.55 After his return to Korea.53 But in his exile in Malaysia. One of his first 52 It could be argued that at least. Choi got president of the KTA. Choi transformed an unsystematic collection of Karate kata into a system of 20 TKD forms. a light. 1997). for TKD strikes and kicks were demanded to be powerful enough to instantly kill the opponent. the Kumgang Yoksa guards in the Seokguram grotto of the Bulguksa temple complex in Gyeongju. 2000: 19. there had been some unique theoretical contributions. 54 For elaborations into this philosophy of “one blow. he strictly insisted on zero-contact sparring. Supported by several TKD masters such as his former right-hand Nam Tae-hi. because speed counts more than mass. 1994: 29). called hyong. see Cho. see Capener (1995). Choi published a voluminous book in 1965. the traditional Karate forms were still practiced.37 - . and there was no generally accepted sparring style. and the Muje Dobo Tongji (see Gillis. and in the same year.52 It was still Karate practiced in Korea. for example. For example. but quick player could deliver more energy with a blow than a heavy. they could hardly be counted on the plus side of claims for an ancient TKD heritage any more. In the gyms.54 And finally. one death”. 2008: 50). such as P = ½ m v2 (Choi. 55 This formula means that the power (P) of a strike equals half of the mass (m) multiplied with square velocivy (v). . 53 Sihak Henry Cho. but slow. Yet Taesoodo was still not distinctively unique to regard it a proper martial art on its own. titled “Taekwon-Do”. Yet as these discoveries turned out to be inaccurate constructions rather than historical evidences (Burdick. he added a unique theoretical contribution. called kata. Furthermore. who was actually training soldiers in Vietnam in close combat techniques at that time (including Ohdo- kwan TDK). Choi devoted all his energy on that problem. player. by strictly trying to root every technique in scientific reasoning. Therefore. not tradition. Choi developed a theory of power using formulas of mechanical physics.

Gil. soldiers in U. However. In Korea. 2009). the martial art practiced and taught in Germany could be called Korean Karate. ten years after its creation. Officially. TKD was introduced to Germany the same year the KTA was renamed as Korea Taekwondo Association. Kongsoodo and Korean Karate were regularly applied. even after 1965. military camps in Germany. until Taekwondo was used by every style. TSD) was referred to Hwang Ki’s Mudeuk-kwan style. Taekwon-Do – Karate” (Kwon. general usage of the term Taekwondo for the martial art in Germany since 1965 seems justified. Jung. however. Beyond Choi Hong-hi’s influence. which happened in 1965. 2006. especially since he settled in America. It was just required here to establish a proper usage for the purpose of TKD in Germany. which could be called a unique Korean martial art from that year on. the term Tangsoodo (shortly. To sum up. The usage of Korean Karate was also confirmed by several TKD masters (interviews Gatzweiler.S. the term Taekwondo was used since 1955. “Zen-Kunst der Selbstverteidigung. he had preferred to call it Soobak. 1971). and enriched with a unique theoretical background. Therefore. in the military and in the Chungdo-kwan.actions was to reverse the renaming of the KTA and change it back into Korea Taekwondo Association.56 Another term used was Tangsoodo. Therefore. a coherent sparring style.38 - . especially by U. . kwan and tradition that was administered by the KTA in 1965. see the titles of the first TKD books in Germany: “Karate – Die Welt des Taekwon-Do” (Wiedmeier. and sometimes Korean 56 For application of the term Karate in TKD contexts in Germany after 1965. Before that time. 2007. who had learned Japanese Karate in Okinawa. Thus. the terms Tangsoodo. the term Taekwondo finally became the official title for this martial art.S. since it was provided with remodeled forms. a name which in fact was widely applied. it has not been the purpose of this study to fix this confusing situation. Since 1965. 1966). it would be inappropriate to apply Taekwondo on all variations of this Korean martial art.

The demonstration team travelled through the world. 57 E-Mail from H.Karate. but this time as an import from America. TSD is applied in Germany until today. athletic (twisting and airborne kicks). 1993: 34). freestyle sparring) moments of action never shown before.39 - . which was significantly different from the TKD he learned later57. and the term Tangsoodo could be reserved for the later imports since the 1980s.2. Choi recruited the team members from the military. In that respect. including several European countries. this tradition dryed out. all Korean martial arts in Germany prior to 1965 could justifiably be named Korean Karate. in Vietnam. For example. 26 July 2006. Therefore. Yet apparently. powerful (wood and rooftile breaking) and simply exciting (self-defense techniques. . German TKD pioneer Hans-Ferdinand Hunkel. performing artistic (hyong). Kwon Jae-hwa (5th dan) and Park Jong-soo (5th dan) (Choi. TSD was again introduced to Germany. who later became the chairman of the Kwon Jae-hwa TKD organization.-F. or TSD. such as the Netherlands and West Germany. except for one military camp in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Taekwondo in Korea since 1965 Before Choi Hong-hi became KTA president in 1965. started with TSD in an American military camp in Hessia. who was a civilian and assigned as reporter (Seo. Many years later. Kim Jun-kun (5th dan). except for Kwon Jae-hwa. 1. Hunkel. The purpose of the delegation was to introduce and promote TKD as a unique Korean martial art. he set up a TKD demonstration team which included some of the best available TKD athletes of that time: Han Cha-kyo (then sporting the 6th dan). 1994: 501). which became one of the birth places of TKD in Germany (see the next chapter).

During the following years. Constantly backed by the government. but eventually. where it was located from 1972~1985. 1999). 2008). the World Taekwondo Head Quarter. was running a successful TKD business enterprise. the WTF was victorious in all relevant areas. so much that the next year. was opened. Suddenly. but Choi didn’t let international TKD getting out of his grip. Choi moved the ITF to Toronto. Followed by the successes of the international TKD demonstrations. Juan Antonio Samaranch. they forced him to leave the KTA and to quit his duties. in 1972. Canada. Kim opened the Kukkiwon and took the charge of TKD in Korea. In the same year of 1972. the Park government discovered the power of sports diplomacy on behalf of TKD. in May 1973. the two international TKD bodies competed about the global TKD leadership. Choi Hong-hi got in heavy troubles with most of the other kwan leaders. the Kukkiwon. a member of the 1965 demonstration team mentioned above. Back in Korea. another international TKD organization. the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF). After the tournament.40 - . they supported him in establishing the first international TKD organization. where Park Jong-soo. was formally established. Choi fled the country heading towards Toronto. the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). where WTF-TKD was selected as demonstration . in the same year of 1966 (Kang & Lee. On the other side. and especially on the IOC president since 1980. where the first Taekwondo World Championships took place one year later. Thus. A new KTA leader was generated and set into office in 1971. played a major role in favor of the WTF.58 58 Two of the most important victories for the WTF had been at the 83rd general IOC assembly of the International Olympic Committee in Baden-Baden in 1981. former KCIA chief Kim Un-yong (see Gillis. It would be safe to argue that the influence of multiple top international sports official Kim Un-yong in the IOC.

suspecting bombs or other terrorist material hidden in the spicy Korean dish (Park. For example. and the (German) security guards did not let him pass. and might have been activated by them to deliver reports about people and events in foreign countries or even to do some service. 2008). which enabled them to purchase or rent facilities for running TKD schools. and the 103rd general assembly in Paris in 1994. An anecdote often reported is Park Soo-nam arriving at the conference hotel with a trunk full of Kimchi in his car. . Gillis. see also Gillis. which would not have allowed them to leave the country without approval of the secret service (interview Ferger. They sent TKD instructors around the world and supported them with huge financial aids. But the basis for TKD’s quick distribution all over the world was provided by heavy financial and personal support of the authoritarian Park Chung-hee government (Kim. 59 Another example about secret-service missions involving Korean TKD masters in the sport at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. 59 Two TKD masters from Germany being present in Baden-Baden had been Park Soo-nam and Kim Kwang-il.41 - . to be ready against possible interferences by North Korean agents (Park. these TKD instructors had all been selected and approved by the totalitarian military government. It would have been in the very interest of the KCIA to make sure these subjects would not betray their land by revealing information of the KCIA’s international operations. 1994: 3. it seemed safe to assume that the Korean TKD instructors sent by the KTA/WTF across the world during the 1970s and 80s stayed in contact with South Korean authorities. Moreover. which held high stakes for WTF-TKD. where WTF-TKD was added as an official Olympic event for the 2000 Sydney Olympics. 2008: 149). Therefore. both openly and in secret. 2008). including the military and the secret service. 1994: 3). 1993: 18. several Korean TKD masters residing in West Germany were engaged as inofficial security guards for the South Korean delegation during the IOC congress in Baden-Baden in 1981.

Kang & Lee. for example. for it is reported that a Taesoodo competition was an official sport event during the 43th National Sports Festival in October 1963 (Burdick. competitors in the early 1960s tried also chest and head protectors similar to those used in Japanese Kendo (剣道) or Korean Kumdo (劍道). . thus enabling full contact matches. At first.budget. Hwang Ki. for example. Struggling for a modernized Taekwondo TKD could be seen as a unique Korean martial art distinguished from Japanese Karate since it featured at least two elements: a unique sparring style.62 60 Reports about regular bare-knuckled full-contact sparring bouts in early TKD training prior to the establishment of the ITF were published in several threads of the Martial Arts History Project at the independent martial arts website Bullshido.61 A first common sparring system could be traced down to the period of Taesoodo.). started national and international tournaments during the late 1950s to promote his Mooduk-kwan TSD style (Kang & Lee. accessed on 3 December 2009. the different kwans applied several sparring rules and fostered various interpretations of the traditional karate with competitors wearing chest protectors and forbidden head punches. accessed on 2 December 61 See also Dan Nolan’s Tang Soo Do Web Page. Some schools. 62 According to a photography reprinted in Kang and Lee (2002: 108). According to Capener (1995).42 - .bullshido. regularly practiced bare-knuckled full-contact sparring 60 . 1. 1997.US during the so-called Koreagate Scandal in the 1970s is reported by Gillis (2008: 107ff. and the art (forms). see www. This would cover both. Others were seeking for ways of establishing rules and a point system to enable athletic competitions. the martial aspect (sparring). 1999).3. “TKD discovers its roots”. 1999). www. and a unique forms style. the sparring rules at that time were already similar to the modern Olympic style TKD.

Originally in the U.S. Choi Hong-hi left Korea for Toronto. D. a head protector was also required. in March 1971. if not. . enabling light-contact TKD matches very similar to semi-contact kickboxing. Rhee later developed safety gear for hands and feet to prevent from severe injuries.S. TKD pioneer Jhoon Rhee established regular tournaments in America. Korea’s national sport. safety quality of the chest protector had to be increased. contacts should have been tried to avoid. Choi Hong-hi. had started teaching Korean Karate in 1958 in Texas. 1994). thus paved the way for the later development of Kickboxing. putting Hwang Ki’s TSD aside. 63 Jhoon Rhee. and since 1962 in Washington. featuring bare-knuckled full-contact sparring.43 - . power or targeting would have been inefficient. Around that time. strictly insisted on a zero-contact sparring system. on the other hand.C. respectively. the Kukkiwon was erected and completed in the following year. and since 1986. Thus.63 In theory. Rhee started in 1964 conducting National Karate Championships. thus faulty. for his university studies. Canada. After South Korean president Park Chung-hee declared TKD being Kukki. While full-contact sparring was maintained. but in fact. The reason was simply because TKD featured such devastating techniques aimed at vital body parts that actual full-contact sparring would be deadly. Kim Un-yong. who later also became president of the WTF. Later in the 1970s. all TKD in Korea was now unified under one administration. U. In the same year of 1972. which focused the further development of TKD in a direction that made it applicable as an Olympic sport. until he took over the term Taekwondo from Choi Hong-hi (Gillis 2008: 93). described in the chapter “freestyle sparring (ja yoo matsoki)” of his elementary book Taekwon-Do (Choi. competitors “sent each other to the hospital right and left” (Gillis 2008: 93). called the “Father of TKD in America”. he became one of the first professional instructors for Korean Karate outside Korea. It was headed by the new KTA president. Choi integrated Rhee’s safety equipment in the ITF sparring system. however.

in the stage of withdrawing. Choi earned the credit of putting the rather loose collection of Karate forms (kata) into a system of successively structured and increasingly complex TKD forms. and at the same time. Third. better adapted safety gear enabled light-contact sparring. ways to protect competitors were examined. since the mid-1960s. the KTA developed another forms system. and Taesoodo still maintained the old Karate kata. resulting in practically the abandonment of fighting. 2008). and the taeguk poomsae forms since the early 1970s. Second. and others somewhere in between (ITF). which met the requirements of the Olympic Movement. the palgwe forms. Therefore. the first unique set of TKD forms. an interesting lineage of sparring systems in the progressing of TKD could be reconstructed. in the third stage of institutionalization. some two steps ahead (WTF TKD). Gillis. it was reduced to zero-contact sparring. in the experimental stage. which would be elaborated in a later chapter. This beared several consequences for the study of TKD in Germany.44 - . it could help explaining . Concerning forms. Although the heritage of Japanese (Shotokan) Karate was still too obvious to be overseen. Yet the KTA refrained from using the new system. promoting the martial prowess of the art. 1999. Choi developed his forms system further into a tul system. Because of the many resulting injuries. with a few additional forms and a complete change in the basic movements by adding the so-called sino wave. was developed by Choi Hong-hi and his aides during his Malaysian exile (Kang & Lee. this could help understand the variety of TKD associations early in Germany. At first. First. Second. any research about TKD in Germany had to take into account that before the mid-1970s. bare-knuckled sparring without restrictions could be found. Shortly thereafter. there had still been several interpretations of TKD at that time. hyong. during the mid-1980s. newly developed safety technology facilitated full-contact sparring. Many years later. some of them very close to Japanese Karate (TSD). After Choi’s return and quick dismissal afterwards.

but not least. And last.45 - . it helped understanding the reluctance of traditionally oriented Korean TKD masters in Germany about TKD reforms of the KTA/Kukkiwon/WTF. it should have made clear that TKD in Germany could truthfully be united only after the TKD unity in Korea was on its way.the sudden switch of German TKD from ITF affiliation to that of the WTF. Fourth. .

the term (East Asian) martial arts should refer to the combatting disciplines from the East Asian realm. 2.46 - . 2. Taekkyon. boxing. dating back to the ancient Germanic tribes conquered by the Romans. Quanfa. Japan. Delphi. Judo. a conceptual clarification was needed. Soobak. such as the athletic festivals at Olympia. Nemea and Isthmus of Corinth: wrestling. or were they looking for something else? How accurate did German people know about the differences of the particular martial arts of China. Contrary to that. Korea. Combat Sports and Martial Arts in Germany How were combat sports and martial arts positioned in the German society? Did Germany have a tradition in East Asian martial arts? Did Germans engage in combat sports and martial arts for the purpose of challenging athletic confrontations. Kendo. But first. pankration was not performed any more. in this study. It was substituted by another combatting discipline which was performed widely in the ancient and medieval world: fencing. and China – Taekwondo. while the females and servants had to care about house and home and the children (Tacitus. the term combat sports included the heavy-athletic disciplines of the ancient Greek sports festivals.). According to Tacitus’ description in his Germania (around 98 A. and Korea? And did they eagerly engage in establishing administrations for their sports? These and other questions would be answered in this chapter. 2005). Japan. Kumdo. Yet at the modern Olympic Games. and pankration. Hapkido. and the like. Karate. Jujutsu. . Kwonbop.C.1. the main task for a free Germanic was being ready to fight. Following Poliakoff (1989). Combat Sports Germany had a rich history of combat sports.

the Thing. as performed with covered eyes (Barisch. the first children’s textbook which was published in 1658 in the German city of Nuremberg. since the gymnastics movement of the German Turner under Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778~1852) since 1807. for example. However. did not aim at struggling with. riding. one of the fathers of modern education. oddly. Germany’s master poet. on the other side. Among different ball and other games. Fencing as physical excercise was officially sanctioned by Christian authorities during the Middle Ages (128). contrary to English sports. which he described. and defeating an opponent. After the Thirty Years’ War (1618~1648). still stuck to activities like hunting. hunting and hiking and circus performances like trapez artistry. and fencing. Johann Amos Comenius (1592~1670). epee and saber. One reason was that German turnen. The conservative nobility. the carpenter Hans Abs (1851~1895) from Hamburg became inofficial World Wrestling Champion by beating the American William Muldoon in New York. 1971: 163). described in his aubiography Poetry and Truth his experiences in riding and fencing training in his youth (169f. it was not uncommon for men of honor to engage in duels against personal rivals. swimming and bathing. fencing instructors never had troubles of finding new students (Umminger. Until the 20th century.In the northern Germanic assemblies of the free people. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749~1832). But German turnen was a reformist and somehow intellectual activity widely performed at schools and universities. he enlisted three kinds of activities subsumized under the label fencing school: stick and weapons fencing. described the situation of physical education in his Orbis Pictus (“The Visible World in Pictures”). In 1885.). as the duels were not only conducted with pistols. 1999: 23). wrestling.47 - . 1992: 92). wrestling. and boxig were not seen as proper elements of a true physical education any more. which was the starting signal for wrestling’s popularity in Europe (Müller. Like . physical excercises and wrestling competitions were regularly held (Barisch. but also with rapier. and fist fighting. 1971: 105f. fencing.).

Regarding the long history of combat sports in Germany. wrestling and bare-knuckled boxing became a spectator’s sports. 121. boxing and wrestling became popular events. the following overviews will be limited to athletic achievements at the Olympic Games. boxing) was popular among educated people and the riding.000 wrestlers were organized in 860 clubs (Müller. and to make comparisons easier.48 - . In the following. In the laborer’s sport movements in Europe since the late 19th century. For a better overview. 1999: 25). it could be said that at the beginning of the 20th century. For the sake of brevity. gentlemen and university students discovered boxing with boxing gloves as training in self defense (Umminger. the key aspects of the administrations of these three combat sports would be presented in tables. the further progressing of the three combat sports in Germany in the 20th century would be presented separately. The nobility. eventually turning into show events. In 1932. 1992: 99). while fencing (and to a lesser degree. for example. . wrestling and boxing were popular among the working class. providing the basis for professional prize-fighters among the underprivileged.

but excluding American show-wrestling) Subject Content Date Original Name Deutscher Athleten-Verband founded on (German Athletics Federation) Current Name Deutscher Ringer-Bund established in May 1972 (German Wrestling Federation) Associated International International Federation of Associated formation in 1912 Federation Wrestling Styles (FILA) Members 68. 8 x gold 1952~1988 Germany 26 x silver (total) 15 x bronze Olympic German Wrestling Federation website.612 members 2008 in 476 clubs Olympic Medals.65 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website66 64 The Free Encyclopedia. www. .1.wikipedia. 66 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website. 65 German Wrestling Federation website. The Free Encyclopedia.07.49 - .sid. 2 x gold 1954~1988 East Germany 6 x silver (included) 1 x bronze Outstanding Athletes (1) Carl Schuhmann (1) 1869~1946 (2) Werner Seelenbinder (2) 1904~1944 (3) Wilfried Dietrich (3) 1933~1992 Sources: Umminger 1992: 179.ringen. accessed on 12 December 2009. accessed on 12 December 2009. www. Wrestling Table 02: German Amateur* Wrestling Administration (*originally including professional sports wrestling.1. http://vid. accessed on 12 December 2009.

www. Typically for a fringe sport. In 1963. twenty club teams are competing about the title in the top division. In the current season of 2009/2010. the other two are Werner Seelenbinder and Wilfried Dietrich. but also weight lifting. he only reached the 4th place. sponsors usually support more popular sports. In bigger cities. the Ringer-Bundesliga.hall-of-fame-sport. such as Schifferstadt and Luckenwalde with about 20. which produced annual German Champions in a mixture of Greco-Roman and Freestyle wrestling The events attain some media attention. a top division for team wrestling. which covered both amateur and professional wrestling (without American show-wrestling). but unfortunately. Although wrestling has been of mayor interest in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. He had planned to refuse the Hitler salute after winning a medal at the Berlin 1936 wrestling competition to embarrass the Nazis in front of the spectating world. culminating in broadcasted TV reports about the finals. although Schuhmann was the shortest participant. was started. 68 See German Hall of Fame in Sports website. The first German wrestling organization was founded in 1881. Carl Schuhmann. The first National Wrestling Championships for individual athletes date back to 1893 and for teams to 1922. it was rated as a fringe sport.50 - . at the time of the study. .68 Werner Seelenbinder was a secret activist in the German Resistance against the Nazi regime in the 1930s and 1940s. One of Germany’s gymnasts. He was executed by 67 One reason for this phenomenon might be that the local sponsors would prefer to support the fringe sport with its huge media coverage than the local football team competing in a minor division and thus getting just weak media attention. German wrestlers had been successful at the modern Olympic Games from its start at Athens in 1896. or Köllerbach with just 8. measuring just 163 cm. accessed on 13 December 2009. who was also successful in his primary disciplines and in weight lifting. won the wrestling competition in an unlimited weight class. Schuhmann is one of the three wrestlers in Germany’s Hall of Fame in Sports.000 citizens.67 the centers of wrestling are focused on peripheral regions.000 citizens.

and until today. Wilfried Dietrich. together with the Greco-roman silver medal at the same tournament. Athletes like those mentioned had been the spearhead of a vivid tradition of wrestling as a competition and spectator sport.the Nazis on 24 October 1944. both in East and West Germany. Germany’s greatest wrestling talent called the “Crane from Schifferstadt”. including the freestyle gold medal 1960 in Rome. .51 - . excelled in both wrestling styles winning several Olympic medals.

accessed on 12 December 2009. Germany 11 x gold 1952~2008 (total) 14 x silver 22 x bronze Olympic Medals.sid. www. Boxing Table 03: German Amateur Boxing Administration Subject Content Date Original Name Deutscher Reichsverband für founded on 1920. 406.1.05 Amateurboxen (German National Federation for Amateur Boxing) Current Name Deutscher Boxsport-Verband German Boxing Federation website. accessed on 12 December 2009. The Free - . accessed on 12 December 2009.V. established at the end of (German Boxing Federation) 1949 Associated International (1) Federation Internationale de Boxe (1) since 1920 Federation Amateure (FIBA) (2) Association Internationale de Boxe (2) since 1946 Amateure (AIBA) Members 62. 70 German Boxing Federation website.461 members 2008 in 643 clubs Olympic Medals. 417). 71 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website. 2.70 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website71 69 The Free http://vid.wikipedia. . East 5 x gold 1956~1988 Germany (included) 2 x silver 6 x bronze Outstanding Athletes (1) Max Schmeling (1) 1905~2005 (2) Henry Maske (2) born 1964 Sources: Umminger (1992: 332. www.12.

in terms of popularity. but being defeated by him in the fight for the World Champion’s trophy in 1938. Henry Maske secured one of the last gold medals for East Germany. and heavyweight World Champion from 1930~32. He was most famous for his two fights against Joe Luis. boxing remains a divided sport. but low 72 East Germany was also present in international amateur boxing on administrational level. However. knocking him out in 1936 in a preliminary bout (Luis’ only knock-out defeat in his career). boxing was one of the sports East Germany was particular successful in. for East German Karl-Heinz Wehr had been vice president of the International Amateur Boxing Association (AIBA) during the 1980s-1990s. 1928 and 1938. And in its last participation at the Olympic Games. comes Henry Maske. Although boxing was prohibited in Germany until 1918. Maskes title-defending matches became major TV events in Germany in the 1990s. For a long time. The first national championships date from 1920. early boxing clubs reach back to 1912 (SV Astoria Berlin) and even 1906 (SC Colonia 06). thus spearheading a new wave of boxing enthusiasm in Germany. the enthusiasm in Germany about Maske’s later engagement in professional boxing (and that of other professional boxers) gained no reflection in Olympic amateur boxing. gaining gold medals in its first and last Olympic participations (Huhn. thus establishing a rich tradition of East German amateur boxers. Thus. East German Olympic gold medalist of Seoul 1988 and light heavyweight World Champion (IBF) from 1993~96. After Schmeling. at the 1988 Seoul Games. . Max Schmeling (1905~2005) remained Germany’s sole international top boxing athlete.72 In Melbourne in 1956.53 - . with huge media interest in high-stake professional bouts. Schmeling was national champion in 1927. 2006: 45). bantamweight Wolfgang Behrendt gained the first Olympic gold medal for East Germany by beating the Korean boxer Song Soon-chun in the final. On Olympic scale.

making it only a fringe sport with less participants than wrestling.spectator’s interest in amateur boxing. .54 - .

Before fencing 73 The Free Encyclopedia. www.11. 75 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website. accessed on 12 December 2009. although fencing was clearly the smallest one during the time of the Federation (FIE) Members 23. http://vid. 13 x Gold 1951~2008 Germany 16 x Silver (total) 11 x Bronze Olympic Medals.74 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website75 Of all combat sports in Germany. . 74 German Fencing Federation website. . 1949.3. The Free Encyclopedia. accessed on 12 December 2009.301 members 2008 in 472 clubs Olympic Medals.fechten.27 (German Fencing Federation) Associated International Fédération Internatioale d’Escrime founded 1913. it has the longest unbroken tradition in 2. Fencing Table 04: German Fencing Administration Subject Content Date Original Name Deutscher Fechter-Bund founded - .wikipedia. accessed on 12 December 2009. 1956~1988 East Germany - (included) 1 x Bronze Outstanding Athletes (1) Helene Mayer (3) 1910~1953 (2) Thomas Bach (4) born 1953 Sources: Umminger (1992: 804).12.73 German Fencing Federation website.17 (German Fencing Federation) Current Name Deutscher Fechter-Bund e. www.1.

and the last ones in 2008 (female individuals. when the three German female Foil competitors shared all three medals. Sabre). both since 2006. called Burschenschaften. including president of the German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) and vice president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). and currently holds several top positions as sports official. in 1896. she was still one of the best fencers in the word. different weapons and various styles. and also performed in serious life-and-death duelings until the 20th century. fencing clubs emerged since the 1860s. and at the time of the 1936 Berlin Olympics. Helene Mayer was gold medal winner of the 1928 London Olympics and got a 5th place at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics. he got into sports politics afterwards.56 - . Germany’s politically oriented University student’s clubs. Dr. and male individuals. the German Fencing Federation as top umbrella organization was formally founded in December 1911. One of the most remarkable events was at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. adopted fencing duels for special ceremonies and rituals. . she was happy to compete for the Germans and won the silver medal. something which several traditionally oriented clubs still feature. Since the 19th century. Outside of Universities. which was reversed after interference of the American public and the International Olympic Committee. Already a politically minded athlete.became a sport. it was practiced as a means of self defense. and the first national Championships took place in the year of the first modern Olympics. After all. The most outstanding German fencers would include Helene Mayer and Thomas Bach. Foil). the Nazis tried to withdraw her from the team. Épée. Thomas Bach was member of the gold-winning Foil team at the 1976 Montreal Olympics. But because of her Jewish heritage. To unify the several fencing groups. The first Olympic gold medal had already been won in 1906 (male team.

4. all European combat sports have produced widely respected athletes with a strong place in the German public and culture. a comparable overview among their participants in terms of age and gender could be useful. Nevertheless. didn’t have a tradition of athletic idols of this kind. For the further interpretation of the situation of traditional European combat sports in Germany. except for the Olympics. They were regarded as idols for young ambitious talents who would accept the inheritance and impersonate the next generation of the sports’ athletes. 76 For the record.57 - . Those activities are not considered sports. 2. which apparently is a result of the sports’ long 76 tradition in Germany. as would be shown. Although fencing was just a minor fringe sport with about one third of the participants of wrestling or boxing at the time of the study. the German Fencing Federation does not cover fencing practices at traditional university clubs. in contrast. while sheltering them from external power struggles with competing organizations. East Asian martial arts. fencing is not much more popular than in Germany. where everybody regularly expected fencing medals for Germany. it lacked media attention and broad spectator’s interest.1. the existence of as many sports clubs in fencing as in wrestling might have been a hint for the stable fencing tradition in Germany. but rather ceremonies. the situation was completely different. Résumé At first it should have been noted that all European combat sports are administered by one single association in Germany. . Second. One reason for Germany’s lasting international successes in fencing might have been that in other countries. at least not in Germany. In East Asian martial arts. This situation kept the organization focused on the administration and development of their sport.

) Thus. children and the youth made for the majority of members. also the high percentage of higher-aged wrestlers was an unusual result.58 - . Chart 01: Member Distribution in 2008 (Age) European Combat Sports 20000 18000 16000 14000 Members 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 ~6 7~14 15~18 19~26 27~40 41~60 60+ years Boxing 740 8117 11758 13845 13264 10415 4322 Fencing 236 7494 4010 2739 3219 3793 1810 Wrestling 2441 11266 5718 7528 11161 18758 11740 Source: DOSB (2008: 6f. third. the untypical age distribution in boxing was mostly apparent. Furthermore. since in most sports in Germany.77 77 Further explanations would go far beyond the scope of this current study and must remain untouched. Both findings could at least partly be explained by the combatting nature of the sports. on the second observation. . which might prevent parents from encouraging their children in engaging in those activities.

while fencing was considered a sport promoting “female” and child- oriented attributes. the gender distribution revealed that fencing fell into a different category than boxing and wrestling. and much more boxing. While both were featuring about five times more male boxers and.59 - . Chart 02: Member Distribution in 2008 (Gender) European Combat Sports 80000 70000 60000 50000 Members 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Boxing Fencing Wrestling females 11239 8156 12703 males 51222 15145 55909 Source: DOSB (2008: 7) Finally. the ratio was about 2:1. respectively. . wrestlers than female ones. such as physical elegance and game play. in fencing. it could be interpreted that wrestling. were considered as sports promoting “male” attributes. such as physical strength and beating opponents. Together with the age distribution.

and its statements had been further reviewed in preparation for his 5th dan degree 78 The most prominent researchers about Japanese martial arts include Don Draeger. It was compiled in 1993 in preparation of the promotion for his 4th dan degree. it was fair to rely on already accomplished research about these other martial arts. the development of East Asian martial arts in Germany prior to the official introduction of TKD in 1965 should be outlined briefly. . Judo (officially in 1933). without critically examining the findings of the previous research. One of the most informative papers on these topics was an unpublished essay by the head of the German Tangsoodo Federation. Concerning these Japanese martial arts. Andreas Niehaus and Wolfram Manzereiter. As long as the purpose of this current study did not include researching the history of all East Asian martial arts in Germany. underlying motives and resulting consequences of the events. revealing every aspect of the various interconnections about the different arts and styles. Karate (1957) and Aikido (around 1960). did not enter Germany before the 1970s. without detailed extractions of preceding conditions. Martial Arts To provide a better understanding of the situation when TKD entered Germany. and could therefore be neclected. which were Jujutsu (at first in 1906). and much less dealing with Chinese and other Asian martial arts. more recently. Before 1965. Muay Thai. Klaus Trogemann. there was already a vast collection of literature. Others. and. Thus. Diane Skoss. like Kendo. four Japanese martial arts already had found their ways to Germany.2. it should have been sufficient to summarize the main facts and developments of the above-mentioned Japanese martial arts in Germany.60 - . Kickboxing and the several Chinese martial arts. but only of TKD. 2.78 But there was just little literature covering the topic of Japanese martial arts entering and developing in Germany in the 20th century.

61 - . 80 The Free Encyclopedia. . The two general German martial arts discussion boards.79 Furthermore.kampfkunstforum. the core information about the most important administrations for the researched East Asian martial art in Germany would be presented in a table form similar to the ones used for European combat sports at the end of every accesed on 13 December and www. 79 E-Mail by Trogemann on 11 December 2009.kampfkunst- board. www.promotion in 2001 and 6th dan degree promotion in 2009. The Free Encyclopedia. such as the relevant organization’s websites. many of the information of the following sections were gathered by various internet sources.wikipedia.80 For a better comparison. and multiple entries on the two general German martial arts discussion boards. www. accessed on 13 December

2.2.1. Jujutsu

More than one hundred years ago, in 1906, East Asian martial arts entered Germany
after a Japanese fleet visited the (far Northern) German port of Kiel. Its crew performed
a Judo (柔道) and Jujutsu (柔術) demonstration in front of a German audience, including
Emperor Wilhelm II (reigning from 1888~1918) who got the idea that this kind of close-
combat practice should be added to the young cadet’s curriculum. Later in the same year
of 1906, Japanese Judo and Jujutsu master Agitaro Ono from Tokyo started teaching the
military and the police of Berlin in Jujutsu (Trogemann, 1993: 3).

Also around that time, the first Jujutsu school was opened in Berlin by Erich Rahn
(1885~1973), a student of Japanese Jujutsu master Higashi Katsuguma. Rahn’s student
Alfred Rhode (1896~1978), later called the “father of Judo in Germany”, opened the
first public Jujutsu club after World War I (1914~18), followed by the first governing
body for Jujutsu and the first national Jujutsu Championships soon after. Before World
War II (1939~45), Jujutsu was going to become a popular new exercise, resulting in
about 44 German Jujutsu and Judo text books until 1939 (Trogemann 1993: 4).

During the War and the following governing of Germany by the different occupying
forces, the developments of East Asian martial arts in Germany came to a halt until the
1950s. In 1952, Alfred Rohde gathered the highest-ranked German Jujutsu and Judo dan
grade holders, and they formed the German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium;
shortly, DDK), by now the oldest German uninterrupted martial arts organization. Yet
the DDK’s main focus was on Judo, which could be compiled into matches and
championships, and at the beginning of he 1960s, Jujutsu was struggling.

A committee of German martial arts experts of different styles, including Jujutsu, Judo,
Aikido, and Karate gathered together at the DDK and created a new style, presented in

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1968 as Ju-Jutsu.81 It was considered to include reformed training and modernized
defense techniques, such as defense against gun attacks. It was also designed to facilitate
Ju-Jutsu competitions, but failed to gain broad international recognition. In 1990, Ju-
Jutsu separated from the DDK and became a proper member of the top German sports
organization, the German Sports Confederation (since 2006, German Olympic Sports
Confederation), one year afterwards.

Besides reformed Ju-Jutsu, there were still several organizations promoting more
traditional Jujutsu. One was the successor of Erich Rahn’s original Jujutsu organization,
the German Jujutsu Ring Erich Rahn (Deutscher Jui-Jitsu-Ring Erich Rahn e.V.).82 Two
other major Jujutsu organizations were the German Jujutsu Union (Deutsche Jiu-Jitsu
Union, DJJU) and the German Jujutsu Federation (Deutscher Jiu-Jitsu Bund)83. The
different organizations separated successively from the German Judo Federation (DJB),
not the least because of internal power struggles which, unfortunately, could not be
examined further in this current study.84

In German, the new style was named Ju-Jutsu, to distinguish it from the traditional Japanese martial art,
which is usually spelled as Jiu-Jitsu in German, but Jujutsu in English. See the German Ju-Jutsu Federation
website,; accessed on 14 December 2009.
See the website of the German Jujutsu Ring Erich Rahn,, accessed on 14 December 2009.
See the website of the German Jujutsu Federation,, and the website of the German Jujutsu
Union,; both accessed on 14 December 2009.
For the record, since 2004, the reformist German Ju-Jutsu Federation was also accepting traditional
Jujutsu clubs; yet for the sake of clarity, it was regarded here as the Federation for reformist Ju-Jutsu only.

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Table 05: German Ju-Jutsu Federation

Subject Content Date

Original Name German Dan Board (1) DDK since
(Deutsches Dan-Kollegium) 1952.09.20
(2) Jujutsu since 1969

Current Name German Ju-Jutsu Federation. 1990.10.20
(Deutscher Ju-Jutsu Verband)

Associated National (1) German Judo Federation (DJB) (1) since 1969
Federation (2) German Olympic Sports Confederation (2) since 1991

Associated International Ju-Jitsu International Federation founding member in
Federation (JJIF) 1987

Members 53,637 members 2008
in 914 clubs 85

Sources: German Ju-Jutsu Federation website;86 The Free Encyclopedia; 87 DOSB (2008: 9)

Table 06: German Jujutsu Ring Erich Rahn

Subject Content Date

Original Name National Jujutsu Federation 1923

(Reichsverband für Jui-Jitsu)

Current Name German Jujutsu Ring Erich Rahn e.V. c. 1966

(Deutscher Jiu-Jitsu Ring Erich Rahn e.V.)

Associated National Federation independent

Associated International Federation independent

Members 47 participating clubs, 2009

about 2,700 members (estimated)

This ratio of about 58.7 members per Ju-Jutsu club should be regarded as the basis for further estimations
concerning Jujutsu members.
See, accessed on 14 December 2009.
The Free Encyclopedia,; accessed on 12 December 2009.

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88 89
Sources: German Ju-Jutsu Ring website; The Free Encyclopedia

Table 07: German Jujutsu Federation

Subject Content Date

Original Name German Jujutsu Federation. January 1975
(Deutscher Jiu-Jitsu Verband)

Current Name German Jujutsu Federation. January 1975
(Deutscher Jiu-Jitsu Verband)

Associated National Corporation of International Dan since January 1975
Federation Grade Holders
(Korporation Internationaler

Associated International United Nations of Ju-Jitsu founding member in
Federation (UNJJ) September 1991

Members 22 participating clubs, 2009
about 1,300 members (estimated)

Sources: German Jujutsu Federation website;90 The Free Encyclopedia 91

See, accessed on 14 December 2009.
The Free Encyclopedia,; accessed on 12 December 2009.
See, accessed on 14 December 2009.
The Free Encyclopedia,; accessed on 12 December 2009.

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2009 about 5. the German Sports Confederation (DSB.djju. DJB) was established in 100 participating clubs. conducting annual national championships until all sports came to a halt due to the ongoing Second World War.2. Prof. Three years afterwards. the German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund. The previous year.wikipedia. 1982 (Deutsche Jiu-Jitsu Union) Associated National Federation independent - Associated International Federation Jiu Jitsu International founding member 1984 Members c.92 The Free Encyclopedia93 2. The Nazis were quite fond of Kano’s martial art and quickly integrated it into their sports system. . accessed on 14 December 2009. the year after the German Dan Board (DDK) had been formed. and the DDK was integrated into the DJB. accessed on 12 December 2009. Judo Judo got officially introduced to Germany by a promotional tour of Japanese Judo inventor. across Europe in 1933. www. 93 The Free Encyclopedia.870 members (estimated) Sources: German Ju-Jutsu Union website. In 1953. Erich Rahn’s student Alfred Rhode had already founded the first German Judo administration. Table 08: German Jujutsu Union Subject Content Date Original Name German Jujutsu Union. 1982 (Deutsche Jiu-Jitsu Union) Current Name German Jujutsu 92 See www. the DJB got officially recognized by the supreme West German sports body.66 - . now DOSB). Kano Jigoro (嘉納治五郎).

to certify Judo kyu (Korean: keup) and dan degrees from its start in 1952. Meanwhile. news. which contained interviews. background information. The DDK was considered as the informal superordinate organization for all martial arts in Germany. but formally. TKD. the DJB launched its official periodical. and Thai Boxing. until the DJB decided to focus on Judo only at the early 1980s. In 1990. In cooperation with the DDK. such as Karate (1965). the DJB could serve as the umbrella for other martial arts’ administrations. the DDK was subordinated under the Thus. but also for the other martial arts the Judo Federation was administering. It had been rewarded by the Kodokan Institute in Tokyo. the DDK also administered other popular martial arts. Likewise. Aikido (1966).67 - . including Jujutsu. TKD (1967). It should be noted that the DDK was always run by native Germans and was headed by the universally respected senior martial arts grandmaster Alfred Rhode from 1952~67. In 1961. Karate. including Korean Karate and its successor. the DJB depended on the DDK and its direct connection the the Kodokan. the DDK promoted Judo as mass sports. the Judo Magazin. accessed on 15 December 2009. Since then. Aikido. the DJB was the top umbrella organization for Japanese martial arts. before any other martial arts organization was established after World War II. and technical advises not only for Judo training. hhtp://www. and Kendo (1970). while the DJB remained responsible for Judo as both recreational and elite sports. the Judo Federation established special sections for the organized administration of other martial arts during the 1960s. which was the official representative of martial arts in the DSB. the DJB and the DDK separated from each other due to financial disagreements after they had worked closely together on the administration and further development of Judo and other martial arts in Germany for about 35 years. Japan.ddek-ev.94 94 See the DDK website. Originally also responsible for Jujutsu. . TSD.

ranking on 3rd place overall. Han became national Judo head coach at the DJB. it had been more than East German Judoka collected one silver and seven bronze medals at several Olympic Summer Games. 1993: 6). In expectation of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics where Judo was a demonstration sport.000 members by 1965 (Trogemann. One Olympic gold medal was won by a Judoka from East Germany in Moscow 1980.95 which was the second-best rank for a European country. after Japan with 3 gold and 1 silver. Germany was one of the top Judo nations in Europe. Germany ranked on 7th place in the all-time medal ranking for Judo at the Olympic Games. The best European Judo nation would be France.nwjv. while in 1957. . http://www. but it 95 See the website of the International Olympic Committee. 96 See the report about Han Ho-san on the website of the North Rhine-Westphalian Judo Federation. Germany had been successful in Judo competitions from the start. the DJB counted just about 10.96 Later. www. which could serve as an explanation for Germany’s constant competitiveness in Judo. the German Judo team was supported by Korean Judo expert Han Ho-san who was living in Hanover in that time to study architecture. and remained in this position for about 35 years. furthermore. and the Netherlands with 1 gold medal. Judo was not East Germany’s flagship sport. Judo had become increasingly popular in Germany. but with 9 gold medals nearly doubling the figure of accessed on 22 December 2009.000 members. accessed on 15 December 2009. In preparation for this first Olympic Judo event.olympic. which got 5 overall. and always a strong candidate for gold medals at international competitions. At the time of the study. France has collected the same amount of Judo medals in total than Germany (31). The German Judo team won one silver and one bronze medal and was the third-most successful Judo nation. Considering its further successes in World and European Championships.68 - .

. see Austermühle 1998.97 However.was the only Asian martial art being open for the public and officially supported by the East German sports machinery. 97 For example. DDK). Summing up the brief overview. East Germany’s administration of Judo would not be further examined here.69 - . until the very end of the East-West German split. there were currently two organizations administrating Judo in Germany: the German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund. and the German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium. Karate and even Yoga had been explicitly abandoned from any support in terms of facilities and instructors. while only the DOSB-affiliated DJB remains responsible for competitive Judo. as East Germany’s sport administration did no longer exist since the German reunification of 1990. DJB).

. www. DJB) Event Content Date Original Name German Judo Federation 1953 (Deutscher Judo-Bund e. members 2008 in 2.) Current Name German Judo Federation 1953 (Deutscher Judo-Bund e. 1 x Gold 1964~1988 East Germany 1 x Silver (included) 7 x Bronze Outstanding Athletes (1) Frank Wieneke (1) 1984~88 (1 x Olympic Gold.judobund. 2 x World Champion) Sources: The Free Encyclopedia.98 German Judo Federation website. 99 German Judo Federation website.V.wikipedia.672 clubs Olympic Medals. 1 x Olympic Silver) (2) Udo Quellmalz (2) 1991~96 (1 x Olympic Gold.70 - .99 DOSB (2008: 7) 98 The Free Encyclopedia.) Associated National Federation German Olympic Sports Confederation since 1956 (DOSB) Associated International Federation European Judo union (EJU) no data International Judo Federation (IJF) Members 184. accessed on 12 December 2009. accessed on 14 December 2009. 5 x Gold 1964~2008 Germany 8 x Silver (total) 19 x Bronze Olympic Table 09: German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund.

accessed on 12 December 2009.wikipedia. DDK) Event Content Date Original Name German Dan Board 1952 (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium) Current Name German Dan Board 1952 (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium) Associated National Federation German Olympic Sports Confederation since 1956 (DOSB) Associated International Federation independent Members no data available 2006 Outstanding Presidents Alfred Rhode 1952~67 Sources: The Free 100 The Free Encyclopedia. . www. Table 10: German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium. accessed on 15 December 2009. German Dan Board website101. 101 German Dan Board http://www.71 - .

Karate got a huge media attention in West Germany. did his military service in Friedberg. The first Karate organization was formed in 1961. Elvis Aaron Presley. In 1965. and he started practicing Karate in 1959 at Jürgen Seydels Karate school. leading a one- week training course and certifying several dan degrees to German Karate students. 1989: 56). DJKV) in 102 According to Arend (1989: 55). . and many young people tried to follow their idol.2. From 1958~60. including the German-Japanese Karate Federation (Deutsch-Japanischer Karate-Verband. yet the DJB refused to accept the DKB and opened its own Karate section instead. near Frankfurt.000 members in 45 Karate schools and clubs.3. Enoeda and Shirai. The same year Choi Hog-hi’s TKD demonstration team toured across Europe and Germany. Japanese Karate was introduced to West Germany via France. a delegation from the Japan Karate Association (JKA) visited Germany. the DSB refused to acknowledge this new sports organization (Arend. the German Karate Confederation (Deutscher Karate Bund. near Frankfurt.102 Afterwards. Karate Around 1957. Kanazawa. the members of that delegation had been Japanese Karate masters Kase. promoting Karate by performing several show demonstrations. more other Karate organizations were created in some regions. the famous “King of Rock ’n’ Roll”. German Karate got officially acknowledged by the JKA.72 - . one of the first German Karate masters who got their black belts in France was Judo master Jürgen Seydel. DKB). Around the same time. He opened the first German Karate school in Bad Homburg. in 1965. the DKB already counted more than 1. which created a huge demand for Karate training facilities. Because of the famous Elvis Presley. 2. where it was practiced since 1954. in 1957. Because some schools focused more on the commercial than the athletic aspect.

Karate boomed in Germany. the team of the Karate section at the DJB participated at the Championships of the European Karate Union (EKU) and the World Union of Karate Do Organizations (WUKO). In the 1960s and 1970s. so that the current situation of Karate at the time of the study resembled the situation in Judo: one association was affiliated to the DOSB and responsible for high-level international competitions (and sports several subordinated sections taking care for remote Karate styles). and the Goju Ryu Federation (Goju Ryu Bund. the German JKA-Karate Federation (Deutscher JKA-Karate Bund. and the DKV was finally acknowledged by the DSB. GKD) in Southwestern Germany. the DKB hired Japanese Karate expert Kanazawa as head coach. and after difficult negotiations. To maintain its leading position. DJKB).73 - . For both sides. More Karate organizations were established. Despite numerous discrepancies (cf. 1989). the DJB dissolved its Karate section and agreed its members to joining the DKV. such as the Wado-Kai Germany (Wado-Kai Deutschland. DKV) in 1976. One year later. who was succeeded by Hideo Ochi in 1970. all the above-mentioned Karate organizations merged together into the German Karate Federation (Deutscher Karate Verband. Ochi was the leading Karate expert in the DKB until he opened his own association. The DJKB fostersed traditional Karate and relinquished sports competitions. later Goju-Kai Deutschland. At least two different national Karate teams competed at different international tournaments: while the DKB team participated at the Championships of the European Amateur Karate Federation (EAKF) and the International Amateur Karate Federation (IAKF). and the German Karate Union (Deutsche Karate Union. DKU). WKD). the highest German sports umbrella. in 1993. and the other one was remaining .Northern Germany. Arend. this was not a satisfying situation. the different factions of the DKV managed to stick together.

no data World Karate Federation (WKF) Members 106. accessed on 12 December 2009.wikipedia.74 - .org. http://www. 104 The Free Encyclopedia. . thus not officially engaging on the international stage as representative for Germany.independent.051 clubs 103 Sources: Arend 1989. The Free Encyclopedia.677 members 2008 in 2. Table 11: German Karate Federation Subject Content Date Original Name German Karate Confederation 1961 (Deutscher Karate Bund) Current Name German Karate Federation 1976 (Deutscher Karate Verband) Associated National Federation German Olympic Sports Confederation since 1977 (DOSB) Associated International Federation European Karate Federation (EKF).104 DOSB (2008: 9) 103 German Karate Federation website. German Karate Federation website. accessed on 15 December 2009.karate.

105 The Free Encyclopedia106 105 German JKA-Karate Table 12: German JKA-Karate Federation Subject Content Date Original Name JKA-Karate Federation 1993 (Deutscher JKA-Karate Bund) Current Name JKA-Karate Federation 1993 (Deutscher JKA-Karate Bund) Associated National Federation independent Associated International Federation Japan Karate Association (JKA) 1993 World Karate Confederation (WKC) Members about 20. www. accessed on 12 December 2009. accessed on 15 December 2009.75 - . http://www. . 106 The Free Encyclopedia.wikipedia.000 members 2009 Sources: German JKA-Karate Federation website.

2. It was acknowledged in the 1980s by the DSB as the official German Aikido administration. or the German Association for Sports Science. another proper Aikido organization. Japan. the DAB was not accepted by the DSB as a proper elite sports association as usual. since Aikido did not feature high-level sports competitions. Under the guidance of Rolf Brand and Erhard Altenbrandt. 2. It was led by Asai Katsuaki.107 Rolf Brand chaired the German Aikido Federation from 1977 to 1999. who was officially sent in 1965 by the Aikikai Honbu Dojo in Tokyo.76 - . but one year later. also via France. In 1966. but it was accepted as an association “with a special purpose”. the Aikikai Germany. Aikido was at the time of the study diversified into various administrations in Germany. just as the German Sports Teacher Federation. the DJB set up a section for Aikido. accessed on 12 December 2009. Aikido At the early 1960s. 107 To be clear. DAB). after internal disagreements which can not be examined further in this study.dosb. to teach Aikido in Germany. characterized more by competing against each other instead of mutual cooperation. was formed in 1977. www. see the DOSB website. Thus. the German Aikido Federation (Deutscher Aikido-Bund. a student of Ueshiba Kisshomaru. and very similarly to Karate. the son of Aikido founder Ueshiba Morihei. but in 2003. he set up another organization. another organization was formed. Aikido entered Germany. the Aikido Union .4.

110 The Free Encyclopedia 111 108 German Aikido Federation website. www. Table 13: German Aikido Federation Subject Content Date Original Name German Aikido Federation 1977.wikipedia. accessed on 12 December 2009.77 - . accessed on 15 December 2009. 109 The Free Encyclopedia. http://www.890 members 2008 in 162 clubs 108 Sources: German Aikido Federation website.000 members 2009 in c.wikipedia. 111 The Free Encyclopedia. 110 Aikikai Germany website. accessed on 12 December 2009. http://www. accessed on 15 December 2009.aikido-bund.10 (Deutscher Aikido Bund) Associated National Federation German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) 1980s Associated International Federation International Aikido Federation unknown Members The Free Encyclopedia.10 (Deutscher Aikido Bund) Current Name German Aikido Federation 1977. 109 DOSB (2008: 10) Table 14: Aikikai Germany Subject Content Date Original Name Aikikai Germany 1967 (Aikikai Deutschland) Current Name Aikikai Germany 1967 (Aikikai Deutschland) Associated National Federation independent Associated International Federation European Aikido Federation (EAF) 1967 International Aikido Federation (IAF) Aikikai Honbu Dojo Tokyo Members about 6.04. www. . 180 clubs Sources: Aikikai Germany

de/start. 113 The Free - .04. accessed on 15 December 2009. But just the martial art with the longest history in Germany – Jujutsu – featured the greatest variation of associations. and 112 Aikido Union Germany website. Résumé Contrary to the European combat sports. and thus. it was far too obvious that East Asian martial arts were administered by at least two (Judo and Karate). - Members 85 Aikido dan grade holders 2009 Sources: Aikido Union Germany website.aikido-union. but usually a multitude of associations. .112 The Free Encyclopedia 113 2. or recreational Judo and Karate. While recreational fencing. non-existence of international top-level competitions. accessed on 12 December 2009.27 (Aikido Union Deutschland) Associated National Federation Federal Association for Aikido in Germany 2002 Associated International Federation . and Jujutsu and Aikido on the other was the existence vs. apparently.04. while much younger Karate (in Germany) reduced its administrations to just a pair. such as in Aikido.wikipedia. Obviously. http://www. The main difference between Karate and Judo on the one hand. fragmentations would occur only in fields where such needs do not exist. Then. Table 15: Aikido Union Germany Subject Content Date Original Name Aikido Union Germany 2002. At first. the need to focus on competitive successes forced leaders of martial arts to get along with each other.2. to establish strong and unanimously leading national administrations. this might just seemed like the result of the freshness of East Asian martial arts in the German culture. was covered by the German Fencing Federation.27 (Aikido Union Deutschland) Current Name Aikido Union Germany 2002. www.

there was a lack of athletic idols for young talented ambitious athletes in martial arts. were practically unknown outside of Judo circles. data of this kind are not available for Aikido. no matter how tiny they might be. More results could be gained by taking additional statistical data into account.79 - . That might be explainable by recourse to the young history of East Asian martial arts in Germany. .114 114 Unfortunately. Second. Even Olympic gold medalists. Therefore. things were different for Judo and Karate. respected) martial arts figures in Germany were usually the founders of associations.similarly. and it was much easier for an experienced martial artist in Germany to open a new association than to win an international high-level competition. On the contrary. recreational wrestling covered by the German Wrestling Federation. contrary to European combat sports. universally respected athletes of East Asian martial arts in Germany. like Judoka Frank Wieneke (Los Angeles 1984) or Udo Quellmalz (Atlanta 1996). due to its status as a member with a special purpose. the most well-known (and thus. there was no history of outstanding.

80 - . although each martial art counted more practitioners than the German Fencing Federation. a third finding would be that the membership structure of the researched East Asian martial arts resembled most the structure of European fencing. This resemblance was also apparent in respect of the gender distribution. . see the section above. which showed a figure for male participants twice as much as that for female participants in the researched East Asian martial arts:115 115 The ratio for males to females in fencing was also about 2:1. Chart 03: Member Distribution in 2008 (Age) East Asian Martial Arts 120000 100000 80000 Members 60000 40000 20000 0 ~6 7~14 15~18 19~26 27~40 41~60 60+ years Judo 9986 109262 23560 14432 12287 13195 2043 Ju-Jutsu 984 20193 7748 7153 9348 7534 677 Karate 1985 52309 13502 4612 20950 12651 668 Taekwondo 3137 29612 9178 6454 6420 4894 249 Source: DOSB (2008: 6~9) Thus.

such as top national prestige. although it featured fewer members than in any East Asian martial art. The reasons for this might have been multitudinous. Chart 04: Member Distribution in 2008 (Gender) East Asian Martial Arts 200000 180000 160000 140000 120000 Members 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 Judo Ju-Jutsu Karate Taekwondo females 56119 17492 37197 22451 males 128646 36145 69480 37493 Source: DOSB (2008: 7~9) Therefore. if they would be provided with the appropriate incentives to devote more time and energy in better preparations. the best European combat sports comparable for East Asian martial arts would be fencing. and amounts of money. Now in fencing. . It would be reasonable to assume that they would do so.81 - . not boxing nor wrestling. Germany was quite successful in international competitions. but one precondition for Germany’s success in this area was clearly that other countrie’s athletes were not doing better.

the situation was similar in Karate. But as long as there were no professional athletes in any East Asian martial art or European combat sport in Germany at all. the situation was just as described above. can get a life-long pension enabling them the life of a rich person for an Olympic gold medal in TKD. and in which respects.82 - . here. Mexico and several former USSR countries. athletes from Turkey. 117 Similarly. one could be wondering why such structures of professional TKD did not develop in Germany. in Judo. professional TKD athletes were competing regularly in premier divisions in Iran. earning nation-wide fame and huge bonuses for top places at international tournaments. it was only to state that German TKD athletes have some clear disadvantages compared to some other countries.kampfkunst-board.000 Euros for an Olympic gold medal. it was not known that other countrie’s athletes would be regarded as national heroes. It would be an interesting enterprise to examine the origins of such a huge interest and those huge amounts of money in these there were still several countries where TKD competitors train and compete as professional athletes. Greece. Ignoring. www. While a German athlete gains just about 20. it would go far beyod of the scope of this study to examine the question if Japan would qualify for such a country or not. 117 These figures were taken from the website of the German Olympic Sports Confederation.dosb. no matter in which sports she or he participated. all accessed on 22 December 2009. .116 In TKD. the situation in Korea. for the sake of the argument. and from multiple entries in the German TKD-related internet discussion boards. for example. But that would not be the concern of this current study. where they could gain much more experiences in high-level TKD competition than any German amateur TKD athlete ever (interview Arndt. Other countries with professional TKD athletes would include Spain. the 116 By ignoring Japan. for the sake of argument. For example. www. however. 2009).kampfkunstforum. or be awarded with unimaginable amounts of money. Based on the previous reasoning.

but that people would not regard them as serious fighting sports with thrilling bouts. East Asian martial arts were not followed with a similar public interest. and www. grossly spoken. . the current situation reflects the distinction between European combat sports as elite sports for ambitious athletic heroes on the one hand. One reason might be that they were considered more a healthy and safe physical activity. see www.kampfkunstforum. just as in case of wrestling. while young people assigning in wrestling or boxing often want to showcase their physical prowess.118 Despite their quite long tradition in Germany – now over 100 years –. in Germany could be summed up like this. and thus media coverage. probably. and East Asian martial arts as a 118 It was a generally observed tendency reflected in the postings at the German internet martial arts discussion boards that many parents would assign their children to martial arts when they feel their children were physically weak or or that physically challenging matches would be a regular part of that sport. because there was not enough public attention.answer would be too obvious: there was just not enough money in these kinds of especially at the Olympics. Although combat sports were deeply rooted in the German culture. Thus. and TKD in particular. where parents could assign their children to without worries. for fighting sports. and thus get some regular media attention around the time of high- profile competitions. just as boxing. both accessed on 22 December 2009.83 - . Yoga). just like fencing (and.kampfkunst-board. not comparable to serious European fighting sports which require tough guys being ready to beat up unknown opponents. The situation of East Asian martial arts in general. East Asian martial arts were still seen as exotic activities where people assign in for some unconventional fitness training for sometimes unconventional students. and sometimes even for spiritual reasons.

both fields of activities would most probably be separated in different cognitive categories. It would require the clear distinction between TKD as elite combat sport promising Olympic metal for highly specialized athletes. it was also widely seen as a family-friendly activity. Naturally. which promotes physically challenging full-contact bouts more resembling European combat sports than Zen Buddhist meditation practices. after TKD master Kwon Jae-hwa demonstrated his famous boulder-breaking knife-hand strikes at the BMW laboratory in Munich.000 Newton. for it would reach far beyond its scope.rather recreational activity including meditation. In 1984.000 kg (Gatzweiler. TKD once got a huge media attention. . Bavaria.119 Considering this. 2008: 61). At the time of the study. Since then. and successfully managing that distinction.84 - . this trace could not be followed within this study. according to the analysis above. which would be equal to a weight of 1. An important aspect would be the image switch of TKD throughout the decades. And that would require a self-confident administration capable of communicating that very distinction to the possible audience and pool of participants. It was revealed that master Kwon managed to accelerate his hand so vigorously that he hit the stone with a force of up to 10. it would be interesting to examine how the German Taekwondo Union. But regrettably. while European combat sports were usually seen as activities without such disturbing constraints. The following examination of TKD in Germany in the remaining three chapters would be guided by this question. this would have a great impact on the pre-selection of participating members. traditional forms and exotic philosophical concepts on the other. thus. the most media attention was generated on local 119 Most probably. tried to get along with that situation. One reason for this might be the missing media coverage of TKD competitions. and TKD as a safe and fun activity for the whole family. East Asian martial arts were usually seen as enriched with desired philosophical values. although TKD was a challenging Olympic sport.

the situation of the earliest Koreans entering Germany should be taken into account. TKD in Germany had also benefitted from an increased demand for East Asian martial arts in the 1960s. due to a shortage of qualified instructors. any opportunity to get access to a genuine East Asian martial arts instructor was regarded as a huge value. since the 1980s. thanks to its image as containing the exciting fighting elements of the movies (interview Arndt. and the preparations for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics with Judo as a demonstration sport. several Judo instructors.levels when Korean competition teams travelled (mostly) through Southern Germany. Thus. many physically strong and ambitious young men joined TKD. Han Ho-san. . usually on invitation by the fomer Korean head coach. Therefore. 2009). and later additionally offered TKD in their schools. the first reception of TKD in Germany should be examined properly. Since Bruce Lee had adapted several TKD techniques (he collected everything he seemed to be useful) and had performed them in front of the spectating world. which was based on three pillars: the long tradition of Jujutsu and Judo in Germany. But before that. turned out to be actual Korean citizens. To provide a basis for the examination of subsequent transitions of TKD in Germany. In fact. like Germany’s national Judo head coach from 1965~2000. with nobody questioning the qualifications of the instructor for teaching a particular martial art. during the martial arts boom of the 1970s.85 - . This would be the task of the following section. fans discovered several of his kicks and movements in TKD and engaged in that sport. Despite that. Ko Eun-min. Elvis Presley’s Karate exercises during his military service in Germany. there remained a lack of facilities where martial arts (besides Judo and Jujutsu) could be learned appropriately. TKD benefitted from the huge media hype around the famous Bruce Lee-movies. In the 1970s.

For example. the situation of the German-Koreans and their impact on TKD in Germany would be analyzed. But some areas were less demolited than others.1.S. (183). 3.86 - . the country was in a devastating situation. England. industrial production capacities had been enhanced to a larger degree than other areas. production facilities of industry companies had been destroyed by air bombings to a much lesser degree than residential areas. even European regions. . the first Korean TKD masters entered Germany for other purposes than teaching TKD. resulting in an unusual development of TKD in that area. Second. First. 2003: 192). Labor Migration in West Germany After Nazi Germany was defeated by the allies of the US. Korean Migrant Workers in West Germany As mentioned. the political background that enabled labor migration to West Germany would be sketched shortly. Most of them worked as migrant workers in West German hard coal mines. probably all over the world. everything seemed ruined. and industrial facilities had been updated and still were on a qualitative high level after the war (Herbert. 1991: 27). They remained the only Korean workers in Europe (Lee. it requires a closer observation of the processes in that region. This was at least partially because during the war. As this special North-Western German TKD region crucially affected the development of TKD in all Germany later. and the second-largest Korean migrant group after those who settled in the U.3. France and Russia in 1945. This group originally resided in the West German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia with its huge coal mining companies. unusual to all other German.

around 10 million people by 1960 (Herbert. millions of fugitives from the former Eastern territories of Germany in Poland and Russia and escapees from East Germany spread into the land. doctors. Nevertheless. The West German economic miracle was a result of the so-called “Korea boom”. especially for dull and dirty jobs. the unemployment rate. professors and professionals from other highly qualified fields.Therefore. But there was a lack of qualified workers. Knortz. But West Germany was still in a need for more workers. . if not the most important factor for West Germany’s explosive economic growth (cf. which was above 12% in 1950 (Knortz. Especially the refugees from East Germany had usually been highly mobile and well-educated young laborers. 2003: 194). i. displaced people. 2008: 53). the basis for ignition of the later economic miracle in West Germany was already set. According to Knortz.87 - . the flow of fresh workers came to a halt after the Berlin Wall was erected in August 1961. But then.e. overall. a period of global economic prowess during and after the Korean war of 1950~53. refugees from the former far eastern German regions. then foreigners of different nationalities) was one. since the so-called “economic miracle” during the 1950s and 1960s guaranteed a constant economic growth. caused by increased armament and private treasuring-up (Knortz. Through the following years. technicians. GDR escapees. to less than one percent in 1960 (40). more than the U. and proper accomodation. In West Germany. was worth more than 30 Billion German Marks. 2008: 54). 2008: 59). loans which are officially regarded as helping West Germany’s economy getting ignited after World War II. Some scholars even argue that the flexible reservoir of workers in early West Germany (unemployed Germans. shrinked dramatically. some scholars estimate that their contribution.S. with an above-average amount of engineers.

Quickly afterwards. Canada. Spain.exports of heavy-industry products. internal summary in Knortz (2003: 116-120) enlists requests of the following non-European countries: Barbados. Afghanistan. The Turkey contract was also significant because it paved the way for contracts with other non-European countries. 2003: 203). Egypt. Tunis. South Korea. were raised dramatically. Greece. the South Korean government has asked in May 1962 for two issues: (a) . According to this summary. Singapore. seeking for ways of sending their (often unemployed) workers to the once again rich country. similar contracts were signed with Portugal. the Lebanon. However. came from the area of foreign politics. the real incentive for the first official contract for work migration. India. Brazil. Togo. 1955 (Knortz. Bolivia. and unofficially even from the U. Iran. and the central-African federation. Thailand. Sudan. requests have been made by Syria. so- called “guest workers” were hired from abroad to work on West German construction and agricultural fields. the areas with dramatic seasonal variations in work amounts (Herbert. China (both). the Dominican Republic. that unconventional measures were needed to get the relationship with this European ally back into some kind of balance. Japan. especially armament technology. Since 1953. as Knortz (2008) pointed out. in return. Once the first migrant workers proved to make a good job. Through the following years.S. In the long run. the industry started getting interested in foreign work craft.120 120 The reprint of an unpublished. Pakistan. several non-European countries approached West Germany.88 - . Venezuela. the Philippines. becaue since the early 1970s. Jamaica. (113). Morocco. the Turkey contract appeared to be the most significant. United Arab Emirates. and problems like different culture and the language barrier could be overcome. which. which was signed between West Germany and Italy in December 20. 2008: 83). Additionally. and Turkey. Turkish descendants make the hugest amount of foreigners in Germany. ignited consuming rates within Germany. Chile. West Germany had such a huge trade surplus over Italy.

from 96 million tons to 88 million tons. . from 607. requested 10. Table 16: per-capita income in West Germany 1913-1975 (German Marks. although there was a huge reduction of coal- mining jobs. since the late 19th century. were ready to accept the dirty. people tried to raise their living conditions. our special field of interest is mining. The hugest mining pits were located in the Ruhr and Saar areas in Western Germany.000 ten years later.89 - . West Germany registered a dramatic reduce of hard coal consumption. employing several hundred thousand miners. However. Between 1958 and 1960.000 employees in 1957 to 287.000 jobs got lost in that industry (193). from 1958 on.300 Source: Knortz (2008: 40) sending 60 young engineers for further education during 1962-66. and (b) sending about 1. on the other hand. due to increased usage of the much cheaper mineral oil (Knortz. and less workers. The West German industry. The consequence was a dramatic reduction of jobs in the coal mining industry. as the average per-capita income was raised dramatically during that time period (see the table below). the necessary amount of coal mining laborers was maintained only by employing new foreigners (195). which traditionally attracted foreign workers. 2008: 43). Therefore.000 coal miners from Pakistan in 1960 (118). including migrant workers. Hard coal mining was one of Germany’s main important industries. especially from Eastern Europe. in prices from 1913) 1913 1945/46 1950 1960 1975 720 500 850 1.000 industrial laborers for several years. Although most migrant workers were working in production and construction industries.480 2. including further education. Therefore. there was no mentioning of Korean coal miners. until mid-1962. difficult and low-paied jobs in the coal pit. However. about 100.

and some Eastern Bloc countries (140). in June 1965. together with two smaller pits. 2008: 133)121. for especially skilled workers. After all. Therefore. this program was seen as successful. both sides agreed to enlarge the contract for more 1. which resulted in negative answers to the requests of about 20 countries (Knortz 2008: 121). for on January 30. . But the project was cancelled soon. West German coal mining companies have had quite good experiences with East Asian coal miners. New Zealand. 1963. Japan had sent 500 employed coal miners for three years for educational purposes to West Germany. Therefore. after a severe mine disaster happened in the Japanese Mitsui pit. Israel. with exceptions in single cases only. On the other hand. 1962. German coal mining companies suddenly. the general policy was that no laborers from non-European countries should be assigned again. They were on vacations during that time and returned to their companies afterwards (113). this project was finally cancelled by the German Interior Ministry because of the high illiteracy rate in Morocco.90 - . immediate need for coal miners. a decision was made by ministers of the federal states that non-European countries should not be granted sending workers. language.g.000 pit workers on May 21. again. and most unexpectedly. food. one major West German coal mining company. To fill that need.000 non-European migrant workers in West Germany in mid- 1962 was disillusioning. traditions. e. Obviously. and the complete culture of working and living. In 1957. except for Tunis. this time currently unemployed persons. Canada. there was a sudden. whose government signed a contract to sent about 9. Australia. Morocco. the experiences with the about 7. had a need for 121 Also. the US. presumably also beneath its laborers. Thus. because of the massive problems concerning travel fees.500 coal miners. pushed forward an agreement with Morocco. climate. which caused death for 455 miners and injured more 947 persons (114) The Japanese migrant workers stayed at home to compensate for the losses. which was seen as too dangerous for working in the pits (Knortz. Finally.

But the fact that this agreement was not mentioned in a summary about possible agreements from May 1962 (see one of the footnotes above). 3. the Koreans came like a heaven-sent opportunity. although all relevant documents until 1973 are already accessible (Knortz 2008: 7). In this situation. being the hugest German coal mining company. is a . all of them located in North Rhine-Westphalia.fresh workers. In this situation. The North was supported by other communist countries. they were already ready for migrant laborers from remote countries. and the South depended on aids by the US and other western states. Moreover. There were war-related destructions of a far bigger scale than they had been in Germany. which promised a loan of about 150 Million German Marks if the Koreans would send Korean coal pit workers (Kim. and the economic situation was disastrous. Korean Migrant Workers In South Korea. 2006). the Park Chung-hee government turned desperately to West Germany. Both Koreas could not help themselves out of this mess. The Germans. 123 The German literature about guest workers keeps mysteriously silent about Korean migrant workers and the respected contracts between the South Korean and the West German governments. as was shown above. and the much smaller Eschweiler Bergwerksverein in Eschweiler. close to Aachen. and the new Kennedy administration was especially concerned about the direction South Korea would take after the military coup d’état by Park Chung-hee in 1961. were also in desperate need of additional coal miners. the companies had been the Ruhrkohle AG in Herne. Now the US was interested in a democratic South Korea. deep in the heart of the Ruhr region. 122 therefore it was the perfect win-win agreement.91 - . the effect of the Korean War was anything else but a “Korea boom”. One immediate reaction was the freezing of gratuitous financial aids South Korean economy needed desperately.2.123 122 According to Yoon & Kim (1996).

and about one year later. However.92 - . or December 22 (Kim 2006). the first South Korean migrant workers arrived in West Germany.600 Korean migrant workers entered West Germany (see the following table): strong indicator that this decision was a very urgent one. this was a small number based on private efforts conduted by religious interest groups. Kim 1996). more than 7. The first official contract between the two states about migrant nurses was in 1965.124 In the end. see Lee (1991: 28).wikipedia. December 16 (de. According to Kim (2006). even in the mid-1950s. it was a group of 123 Korea laborers. the new South Korean government quickly installed a law about ‘emigration to abroad’ in 1962. South Korean nurses have entered Germany before. . 124 Sources differ on the exact date the first group of South Korean migrant workers set their feet on West German soil: November 23 (Yoon. According to Lee (1991: 26).org). on both sides.

a pattern like that one above could be expected. and.630 Source: Lee (1991: 28). and Germans began to return to uncomfortable jobs (Knortz. and West Germany’s economy got in a severe crisis. It should be noted that in 1973.270 3. recruitments of foreign workers were completely stopped first. Since the Korean migration workers usually signed three-year contracts. - 1969 450 62 - 1970 832 875 1. 1973/74.279 1971 360 988 893 1972 624 815 - 1973 763 419 2. finally. these figures reveal several major migration periods for Korean coal miners: before 1965. with the immediate consequence that the unemployment rate grew suddenly. .140 1974 962 255 1975 331 55 1976 . 1965~1977 Year Trained nurses* Practical nurses** Coal miners ~1965 128 2. 1977. based on several other sources * trained nurses: requires College degree ** practical nurses: high school degree sufficient According to Lee (1991). As a reaction. 1970/71. the constant economic growth came to a halt. . 799 Total 5.93 - . followed by the global oil crisis. 2008: 41). - 1977 .233 1966 723 297 286 1967 216 191 - 1968 9 .959 7. officially on November . Table 17: Korean migrant laborers in West Germany.

705 14. Nevertheless. and completely abandoned in November 1980. Yet quickly afterwards.824 11.853 29.960 15. according to Lee (1991: 29). the total number of Koreans living in Germany was constantly rising since. On the contrary.23.800 Source: Lee (1991: 30). they were originally gathered in a few areas around the coal mining companies which had hired them. According to Yoon & Kim (1996). 2008: 41). Table 18: total number of Koreans living in Germany 1972 1973 1975 1976 1979 1981 1983 1984 2007* 8. 1973 (Herbert. only 2171 Koreans were still working in the pit. the Koreans weren’t divided equally over the Federal Republic of Germany. As a consequence. because many Korean nurses had been forced to return to their home country (Park & Fehling. all of them located in West Germany’s hugest federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. To enable this. This had been a reaction to severe demonstrations from Koreans in 1980. many Koreans married Korean nurses to be able to further stay in West Germany. * Figure of 2007: according to The Free Encyclopedia As mentioned. However.733 15. thanks to family reunions for those who stayed in Germany. Also. recruitment of new migrant workers got finally prohibited in 1978. including coal miners and nurses (Knortz. many of those Koreans who originally came as pit workers switched to different jobs as soon as their three-year contracts ran out. he assumed that a large portion of those original Korean migrant workers went further to America. based on data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. but after the last team of Korean miners had arrived on October 25 in 1977. the expiration of Korean worker’s status of sojourn in Germany was changed in June 1978. the pure territorial . see the following table.94 - .231 12. 2003: 203). 2003: 84). it was again allowed for several branches.460 13. in September 1972.518 14.

and Dortmund.171 = 7.4% 168.7 7.8 Baden-Württemberg 1.1 Source: Lee (1991: 31). and they started spreading all over the country. which features the most densed region in Germany.2% 86.2 2.0% 273.0% 506.4% 666.9% 845. it shows that by far most foreigners were residing in North Rhine-Westphalia.7 All FRG 15.3 11.253 = 7.2 9.202 = 39.95 - . Leverkusen. by far the biggest cluster still remained in North Rhine-Westphalia. sporting.8 Hesse 2.2 Hamburg 1. Also.5 Berlin 2.0% 161.6 Schleswig-Holstein 179 = 1.2 Rheinland-Pfalz 475 = 3.0% 240 1. based on data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany This table also shows that on the large scale.6 Bavaria 866 = 5.067 = 13.5 3.2 16.3 5.3% 46.0 Lower Saxony 781 = 5.363. as the following table shows: Table 19: total and relative numbers of Koreans divided across German Federal States (in 1984) Federal state Koreans All foreigners (in 1000) Citizens (in millions) North Rhine-Westphalia 6. the Ruhr Area with cities like Duisburg.0% 1. Essen. However.7% 44.853 = 100% 4.6 61.6 1.1 Bremen 47 = 0. the Koreans remained a minor group of foreigners living in West Germany.concentration of Korean workers was dissolved.703 = 17.8 0. . together with the neighboring Rhein Area that includes cities such as Cologne.6 Saarland 109 = 0.324. This is a traditional center for migrant workers. people never being noticed by most Germans.5 1.

after Moscow. Also. they received one month of intensive German-language training and then were sent to their work places below earth. and no contacts to their German colleagues (for an overview. looking for an opportunity to make a living. Despite the fact that the West German industry. see the following table). and Paris. many of them who actually entered the country had no experience in coal mining. bad accommodations. And finally. and maybe to escape from the hopeless situation in South Korea of that time. there were farmers. and a few real miners. London. who analyzed Korean newspapers from that time period. extremely uncomfortable work.former West German capital Bonn and the North Rhine-Westfalian capital Düsseldorf. Karlsruhe). Garmisch-Partenkirchen) and Baden-Württemberg (Stuttgart. plus. where the other main regions of TKD in Germany are located. where they earned minimum wages due to their inferior working performances. 2. bankrupt entrepreneurs and other unemployed persons. It is considered the fourth largest urban area in Europe. and the first list of people who actually got the jobs was published in a daily newspaper. based on their experiences with the Japanese coal mining trainees. day laborers. the table reveals an unusual low amount of Koreans in the two Southern German states of Bavaria (Munich. According to Kim (2006). Korean migrant workers in West Germany lived under horrible conditions – low wages. Nuremberg. they often kept just about 250 German Marks for themselves and sent the rest to their families in South Korea. After their arrival. these newspapers reported about the alleged 150 Million German Marks loan ‘in return ro Park’s making a “heroic” gesture of sending workers to West Germany’. high school and college graduates. According to Yoon & Kim .96 - . demanded experienced Korean coal miners. more than 12 milion people.894 people applied for the first 375 available jobs in 1963.

50 m height and up to temperatures of 40° conditions C . which reinforced isolation of Koreans Source: Yoon & Kim. excluding German colleagues Official support Official translators by Korean embassy were suspected to have other functions. one kitchen and one toilet for 120 persons. therefore they were often renounced. fostering conflicts between Korean colleagues Wages Minimum wages of 800~1100 DM after a three-months training program. such as spying out and controlling Korean laborers. three showers. including bonuses for efficiency. Table 20: Korean migrant worker’s situation in West Germany: Sitution Description Working About 1000 m below ground.(1996). This resulted in further re-orientation of many Korean workers. this was a result of the failure of the Korean government to negotiate better working conditions for their people. with floors of 1.97 - . 1996 After serious demonstrations by Koreans in November 1980. many of them kept about 250 DM for accommodation and food and sent the rest to their families in Korea Language One month of German language training after arrival aquisition Social contacts Usually just between Koreans. and most of them ceased to . and under the impression of the Gwangju massacre in May 1980. the air filled with stone and coal dust Working Unfair working contracts favored employers: in case of accidents or deaths. there were contracts no compensations for workers or their families Accomodation Of varying quality. Germany rewarded Korean workers standard working and living conditions equal to other nation’s migrant workers. often just 4-7 pyeong shared by four laborers.

2003: 79). and they could have been sent out of the land if it was discovered by the authorities. who began teaching the Korean martial art in 1964 in Essen. but quickly came back to Germany to become the so-called “father of TKD in Noth Rhine-Westphalia” (Gatzweiler. recalled “many Koreans” among the coal miners being responsible for the quick spreading of Korean Karate in Germany. who returned back to Korea after his contract had run out in 1966. in discussion boards and in historical overviews in different TKD and other martial arts magazines. until he went on to the Cologne Sports University after two years. This was strictly forbidden. and they were paied by their German students for the lessons. there was just one Korean miner left actually working at a coal mine in the Ruhr Area. 2008: 59). Another example would be Pak . Kim Woo-kang. because the Korean instructors usually taught at Japanese martial arts schools or locations where they had to pay a fee for. because many reports about the early practice of something like “Korean Karate” unter Korean instructors who worked officially as coal miners can be found on the internet. especially in Judo schools (Gatzweiler.98 - . Unfortunately. for example. But there had been several. willing and capable of teaching students. it is not known how many of the Korean workers were also TKD masters. then 3rd dan TSD instructor of the Mooduk-kwan tradition. By 2002. also a first- generation Korean coal miner. One of the earliest examples of a coal miner-turned TKD instructor was Kim Byung- wook. German TKD pioneer Gerd Gatzweiler. who started learning “Korean Karate” as early as in 1964. interview 2006). Jeong Yong-Gi (Park & in the coal mines. and switching to this profession after their contracts ran out. For example. During the early times. such as wine cellars or backyards of rstaurants. such reports were not published openly. for their working contract did not allow any other engagement than the work they officially signed for. Another one was his successor.

Pak was a 2nd dan degree hapkido master and tought German students together with Kim Sou Bong. Lee worked first as a coal miner in Germany for 1 year. But both of them left Germany for America after their working permits ended after three years.99 - . Finally. Lee Bum-i. who left Korea in 1966 to spread TKD around the world. to study sports science in 1974~76. but came back to West Germany to teach TKD and. .In Shyuk (1938~1995). went to Zurich in Switzerland as TKD instructor for 2 years. who worked between 1965~68 in a German coal mine. later.

and even before the official introduction of the Korean martial art in Europe? In what respects was TKD developed similarly in these areas. Marx had organized the first dan graduation event for Germans. had called them up from all over the Federal Republic to join him in his hometown in Munich.100 - . the hot spot of Taekwondo in Bavaria. signed by the General already three years ago! Everybody was wondering all the time why the earliest certificate in Bavaria started with the number 3. To ignite the movement.III. completely independently from the Bavarian Taekwondo boom. the German Taekwondo enthusiasts gathered together for the first nation-wide assembly in order to revitalize the Taekwondo section of the German Judo Federation. The new strong chairman of the section. waving their already earned dan grade certificates around – the very first two dan grade certificates in Germany. Down in Bavaria. It was as if the inventor of the wheel suddenly detected the existence of complete cars somewhere else … How could it happen that TKD emerged at two remote locations in Germany independently from each other. and he had promised to award them with official inspector’s licenses for future dan grade aspirants. when suddenly two guys from North-Western Germany appeared. They considered themselves the center of the German Taekwondo movement. in what respects differently from each other? And which one of the two TKD scenes would . and the black belt applicants knew each other well. where the big stars like Kwon Jae-hwa and Kim Kwang-il were teaching masses of students in huge martial arts schools. and where the first two certificates had been going. But what a surprise. Taekwondo had just emerged from Korean Karate a few years ago. Heinz Marx. This was mostly unbelievable! That meant that there was another vivid Taekwondo scene somewhere else in the Republic. How Taekwondo Entered Germany (1960~1965) On a nice Saturday morning on May 1st in 1971.

101 - . . many Korean TKD masters had entered West Germany occasionally as coal miners. including Kim Byung-wook and Kim Woo-kang. who 125 More precisely. they were masters of a martial art which would later become TKD. there are several reports of a TKD-related martial art entering West Germany independently of the appearance of Korean migrant workers. Kim Byung-wook followed an offer by the German Sports University in Cologne. But.126 After two years. 2006). both Heinz Wiesemann and Gerd Gatzweiler have received their honorary 7th dan degree. Gatzweiler and the other students found a successor in Kim Woo-kang. later the two very first official TKD dan grade holders in Germany. It covered the period of the introduction of TKD in Germany. 1. as was already shown. and Wiesemann. and his first students in Germany included Heinz Wiesemann and Gerd Gatzweiler. the Korean migrant workers in North Rhine-Westphalia. imposing its regulations and claims of leadership onto the other? Those have been the guiding questions of this chapter. thus teaching TSD. among the Korean migrant workers who entered West Germany from 1963 on were several martial arts masters. Kim Byung-wook was an offspring of Hwang Ki’s Mooduk-Kwan in Korea. as early as in 1960. 126 During the time of this study. Korean Migrant Workers Teaching “Korean Karate” in their Spare Time As already mentioned. even before 1963. and started teaching this pre-TKD before it became officially known as TKD. and have started to teach TKD to Germans clearly before 1965125. probably in all Europe (interview Gatzweiler. But first.emerge as the dominating one. which was officially recorded as having happened in 1965. Moreover.

The following year. interview Weiler. like Kendo and Judo. with the result of one silver and one bronze medal. in 2004. Therefore. he is a 9th dan degree Judo grandmaster. Germany’s first national Judo head coach was a Korean. It was at least in 1964 when these two martial arts masters and others started teaching something closely related to TKD to German students. moreover. while inofficially introcucing their TKD-style to the audience.had been in Germany as a coal miner and returned in 1966 to teach Chungdo-kwan TKD (Gatzweiler. Like him. One of their motivations for these activities could reasonably have been to get away from their uncomfortable existence for a while. Many Korean martial arts experts did not only know TKD. 2006. and get in contact with the locals instead. But another motivation was clearly that they got paid for their lessons. Having gained 5th place at the Judo World Championships in Paris in 1961. several Koreans could start teaching officially Judo. Jujutsu or Kendo. There was just the problem that activities of this kind had to be conducted unofficially. a position which he upheld for 35 years.102 - . but also Hapkido. Han Ho-san127. they did not run their own martial arts school and taught as many students as possible. Karate. It might also have been an opportunity to improve the language learning. because as foreign laborers with a signed contract as their only basis for sojourn. he was awarded with Germany’s National Order of Merit. they were strictly not allowed to engage in any extra work and earn some extra money. Currently. which could be sold as something like a Jujutsu or Aikido style. 2008: 60). Han Ho-san came to Germany to study architecture in Hanover. until he retired in 2000. or. TSD or Taesoodo. truly Japanese martial arts. In fact. the Germans trusted his expertise in their Judo team’s preparations for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. they made him national coach. 127 In 1962. Kim was later called the “father of TKD in North Rhine- Westphalia” (interview Gatzweiler. 2007). . but they were usually hired as unofficial assistants by established martial arts schools or clubs.

interview Jung. 1999). after a while. 2007). but the description as “Korean Karate” could be found even in the 1970s (interview Jung. several young people were interested in learning this fascinating new kind of physical education. nobody insisted on using a Korean term.103 - . but whether it was Japan. why the commands and countings during practice weren’t in Japanese. at this early stage. but in Korean. it was often called “Korean Karate” instead. China or Korea or anywhere else. The first coherent system came with Choi Hong-hi’s demonstration team in 1965. Following the development of Karate in Germany since the late 1950s. since the re-naming of the KTA into “Korea Taekwondo Association” in 1965 (Kang & Lee. but serious complaints about this issue weren’t recorded anywhere (interview Gatzweiler. Eventually. 2006. All they knew was it came fro East Asia. Korean instructors got increasingly confident in using this term for naming their art. 2007). . and interpretations. like “Taekwondo” or “Tangsoodo”. Some clever students started to wonder. Therefore. the Korean migrant workers did not teach a coherent TKD system initially. Therefore. but applied a variation of techniques. nobody really bothered back then. styles.

517: see also Gillis. the team was. Kwon joined the team as sports journalist. and further included TKD masters Han Cha-kyo (who later went to the US). But a closer look reveals some odd aspects. for as far as we already know. with Kwon Jae-hwa being the only civilian member. not in Hesse. former and future KTA president. and usually. Korean TKD masters belonging to the migrant workers group were located neither in Berlin. That team conducted performances in four West German cities: in Frankfurt (in the federal state of Hesse). in North Rhine-Westphalia. TKD was introduced into (West) Germany by a trip of a TKD demonstration team across Europe. a military team. the DTU128. West Berlin. 129 According to Seo Yoon-Nam (1993: 34). nor in Bavaria. accessed on 3 December 2009. However. This could already seem a little odd. Park Jong-soo (according to Choi Hong-hi. the question arised about the reason for Choi’s team to choose only West Berlin and southern cities as performance locations for a new martial art.dtu. in 1965. Munich (capital of Bavaria) and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (host city of the 1936 Winter Olympics in Bavaria). Kim Jun-kun and Kwon Jae-hwa (Choi. which earned him the allowance to travel abroad with the demonstration team. later went to Canada). According to the official story line. there was no single hint about Choi Hong-hi’s demonstration team performing in a more North-Western region than Frankfurt. schools and private websites copied this foundation mythos. The Official Introduction of Taekwondo in 1965 The official story line of how and when TKD entered (West) Germany remained continuously repeated and spread by the leading German TKD body. www. including West Germany. Based on this. TKD practitioners believed that this story contains the whole process. mainly. while the presumably 128 See the DTU 2. many TKD clubs. 2008)129. 1994: 501. Officially. That team was led by Choi Hong-hi. but more North-Western. Thus. his best student. .104 - .

changed their clothes in their hotel rooms and went on the street to do their performance. and the only thing he remembered was that it was located just next to a pharmacy. On the contrary. to rent a decent location with comfortable seats for the audience (and 130 The answer might be found in the facts that the Korean ambassador. why would they not have performed in Bonn or somewhere more closely to the embassy than Frankfurt.105 - . This anecdote illustrated that the Korean embassy officially did not know (or did not care) about Choi’s visit to West Germany. who invited the team to Germany and organized performances for them at different locations? Clearly. joined the demonstration team on stage. Choi Duk-shi.interested audience with some background knowledge about the performance could be found more North-Western? One first guess would be that Choi’s team visited Germany on the invitation of someone connected with the Korean embassy. Choi Duk-shin. . on behalf of a dinner invitation during his trip through Germany. it could hardly have been the case that the team just travelled into a city. If Choi Hong-hi’s TKD demonstration team visited West Germany on the official invitation of the South Korean embassy. 2007).130 But then. the West German capital from 1949~90. but on a private basis (interview Weiler. a quiet city just southern of Cologne. But again. Gillis (2008: 71) presents photography where the Korean ambassador to West Germany. Choi forgot his hotel’s name. After his drive back to Frankfurt. the South Korean embassy was located in Bonn (not Berlin). someone had been there before. was an old friend and supporter of Choi’s. as one could expect. it took his driver quite a while to find the hotel again. But it wasn’t by invitation of the Korean embassy. one of the most famous cities in North Rhine-Westphalia. had to place advertisements. which is about 170 km away? There was only an anecdote about Choi having visited Bonn. Thus. And in fact. who could probably had invited Choi privately when he was in town.

closely to the Southern border of Germany. using as a retreatment location for their stressed soldiers. 1999. Back then. Gillis.106 - . meals and transfers for the team members. he held the 1st keup of a new kind of East Asian martial art. independently from Korean migrant workers.131 who had been one of the most talented students of Jhoon Rhee. the Americans erected their German head quarter at the Sheridan military camp in the revitalizing region of Garmisch- Partenkirchen. but quickly 131 In 1962. American military police officer Mike H. Rhee had left Korea at the end of the 1950s to study engineering in America. However. 2008: 11f. Anderson was responsible for close combat training since 1963. sporting a brown belt. this tiny Olympic town was one of the hot springs of TKD in Germany. But how did they get assigned to the first official Korean TKD demonstration team in Germany? 3.S.). proper organization of the event was mandatory. “Korean Karate” in Garmisch-Partenkirchen Garmisch-Partenkirchen was located right in front of the Alps. and to organize accommodations. In that very camp. Allen Steen was the first non-Korean receiving the black belt in a TKD-related martial art (Bolz & Schuldes. the so-called “father of American TKD” (Kang & Lee. the young U. After their victory over Nazi Germany.000 citizens) where only a limited audience interested in the new martial art could be expected. Especially for a rather tiny town like Garmisch-Partenkirchen (about 26. 2008). Anderson had learned this art in America by Allen Steen. .one entrance to charge fees). roughly as far from North Rhine-Westphalia with its Korean migrant workers and “Korean Karate” masters away as possible. That had been the task of the village’s traditional sports club.

D. together with German fellow Hans Vierthaler. The European Championships were conducted as part of a visit by Jhoon Rhee. After a while. this department was something like a franchise of the J. 26 July 2006). Rhee was instrumental in the development of Kickboxing. therefore his style originally was TSD. for it was he who had invented the safety gear first used at full-contact Kickboxing bouts. as we already saw the American GI Elvis Presley studying Karate in a German Karate school a few years before. who already had established quite good relations with Choi Hong-hi. In the 1970s.107 - . . featuring a very offensive combat style with no protection whatsoever. the Korean Karate department of the TV Garmisch 132 Jhoon Rhee had been a student of Hwang Ki’s Moodeuk-kwan. 133 Also. Anderson started teaching German friends in this new martial art which was somehow similar to the already known Karate. They started conducting the very first German as well as European Championships (although on a quite local scale). the German-Korean Karate Federation (Deutsch- Koreanischer Karate-Verband e. 2009). In the same year of 1964. This was not unusual.started teaching something very much related to TKD there. (13).C. As a photography picture reveals. Not surprisingly. Thus.133 It was not undoubtedly clear which year Anderson started his training. but it was in 1964 that he opened the very first TKD department at the traditional local gymnastics club.132 and he got so successful that he never formally completed his studies.). 2008: 13). However. Rhee quickly joined Choi’s international ITF movement after it was established. they called it “Korean Karate” (Bolz & Schuldes. TV Garmisch 1868. Hans-Ferdinand Hunkel had originally started with TSD at an American military camp near Frankfurt (E-mail Hunkel. Anderson and Vierthaler founded the first official Korean martial arts association in Germany. Rhee Institute in Washington.V. thus much closer to modern Olympic-style TKD than Choi Hong-hi’s TKD at that time (interview Gatzweiler.

It seemed safe to argue that at least one of his purposes by this trip was to promote “Korean Karate” as a unique Korean martial art on its own. 4. Alfred Rhode. 1989: 55). he not only established close ties with Germany’s first Korean Karate department in little Garmisch.108 - . It was in this very same year of 1965. named “Taekwondo”. the Japanese Karate Association (JKA) sent four of their best Karate instructors (Kase. the friends of “Japanese Karate” in West Germany organized their first instructor course. owned by German Karate pioneer Georg Brückner. The “Oh-Do-Kwan” in Munich Carl Wiedmeier had been an eager student of the “Father of Judo in West Germany”. serving about 5. in late October.1868 eventually got in contact with Choi Hong-hi. For this. and Shirai) to a one-week seminar to Germany. Therefore. covered by several media. Carl Wiedmeier’s Jujutsu school in the Bavarian capital of Munich. including TV news and shows. he ran one of the biggest commercial martial arts schools in the whole Federal Republic of Germany. when Choi Hong-hi conducted the TKD demonstration team’s journey to West Germany. in the following year. And he associated with probably the hugest martial arts school in Southern Germany. In his hometown of Munich. and the official promotion of four German black belts (Arend. which was completed with a national championship. but he was also invited to West Berlin by one of Germany’s largest Karate schools. Enoeda. Also in 1964. Kanazawa. who was to get president of the KTA the following year.000 students . where they realized their lack of competence.

South Korea. There. Afterwards.htm. in 1966. 134 For this and the following information. but also different from Japanese Karate.000 in 1968)134 in different martial arts. for his own school in Munich – a name that was in use until the period of this study.(about 10. Wiedmeier founded the first German association with the proper name of the Korean martial arts in its title.109 - . master Kwon Jae-hwa. he got in contact with Choi Hong-hi. 1966). if not Europe. although he might have been the first German TKD student. who later rewarded him with the honor of using the name of his famous Korean TKD school. According to his own records. and he was responsible to get his team for a demonstration show in Munich. i. “Oh-Do-Kwan”. it remained a local institution. Therefore. and to complete his studies. until he engaged a professional TKD instructor. Despite its name. he engaged Choi’s team member Kwon Jae-hwa as the first professional TKD instructor in Germany. he did not offer proper TKD in his own martial arts school in Munich. For some reasons. he didn’t teach just one particular martial art in its pure state. Wiedmeier had learned TKD first in 1961. . Wiedmeier was instrumental in Choi Hong-hi’s visit to Germany. the German Taekwondo Federation (Deutscher Taekwondo Verband) in Munich. Yet as a martial arts teacher. he preferred a unified approach. see Carl Wiedmeier’s website: http://zsd- international. accessed in September 2009. he had learned for several weeks. he took a lengthy trip to East Asia at the beginning of the 1960s. probably on one of his trips to Korea.e. which took him to Japan and. Later. which could make him the first German ever to learn TKD (Wiedmeier. but he combined elements from different areas to get better results. somehow related to. he grabbed the opportunity of learning a formerly unknown martial art. As a young man. Jujutsu and Kendo.

One of them was Han Ho-san. he started teaching small student’s groups in the new Korean Karate-like martial art in Freising. and his students the very first German practitioners of that art. therefore. . and became Germany’s national Judo head coach after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics for 35 years. during his spare time in 1960 (Kim. Among them had been nurses. Francesca Rhee (born as Franziska Donner). A Lonely Student’s Efforts in 1960 Despite the fact that the wife of South Korea’s first president. 1993: 18f. Kim put on his TKD dobok and cheered at the Munich airport. Another one was Kim Kwang-il. who arrived in Germany in late 1959 to study brewery at the Technical University of Munich. and shortly afterwards. Kim Kwang-il earned some more credits in the introduction and transition of TKD in Germany. No one of them is known as having practiced this new martial art continuously until it officially became Korean TKD. a small city north of Munich.110 - . 1993: 18). who started studying architecture in Hanover in Northern Germany in 1962.000 doboks from Korea (Kim. However. he explained that he used the Korean martial art as a kind of tool for sports diplomacy.). was from Austria. industrial trainees. 5. When South Korean president Park Chung-hee visited Germany in 1963. There. and Kim was granted an audience at the president’s hotel suite the next day. and university students. only few Korenas had found their way to Germany or a German-speaking country before Korean coal miners came to Germany in 1963. Kim’s early trials could not be seen as sustainable. This would make him the very first instructor of a TKD-related Korean martial art in Germany. Kim’s efforts did not seem to have a lasting effect on his students. The president promised to support Kim. This was registered by the president with some interest. he sent 2. However. According to his self-report.

by organizing some of the first international Kickboxing events and. it was just his hobby) after he had completed his university studies in 1966. engaged team member Kwon Jae-hwa as TKD instructor. But none of this happened. he stated that the Choi demonstration team visited Germany in 1964.137 Following these events. then there should certainly have been some connections between the Choi-team and the South Korean embassy in Bonn. which became one of the most famous and athletically successful 135 This would not be Kim’s only mistake. Therefore.136 After the visit of Choi’s demonstration team. He sometimes seemed to have mixed up dates in his recollection of events. establishing one of the leading international Kickboxing organizations. He opened his own TKD school in Stuttgart. for example. German Karate pioneer Georg Brückner hired team member Park Jong-soo to teach Korean Karate in his Karate school in West Berlin. which. the owner of the hugest martial arts school in Southern Germany. It is also reasonable to assume that in case of an official issue.111 - . it was President Park who had sent Choi and his demonstration team to Germany. the World All-Style Karate Association (WAKO). which would have make an official admission of Choi from Park very unlikely. . Likewise. probably including a cheerful get-together. But if this was correct. 136 This statement of Kim’s would also contradict the well-known fact that former army general Park Chung-hee and former army general Choi Hong-hi fostered an exceptional bad relationship. in fact. as already mentioned. “Kim’s Taekwondo School”. was one year later. starting in 1974 together with Mike Anderson. 137 Georg Brückner (1930~1992) later turned back to Karate and. in the region of their hard-working country pals in North Rhine-Westphalia. the Choi demonstration team would have made a performance. it is much safer to conclude that Kim just fostered a wrong assumption in this case. in 1977. Kim Kwang-il also started teaching TKD on a professional basis (until then. Carl Wiedmeier. 135 and President Park Chung-hee was not involved in the mission of Choi Hong-hi. became one of the “fathers” of kickboxing. According to Kim.

112 - . . he surrendered and sold his school to Park Soo-nam. But eventually.TKD schools in Germany. in 1979. after he felt too much disappointed about the directions TKD was heading to.

he had nobody to fear for. Now the athlete is under stress. The year before. he had won the gold medal in the heavyweight class at the WTF World Championships. but the world can observe an actual World Champion cluelessly losing against someone he otherwise could have beaten up. his good friend who had always provided him with the right tactics before a match and had guided him with sophisticated tips durig the bout. but he dares not to look at the coache’s corner where the one person sits. But in this actual semifinal. his old foe whom he learned to dominate. His presence at the Olympics was a pure show event. this was his only fight at the Olympics. completely uninterestedly. they conducted their preparations on their own and did not allow him interfering the athlete’s matches with his useless comments. whom he dislikes so much. he got European Champion. because directors said they could make use of his positive influence on referees during the tournament. He’s missing his old friend’s advises and encouragements so much. If only this one thing had not happened … Just six weeks before the tournament. saw no other choice than to step back for several reasons. The directors ignored the protests of the athletes who have managed three years ago to get him out of the position. because his old-school training style completely contradicted modern training concepts the athletes were used to work with. . Administrational Effort for Taekwondo in Germany (1964~1990) Finally. He beat the biggest names in Taekwondo. IV.113 - . Thanks to a free ticket. After severe power struggles. he acts totally unprepared against the Korean opponent. And things went pretty good for him: The previous year. the athlete was at the Olympics! He never dared dreaming of this once-in-a- lifetime opportunity. the new head coach. they agreed to cooperate with him. and the old head coach was reinstalled. He knows he could win the final against the Korean-American. just for this tournament. But they ignored him.

Lack of Effort in the Center In the mid-1960s. this led to an understanding why West German TKD was never united under one common administrative body. The situation was different for other martial arts. mismanagement of the administration produced a downward spiral nobody was able to provide the rescue parachute for. The answer could partly be found in several elaborations of particular conflict lines within the German TKD scene. the study for this chapter examined the crucial steps in the establishment and further transition of the major TKD administration. coach and administration should desperately avoid. the German Federal State of the huge coal mining companies and thousands of migrant coal mining workers. arguably.114 - . 1. Finally. Clearly. How could it come to a situation like this? To answer this and related questions. The Struggle for a Proper German Taekwondo Administration (1964~71) 1. that situation described above is just the situation each athlete. after Choi Hong-hi’s first public presentation of the new Korean martial art TKD. arguably the majority of Korean TKD masters in Germany were located in North Rhine-Westphalia. which would lead to official acknowledgement and governmental support. As was already . Unfortunate events. there were no major efforts of establishing a governing administrative body for this new sport. but it actually happened.1. Although these Korean TKD masters automatically created something like a community or network with several interrelations. indicating the end of a formerly glory tradition of TKD triumphs. bad luck and.

which. like German karate masters did140. but after Nazi Germany’s surrender. the DJB also created a section for Karate. they depended upon the cooperation with friendly German martial arts masters sharing their own private training facilities without any official notification.shown. DKB) in 1961 (Arend. which was reckognized by the top West German sports body. led to the creations of a variety of more Karate associations afterwards (Arend. with commercial school owners. teaching TKD as extra work in their spare time was illegal because this situation was not covered in their working contracts. they could hardly apply for the usage of public training facilities. in return.115 - . in 1965. with the creation of the German Karate Federation (Deutscher Karate-Bund. 139 Including the German-Japanese Karate Association (Deutsch-Japanischer Karate-Verband. the German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund. 140 Since Karate was introduced to West Germany about seven years before the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. 1989: 52). 1989: 56f. However. Therefore. So. in other words. DJB). DSB). For the Koreans.)139. and more enthusiasts with instructing licences. Judo and Jujutsu had been formally administered even before World War II. 138 More exactly. later renamed in Goju Kai Deutschland. got its very own administration first. Judo and Jujutsu were formally administered since 1952 through the German Dan Board (DDK). there were already several German Karate dan grade holders. these and most other administrative structures were dissolved and had to be rebuilt again. A possible explanation for the lack of administrative efforts in the presence of the majority of TKD training locations could be the nature of these facilities. Japanese Karate. in 1956. the German Sports Confederation (Deutscher Sportbund. GJK). on the other side. DJKV) and the Goju Ryu Federation (Goju Ryu Bund. . when “Korean Karate” entered the scene.138 and Judo got its own federation one year later.

the official way would have had the disadvantage that dan and other grade promotion fees would have to be made transparent. Another explanation would simply start with the language barrier. . including money. and they didn’t agree to cooperate with an official German TKD administration since they would have to abandon a portion of their share (Kim. and they might not have felt the need for more formal commitments. On the other side. on the contrary. clever martial arts school owners could offer their students “original” Karate instructors for a special price (as long as nobody bothered about the differences between Japanese and Korean Karate). were supposed to pay taxes. they might already have been organized more or less in the Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA). For Korean TKD masters in Germany. it was probably less problematic to establish relations to the KTA and ITF on a private basis. commercial schools were not allowed to step in. on the contrary. 1993: 19). the Korean TKD instructors already formed an informal network. it was one main source of their income. and. Thus. they constantly needed the help of translators. But according to a description by Kim Kwang-il. to prevent the organization from adding a profit to the fees. also in the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). while at the same time paying lower salaries to Korean instructors than Japanese ones. formal non-profit administrations could only be established on the basis of public clubs. called “Verein”. this was exactly the habit of the Korean TKD masters.116 - . no one was known with affluent German language skills. since 1966. For example. so that their students could get officially approved promotion certificates. By West German civil law. Moreover. than to establish an official organization for the same purpose which would have to fulfil the requirements of the German civil law. Among the Korean migrant workers. Commercial schools. keeping the difference as something like a silencing guarantee. news spread around quickly in the community. because governmental recognition means public tangible and intangible support.

About one year after the visit of Choi’s demonstration team. the owner of Southern Germany’s largest martial arts school. 1966. 142 See Wiedmeier’s website. it consisted of nothing more than the Korean Karate department at the Garmisch gymnastics club. he became vice president. Kwon Jae-hwa. Wiedmeier did not occupy the president’s position in this federation. Instead. Power Struggles in the South Contrary to the situation in North Rhine-Westphalia. To summarize. with the functions of a secretary-general. http://zsd-international. Another possible reason could have been his effort to hire the first professional TKD instructor. Carl there weren’t any registered efforts of administrative purposes.2. as was already mentioned. in 1964 by Mike Anderson and Hans Vierthaler in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. it could be possible that he was only allowed to work on something like a 141 Interestingly.142 The creation of a German association might have been a requirement for this prestigious position. compared to the situation of other East Asian martial arts. The final explanation of this situation remains to be confirmed. 1. formed the very first German TKD association. accessed on 23 September 2009. the German-Korean Karate Federation (Deutsch-Koreanischer Karate-Verband). the early TKD pioneers in Bavaria did not hesitate in terms of building formal structures. Despite its ambitious name. called the German TKD Federation (Deutscher TK- D Verband). . For some reason. on May 1.117 - .html. which could be seen as quite odd.141 The motivation for this step remains unclear. The very first Korean Karate association was formed. in the region of the earliest TKD activities in Germany. One possible reason could be Carl Wiedmeier’s appointment as director of the newly formed International Taekwon-Do Federation in the same year.

143 especially between both kinds of “Karate”. which resulted in the formations of various unrelated Karate associations. and also as strong evidence that Wiedmeier’s further plan was a close relationship with Choi Hong-hi’s ITF. Wiedmeier might have had the impression that TKD should be organized under one unifying umbrella administration from the start. but not as a professional instructor at a registered commercial sport school. After all.144 As mentioned above. DKU) in Berlin. It could be interesting. who were believed to be coming from the military. as the already existing German-Korean Karate Federation of Anderson and Vierthaler sported the wrong term. by forming the German Karate Union (Deutsche Karate several of them claiming to feature the only true kind of (Japanese) Karate.html.118 - . A third reason might have been resulted from the at least hidden rivalry between Japanese and Korean martial arts at that time. From this perspective. Anderson. From that time on. see Goldner (1992). 144 For this usage. see http://zsd-international. former coach of Elvis Presley. . followed the Japanese Karate way. after it turned out that all of his hired Korean TKD instructors. Wiedmeier mentions the “competition” between TKD and the several “dissenting” Japanese Karate federations on his website. one of the few who brought Korean Karate first to Germany. The ambitious name of “German TK-D Federation” could be seen as a hint in this direction. Wiedmeier’s ambitious plans got corrupted. who explicitly includes TKD in his constant usage of the term “Karate” throughout his book. accessed on 24 September 2009. were 143 For example. at least as a side note.volunteering basis for a public sports club. proponents of Japanese Karate were already in a state of internal struggles. that Mike Anderson left Bavaria that same year of 1966 for Berlin and joined forces with German Karate pioneer Jürgen Seydel.

It is an open secret in the German TKD community that several KCIA agents residing in Germany and instrumental in the captures were disguised as TKD instructors. and those from the military who arrived as pure TKD instructors later on. as it is known. But they established quite close relationships with Choi Hong-hi’s ITF. accessed on 23 September 2009. and he showed exceptional cooperation with the German authorities. the distinction between Korean TKD masters who came to Germany first as migrant workers. According to the report on Carl Wiedmeier’s website.html. Now Choi. 2006). torture and even death sentences. 1999). 146 See http://zsd-international. but there is also evidence that he was cleared of all charges afterwards (interview Gatzweiler. According to Gillis.146 a young. For example. ambitious KCIA man named Kim 145 Gillis (2008: 79-85) presents many new aspects of the East Berlin Incident.145 Taking a closer look on this case. nor the military. who cultivated their enmity since their common days at the South Korean army (Kang & Lee. for they needed the international connection for promotion certifications. Kim Kwang-il had been instrumental in the kidnapping of several Koreans in Germany. But then. Choi had to face another opponent within the TKD community. facing severe punishments. both of them former army fact secret KCIA agents. which is sometimes explained as results of growing conflicts between Choi and South Korean president. That was revealed after the so-called East Berlin spy incident (dongbaekniim) of 1967 happened. But Kim got arrested by the German police afterwards.119 - . 2008). had to face increasing troubles in his homeland. the above-mentioned Kim Kwang-il is usually suspected to be one of the agents (interview Ferger. one important distinction could be made. Soon Park Chung-hee. . where South Korean citizens were captured by KCIA agents in West Germany and forcefully transported to Korea. he was released (84). partly based on interviews with proponents and victims of that time. It seems safe to assume that most of the Korean coal miners-became TKD instructors in North Rhine-Westphalia did not have much business with the KCIA.

specialized TKD instructors. including Kim Kwang-il and chief instructor Kwon Jae-hwa as unofficial ITF representative. by becoming president of the KTA. they founded a new administrative body. 1. the Kukkiwon. Weingarth arranged the integration of the new TKD administration into the well- established DJB as a section on its own. A former student of Kwon Jae-hwa at Wiedmeier’s school. As Kim got increasingly powerful in the secret service. which was the temporary end of the TKD branch at his schools. he was forced to leave his country. to the point that finally.120 - .Un-yong. the South-Western TKD Federation (Südwestdeutscher Taekwondo-Verband. and later the WTF. but in truth Kim Un-yong’s men. and Kim took over the charge of TKD in Korea. thus not trustful ITF members. some former members of Wiedmeier’s schools grabbed the opportunity. formed a new association and got quickly recognized both by the ITF and the DJB. took the charge and collected Wiedmeier’s former elite students as well as the freshly released. While all of Wiedmeier’s hired TKD instructors turned out to be KCIA agents. 2008: 20).3. and together with some of the freshly fired Korean TKD instructors. and got himself the position of the officer in . Wilhelm Weingarth. Unexpected problems Contrary to the story above. Later that same year. Choi’s influence on TKD in Korea was dramatically shrinking. Wiedmeier was forced to fire them all. 1968: 21). the official report of the German Judo Federation (DJB) explained that the DTV got separated and split up because of unspecified “internal reasons” (Brand. SWTV) in February of 1968 (Bolz & Schuldes. had followed the interactions between Wiedmeier and ITF president Choi Hong-hi carefully. During this troublesome time. with an instinct for the importance of sports diplomacy.

while the Koreans remained in charge of all graduation promotions at their commercial TKD schools. . for they already had established connections to the ITF on private bases (Kim. He argued that this decision was the only and quickest way to get official acknowledgement for this new amateur sport. They simply feared that this system would be lost if they allowed Germans to create a newly structured system. 1968: 2). the alleged all-German TKD administration did only cover 147 That might be an explanation about why Korean TKD masters in North Rhine-Westphalia remained apparently disinterested in building up formal structures for the amateur sport of Korean TKD: from their viewpoint. the Koreans simply did not need it.147 So. ambitious federation. There. 1993: 18). After all. 1968: 21). The result was a general refusal of participation of Korean TKD masters at the new. for the moment. To his surprise. which turned out to be one major source of income. After everything was settled. Kim Kwang-il summed up all Korean TKD masters of the republic to explain the latest developments and to convince them to support the Germans in building up the necessary structures. This whole process was also approved by the South Korean embassy (Lee. Japanese Karate. one of the main goals was still unification of all TKD clubs under a common administration. together with a structural guarantee that TKD will be different to. while offering technical support as TKD instructors. it was more a commercial enterprise than an amateur sport in need for public support. 1968: 4). Kwon Jae-hwa travelled to Koea to get the approval of Choi Hong-hi’s ITF (Brand. which would result in immediate governmental support for every participating public TKD club in the whole republic. sometimes in their own clubs.charge of TKD (Weingarth. He did not know that they had already established a system where they allowed Germans to practice on their own. many Korean TKD masters challenged his proposal. to enable participation of more Northern TKD clubs.121 - . The intermediate name of “South Western-German TKD Federation” was immediately abandoned. and remain separated from.

he was addressing either to the commercial character of Wiedmeier’s schools or the fact that his alleged ITF TKD instructors had been KCIA agents in truth. Given that his first trip was the demonstration tour with his team in 1965. neither of them could be confirmed or refuted until now. where ITF director Lee San ku (6th dan) served as cultural attaché. However.regional TKD clubs of Southern Germany. and Kim Kwang-il was announced as Germany’s first national head coach for the first national TKD team. it could be assumed that he visited Germany around 1966 or there were just 14 German (1st and 2nd daegree) and five 148 It could be guessed that in this passage of the interview. Alternatively. 149 Moreover. .html. Choi Hong-hi made a visit to Germany to approve the new developments concerning a proper TKD administration which he felt were quite satisfying. it might also be possible that he turned to the Korean embassy for the first time.148 As a side note. Unfortunately. with the exclusion of commercial TKD schools like Wiedmeier’s. The following year. At the time of the proper implement of the alleged all-German governing TKD administration into the DJB. was replaced by Herrmann Oppermann (Judo Magazin 1969: 25). according to Wiedmeier’s description of the events.122 - . or both. Wilhelm Weingarth. Also. 1969: 8). to settle his cooperation with Wiedmeier. it is interesting to mention that Choi expressed his wish that TKD could be presented to the sports enthusiasts of the world at the coming Munich Olympics of 1972 (Brand. officer in charge for the section TKD in the DJB. 149 See http://zsd-international. the initial idea about this might stem from Carl Wiedmeier. this was Choi’s third visit to Germany. adding that he wasn’t quite content with the situation before (Brand 1969: 8). who presents several photographs and one advertisement about a TKD demonstration at a pre-Olympic sports event in Munich in 1967 on his webside. According to his own report. these efforts had been the initial idea for Kim Un-yong’s mission to get TKD as an official Olympic sport. accessed on 25 September 2009.

150 During Choi Hong-hi’s third visit to Germany. The change started with the take-over of Heinz Marx as new head of the TKD section of the DJB. This was the situation of German TKD when it got properly approved as an amateur sport by integration into the already established DJB. 1968: 2). Kim Kwang-il wasn’t successful in exciting his fellow Korean TKD masters from the north. This situation remained constant on this rather low level for several years. which could assumedly consist of the 5 above mentioned. plus ITF director and cultural attaché Lee Sang ku (6th dan) from the South Korean embassy.123 - . mostly Munich region.Korean dan grade holders (4th to 6th degree) participating (Weingarth. 1969: 8). definitely all of them were from Bavaria. 150 Presumably all of these Korean TKD instructors originally came from Carl Wiedmeier’s TKD school. it was recorded that he spoke in front of “the six participating high-leveled Korean TKD masters” (Brand. As already mentioned. . dramatic developments were ignited. in 1971. until finally.

with 49. . According to an anecdote noted by Wolfer (2001: 4). In this community of young and mostly not fully educated people. The Struggle for a Self-Governed German Taekwondo Administration (1971~1981) 2. including a special 2-day seminar. Angry about this incident. which featured a zero-contact competition style. he was already appointed member of the referees at the first official German TKD championships in Munich. In 1967. which he tried to refuse. with the opportunity to get official. 2008: 19). organized TKD officially included only 485 members in just 11 clubs. ITF-approved examination licenses afterwards (interview Gatzweiler. 2006. on April 1. thanks to his appearance with a huge natural authority (interview Jebramcik. later Kickboxing. while the third rank went to the TKD department of the TV Garmisch 1868 (Bolz & Schuldes. in Germany and on international levels. becoming one of the instrumental figures of Karate.151 Two years later. followed by another big one. At that time. Marx could quickly raise in status and power. Struggles for Dominance Heinz Marx started TKD as a student of Kwon Jae-hwa’s in 1966. he was selected by the DJB as new head of their TKD section (Stix. to 800 members and 23 clubs (Wolfer. 2006). Six months later. 1993: 12). 2001: 4). the karate school of Georg Brückner in Berlin. the huge martial arts school of Carl Wiedmeier in Munich ranked first. when Marx was already 46 years old. 2. school-owner Georg Brückner was forced by referees to compete against his own student. he passed the 1st dan promotion test. 151 At these championships. What had happened? Marx had invited all German TKD clubs to a re-vitalization of the TKD section of the DJB. the figures were nearly doubled. for example. 1971. and another two years later. he went back to Berlin after the championships and said good-bye to TKD.124 - .1. the year after he started with TKD.

disappointedly discovered that the very first two ITF dan grade certificates in Germany. 2) (interview Gatzweiler. thanked Kim for his service and explained him that from that very moment. Kim Kwang-il was the appointed national head coach (he had allegedly been in this position for two years. Now. Kim knew from his meeting with fellow Korean TKD masters in the Korean embassy in 1968 about the importance of their dan grade examination monopoly. 1) and Gerd Gatzweiler (no. as the proud TKDin from Bavaria. But Kim refused to sign the documents. this was pretty much what Heinz Marx had expected. This was conducted in something like a small ceremony at the end of the examination seminar in a sports center in Munich. TKD practitioners from the whole Federal Republic came together and learned to know each other153. 154 As we already know.125 - . 2006). Considering the above-mentioned importance of conducting dan grade promotions for Korean TKD masters. namely Heinz Wiesemann (no. 153 Which included a big surprise. but apparently with not much to do so far). pointed at Kwon and asked him in front of the participants if he would be willing to take over the vacant post as head coach. were received by practitioners from North Rhine-Westphalia. As mentioned. he would no longer be national head coach. there also had been a dan grade promotion a few weeks before. probably in all Europe.154 Obviously. a relaxed Kwon Jae-hwa had placed himself comfortably on a seat.152 For the first time. Heinz Marx. There was a remarkable incident which made clear the authoritative power of the new chieftain. Marx turned around. Marx stepped in. there are no strong reasons against the conclusion that this knowledge in Kims mind played its part in his refusal. 2006). and it was his task now to sign the fresh examination licenses. especially Kim Kwang-il. this move had the side effect of destroying the basis for commercial TKD structures in North Rhine-Westphalia. 1986d: 12).see also Ferger & Shin. Behind Marx. mentioning something like true TKD principles would not permit minor dan grade holders conducting and assessing dan grade promotions (interview Gatzweiler. To the great surprise of the participants. and if he would sign the 152 To make sure that there were enough candidates. . especially Munich.

Kwon agreed to the offer from his former student. Carl Wiedmeier was a student of Rhode’s. it could be argued that Marx did not worsen the situation with his behavior. he just couldn’t get along with Marx. no other Korean followed Marx’ call and participated in the meeting. even. and Marx had trained under Kwon. Marx stated another example. who got in charge about TKD in Korea the same year Marx 155 Following Kim’s own records about that time. Every Korean TKD master who heard that story (and it is safe to assume that the ratio quickly rose up to 100%) must have had bad feelings against the new German TKD leader.156 The following year. It should be noted that this self-acclaimed authority of a German patriarchic figure in East Asian martial arts followed quite a tradition which was established by Erich Rahn and further transported by his student Alfred Rhode. Smiling. as some could say. besides the two Korean masters involved in the head coach affair. Thus. that Kim Kwang-il completely resigned from any further cooperation with the Germans. Meanwhile. which was the reason he actively resigned from his position (instead of getting fired). .licenses as his first duty. while Heinz Marx made a unanimous example in revealing himself as the administrative boss in German TKD. aggressively. Never ever before had a German official demonstrated his dominance over a respected Korean TKD master so directly. he lost the readiness of the many Korean TKD masters in Germany for fruitful contributions to the development of TKD in Germany. Kim was stunned. who was the TKD head instructor at Wiedmeier’s school. for there was extremely little readiness by Korean TKD masters living in Germany for participation in the administrative TKD affairs in the first place. 1993: 18. in South Korea. Choi Hong-hi had already settled in Toronto and tried to rebuild his international TKD Empire. his successor Kim Un-yong. lacking any incentive of further cooperation with the German TKD administration at all. 156 However. as it is told. according to a Gatzweiler interview in 2006. For example. see Kim.155 And that is pretty much the point why this story was more than just another anecdote.126 - .

157 157 Nevertheless. as rumors had it. stemming from 1968. was building the Kukkiwon. both in 1973 and 1975. and that was Korean expertise in modern full-contact competition training and practice. in May 1973. But technically.did about TKD in Germany – the two divided countries. German TKD athletes gained some medals: one silver and one bronze in 1973.. and Heinz Marx was selected as WTF Executive Member from the start.S. he planned to open a new world-wide TKD body which would be backed massively by the authoritative South Korean government. 1985).127 - . . had some training experiences with a chest protector and full-contact sparring in preparation for the Championships. and although he left the country closely before the World Championships and headed to the U. the German team under his successor Shin Boo-young. Kwon Jae-hwa. Moreover. and. only the bronze winner of 1973. national head coach since 1971. Marx waited until the foundation of Kim Un-yong’s World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) at the end of the first World TKD Championships in the Kukkiwon in Seoul. a follower of Kwon Jae-hwa. the year the TKD section was founded. by the way –. favoured zero-contact competitions. South Korea. For anyone with an instinct for political issues. Instead. revealed that German TKD still missed something important. Georg Karrenberg. But he met a very self- confident German TKD leader who refused any further cooperation with the then only international TKD organization (Gil. West Germany is a founding member of that federation. the German TKD section in the DJB still had an agreement with Choi’s ITF about “friendly cooperation”. However. this was a promising playing field where power and honor (and money) awaited the clever ones. and to renew it. was largely unprepared for this special kind of competitions. and two silver medals in 1975. Choi Hong-hi planned to visit Germany in February of 1972. The World TKD Championships in the Kukkiwon. to remind the Germans about this agreement. who later became the chief women’s coach.

.de.128 - . he was Korean Champion in 1969. very little help from Korean TKD masters in Germany could be expected on this issue. But what happened to the schools of the Korean TKD masters. Germany quickly dominated European TKD competitions. Under Park Soo-nam. For detailed information about past TKD competitions in general. see the Taekwondo Data website. 2006). thus making Germany the second-most successful TKD nation after South Korea. which didn’t bother about participation in the TKD section under Heinz Marx’s leadership? They remained largely independent. accessed on 15 October 2009. a gifted competition instructor with international experience was hired directly in Korea. the German national team won the European Championships five times in a row. For obvious reasons. TKD schools usually belonged to the kwan of their Korean grandmaster. also his detailed knowledge about Korean WTF competition referees (interview Gatzweiler. Until erection of the Kukkiwon. Consequently.taekwondo-aktuell. both their male and female teams. named Park Soo-nam. in terms of internationally gained medals. 159 For a more detailed overview of the successes of Park and the aftermath. His tricks. accessed on 12 October 2009. mostly in North Rhine- Westphalia. 158 According to the self-presentation on his website. which marked an end to the separational tendencies of the many Korean TKD kwans. tactics and training practices were “state of the art” (interview Arndt. see the study of Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007).158 Park turned out to be highly efficient as national coach. after the 2nd World TKD Championships in Korea in 1975.159 With the help of Park Soo-nam. see his profile at www.taekwondodata. and it was they who awarded their followers in Germany the right to conduct and to set quality standards for dan grading promotions. and they produced two World Champions until the early 1980s. ran “Park’s Gym” in Seoul from 1971~76 and was referee at the 2nd World TKD Championships in Korea in 1975. he was the materialized success factor for the Germans. 2009).

For the German Championships of 1976 were the first ones featuring full-contact competition style (Marx. Marx reorganized this event in something like an unconventional talent search. being a formal member of the Judo federation. and the national cadre members had the advantage of having trained this style under their new coach.160 Finally. therefore. as already seen.129 - . it was possible that new talents for full-contact competitions could be spotted. the TKD directors tried something new. While Karate had beaten TKD at first both in the competitions of unity and of national recognition – the first Karate federation was founded in 1961 and remained the only one for several years. Much worse. or even participating. 1989: 52. The National TKD Championships 1976 were conducted in the North Rhine-Westphalian city of Mühlheim. nearly all weight classes were expectedly won by the favorites from the national team. of course. 56f. they abandoned the strict formal participation requirements. This was quite new in Germany. did not belong to the 10 best competitors in their region so far. a traditional laborer’s region where many independent Korean TKD enthusiasts could be expected to be interested in watching. . Thus. 1977a: 8). the TKD section of the DJB gained dominance over Japanese karate in terms of unity of the movement. there was no line of karate unification on the horizon. DJB (see Marx. Therefore. which were. there was little danger for the favorites to be beaten up by unknown athletes from outside of the federation. until in 1965. Karate got its own section in the DJB – it was divided in five or more competing associations ten years later (Arend. karate officials were obviously more interested in maintaining their own position 160 As the results show (Marx. plus. 1977a).). being one of the best 10 in a region. 1977a: 7). while at the same time. for about one year. There was at least one trial of gaining new members for the TKD section of the DJB among the independent TKD schools in North Rhine-Westphalia. Park Soo-nam. which might have had some troubles with zero-contact competitions and.

a clear and present danger (Marx. and money) than in the overall development of karate. honor. such as power. which was. in his opinion. This negative example might have convinced Marx that a strong zero tolerance-policy was the only solution to prevent his TKD movement to fall apart.(including advantages these positions bring along.130 - . 1977b: 68) .

Every other position had to be occupied by native Germans. when the WTF conducted the very same procedure again. which happened twice. by the mighty Dr. In the view of Marx and his merry men. Several such struggles could be detected. 2.131 - . historically. Thus. functioning as president of German TKD. Second. 1975. initially. Marx tried to develop his German TKD independent from influences of the mighty WTF. besides struggles for dominance. this was an illegal act.2. more specially. One outstanding example of this was the foundation of a unified European TKD administration. was struggles for independence. and. The only big exception from this line was the position of national team coach. Marx. Kim. this time in Barcelona. The first foundation of the European Taekwondo Federation (ETU) took place on May 26. because none of the new ETU directors were proper delegates of the alleged participating . first without. older than the WTF. First and foremost. and second with the approval of the WTF. with a totally new staff of directors. and their response was delivered the following year. but the whole issue was not approved by Kim Un-yong and the associations he controlled. like the Kukkiwon or the WTF (see Gil 1985. They were not quite amused. a phenomenon which was exceptional in Europe. Heinz Marx was elected as president. from Marx’ perspective. presumably. Spain: foundation of the ETU (with the identical name). and Marx participated at the WTF inauguration meeting in person. 1986). His motivation in this case might have stem from the fact that the German TKD section of the DJB was. Struggles for Independence Another major agenda. there was no reason why it should suddenly play a subordinated role. 1985b. probably in the whole world. as we already saw. German TKD had been independent from the WTF. Marx tried to lead German TKD independently from Korean influences. all of them selected.

and they turned to the original ETU directors for help in this matter. for they understood this maneuver as a sheer power demonstration by Kim (Gil. the original ETU executives believed in the incompetence of the new directors. although Kim Un-yong and the WTF demonstrated that every crucial decision in the TKD world was theirs and could not be considered without their approval. 1985b). everybody was aware of their incompetence. from this perspective. had not been formally elected. and in 1978. this time with the approval from the WTF (Gil. Now. Therefore. the old ETU directors were confident that this task would be one too big to be mastered by the new. including the new directors themselves.European countries. Marx and his men also demonstrated that Kim and the WTF could not realize everything as they liked. with the approval of the WTF. But they decided not to intervene. which were held directly after the new formation of the ETU’s directors. organization of the following ETU Championships would be the task for the new ETU directors. 1985b). In the end. at least in Europe. . totally inexperienced directors. they needed the cooperation of Marx and his friends. and he gained trustworthiness after demonstrating loyalty. which was awarded by hosting the 4th WTF World Championships of 1979 in Sindelfingen in West Germany. the 2nd ETU European Championships were successfully conducted in 1978. Instead. with three gold and five bronze medals (Marx 1986). Fortunately. and while Marx and his merry men kept silenced about this issue. everybody was satisfied. which could be interpreted as a sign of devotion to Kim Un-yong and the WTF. the actual ETU directors were just replaced by the original board members from 1975. Marx managed to get the ETU directors he intended. the first directors had organized the first European TKD Championships. Thus.132 - . the German national team was the most successful one. As already mentioned. close to Stuttgart. Help was granted. For one year. Based on their experiences in organizing the first ETU Championships. Marx demonstrated Kim and the WTF some degree of independence in return. i.e.

which. preparatory training seminars. but a requirement for all formal members of the top German sports umbrella. with the consequence that their 161 This. after all. independence from the covering Judo organization was quickly growing in importance.133 - . commercial schools were popular among Korean TKD masters in North Rhine-Westphalia. by the way. 2007). was that TKD wasn’t an Olympic sport (Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha. coaches and officials etc. more expensive. 1989: 65).000 members each. therefore. However. 1977b: 9). The official reason. While the international TKD community grew and sports contacts and competitions became more frequent.000 members (Arend. but not commercial schools161. Marx started to argue. there were about 5 Karate associations covering between 1. accommodations for athletes. Karate had a DJB section. with the DJB section ranging just in the middle with about 10. he concluded. bigger and. As already mentioned. Judo executives tried to reduce their support for TKD. in principle. Its background was the latest developments in Karate. was not the DJB’s sole decision. By the mid-1970s. At the end of the 1970s and the beginning 1980s. Thus. German TKD was the most successful branch of the DJB. . as already mentioned. travel costs. the Judo federation was also increasingly reluctant in supporting this success financially – coach’s salaries. of course. Therefore. wasn’t even a Japanese martial art. too. One reason why the DJB would foster departings was their strict member policy which allowed only public clubs being accepted as formal members of the federation. membership to the DJB does not automatically prevent the TKD community from splitting up (Marx. the status of TKD and its future development should better be reconsidered (Marx 1977b: 68). The first recorded activity in this direction was an open letter by TKD president Heinz Marx in January of 1977. which did not prevent other Karate organizations to be founded. the DSB. On the pure administrational level. in terms of medals at international competitions.000 and 20. As we already know.

many highly talented and motivated TKD enthusiasts could not participate in the official TKD community. because their school they belonged to wasn’t allowed to. . and each such member should be granted an equal voting right at the annual assemblies. that TKD directors thought loudly about ways to get access to this hidden potential. the DSB (69). would cause immense troubles about ten years thereafter and since then.162 162 Marx could not know that this last demand. including competitions and national teams. Overall. for example -. Marx’ solution to this dilemma was a quick independent German TKD federation. departments and schools as members. But there were also many commercial schools ran by Germans.schools could not become members of the DJB-TKD. without any exceptions. Not surprising. As it was not possible for them to be formally accepted members of the TKD community – they were not allowed to compete in national and international TKD tournaments. until it was finally replaced by a more restricted voting system in 2003. Several of them were also instrumental in developing and promoting Kickboxing (Velte. that could lead to the foundation of a separatist TKD federation. for example. like Carl Wiedmeier’s Oh-Do- Kwan. they changed their direction and joined one of the emerging Karate associations. then. even if they wanted to. 1977b: 68). equal voting rights to every single member – no matter if it was a tiny TKD club with a handful of members and little annual fees. which would cause problems in the formal recognition of any future TKD administration by the top German sports body. If such cases would sum up. see Bolz & Schuldes (2008). which should follow the policy of enrolling all clubs. 2006). Moreover.134 - . Marx mentioned even a case of a public TKD club which wasn’t accepted by the regional branch of the DJB (Marx. in which case the DJB could no longer claim to represent all German TKD officially. or a big one with hundreds of active participants and huge annual contributions to the federation -.

the more frequently occurred criticisms on the DJB and plans for an independent TKD federation. for the ETU was. the 1980s promised to be the decade of a strong. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007) for more details on this matter. On April 20. and the enduring struggle for independence finally got to an end. prior to the Olympic Games in Moscow. even by maintaining a good relationship. Finally. something unexpected happened that went across the . in the hands of the Germans. not just dominating them. The more the decade approached the 1980s. Disparity The year of 1980 produced a very positive headline for TKD. especially Judo (totally). and independence both from other martial arts.135 - . with the official recognition as an Olympic sport (administered by the WTF) at the 83rd session of the International Olympic Committee on July 17. Thus. Around that time. Germany’s TKD successes on international levels were on its peak. and the WTF was bound to cooperate with the Germans. so to speak. But around the same time. 2. self-confident. 1981. This should be examined in the next section.3. the German TKD Union (Deutsche Taekwondo Union. DTU) was founded in Frankfurt. dominance in this sport in Europe. successful and united German TKD federation. and TKD was the most successful martial art in Germany -. and from international federations. Marx and his cheering TKD family had reached both of their two long-term goals: dominance about rival sports – the situation in Karate was still troublesome. Unity vs. In this light. at the beginning of the 1980s. even the DJB was ready to release its TKD section soon. But the 1980s was also the (first) decade of major desperations of the German TKD community.

and Kim Woo-Kang. the ITF remained silent in Germany. and something like an ITF organization. was appointed with the task of building up the organization among his fellow Koreans. the real motivations for individual choices often remain undiscovered. In Germany. For many. usually because their own German-Korean grandmaster was or had been. the North Rhine-Westphalian TKD Federation (Nordrhein-Westfälischer Taekwon-Do-Verband e. because until the 1990s. several German TKD school owners were assigned to the ITF.V. many of the Korean TKD masters in North Rhine-Westphalia established a loose connection to the ITF over the years.136 - . So Choi made some efforts: The head of the NWTV.163 After Marx severed ties with Choi in 1972. later called the “father of TKD in North Rhine- Westphalia” (interview Weiler. 2007). 163 See Weiler.. Max Geburt. 164 In fact. he found a situation which was not helpful in this context: many Korean TKD masters running their schools without formal affiliation to any major federation. Choi tried harder than ever to enhance the influence of his federation. Choi Hong-hi had been back in Germany. many established Korean TKD masters also preferred the hyong forms about the newly created taeguk poomsae forms of the WTF. his interview in Brand.direction of unity German TKD was heading at. especially if they didn’t like to cooperate with Kim Un-yong’s WTF. Karate revue 1980 (9/10): 23. his organization was officially affiliated to the ITF and re-named into ITF-GER. However.164 Now. 1969) -. . as TKD was officially accepted as an Olympic sport – something which Choi Hong-hi dreamed about one decade ago (see e. But this alone could not be a reason for the choice of ITF. NWTV) that consisted of only Germans (Karate revue 1980 (9/10): 23).g. and he was looking for ways to establish a German ITF branch. However. many WTF-affiliated German TKD clubs still fostered the hyong forms their grand masters had taught them before formation of the WTF. 2005: 33. the ITF just seemed to be the better choice than the WTF. Also. was awarded the 5th dan.

attended the inauguration meeting of the German Taekwondo Union after its separation from the DJB in 1981 (TA 1981 (9): 24). Shin Boo- young. Karlsruhe). who had left Germany in 1973 and was running a huge TKD school in Florida since 1974 (Karate revue 1980 (9/10): 22f. there is a reprint of the original attendance list of the inauguration meeting. A further split happened the following year. leading members of the Black Belt Centers in Germany. apparently more from southern Germany (Stuttgart. in Hamburg and beyond. For example.). a strong indicator of not unfriendly relationships. If the school then belonged to some further organization. In that same year of 1980. the Kwon Jae-hwa’s Black Belt Centers constitute a rivaling. But this was not a real split from the main TKD line then. Sabine Hunkel. more such centers were opened. mainly in the Munich region and in far northern Germany. Hans-Ferdinand Hunkel.165 Also. Later on. who were still numerous. And finally. in Munich. Commercial TKD schools couldn’t become members of public federations anyway. another temporarily forgotten TKD grandmaster appeared again: Kwon Jae-hwa. that was none of the federation’s businesses. and today. wife of Hans-Ferdinand Hunkel. 73 and Hunkel as No. 165 In that issue. the departure of several high-leveled Korean members of the ITF-GER. husband Hans-Ferdinand received the golden needle of honor from the Union. was one of the leading female TKD athletes during the 1980s. the International Taekwon- Do Black Belt Center. or Kwon Jae-hwa’s successor as national team coach from 1973~75. .137 - . like its current head. which enlists Shin as No. But eventually. and officially opened the first franchise of his own private (commercial) organization. 81 of the attendees. and formation of the German TKD Association (Deutscher Taekwondo Bund. but they could additionally create a public club associated with their school. He gave a few special training seminars to his followers. in 1989. the split happened during the 1990s. private federation with practically no connections to Olympic-style TKD.

1983: 4. Jang Kwang-myung. for more details on this topic. several leading members of the new DTB also attended the foundation meeting of the DTU just three months afterwards (TA 1981 (9): 24). and Kwak Kum-shik. no. it remains unclear if the DTB was dissolved thereafter. after all these separations had happened. However.). Yet several internal conflicts and other problems already existed from the start. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha. 86. they moved ahead and navigated their new vessel through a few prosperous years. . 68. On the contrary. of if these persons. 1982 (Siegel. the ITF-GER (Weiler. Linden.138 - . 2007). DTU) was founded in Frankfurt on June 20. no. the German TKD Union (Deutsche TKD Union. 166 In details: Song Chan-ho. and on a background of excitement. no. and got formally approved by the top German sport body. This move was a serious blow to the just re-established German ITF branch. on December 4. 1982: 4.166 Finally. until they got the German TKD movement in serious troubles. were fostered and got stronger. while it didn’t affect the DJB-TKD. 1981).DTB) in March of 1981 (Karate revue 1981 (6): 36f. 1981 (Siegel. together with their clubs or schools. That was something the main proponents of the German TKD community were waiting for quite a long time. 2005: 33). That should be examined in the next section. respectively. 71. the DSB. choosed to serve two different federations.

sent an open letter to all Korean TKD instructors in the Federal Republic of Germany (Hey. Problem I: Lack of Korean Taekwondo Masters It might sound odd. As was examined above. functioning administrative structures. for details. But Kim had tried unsuccessfully in 1968 to convince his fellow Koreans to cooperate with the Germans in building up strong. in Europe since the early 1960s. including TKD masters. 1981: 22). For example. the leading West German TKD organization contained probably less Korean TKD masters than any other of the big TKD countries in and outside of Europe. Arguing that in the past ten years the Germans had gained quite a lot without 167 Remember Heinz Marx’ humiliation of the first national team coach. it is not advisable to make the same discoveries twice. Only cases which were not examined in detail in the article will be treated with all sincere academic respect. Repetitions from the article will just be mentioned here. Because that article should not be repeated here. 3. see the two sections before. this was at least partly a homemade problem.1.139 - . . special offers were made to Korean TKD masters living in Germany. 3. and occasionally. the secretary for international affairs. a more systematical description for this period should be applied. but although West Germany hosted the biggest community of Koreans. not examined again in length. in 1971. Kim Kwang-il. 167 At some point it was realized that this was a situation which could be advantageous to change. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). Conflicts and Problems within the German Taekwondo Community For a more chronological examination about the events in the period between 1980~1989. The best way seems to select crucial problems and conflict lines within the TKD movement. shortly after the DTU foundation in June 1981. Joachim Hey.

see the tables below. . the issues were too complex to determine the responsibilities. misunderstandings. it pops in the eye that the only possible position in the federation for a native Korean was that of a coach. he recommends.140 - . he argues. On private levels. and that never was a director’s position. things would have been conducted not only quicker. each party should just forget about it. But considering official positions in the federation with decisive power. But. Then he collects wrongdoings in the past. and even boycotts.much contribution of many Korean TKD masters. he expressed his opinion that with their cooperation. refusals. this call for a new cooperation might have been fruitful. but also more harmonically. such as arguments about opinions. therefore.

hired Team Coach (no Director) Shin In-shik (assistant) Georg Karrenberg (assistant) * Dr. *** Werner Paties passed away at the end of 1984 and was replaced by Peter Mauser. Park Soo-nam (head). Hans Siegel Treasurer Norbert Hahn Norbert Hahn Secretary for Referee's Affairs Dieter Kuckel Dieter Kuckel Special Secretary Kurt Nauth - Secretary for Promotional Affairs . TABLE 21: The board of directors of section TKD (DJB) and DTU Position Prior to 1981 (DJB) 1981~1985 (DTU) President Heinz Marx Heinz Marx Dr. Wolfgang Schütz * Manfred Kloweit ** Vice President Dr. ** Manfred Kloweit retired in 1984 and was replaced by Werner Paties. 1981: 38. Kurt Nauth Secretary for International Affairs Joachim Hey Joachim Hey Media Secretary Alfred Kayser Wolfgang Ganser Secretary for Women's Affairs Mathias Schütz Winfried Anders Secretary for Youth's Affairs Werner Paties Werner Paties Park Soo-nam (head). Wolfgang Schütz Werner Paties *** Peter Mauser Technical Director Hans Siegel - Secretary-General . Siegel. Wolfgang Schütz stepped back after less than one year in office and was replaced by Manfred Kloweit.141 - . Sources: TA. 1981: 7 .

Dirk Jung (head)***. (head). it can also be seen that the Korean head coach got replaced twice. hired Team Coach (no Director) Shin In-shik (youth) Josef Wagner Park Soo-nam (head). these had been very crucial steps affecting the competitiveness of the national teams dramatically. Sources: TA. *** Dirk Jung (and his team) stepped back in 1988 and was replaced by Park Soo-nam. Gil. ** Georg Dorff was fired after one and a half year due to incompetence and replaced by Kurt Nauth. TABLE 22: The DTU's board of directors. 1985~1989 Position 1985~1989 1989 President Heinz Marx Hans Siegel Peter Mauser * Vice President Peter Mauser Joachim C. 2007 In these tables. Hey Technical Director . 1989: 12. Hey. Helmut Gärtner Georg Karrenberg (females). interview Jebramcik. (females) Josef Wagner (females) * Peter Mauser stepped back as vice president and was replaced by Joachim C. As was examined in Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). Joachim Kessler Secretary-General Hans Siegel Dieter Jebramcik Treasurer Norbert Hahn Ferdinand Hillen Secretary for Referee's Affairs Dieter Kuckel Dieter Kuckel Georg Dorff ** Secretary for Promotional Affairs Kurt Nauth Kurt Nauth Secretary for International Affairs Joachim Hey Edwin Ferger Media Secretary Konstantin Gil Josef Ragotzki Secretary for Women's Affairs Dorothea Kapkowski Ute Güster Secretary for Youth's Affairs Wolfgang Pattberg Wolfgang Pattberg Dr. It can also be seen that the pattern of coach’s replacements shows a striking covariance with the pattern of . 1985b: 30.142 - .

Joachim Hey was working at the German embassy in South Korea during the two first World Championships. Hey was responsible for the open letter to the Korean TKD masters in 1981. interview 168 To be clear. he was quite befriended with Park (interview Gatzweiler.170 Or Kim Chul-hwan. for some reasons. member of the Korean World Champion team of 1973. on the contrary. So. and he remained quite fond of Korea thereafter. who entered Germany in 1978 and settled there since. at least two of them: Ko Eui-min.replacements at the vice president’s position.143 - . Peter Mauser. Peter Mauser could not be questioned in person about this topic until now. especially with the persons Joachim Hey and Peter Mauser involved. Unfortunately. But it leads to a hypothesis which should be tested. Well. dubbed the “head coach of the world”. moreover. Now. or anything comparable. Korea’s sports man of the year in 1974. accessed on 11 November 2009. 2006). this is just a covariance. There is no evidence that any of both was ever considered for the position as national team coach. father and coach of two-times World Champion Kim Yeon-ji. 171 It was not before this current year of 2009 that Kim Chul-hwan was finally appointed as additional coach . the position as national team coach was occupied by Park Soo-nam. 169 According to his website. 170 Currently. shows the opposite pattern: whenever he was in a responsible DTU position. World Games gold medalist of 1978. this alone does not reveal relations of causes and effects. It was he who discovered Park Soo-nam as gifted coach in Seoul and who was instrumental in getting Park in the position of national team coach. there definitely were. Ko Eui-min is chairman of the technical committee of the WTF (since 2005). Kim Chul-hwan lives in Germany since 1980.168 Apart from that. 2006. this fits perfectly with the fact that (nearly) whenever Hey held a responsible position within the DTU’s board. Park Soo-nam was gone. the question could arise if there really weren’t any competent Korean TKD masters willing and able to participate in the DTU. as stated.masterko. www.169 the two-times Korean national team coach at the World Championships of 1975 and 1977.

3.2. Problem II: Commercial Taekwondo Schools

According to German civil law, sports federations seeking governmental support are
required to accept only public sports clubs as members, not commercial sports schools.
Yet many Korean TKD masters living and teaching in Germany were running
commercial sports schools, simply because they had to make a living with their martial
art. Thus, while Germans were starting one TKD federation after another, Koreans were
largely left out.

Therefore, most public sport clubs were operated by native Germans with a regular
job, plus income, in a different field. And that’s why sports federations, like the DTU,
enlist nearly exclusively native German sports friends, while Korean TKD masters were
usually left out, their schools not operating under the official DTU banner, but were
associated directly with the WTF or ITF (or another, like Kwon Jae-hwa’s private
association), respectively.

3.3. Conflict Line I. North vs. South

One of the most traditional conflict lines in the history of Germany is North vs. South,
more exactly, the northern part of Germany, which is historically connected to the
protestant Prussian Empire, and southern Germany, traditional catholic regions

with special functions for the DTU; see, accessed on 1 December 2009. In a telephone
communication with Park Soo-nam, the question if any of them was ever considered for an official position
in the DTU, such as national team coach, was simply answered with the expression that neither of them was
ever considered as an able coach (Park, 2007). Of course, it could be suspected that other aspects played
also a role. Both Ko and Kim came as TKD superstars to Germany, and it was their task to make a living
there out of their martial art. It is clear that with a network of flourishing martial arts schools, money could
be made easier than with the stressful job as national head coach, which apparently was not enough to
prevent Dirk Jung during his term in 1985~1988 from engaging in a side job.

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historically related to the Wittelsbach and Habsburg dynasties. In modern Germany, this
conflict line often occurs between Germany’s two biggest federal states, North Rhine-
Westphalia in the north-west, and Bavaria in the south-east. North Rhine-Westphalia
contains Germany’s most populated region, the Ruhr area, featuring cities like Dortmund
and Essen with about 5.5 million citizens overall, together with the Rhein area around
Cologne about 10 million. Thanks to the huge coal mining companies and the heavy
industry, the Ruhr area is a traditional worker’s region where Germany’s labor party, the
Social-Democratics, has its traditionally strongest backyard. Contrary to that, Bavaria is
a more urban region, traditionally fostering agriculture, nowadays high technology, and
the most catholic region in Germany; Bavaria features a unique party, the Christian-
Socialists, traditionally the most popular party in Bavaria, which is often more radical
than its sister party in the other German states, the conservative Christian-Democratics.
The diversity between these two outstanding German states can further be demonstrated
with the fierce rivalry between the two football clubs of FC Bayern München on the one,
and VFB Borussia Dortmund on the other side.

Coincidentally, it was exactly these two regions where TKD entered Germany first,
but on quite contrary ways, as was already shown. Plus, the development of TKD in
these states also was divergent. The following table should provide an overview.

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TABLE 23: Different ways of TKD in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria (1960~present)

North Rhine-Westphalia Bavaria
First TKD masters Coal miners Students; American GIs
Kind of early TKD practice In spare time; in disguise; Professional schools, professional
illegal payments coaches
Organizations Loose ITF connection; NWTV, DKKV, DTV, SWTV, TKD (DJB),
(all ITF) (ITF, WTF, Kwon)
TKD (DJB) chairmen none Wilhelm Weingarth, 1968~69
Herrmann Oppermann, 1969~71
Heinz Marx, 1971~1981
DTU presidents none Heinz Marx, 1981~1989
Hans Siegel, 1989~1992
Stefan Klawiter, 1992~1998
Walter Schwarz, 1998~2002
Heinz Gruber, 2002~present
WTF World Champions Rainer Müller (Iserlohn), 1979 none
Dirk Jung (Essen), 1982
Michael Arndt (Neuss), 1987
Aziz Acharki (Bonn), 1995
ITF World Champions Natalija Kapulica (Lünen), none
(sparring) 1999
Andreas Hampel (Lünen), 1999
Birgid Sasse, 2001
Hosted TKD World 14th ITF World Championships, 4th WTF World Championships,
Championships Dortmund 2005 Sindelfingen 1979;
16th WTF World Championships,
Garmisch-Partenkirchen 2003

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This table shows that until today, the leaders of the main German TKD body, the DTU,
always came from Bavaria; as a result, the DTU office was always located in Bavaria.
Moreover, most DTU executives also came from southern Germany. Two DTU
presidents, Stefan Klawiter and Walter Schwarz, had also been presidents of the
Bavarian TKD Union (BTU) at the time of their service; the curret DTU president has a
position in the BTU director’s board. On the other side, only one president of the North
Rhine-Westphalian TKD Union (NWTU), Dieter Jebramcik, had a leading position in
the DTU; he served as secretary-general from 1989~1991, and again from 1996~1998.
This indicates that the Bavarian influence on the development of German TKD was far
more apparent than the influence of the NWTU, although the NWTU provided the
majority of successful TKD athletes. Therefore, it was a constant topic that NWTU
athletes were missing thorough support by DTU authorities.

One apparent example was the re-installment of Park Soo-nam as head coach just
before the 1988 Seoul Olympics (the following is based on an interview with Michael
Arndt, 2009). In 1985, Park had been replaced by a former athlet, Dirk Jung, TKD
World Champion of 1982. Jung, who had just completed his medical school studies, had
changed training style to a more systematic, scientifically based approach. But due to
lack of successes and raising criticisms, he quit the job just before the Seoul Olympics,
and the DTU directors asked Park Soo-nam to take care of the team. However, the
athletes did not want Park being in charge again, for he fostered an unsystematic,
unscientific training style which was out of fashion, and the athletes had the impression
that his training methods would not enlarge, but inhibit their performances. Thus, the
athletes, under leadership of their captain Michael Arndt, tried to boycott Park’s
coaching, but the NWTU athlete Arndt, heavy-weight World Champion of 1987 (without
Park’s assistance), had to subordinate under the Southern-German decision. Yet in the
end, Park’s coaching at the Olympics had no effect. He was just physically present,

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3. moral and tactical support lacking. like safety gear. The first way to enable competitions was applying a zero-contact sparring system. As the founding fathers of TKD. Thus. which could be done without any major changes in technics and supplementary equipment. including Choi Hong-hi.without interfering in athlete’s performances. just one match (by an athlete from the NWTU) was won during the whole tournament. Semi-Contact vs. had to compete without the backing of a proper coach. for the audience. However. in return. for strikes and blows and kicks. Due to the obvious danger of this practice to sparring participants. were much quicker than Japanese Karate masters to break through this tradition and to develop competition rules which would enable sparring matches without severe danger to life and health of the participants. It was only required to stop a strike just before it touched the target. no matter how deadly they would be in a real situation. which. Stemming from combat practices developed in Okinawa against Japanese oppressors. Conflict Line II: Full-Contact vs. had learned Karate on Japanese soil.148 - . Zero-Contact Competition System One of the core elements of TKD is its sparring style and the resulting competition system. Therefore. . they originally adopted this philosophy of “one blow. one death” (Capener. like Hwang Ki and Choi Hong-hi. it was not possible to conduct competitions within this system. which are especially distinctive from Japanese Karate. the self-concept of a Karate practitioner was getting ready to kill an opponent with just one strike. show no effect on the opponent.4. a zero-contact competition style somehow looks more like dancing than real fighting. the idea of contact competitions never wore off. Korean TSD and TKD masters. 1995).

Oyama/Choi was approached by Choi Hong-hi who tried to persuade him joining his TKD movement. Therefore. kind of TKD. 1997). Therefore. the Kyokushinkai Karate style already applied bare-knucled full-contact combat matches since the late 1950s. the history of Karate competition styles also shows the pattern of zero-contact (original Shotokan Karate). semi-contact (modern sports Karate). Oyama Masutatsu (大山 倍 達. Interestingly. which requires much more sophisticated protection equipment. to stress their legacy as the historically earliest. This pattern could be described 172 Moreover.172 Therefore. Although there are several reports about bare-knuckled full-contact sparring in the old days of TSD and TKD. from their point of view: most original. some traditionalist TKD grandmasters like Kwon Jae- hwa. 1923~1994). and in fact. featured a full-contact competition style. but handy enough to enable quick and powerful movements. known also as Choi Bae-dal (崔倍達/최배달). Moreover. this could hardly be conducted as a proper competition system. was needed for full-contact sparring style. established seven years later. It should be noted that the founder of Kyokushinkai Karate. and therefore further developed equipment. during the 1960s. like a chest protector. . it seems like a logical consequence that a semi-contact competition style was developed and applied by the ITF. still feature zero-contact competitions instead. While light protection enabled semi-contact sparring style without evere injuries. after new chest protectors were developed. who started teaching TKD in Germany before foundation of the ITF. However. Koreans tested different materials as proper protection gear since the 1960s. a full-contact competition system was not established before the 1970s. was needed. together with the whole Kyokushinkai Karate style (see Burdick. better protection. it is beyond our knowledge if Choi Hong-hi planned to adopt the competition style as well. and full contact sparring (Kickboxing). which were safe enough to prevent severe injuries.149 - . supplementary equipment. Similar to the developments in TKD. while the WTF. was born in Korea as Choi Hyung Yee (崔永宜/최영의).

the notation of something as “original” has its benefits.150 - . with the general tendency to feature as few contacts within sparring as possible. the less moral. more true. it was not uncommon for DTU TKD clubs all over the Federal Republic to feature other styles than full-contact sparring. harmonic life.or even zero- contact sparring instead. understanding practicing martial arts as a way of a universal.or zero-contact style sparring before the WTF introduced its chest protector-based full-contact sparring system. that many German TKD (and also Karate) clubs promote their style as more pure. Also. No wonder. full-contact sparring was not always mandatory. the “do”. Even for official dan grade promotions.or even zero-contact competition styles. while WTF- affiliated DTU increasingly disallowed it during the 1990s. . Especially in Germany. promoting full-contact style only. than. the less art. the more original. Many DTU TKD clubs which weren’t interested in preparing for (international) competitions didn’t bother enduring the pains of full-contact sparring. many traditional DTU TKD clubs in Germany are older than the WTF. more original than others. but the more contact. In general. for many Germans would prefer choosing the original than a mere copy. there is a variety of DTU TKD clubs: some are focusing on forms (poomsae). while others have their focus on competition (Olympic style). the less contact. they practiced semi. and even others focus on the more meditative aspects of East Asian martial arts. the more pure. and they originally featured semi. More traditional-oriented German TKD friends tend to prefer semi.

Choi Jung-hwa. 2008). 2007). they formed their own organization. especially high-ranked Korean TKD masters who have been in the country prior to the formation of the WTF. which was strictly illegal according to the South Korean National Security Law. So. However. the German TKD Association (Deutscher TKD Bund. 1997. it was the opposide for the ITF-GER. shortly ITF-GER. which was a hard blow against the young organization (Weiler 2005: 33. which remained top secret until his death (Gillis. interview Weiler. Not everybody was fond of the new forms and sparring style the WTF was promoting. in 1980 or 1981 in Witten. 173 According to recently conducted interviews with TKD experts in the U. And while it was much easier to perform old-school TKD under the judo cover.000 TKD practitioners overall. DTB).S. taking with them most clubs and schools. and in Canady by Alex Gillis.173 As an immediate reaction to this act. because at the beginning of the 1980s. who also held the personal contacts to Choi Hong-hi and his ITF. including Choi’s son. .151 - . including about 5. 2007). Unlike in every other TKD organization in Germany. the DTU. the ITF- Germany.5. Inner Conflicts Within the ITF-D During the process the German WTF branch. 2007). there also emerged a formal German ITF branch for the first time. interview Weiler. 3. the key positions were divided between Korean TKD masters. most of the Korean TKD masters of the ITF-GER severed ties with Choi and formed an independent non-WTF TKD organization. it seemed to be getting more difficult once the DTU was established. close to Dortmund (interview Weiler. was released into independence from the German Judo Federation. Choi Hong-hi approached North Korea for that kind of support he was neglected from the south (Burdick. while the early 1980s had been the high time for the DTU. Choi Hong-hi already started to contact North Korean agents in the 1970s.

reorganized and renamed it into ITF-D (D for “Deutschland”). 2007). Lee agreed to allow a team around Paul Weiler being elected for the new director’s positions in 1989. which immediately pushed through constitutional and regulative modifications. Lee was still living in Kassel. Lee Ki-young increasingly abused his ITF position so much that eventually in the 1990s. including renegades from the nearly- 174 According to Paul Weiler (interview 2007). the ITF-D was on the verge of dissolution. Lee Ki-young from Kassel in Hesse (next to North Rhine- Westphalia) rescued the young organization. Cologne). deliberately by two weeks. Choi Hong-hi had to kick him out personally. by Paul Weiler. that ITF secretary-general Lee Ki-young regularly delayed sending information material to member nations which he didn’t like. At the time of the interview. and as the only remaining Korean TKD master sticking to his connection to Choi’s organization. for example. with just 150 members left. Weiler reported. after less than one decade. in 1982. In this situation. plus a switch of the office back to North-Rhine Westphalia (this time. he was the most powerful ITF-TKD master in Germany. Lee was also secretary-general of the ITF at that time. but Lee took the charge at the disciplinary committee. the ITF-D competition team was surprisingly successful during the 1989 World Games for Youth and Students in Pyongyang. when their team of 6 athletes won one gold. for anything which went against his wishes could be enforced by applying disciplinary methods (interview Weiler. After a report about that trip was published in one of the mayor German martial arts magazines. . Germany. he let native Germans take the director’s positions of first and second chairmen as well as treasurer. he used his position and power in the ITF to be the mighty ruler of the ITF-D. Throughout the following decade. two silver and three bronze medals. Due to the language barrier.174 Thanks to those demotivating measures. Closely thereafter.152 - . as an old man no longer engaged in TKD at all. many former ITF friends remembered their old interest. The same year. the Karate Budo Journal.

winning the vice champion title. at least one World Champion title at every World Championships since 1994 (interview Weiler. the ITF-D struggled. 2007). losing only to the North Koreans. the following year. the ITF-D remained on a European and global top position. for example. gaining 11 gold 4 silver and 3 bronze medals. Thus. England.153 - . the ITF-D performs uncomparably successful. winning. the development of the ITF-D could be summarized as follows: while the DTU remained successful. 2007). and since the DTU is struggling. a strongly improved competition team could be sent to the 1990 World Championships in Canada. . the ITF-D of West Germany was clearly dominating the 1991 European Championships in Reading.200 people instantly rejoined the ITF-D (interview Weiler. Since then.vanished DTB. and about 1. 175 While Paul Weiler still remains convinced that there was some cheating to let the North Koreans become the World Champion. 175 And the next year. Thus.

4. Taekwondo in East Germany In East Germany. the other somewhere near Berlin (interview Jebramcik. As none of their practitioners set up any East German TKD organization which lasted until the German reunification of 1990. . all regional DTU administrations had to be built up from scratch after German sports unification. 2009). One of these groups was located at the University of Rostock. which practiced ITF-style TKD with North Korean TKD masters.154 - . there was nearly no TKD. which consumed much energy from DTU officials with a sense for responsibility. except for one or two known small TKD training groups on a private basis.

None of them existed when Taekwondo was the hot issue in West Germany in the 1970s. Now that the East German people were provided with real free choice. But. to help one of those new regional DTU branches getting ignited. Taekwondo in Reunified Germany (since 1989) That was another one of those fruitless trips deep into the countryside of former East Germany. thus could not collect many fees. not the least. something the poor East German DTU branches need the enduring support. and therefore could not do a decent job. nobody seemed interested in this sport. the treasurer calmed his president down. without major success. Next week. the president remembered bitterly. expertise and. again. he would have to take the same journey again. such as Thai Boxing. But he had no choice. they prefer more exciting activities. since most martial arts had been banned by the Socialists. they did not gain many members. He desperately needed the votes of this regional DTU branch for the next general assembly to push through the reforms his athletes back at home demanded to gain back the lost ground in the international tournaments … . What would be needed was heavy promotion in favor of this Olympic sport. Taekwondo was widely unknown in East Germany. money of the big West German DTU branches for. He sighted. Another wasted day in his life. The president of a huge regional DTU branch conducted this five-hour drive into the far East of Germany together with his treasurer. V. but they still didn’t have instructors for each big city! Don’t forget. Although the new regional DTU branches for the five new Federal German States had formally been established already a few years ago.155 - . Today the president and his treasurer just delivered another cheque containing a huge number and negotiated further exchange programs with experienced Taekwondo instructors – unbelievable. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Shaolin Kung Fu.

Similarly.156 - . that caused immense problems for the DTU. However. How could the DTU administration manage that situation? Especially in light of the coming Sydney Olympics in 2000 where TKD was an official event for the first time? These and related questions were the guidelines for this final chapter. which consumed much time and energy and other resources of the federation. Although German reunification formally happened in 1990. despite a few training groups on a private basis. as was shown before. both on athletic and administrative levels. Moreover. a new era began after Paul Weiler took the charge. the DTU was in desperate need for those precious resources to regain the competitive prowess they lost during the last decade. it it usually said that in 1989. For a neutral observer. they had to built up DTUstructures from scratch in all East Germany. However. As illustrated in this story. resulting eventually in a crash landing . the Berlin Wall fell down one year before. which covers the transition of German TKD in reunified Germany. the German reunification happened to be a major disadvantage for German TKD. at least not of a formally organized nature. because both federations registered major changes in leadership. replacing Lee Ki-young as president in 1989. and that year of 1989 is usually seen as the real turning point in German history. For the DTU. which were added to the still existing conflicts between the North-West and the South. it could be expected that a major impact of the German reunification in 1990 was the unification of East and West German TKD associations. especially for the DTU which was expected to spread TKD throughout the five new Federal German States. an era came to its end after Heinz Marx was replaced as ETU and DTU presidents. there was no TKD in East Germany. The same is true for German TKD. for in their race against commercial martial arts schools. Given now that most work in a German sports association is done on a volunteering basis. it could be said that for the ITF-D. increasing pressure by the WTF had to be endured. both for the WTF-affiliated DTU and for the ITF-D.

Yet a final decision was not reached when politburo member Günter Schabowski was scheduled to inform international press and media correspondents . didn’t have to bother much about building up structures in formerly East Germany.157 - . 1. Political Reunification The German Reunification was the result of changes in politics of Eastern European communist states since the mid-1980s. To gain a better understanding of the situation of German sports after 1990. more clubs left the DTU and went into independence or formed new minor TKD associations on their own. the key aspects of the process of the German political reunification should therefore be taken into consideration. One of the demands of the protesters was free travel to the West. especially West Germany. As this is a political process. As a consequence. was actually enabled by travelling through allied Eastern European countries. like Hungary or Czechoslovakia.1. 1. in fact. which. In November of 1989. authorities of the German Democratic Republic (shortly. German Sports Unification since 1990 Unification in sports basically means the merger of two associations of one sport. on the other hand. they continued to focus on their main regions. the model for the several German sports unifications was set by the German political reunification of 1990. To fully understand the situation of TKD in reunified Germany. GDR) debated about changes of travelling regulations. which should be adapted to the actual situation. The ITF-D. with prospering results in competitiveness.of the administration in front of the courts. together with peaceful protests of the East German people in 1989. the key aspects of German sports unification should be considered.

when the border lost its function. thousands of GDR citizens in East Berlin approached the Wall. the heavily armed East German and Russian border guards hesitated. That news was broadcasted quickly by East and West European television and radio stations. the GDR conducted their first (and last) free elections. the FRG of . FRG). On Christmas 1989.about the procedure on the evening of November 9. the Berlin Wall was gradually torn off. tens of thousands of peoples crossed the border. GDR authorities started allowing West German citizens enter the GDR without any visa. surprised the auditorium with the unexpected declaration that the borders to all West Germany and West Berlin would be opened from that very moment on. and officially realized on 3 October 1990. which assumes that one of the parties is more advanced in modernization. 2001). and they got into further negotiations about a unification treaty. This unification treaty was approved by the legislative chambers of both states on 20 September. From June 1990 on. but the night from 9th to 10th November in 1989. This unification treaty had been designed according to the philosophy of “rescheduled modernization”. The slightly confused Schabowski. trying to confirm the declaration right away. which became the official unity celebration day afterwards. 1989. The new government quickly signed a treaty about financial and economical unity with the Federal Republic of Germany (shortly. Lacking any official order in that direction.158 - . In terms of economic prowess and political democracy. who had not been present at the debates about the regulations. and thus should impose its superior structures on the minor party (Rummelt. but eventually let the people pass the checkpoints to West Berlin. In March 1990. During that night. and during that night. is seen as the official date the Berlin Wall fell. a figure that reached about one million until 1990.

North Rhine-Westphalia. Saxony- Anhalt. at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. which were to become the five new federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany (see Einigungsvertrag. literature. it was treated like an associated federal city-state on its own.176 East Berlin was integrated into West Berlin. but had a peculiar legal status. According to the unification treaty. education. Lower Saxony. culture. – and sports. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha. Saarland. however. the paradigm for unification efforts was the political reunification based on the principle of rescheduled modernization. and Schleswig-Holstein. which basically went down because of this divergence. 1990). art etc.2. For all areas. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. it was the GDR that featured the more superior structures in most respects. and Thuringia.West Germany clearly was superior to the GDR of East Germany. However. 2009). 176 The five new federal states were Brandenburg. which were added to the eleven existing federal states. technically. in the case of sports. Rhineland- Palatinate. Hesse. Bavaria. East Germany ranked on the 2nd place after the Soviet Union. consisting of the eight area- states of Baden-Württemberg. the area of former East Germany had to be divided into 5 regions. For example. together with the two city-states Bremen and Hamburg. the task of structural unification was faced by the different areas of society: science. criminal and civil law. the media. and the German constitution was enlarged to cover the five new federal states as well. Saxony. West Berlin was not formally a city-state. with 102 medals (including 37 gold medals) overall. while West Germany just gained 40 medals (11 gold medals) and was ranked on the 5th place (for more details. . West Germany had been so advanced over its Eastern brother state that there were no debates about alternative ways of getting unified. 1. and West Berlin. Unification in Sports Following the economical and political reunification.159 - .

see Simson & Jennings. 1992. only one case of illegal mediation was detected until the end of the GDR. would be preserved and West German sports leaders openly claiming a fair procedure. However. like football. The only area in sports where West Germany could be seen as unambiguously constantly more advanced to East Germany had been some professional sports. Formally. the so-called “Stasi” (Staatssicherheit). In the end. Smit. so that after all. Thus.177 Therefore. and former East German athletes and coaches were largely welcomed in the unified German sports system. Exceptions were made for subjects with a proven connection to the East German secret police. like the German Sports University in Leipzig and the 25 Sports Schools for Children and the Youth. This kind of professional sport was hardly possible within the East German sport system. golf. see for details Kuklinski- Rhee & Ha (2009). something no one in a key position in German sports could risk. and car racing (Formula 1). East German sports structures quickly got abandoned without thorough discussions. Estimations claim figures of about 10% of all persons involved in East German elite sports having co-worked with the Stasi. 2005. 177 To get an impression about the amount of money ruling the sports world. East German sports authorities had also been extremely cautious with drug detection. . imposing the West German sports system on East Germany never really got in question. Jennings. which was based on state- subsidized amateurs. East German sports structures were destroyed. 2006. Therefore. sports unification was performed in several steps. 1996.160 - . It is an open secret that East Germany was one of the leading countries researching and applying performance-enhancing drugs. Despite the public expecting that approved elements. 2000. having been about 15 years ahead of Western states in this area. adopting elements of the East German sports system would endanger West Germany’s edge in professional sports. Another main issue was illegal medication. tennis.

But for the majorit of average sports people. especially most martial 178 According to the GDR’s sport system. where they regularly played a central role. “Sport II”. tennis balls and oversized basketball shoes were expensive import products and could simply not be afforded by the clubs.161 - . water polo. coaches. 2009). It could be said that the integration of East German sports elements worked best with top athletes. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha. dubbed “Sport I”.178 Some sports. Thus.officially. despite a few cases of additional drug detection and past Stasi collaboration discovered by researchers. Based on this fact. amongst which only the divergence between public sport clubs and commercial sport schools can be addressed here. for example. During the following Olympics. alpine skiing. All the others. most German medals were gained by athletes of the former GDR (for details. could be found only at a few sport clubs. The GDR mainly encouraged. which were responsible for providing facilities and equipments. not private individuals. . and did not receive the support which would enable participants visiting international or even national competitions. most top GDR athletes and coaches were integrated into the West German sports system. For example. not even regular training sometimes. supported and promoted Olympic sports where the GDR had a fair chance to win medals. and the DSB officially applied an amnesty on all former GDR athletes until 1990. like basketball. it seems safe to claim that reunified Germany’s sports successes were a function of successful integration of East Germany’s top athletes (and. and facilities. top coaches) into German sports teams. tennis. for the sake or argument. the import of an alien spoart system based on a capitalistic society brought massive problems. all East German athletes were technically clean. and the whole branch of mass sports. it was the sport clubs. and also chess.

2009). With increasing frequency of commercial school openings. large areas of former East Germany faced massive lack of capable people ready to engage in volunteering jobs. Nevertheless. based on leisure-time efforts by volunteers. and ever was. mass sports in West Germany is. But for mass sports and sports for all in the five new federal states. commercial sport schools and fitness centers popped up everywhere in the new five states. . offering kinds of sports and physical excercises the East German people never had access to before. in a region of growing unemployment rates.arts (except Boxing and Judo). Under the new capitalistic sport system. from yoga to East Asian martial arts (interview Jebramcik. they were regarded as subversive. the import of the capitalist West German system resulted in unexpected extra difficulties. qualified instructors could earn more money in commercial sport schools. instead of getting paid for their work. Contrary to the East Germany’s sport system. the instructor’s quality was shrinking. except for school and professional sports. To summarize. and commercial sport schools. professional and elite sports found ways to get the advantage of the sport unification of east and West Germany. from general fitness training to body building. to guarantee decent quality levels of instructors. were even forbidden for the sports clubs of the masses. West German sports federatios have developed a system of educating their instructors. Moreover. But in the East German region. with the result that many sports federations had troubles in offering their sport in all regions. and instructors without proper training could only work there. Thus.162 - . instructors often preferred working there than engaging in pubic sport clubs on a volunteering basis.

and financial resources. started organizing the new franchises in Germany’s new Eastern states. Building up sports structures from scratch requires a plan. 1. like North Rhine-Westphalia. To bridge the vast lack of capable TKD instructors in the East. engaged people. 2009). the biggest DTU franchises from the hugest federal states. China increasingly promoted its traditional martial arts of wushu.163 - . Situation for Taekwondo and other East Asian Martial Arts Except for Judo and amateur Boxing. and the North-Rhine Westphalian NWTU president also got president of the DTU franchise in Thuringia (interview Jebramcik. The same is true for the work force.3. The clubs then create the financial basis for the federation. there had not been any structures for the different martial arts in East Germany. like Saxony and Thuringia. weekend seminars were conducted regularly by leading West German and Korean TKD masters residing in the West. and Baden-Württemberg. The plan was just the foundation of franchises of a federation (Landesverbände) in each of the five new states. so everything had to be built up from scratch. mainly by means of annual membership fees. In TKD. Following the changes in the communist world. . For example. TKD and other public East Asian martial arts clubs had to face the rising competition with commercial sport schools. But in cases when the federation is organized prior to the opening of most of its member sports clubs. TDK demonstration teams performed in the most important urban regions to promote TKD and get the people joining the newly established TKD clubs. for example. people from other state’s federations must fill the organization’s positions before capable people from member sports clubs can be found and activated. which should be responsible for opening and managing of the new clubs on their own. sending selected Shaolin monks around the world for demonstrations and as instructors of shaolin wushu classes. the organization must be supported by other state’s federations. the Bavarian BTU president also got president of the DTU franchise in Saxony. Bavaria.

since that behavior pattern fitted much better to their system than to the long-termed agreements of public sport clubs. The biggest problem for public German sports clubs in this competition was that they are conservative in structure. As the official representative for the Olympic sport of TKD. they had to be constantly supported financially by the DTU or other state’s federations. The claim that the DTU represented TKD all over the Federal Republic of Germany was. increasingly more commercial sport schools offered wushu classes. thus they behaved rather unstable in joining and abandoning martial arts classes. thus most fundamental. martial art of all East Asia. they still had to test their real interest and talent in this kind of activity. This was a big advantage for commercial sport schools. Usually applying short-termed working and membership contracts. they can adept better to the current situations in their region. Additionally.164 - . successfully promoting them as the original. the shaolin monks did not come to stay forever. after all. and frequently travelled around to perform and teach courses elsewhere. And that forced public sport clubs to stick to low membership fees. Therefore. Since East German people had lacked first-hand experience with East Asian martial arts. their biggest advantage over commercial sport schools. but for a limited period only. the basis for the DTU being supported by the DSB. But low fees combined with a low number of clubs in the first place do not lead to a stable financial basis for the federation.It should be noticed that Chinese martial arts schools in Germany are mainly commercial enterprises which could rarely be found in public sports clubs. while commercial sport schools can act and react more flexible. the DTU had no choice but to engage in this manner and to try as hard as possible. If the East German regional branches of the DTU . As the people in East Germany were discovering their interest in East Asian martial arts. like increasing or decreasing demands for East Asian martial arts.

as was shown. The unified German TKD teams still had to consist of pure West German members (including West Berlin). did not have to bother about the five new German states. athletic successes grew and put the German teams into international top positions (see table below). the situation of athletic TKD in West Germany had been coming down just before the German reunification. it could lead to massive problems. In case of the ITF-D. exactly as before. . there had been a few athletic successes during the 1990s. The ITF-D and the private Kwon Jae-hwa organization. up to a separation from the DSB. but the level of European superiority of the early 1980s could not be regained again (see table below). the only surplus of the German sports unification was the integration of former East German coaches and athletes into the reunified German sports system.4.165 - . Adding to these kinds of problems was the increasing pressure the WTF pushed on the DTU. both for the DTU and the ITF-D. on the other hand. because there hadn’t been a pool of competitive East German TKD athletes and experienced coaches. an overview about the athletic achievements during the 1990s would be needed. From this perspective. German sport unification was a straight disadvantage for TKD. They could continue focusing on their main regions.were not in charge of TKD. Athletic Taekwondo achievements during the 1990s As was shown. and prosper. To understand that situation in full scale. In case of the DTU. Now. 1.

179 Taekwondo Data website.taekwondodata. 179 Weiler (2005) This discrepancy clearly indicates diverging processes on the administrative levels of both federations. Table 24: Athletic Achievements of the DTU and the ITF-D since 1989 Tournament DTU athletes ITF-D athletes Olympic Games 1 x Silver - (1992~2004) World Championships 1 x Gold 4 x Gold (1989~2005) 4 x Silver 5 x Silver 9 x Bronze 13 x Gold European Championships 19 x Gold 20 x Gold (1990~2006) 6 x Silver 11 x Silver 29 x Bronze 10 x Bronze Sources: Taekwondo Data the ITF-D administration prospered (compared to the problematic 1980s). accessed on 23 December 2009.166 - . www. While the DTU administration faltered in the 1990s (compared to the glory 1980s). .

other TKD organizations. One was caused by the intensed focus on TKD as elite sports. and both dramatically stimulated the internal power struggles within the DTU. especially since TKD officially became an Olympic event in the mid-1990s. And on the administrative level. Together these problems caused many TKD practitioners and clubs to leave the DTU and establish separational TKD organizations or stay independent (interview Sobota. In the following. Therefore. starting with the external pressure from the WTF. such as the ITF-D and the Kwon Jae- hwa Black Belt Centers. While the old conflicts and problems from the 1980s were still not solved. culminating in a legal battle between the presidents of the NWTU and the BTU at the end of the 1990s. Taekwondo in Reunified Germany: from Unity to Disparity The DTU administration faced two main tasks after German reunification. As a contrast. Of these problems.167 - . As a reaction. the problems within the DTU should be examined first. Another problem was the raising power struggles inside the DTU organization. the former level of successes should be regained. only faced the lurking danger of internal power struggles. 2008). the developments of the ITF- . the decade after the German reunification had a very different process for them. This pressure further increased the tension between TKD as elite sports and TKD as a recreational activity. the WTF. three more problem fields emerged. On the athletic level. DTU franchises had to be built up in the five new German federal states. Both tasks turned out to face more obstacles than initially expected. increased its pressure on the DTU to a point that made many TKD clubs and participants feeling hurt. 2. growing anger occurred. the world governing TKD body. And on top of this. stressing the benefits of TKD as a recreational activity.

and many DTU members preferred performing them (interview Sobota.00 p. and felt unfairly suppressed afterwards.D and the Kwon Jae-hwa Black Belt Centers in the same decade of the 1990s should be presented briefly.1. Thus. 2008). France.m. Semi-contact sparing Championships were conducted especially in North Rhine- Westphalia (Knoll. he did not announce that the WTF would prohibit the further practice of Hyong forms and semi-contact sparring after a positive decision (TA 1994a: 7).180 At that time. 1994: 41). another decision of the WTF on the same day did not receive that much attention first. interview G. at 6. either to celebrate (WTF affiliates) or to get angry about it (other TKD practitioners). 2. Likewise. many DTU clubs and members were quite surprised about the top-down decision of the WTF in Paris. 4 September 1994. Kapkowski. While the global TKD community registered this news eagerly. The WTF announced that from now on.. Hyong forms and semi-contact sparring was widely applied in DTU clubs. .168 - . he was very careful not to comment on the possible outcome of the IOC decision about TKD at the 2000 Sydney Games. 180 It should be noted that during a short trip of WTF president Kim Un-yong to visit his daughter’s concert in Cologne six months before the Paris decision. 2009). The impact of the WTF on the DTU during the 1990s During the 103rd general assembly of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in Paris. WTF-TKD was acknowledged as an official Olympic Event during the 2000 Sydney Games (TA 1994b: 20). on Sunday. only full-contact sparring and Poomsae forms would be allowed (26). Germany was one of the last countries to abandon the Hyong as a substitute for Poomsae in competitions and grading promotions by the WTF-affiliated organization (68. and the Hyong forms had been officially integrated into European TKD forms Championships until 1993 (42).

and every single grade would cost several hundreds to thousands German Marks. including the Olympics. smaller TKD administrations to emerge. a 7th dan grade holder had also to approve the 6th dan. 2007). the 5th dan and so on. and semi-contact and full-contact sparring style. It is estimated that in the aftermath. . to not get in troubles later on. The WTF had demanded for ten years that the DTU should get their acknowledged dan grades be approved by the Kukkiwon. and German TKD players would only be allowed to compete if the whole DTU would obey to this demand. This was the perfect opportunity for other. That meant.000 DM (for 7th dan) (Bolz & Schuldes. As a result.169 - . Now the WTF offered the last opportunity: the Kukkiwon approval of each single DTU dan grade would cost between 130 DM (for 1st dan) to 2. Especially TKD practitioners who weren’t interested in participating in official WTF events at all did not accept this new WTF precondition and started thinking about just leaving the WTF. offering members the parallel practice of Hyong and Poomsae. without joining any of the other federations. this was an invitation for many more to finally leave the DTU. Otherwise. like the ITF-D or the Kwon Jae-hwa Black Belt Center. But on the other hand. they would no longer be accepted on international WTF tournaments. not few German TKD practitioners looked for ways of sticking to their familiar Hyong and semi-contact sparring practice. 2008: 145). many DTU members chosed to “buy” their dan grades. The next attack on the DTU by the WTF came in July 2000. about two months before the start of the Olympic Games in Sydney. about 5.000 TKD practitioners left the DTU and joined other organizations or remained independent (interview Sobota. Now with the pressure of the WTF that only Poomsae and full-contact sparring were officially allowed in TKD competitions and graduation promotions.

Thus.2. it was just a coincidence.170 - . the decline of elite TKD performance in the second half of the 1980s was compensated. were frequently visited by ordinary DTU and other TKD enthusiasts. 1994: 98). recreational activity The approval of TKD as an official Olympic event in Paris in 1994 had another consequence for the DTU. more than 1000 in the year of the Seoul Olympics. where ordinary practitioners summed together to learn new. both the absolute number and the relative ratio to grown-ups. Taekwondo: elite sports vs. together with his wife Angelika. it is not impossible that some day. or the differences from and similarities to related martial arts. very likely. by the raise of recreational TKD. in some respects. it finally cemented the focus of the DTU on promoting TKD as elite sports (Klawiter. the amount of underaged TKD practitioners in the DTU. and similar training courses throughout the year. those facts could be found. . including guests from abroad. Since the 1980s. the causal relation hypothesis should not further be maintained. and learned to know each other from all over the Federal Republic of Germany. This must not be regarded as a causal relation. During the 1980s. also in neighboring countries. started organizing recreational TKD training courses during the public holidays at Pentecost. the later BTU vice president Wilfried Harloff. 1994: 5).181 For example. 2. and more than 2000 in the following year and ever since (Knoll. This training course was a copy of similarly popular events of Judo and Karate in Germany and other European countries. with a highly increasing number of participants: more than 500 participants in 1987. after the overwhelming successes of German TKD teams had faded away. was increasing steadily since the 1980s. However. sometimes newly developed or advanced aspects of their martial art. Until then. from about 40% at 181 There is no known fact which would back such a causal relation hypothesis. this Pentecost training course was established as a fixed annual institution for recreational TKD.

And finally.171 - . accessed on 17 December 2009. 183 Comparisons of the medal rank lists of youth tournaments with the medal rank lists of senior’s tournaments a few years later show no significant name matches. the growing number of underaged in the DTU should rather be seen as an indicator for a stronger elite TKD attitude there. . But this is the unanimous impression of experienced TKD instructors regularly visiting one of the internet discussion boards relevant for TKD in Germany. but it is such a common knowledge in TKD that people are regularly questioning the DTU’s engagement in youth training and competitions. cf. thus printing their names in the medal ranks of youth tournaments. there is no statistical data available backing this statement. with a still growing tendency (Knoll. Therefore.183 The reason for this odd finding remains yet to be discovered.182 Moreover. Moreover. and that just the smallest fraction is investing enough concentration and energy in tough competition preparations. It could be argued that this was the result of TKD being promoted as an Olympic sport since the 1980s. an observation shared by many German TKD pioneers with decades of experience is that the social structure of the people engaging in TKD fundamentally 182 Unfortunately. and the young people could be aiming at excelling in TKD to participate at the Olympics some day.taekwondodata.the early 1980s to more than the half of all DTU members in the 1990s. even those children and youngsters who engage in sparring training and excel in competitions. this seems to be a more universal observation which is also reported by instructors outside of as this line of reasoning would conclude. 1994: 22). www. are usually not the same who would excel in this sport as seniors. the Taekwondo Data website. But this line of reasoning would fail to acknowledge the fact that the vast majority of underaged TKD practitioners do not eagerly engage in sparring.

TKD matches looked more dynamic. . vengeance and vendettas. Hans-Jürgen Sobota (2008). but all experts agree that in the past. WTF TKD competitions changed dramatically. while it disgusted caring parents looking for nonhazardous physical activities for their children. Rainer Müller. Dirk Jung and Michael Arndt. TKD was regarded as a kind of athletically enhanced Karate. allowing opponents exchanging full-contact kicks and blows. Norbert Wolfer (2007). 2009). Before 1986. decades before the emergence of UFC and K-1 matches and shortly before the invention of Kickboxing. And until the early 1980s. Dieter Jebramcik (2009). Today’s WTF sparring style might be much safer and equally challenging for the athletes. the change in the social structure of TKD practitioners would just reflect the changes in athletic TKD. more unique.172 - . Unique individuals such as the first three German World Champions. Gilbert Kapkowski (2009). This image attracted athletic young adults seekig and flourishing in adventurous challenges.185 There are no Top Circles any longer in Germany. TKD had to become more family-friendly than in the old days of the Bruce Lee movies. Dorothea Kapkowski (2009). 185 This is a special analysis of Michael Arndt. which is dominated by two opponents mainly observing each other and waiting for an opportunity to counterattack. more spectacular. weaker body protectors resulted in more usage of punches and in a more attacking sparring style than today. Therefore. dominated by violence. WTF heavyweight World Champion of 1987 (interview Arndt. head protectors were not in use. together with other TKD athletes who competed on equal levels with them during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Michael Arndt (2009). including spectacular flying and twisting kicks widely admired in Bruce Lee movies. would not find their way any more into a WTF TKD gym today.changed since the 1970s.184 Back then. And to become an official Olympic event. 184 The following is the summary of statements and stories from the interviews of German TKD pioneers Gert Gatzweiler (2006. 6 August 2009). Since the early 1970s.

such allegations would not be raised here. However. including Olympic Bases. National Performance Centers. although the DTU was continuously supported by governmental facilities. this led to raising debates about the direction the DTU should navigate at – more elite TKD for the price of less support for recreational TKD. the DTU and its regiolan branches could not help but enhance the annual fees for clubs and members several times during the 1990s. not recreational TKD. Also. the DTU did not receive much financial support for their teams. . most of this money was to support elite TKD. Clearly. The TKD athletes of the 1970s and early 1980s were not only ready to invest their time and physical energy into their hobby. 2000. Oddly. they also invested their money. where athletes can devote nearly all their time for training and competitions by getting full salary. which was not easy to be communicated to ordinary DTU members. Clearly this money was invested in sports structures for elite TKD. and just a margin in recreational TKD. Before TKD became an Olympic event.173 - . Between 1994 and 2000. to enhance national prestige. Jennings. 1996. and Elite Schools of Sports. Since Seoul 1988. as it was supposed to. 2006. and much more since Paris 1994. 1992. Therefore. of vice versa? 186 It could be guessed that some sorts of self-service happened. the available money ready for investments in elite TKD never was enough186. Yet Jebramcik (interview 2009) made some remarks which could lead into this direction. two positions for TKD athletes were established at the German military sports unit in Sonthofen in the 1990s. huge amounts of money were put into WTF TKD in Germany to ensure Olympic medals. For some reasons. professional sports structures for TKD were established. as there is no evidence in this direction. especially all the costs for the Top Circle project. and therefore. which is not uncommon in sports. see Simson & Jennings. so large amounts paid the athletes by themselves.

1994: 100. and as Heinz Marx’s right hand. this seems to be the core conflict within German TKD. to be the next DTU president (interview Jebramcik. supporting this was Knoll. 188 Coincidentally. Greece.174 - . But Jebramcik joined forces with the Bavarian secretary-general of the DTU. a move that was inofficially approved by other nation’s coaches and team 187 According to an interview wich D. Jebramcik in 2006. Helmut Gärtner. 2. Stefan Klawiter. 2006). and on election day. In the end. together with NWTU comrade and DTU secretary for international 188 affairs. were from North Rhine-Westphalia as well. Jebramcik led the DTU team at the World Championships in Athens. Thus. North Rhine-Westphalian and Bavarian TKD authorities were in an unusual state of cooperation at first. swimming and track and field. This conflict is still not solved. During the tournament. Klawiter had been BTU president since 1983. Josef Wagner. Edwin Ferger. with the emphasis on the art. The DTU tries to define TKD as a sport. According to the NWTU president of the 1980s and 1990s. together they had ruled the German DTU and the European ETU. Dieter Jebramcik. But in the public attention in Germany. there was the unique situation that all responsible persons at an international tournament came from the NWTU. there was a plot against the election of Marx’s protégé. and. the two coaches of the male’s team. Siegel got DTU president and Jebramcik DTU secretary-general. days before the election. Internal Power Struggles in the DTU After the Marx era had ended. they led the team moving out of the tournament during the final celebration.187 Two years later. they organized the votes in their direction. similar to Judo.3. they successively witnessed disadvantageous treatment of their team. and the women’s team. Hans Siegel. consequently. . but their in-game protest was not accepted. in 1991. As a sign of protest. similar to Karate. TKD is still a martial art.

they got punished for something which was even not their own idea. Jebramcik stepped back as secretary-general. Under the impression of the events in and after Athens. They were successful. NWTU president Jebramcik still tried to get a grip on German TKD. One year thereafter. 2006). 189 According to the report of these events by Dieter Jebramcik (interview Jebramcik. while Jebramcik was again secretary- general. and the following years. and Siegel ordered early re-elections of the whole DTU directors later the same year. got elected as DTU president. However. this time Walter Schwarz. However. Ferger and Jebramcik got punished by the WTF’s sanction committee. This time. which originally had been scheduled for 1993. most TKD clubs had enough of Klawiter and demanded early reelections. the two presidents of the main German TKD branches. Schwarz and Jebramcik. But six weeks thereafter. BTU president since 1995. when the directors ordered reelections again in 1999. there had been some legal constraints with these elections. Stefan Klawiter. Their relationship broke apart just nine months after election. . Thus. and Schwarz got DTU president. i. Bavaria was again in charge of German TKD. they were seen as the bad guys. Again. Jebramcik initiated a legal battle. as the most successful athletes still came from the NWTU. officially. But Schwarz beat them. Jebramcik joined forces with a Bavarian. trying to force Schwarz out of office. Harry Weber. and continued as the sole ruler of both Bavarian and German TKD for the next three years. Jebramcik joined forces with the president of the TKD Union of Baden-Württemberg.managers. The idea for the protest was the athlete’s. while they just had tried to support the athlete’s wishes. the actual BTU president.175 - . And again. and the decision was reached by the athlete’s votes. this relation did not last long. and the old order was reset gain. and it was regarded as a failure of the delegates from the NWTU.189 This was the first open disagreement between the DTU and the WTF. But the two officials had been the persons in charge. In 1998. They were forbidden to visit WTF events for the next two years. quickly confronted each other.e.

refused to follow the latest WTF developments: they featured hyong instead of poomsae. he suddenly passed away. Furthermore. an appease which went contrary to the WTF’s way. Many NWTU TKD schools and clubs. In 2008. like featuring hyong and semi-contact sparring style. for example. in 2002. . Another price was the huge loss of international credibility and influence. also suffering from bad condition. which made the DTU a prey for WTF’s powerful demands. semi-contact instead of full-contact competition style. followed him. Finally.yet unsuccessfully. it often happened that TKD practitioners preferred getting their dan degrees from their old grandmasters (who had direct contact to the ITF or the WTF. tried to repress NWTU’s influence. referring to his weak condition. Schwarz surprisingly stepped back. so they made efforts to appease the renegades. that led to more money (and influence) for independent Korean TKD masters. the NWTU recognized that they couldn’t change it. and old-style Korean commands and (sometimes) cloths instead of the latest fashion from Korea. But that battle had consumed much of the precious resources of German TKD. Dieter Jebramcik. NWTU was something like the bad guy in the DTU. many TKD clubs still remained in contact to their original TKD grandmaster who often was running a TKD school in NRW which was not affiliated to the DTU. While the DTU disregarded this situation. mostly from southern Germany and straight WTF friends. What had been the basis for the enmity between the BTU and the NWTU leaders? For some reasons. respectively) instead of taking the formally correct DTU way. In a further step. his old nemesis Jebramcik. and less fees and influence for the DTU in NRW.176 - . Therefore. as was shown above. But the DTU’s leaders. especially of the NWTU president. One year later.

TKD attracted particular fighting talents until the early 1980s. TKD was introduced by American GIs and continuously controlled by German martial arts school and club owners who hired famous Korean instructors. However. more females entered the sport. Second. which could help explaining the decline of German TKD competitiveness during the mid-1980s. These Germans had been the moving forces behind regulating TKD administrations. In Southern Germany. the study of the formative years of TKD in Germany revealed that the roots for the peculiar development of TKD in Germany were seeded at the very beginning. Conclusion First. the study of the socio-cultural situation for European combat sports and East Asian martial arts in Germany revealed that TKD has endured a radical image change during the past four decades. further socio-cultural as well as psychological data should be gained on this subject to confirm the hypothesis. it is concluded that the image change of TKD from the 1970s to the 1990s resulted in a significant shift from more competitive to less competitive participants engaging in TKD. from about 40% at the early 1980s to about 70% in 2008. Olympic TKD is regarded a rather beneficial method of physical exercise suitable for the whole family than a potentially dangerous combat sport similar to boxing. Conclusion & Recommendation 1. After TKD became a family-friendly Olympic event with obligatory head protectors in order to minimize health risks at competitions. and the ratio of children grew dramatically. Therefore. In . or to refute it. including jumping-twisting kicks and stone-breaking knife-hand strikes (and actually being used in physical confrontations in secret-service missions during the late 1960s and for guarding purposes against North Korean threads in the early 1980s). In Germany of today. Originally introduced to Germany as a tough martial exercise featuring the most spectacular fighting moves.177 - . VI.

lays the clear focus on high-level athletic competitions. on the other hand. two factors being a prerequisite for international high-level athletic competitiveness of any kind had been fulfilled in German TKD at first: state-of-the-art training conditions and instructors. Fourth. and who were primarily interested in making a living with their art. whereas the main German TKD administration. With a sense for the politically feasible. the Deutsche Taekwondo Union (DTU). task-oriented administration taking care of these conditions on athlete’s behalf. the more apparent became the decline of German TKD. Only future research could clarify this case. is only marginally supported. the available data did not unanimously support the elevation of this coincidence into a causal relation. the study of the circumstances of the rise and decline of Germany’s TKD successes in the 1970s and 1980s showed that amongst others. or TKD as mass sports. as was shown before. However. and a stable. Third. The clear majority of people interested in TKD in . while in Southern Germany. the analysis of the situation of German TKD after the German reunification showed the widening gap between TKD as elite sports and TKD as recreational activity. Germans opened several formal organizations built up by public TKD clubs run by Germans to establish similar international connections. the study also showed that the more these factors got corrupted. They established direct connections to international TKD organizations bypassing controlling German administrations.178 - . This DTU strategy is contradictory to the general tendency of the German people to assess TKD mainly as a recreational activity. Moreover. they were quick in switching to another connection if this promised to be more useful.North-Western Germany. while most of the Korean TKD masters in Germany were increasingly reluctant against ongoing reforms by the new TKD rulers in Korea and started to value their traditional connections. The concept of TKD for all. TKD was brought along as an extra of Koreans who happened to stay in Germany.

Germany are not looking for a stone-breaking combat sport rewarding aggressive fighting skills. or at least less frequent hikes. or enhanced website appearances revealing the revisionist history of TKD and the true purposes behind its concealment. as it might have been 20 or 30 years ago (cf. especially for the many participating children and the youth. such as fitness. and TKD in Germany is not attracting the outstanding fighting talents as during the Bruce Lee-boom of the 1970s any longer. most of all. light. And a rise in members would also be beneficial for the elite sports section.e. 2. wood-breaking strikes and kicks. This would mean more financial engagement in TKD for the masses and less focus on TKD as elite sports. The leading TKD administrations. fun. they most probably look for other qualities. which should result in lesser annual fees for ordinary members. especially for silver sports. It could also be used for events with an educational purpose for ordinary members.or even zero-contact sparring. such as special Taekkyon courses to teach German TKD enthusiasts the difference between the two Korean martial arts. But it could reasonably be expected that during the coming few . and as a joyful leisure time activity. aesthetic forms.179 - . the DTU. times are changing. Surely this would result in an increase in the number of members. i. artistic moves. The German TKD administrations cannot change the situation of highly specialized TKD athletes training on professional levels in other countries which have surpassed Germany on the international medal ranks. These days. and at best risk-free. Also. first of all because many of the latest separatist TKD organizations would lose their ground. should emphasize more the role of TKD as a recreational tool. Recommendation This leads to the first recommendation for the further transition of TKD in Germany. Goldner 1992). self-defense.

decades, TKD will undergo further developments on the global scale, and one of them
might be the merger of the main international TKD governing bodies, since sports-
political constraints are no longer prohibiting such possibilities.

That would enable the integration of all forms and sparring styles of TKD into one
administration, similar to the integration of different fighting styles in wrestling and
fencing. From a pure athletic viewpoint, there is no reason why the different TKD styles
should remain separated. The main obstacle against a merger seem to be power games
between the world TKD bodies acting as lobby groups in the interest of their directors.
Thus, it could be predicted that from that very moment on when such power political
restraints fall apart, hyong and poomsae, and semi- and full-contact sparring styles
quickly get reunited.

Therefore, the second recommendation for German TKD would be that its
administrations ought to show greater willingness for mutual cooperation, to get an
advantageous edge in case of a future merger of WTF and ITF TKD. Both the DTU and
the ITF-D could remember their history of proud independence towards the international
governing TKD bodies – rejection of Choi Hong-hi’s offers in the 1970s and partly
successful trial to beat Kim Un-yong’s power grip on European TKD in the 1970s and
80s – and start working together more closely, instead of trying to ignore each other. It
would be nothing than advantageous for the greater benefit of TKD in Germany, and
probably a signal world-wide.

It would also be beneficial from the perspective of the athletes. Many fighting talents
competing for one of the administration’s competition teams could be interested in
getting closer experience with the “wrong” fighting style. It could turn out that some
would do better with the one style they currently never experienced deeply. And that
would clearly lead to better competition results.

- 180 -

Finally, this would also have a beneficial effect on new member recruitment. A
reunified TKD featuring a variety of forms and sparring styles would much better fit to
people’s expectations about East Asian martial arts in Germany. The most apparent
disadvantage for such a move would be the probable lacking of qualified hyong or zero-
and semi-contact sparring expertise in many DTU TKD clubs, similar, in some respects,
to the lacking of TKD in former East Germany at all. But the DTU already proofed that
they can handle such a situation, so, why don’t give it a try a second time?

- 181 -


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Germany’s third WTF World Champion of 1987 (heavyweight). Long-time president of NWTU (1984~2002). 26 July 2006 Hans. Dieter general of DTU (1989~1992. 6 August 2009 Peter responsible for media affairs in the DTU in 1993 and since 2003. former secetary. (E-Mail) Ferdinand Jebramcik. Jung. 31 July 2007 Dirk successor of Park Soo-nam as national head coach (1985~1988) (Berlin) 190 See www. later 6 August 2009 Michael in charge of adidas’ engagement in TKD in Germany (Nuremberg) 22 January 2009 passed away in 2009 (both in Dortmund) Dr. 19 February 2007.192 - . . 2006~2009 (in alphabetical order) Interviewee Description Date (Location) Arndt.taekwondodata. one 10 August 2006. Germany’s second WTF World Champion of 1982 (heavyweight). (Munich) owner and operator of the TKD information website Taekwondo Data190 Ferger. an expert in Korean-German 21 August 2008 Edwin relations (Cologne) Gatzweiler. German TKD pioneer since 1964 and famous DTU club coach. long-time official photographer for Taekwondo Aktuell and the DTU. 1998~1999). Interviews Appendix Table: Interviews and other Interrogations. accessed on 10 December 2009. long-time official 6 August 2009 Konstantin Taekwondo Aktuell correspondent and critical observer of German (Munich) TKD Hunkel. Bavaria-based TKD pioneer since 1967. former DTU and NWTU official. Gerd of the first two official German TKD dan grade holders 22 January 2009 (both in Essen) Gil.

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국제태권도시합에서 획득한 메달 집계를 볼 때.[국문요약] 태권도의 독일 유입과 변천 (1960년부터 2000년까지) 쿠클린스키-리 토마스 한국체육대학교 대학원 체육학과 독일 태권도의 경기스포츠로서의 위상은 1988년 서울 올림픽을 앞두고 극 적으로 변모하였다. 1990년대 이후로는 국제랭킹에서 부수적인 역할에 그치고 있다.194 - . 1980년대 초 독일은 종주국인 한국에 바로 뒤이어 2 위의 위상에 있었다. . 독일이 태권 도에 있어서 위상을 상실하고 다시 되찾지 못하고 있는 데에는 어떤 요인에 기인하는 것인가? 본 연구로부터 다음과 같은 네 개의 결론과 이에 따르는 두 개의 제안에 도달하였다. 이에 반해.

타 격투스포츠와의 사회-문화적 비교연구를 통하여.195 - . 이는 80년대 이래 독일 태권도의 경기력약화현상을 부분적으로 설 명해 주기도 한다. 이후로는 경기스포츠 분야에서 뛰어난 성과를 나타내었다. 이에 반해 ITF-D는 두 가지 요인 모두에서 해결책을 획득하였고. 독일에서 태권도 는 그 이미지에 있어서 근본적인 변화가 있었다는 것이 밝혀졌다. 1980년대 경기스포츠 분야에서의 태권도의 성과에 관한 연구 결과. 과거의 이미지보 다는 오늘날의 이미지가 더 많은 스포츠인들을 태권도로 유인하는 것으로 보 여지는데. 또한 태권 도는 대중스포츠라는 독일사회에 뿌리내린 사회-문화적 인식에도 부응하고 있지 못하고 있는 실상이다. 이는 독일 태권도선수들의 취약한 경기성과와도 부합되지 않으며. 독일 초창기 태권도의 연구를 통해 두 개의 상이한 역사적 근원에 도달하였다: 남부독일 주둔의 미합중국의 군인과 노르트라인-베스트팔렌주의 한국인 광부가 그들이다. 태권도는 1970년대의 극도로 격렬하고 현란한 격투술이란 인식에서 출발하여. 30년이 지난 2000년대에는 회원의 70%가 미성년자로 이루어진 가족친화적인 올림픽 경기종목이라는 이미지에로의 인식의 전환을 이루어내었다. 셋째. 경기성과의 저하는 외적인 요인(다른 나라의 태권도경기력의 전문화) 외에도 내적인 요인(DTU 지도부의 부실운영)이 있었음을 보여 주었으며. 이는 현재 까지도 그 영향을 미치고 있다. 최근 동향을 분석한 결과 DTU는 태권도를 전문경기스포츠의 측면에 치중하여 지원하고 있으며 이에 따라 일반인을 대상으로 하는 저변이 넓은 대중스포츠로서의 측면을 상대적으로 소홀히 하고 있는 것으로 판명되었다. 이들의 상이한 삶의 조건과 상이한 동기의식으로부 터 독일 태권도의 두 개의 상이한 태권도 전통이 형성되어갔으며. . 넷째. 첫째. 둘째. 이 현상은 1990년대를 통해 더욱 심화되어 경기스포츠 차원에서의 명백한 실패로 그 결 과가 드러나게 되었다.

주요어 : 태권도. 이렇게 한다면 태권도로 분명히 더 많은 신규 회원들의 유입이 일어 날 것이며 이는 결과적으로 경기스포츠적인 차원에서도 강화를 가져올 것이 다. 독일태권도.196 - . 상호 협조적으로 교환하고 공동작업을 강 화해 나감으로써 유익함을 창출해 나갈 수 있을 것이다. 두 번째 제안은 세계태권도연맹 (WTF: World Taekwondo Federation)과 국제태 권도연맹(ITF: International Taekwondo Federation)이 장차에는 펜싱과 레슬링이 그러하였던 것처럼 서로서로 접근하여 서로 상이한 스타일을 하나의 스포츠 로 통합할 수도 있다는 가정을 전제로 제시해 보는 것이다: 독일의 태권도 단체들은 서로를 견원시하는 대신. 독일체육사. 이로부터 독일 태권도를 위한 첫 번째 제안이 나온다: 독일에서 태권도는 건강증진활동 및 여가활동으로서의 가치를 더욱더 뚜렷하게 부각시켜야 할 것이다. 세계태권도연맹 .