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태권도의 독일유입과 변천 (1960 ~ 2000)
Introduction and Transition of Taekwondo in Germany (1960 ~ 2000)
체 육 학 과
지도교수 하 웅 용
2010 년 2 월
태권도의 독일유입과 변천 (1960 ~ 2000)
Introduction and Transition of Taekwondo in Germany (1960 ~ 2000)
체 육 학 과
이 논문을 박사학위 논문으로 제출함
지도교수 하 웅 용
2010 년 2 월
Abstract Introduction and Transition of Taekwondo in Germany (1960~2000)
Kuklinski-Rhee, Thomas Department of Physical Education Graduate School of Korea National Sport University Ha, Woong-yong
Prior to the 1988 Seoul Olympics, the German competitiveness in TKD faced dramatic changes. While ranking on second place after Korea at the beginning of the 1980s (in terms of gained international medals), Germany plays just a marginal role in competition TKD since the 1990s. Which factors could be made responsible for Germany’s decline in Taekwondo competitiveness, and why was the German TKD administration not able to compensate for the loss? In this current study, these and related questions were pursued by means of social historiography. For this, different time periods were examined, such as the formative years of Taekwondo in Germany during the 1960s; the formation and developments of the most important German TKD associations during the 1970s and 1980s (e.g., Deutsche Taekwondo Union, DTU; International Taekwondo Federation-Deutschland, ITF-D); and the effects of the German Reunification of 1990 on TKD, together with the prospects of TKD as an official Olympic event during the 1990s. Furthermore, the current socio-cultural position of TKD in Germany was tried to determine by comparisons with other Asian martial arts (Jujutsu, Judo, Karate, Aikido) as well as various European combat sports (Boxing, Fencing, Wrestling). Research objects and tools included magazine articles, books, the internet and one-on-one interviews with acknowledged experts of TKD in Germany.
The study resulted in four conclusions and two recommendations. First, the socio-cultural comparisons with related martial arts and combat sports revealed that TKD had endured a radical image change in Germany. While TKD was regarded as an extremely effective and spectacularly artistic fighting system in the 1970s, it became a family-friendly entertaining Olympic event with a ratio of 70% underaged members 30 years afterwards. It could be assumed that the modern TKD image is attracting a different kind of athletes than the old one, which in return could explain partly the decline of German TKD athlete’s competitiveness since the 1980s. Second, the examination into the formative years of TKD in Germany discovered two different sources: U.S. GIs stationed in Southern Germany and Korean coal miners working in hard coal pits in North Rhine-Westphalia. Their different living situations and motivations resulted in two different habits in German TKD which determined the transition of TKD in Germanz in the 1980s and 1990s. Third, the analysis of the athletic records in TKD in the 1980s showed that the decline in competitiveness beared external factors, such as professionalization of TKD in other countries, as well as internal factors, such as mismanagement of the DTU’s directors. Both factors sustained and reinforced each other during the 1990s, leading to particular disappointing athletic achievements. The ITF-D, on the other side, was able to manage both kinds of factors during the 1990s and gained top athletic results in return. Fourth, the analysis of the latest developments revealed that the DTU has laid its primary focus on the support of TKD as elite sports, while widely ignoring the prospects of TKD as recreational and leisure sport. This stood not only in sharp contradiction to the disappointing athletic results of German TKD competitors, but also to the socio-cultural image of TKD in Germany as an activity for the whole family. This led to the first recommendation. German TKD should lay more emphasize on the importance of TKD as a recreational activity, e.g. for the silver generation, as well as on TKD as a joyful leisure time program, especially for children and the
eventually leading to unifying the different TKD styles into one umbrella administration. Keywords : Taekwondo. the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) and the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). The second recommendation was based on the assumption that the two world governing TKD bodies. would probably approach each other more closely in the future. similar to the situations in fencing or wrestling. which would also have beneficial effects on elite sports TKD. instead of regularly applying mutual ignorance. German Taekwondo. The German TKD associations could already gain a competitive edge by actively seeking more cooperation.youth. TKD would most probably experience a raise of members. In that case. German Sports History .
Secondary Literature ······················································· 17 4. Combat Sports ································································ 46 2.1. Limitations of the Study ················································· 11 4.3. Resume ·············································································· 57 .i- . Fencing ·············································································· 55 2. Origins of Taekwondo in Korea until 1965 ························· 33 1.2.4. Introduction ··································································· 1 1. Taekwondo and other Korean Martial Arts in Korea ········· 31 1.Table of Contents Ⅰ. Socio-cultural Background for Taekwondo in Germany ····· 29 1. Objectives of the Study ··················································· 9 3. Struggling for a modernized Taekwondo ···························· 42 2. Purpose of the Study ······················································· 1 2. Boxing ··············································································· 52 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124. Research Method ·························································· 14 4. Original Documents ························································· 14 4.1. Research Plan ······························································ 28 II. Interviews ······································································ 27 5. Taekwondo in Korea since 1965 ······································· 39 1. Wrestling ··········································································· 49 2.2.1. Combat Sports and Martial Arts in Germany ···················· 46 2.1.
2.4. The "Oh-Do-Kwan" in Munich ····································· 108 5.2. Jujutsu ··············································································· 62 2. Karate ················································································ 72 2.3.ii - .2. Martial Arts ···································································· 60 2. Resume ·············································································· 78 3.2.2. The Official Introduction of Taekwondo in 1965 ············· 104 3. How Taekwondo Entered Germany (1960~1965) ··········· 100 1. A Lonely Student's Efforts in 1960 ······························· 110 IV.2.1. Judo ··················································································· 66 2.2. Korean Migrant Workers in West Germany ······················ 86 3. Administrational Effort for Taekwondo in Germany (1964~1990) ···························································· 113 126.96.36.199. Labor Migration in West Germany ····································· 86 3. Aikido ················································································ 76 2. "Korean Karate" in Garmisch-Partenkirchen ·················· 106 4. Korean Migrant Workers ·················································· 91 III.2. The Struggle for a Proper German Taekwondo Administration (1964~1971) ······························································ 114 . Korean Migrant Workers Teaching "Korean Karate" in their Spare Time ································································ 101 2.
Disparity ························································· 135 3. ZeroContact Competition System ············································· 148 3. Taekwondo in East Germany ········································ 154 V.3.5. Struggles for Dominance ················································ 124 2.2. Conflicts and Problems Within the German Taekwondo Community ································································· 139 3.iii - .1.2. Problem I: Lack of Korean Taekwondo Masters ··············· 139 3.1. Conflict Line II: Full-Contact vs.3. Semi-Contact vs. Power Struggles in the South ·········································· 117 1. Taekwondo in Reunified Germany (since 1989) ·············· 155 1. Unity vs.1. Unification in Sports ······················································ 159 .2. Problem II: Commercial Taekwondo Schools ···················· 144 3. Conflict Line I: North vs. Unexpected Problems ···················································· 120 2. Political Reunification ···················································· 157 1.1. German Sports Unification since 1990 ··························· 157 1.2. Inner Conflicts Within the ITF-D ····································· 151 4.4.1. The Struggle for a Self-Governed German Taekwondo Administration (1971~1981) ··········································124 2. Lack of Effort in the Center ············································ 114 1. Struggles for Independence ············································ 131 2. South ······································· 144 3.3.
Conclusion ································································· 177 2. Taekwondo: elite sports vs.3. Athletic Taekwondo Achievements during the 1990s ········ 165 2. Situation for Taekwondo and other East Asian Martial Arts 163 1.1. Conclusion & Recommendation ···································· 177 1.1. Internal Power Struggles in the DTU ······························· 174 VI. Recommendation ························································· 179 Bibliography ···································································· 182 Interviews ······································································· 192 국문요약 ·········································································· 194 .2. The impact of the WTF on the DTU during the 1990s ······· 168 2.3. Taekwondo in Reunified Germany: from Unity to Disparity 167 2.4.iv - . recreational activity ·············· 170 2.
see the “Appendix Table: Interviews and other Interrogations. from now on. it is one of Germany’s less successful Olympic sports. TKD)1 was a demonstration sport for the first time. Which factors could be detected as being responsible for the sudden decline of German TKD competitiveness. While Germany had been the runner-up after Korea in terms of medals won at the top international tournaments at the beginning of the 1980s. 2 This was pointed out in several interviews. for example. in 1985. as was shown by Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). is spelled Taekwondo. But a closer look reveals that the problems in the German TKD competition teams already began when Park was still in charge. Jung (2007). and Arndt (2009). 2006~2009” at the end of this study. Modern Olympic TKD promoted by the World Taekwondo Federation. the fact that Park was reinstalled as national head coach just for the TKD event at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. Park Soo-nam. For more details about the interviews and interviewees.1- . . including Wolfer (2007). Purpose of the Study Around the time of the 1988 Seoul Olympics where the Korean martial art Taekwondo (태권도. hanja 跆拳道.Ⅰ Introduction 1. the successes of the German TKD competition teams went through dramatic changes. Since TKD became an official event at the Olympics. one factor was the stepping-back of the successful head coach of the German TKD teams. while the more traditionally oriented International Taekwondo Federation prefers to type Taekwon-Do. it plays only a marginal role at international TKD competitions since the 1990s. a competition that went 1 This abbreviation has the benefit that it covers the various TKD styles promoted by different federations. and for the fact that Germany was not able to recover afterwards? According to Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007).2 Moreover. usage of the abbreviation “TKD” seems more practicable. Exceptions will be made for headings and the names of federations and events. In spite of constantly deciding to spell this word with or without a hyphen.
Several TKD masters were among these migrant workers.3 Therefore. But according to Kim Un-yong. That result was especially disappointing for another athlete. “with more than two-thirds of the instructors teaching in the United States. they could sum up to more than 300 Korean TKD instructors in West Germany in the 1970s. but surprisingly. Given an even ratio. Overall. but not more than one match was won by a German athlete (Markus Woznicki). who had won the WTF World Championships (heavyweight) in the previous year.6% of all instructors were supposed to teach in Germany. reveals that it was not just his physical presence that guaranteed Germany’s successes during his regular term from 1976~1985. Moreover. Michael Arndt. which summed up to about eight thousand until 1980.largely disappointing for the Germans. in 1965.2- . . it took several years with no major developments of administrative structures. This whole situation seems especially odd considered the fact that at the time TKD was officially introcuced to Europe. but at that time. eight German male and four female athletes competed in TKD. and West Germany” (Gillis. such as 3 At the 1988 Seoul Olympics. one-third of 66. which would be more than 160 instructors. 4 Estimations about concrete figures must remain vague. Since 1963. most Korean masters in Germany followed the competing world governing TKD body. and many of them settled in West Germany to teach their martial art after their three-year working contracts ran out. thus 22. It would be natural to assume that these men formed a network which would later evolve into one of the first German governing TKD bodies. the facts contradict this hypothesis. perhaps more than all of them combined 4 . a total of 721 TKD instructors taught in 48 countries in 1975. 2008: 128). Instead.2% of 721. West Germany already hosted more Korean TKD instructors than any other European country. the purpose of this current study was to determine the remaining factors enabling the explanation of the decline of German TKD competitiveness during the 1980s and the German’s failed attempts to recover afterwards. this figure would cover only the instructors affiliated to the World Taekwondo Federation. South Korean migrant workers had come to West Germany working in coal mines. the International Taekwondo Federation. Canada.
6 Another major association. the process that German TKD enthusiasts took over the administration in Germany before it worked efficiently happened. and about two dozen more minor associations and association-like administrations. DTU). the German branch of the main ITF (ITF- 5 As holding the position of national TKD head coach from 1976~1985. on a personal level. Heinz Marx. which would probably have included some influence on the administration. Park was hired by the directors who were running the administration.944 registered members in 877 clubs in . the German Taekwondo Union (Deutsche Taekwondo Union. in a very similar fashion. However. covers about two thirds of all clubs. within the German branches of the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) and the International Taewondo Federation (ITF).3- . at least twice.5 A gross estimation about the current situation of TKD in Germany would sum up to a maximum of 100. Moreover. This odd behavior that Korean TKD masters refrain from ruling over local TKD enthusiasts could hardly be found in other countries and demands an extra explanation in respect of the situation of Koreans within the German society.conducting referee’s training courses. until the first generation of native German black belts was ready to take the lead in administrating this Korean sport in Germany. His rule was on the national competition teams only. which is affiliated to the ruling world body.000 practitioners in about one thousand public sports clubs and private sports schools. not on the direction German TKD should take. he was befriended with the long-time president of the administration. Park Soo-nam could be seen as a possible exception from this rule. without being a director by himself. Yet as a payed coach. respectively. the DTU featured exactly 59. The hugest of them. setting up a national competition team and organizing national and international tournaments. They are currently distributed over three different main. while such a development could be regarded as sheer coincidence with no major relevance. the WTF. schools and members. 6 According to the latest statistics.
ITF-D. while the other two have only two (Chang Ung) or about a dozen (Choi Jung-hwa) member clubs in Germany (interview Weiler. is related to the one affiliated to the Tran Trieu Quan-ITF.itf-d. For the sake of clarity. thus taking several . Kwon-affiliated TKD schools are usually commercial enterprises. there are at least three different ITF organizations: one headed by North Korean IOC member Chang Ung. The main German ITF branch is affiliated to the third one of these organization. schools and members.4- . 2008: 7).Deutschland. However. which tend to register more people than the public DTU and ITF-D TKD clubs. with three additional clubs which failed to give the exact number of their members.000 members in about 66 TKD schools. the ITF-D covered 87 clubs and schools with a sum of 3528 members. ITF-D). mostly run as commercial enterprises. all further comments about the German ITF branch. 7 Currently. 8 According to the minutes of the general meeting on 1 November 2008. Choi Jung-hwa. which makes this figure sound unrealistic.traditionelles-taekwondo.de. the Kwon Jae-hwa Black Belt Center. this official ratio of 68 1/3 members per TKD club should be used as a basis for further estimations. LSB). and a third one headed by Tran Trieu Quan. several students of Kwon’s had opened their own TKD schools and had left the Kwon association after a while. However. 9 Beyer (2005: 18) specifies the number of Kwon-affiliated clubs and schools as 60. The other two ITF branches are widely ignored in this study.9 2008 (DOSB. It should also be noted that over the years. with a total of about 15. another one headed by Choi Hong-hi’s son. which are often omitted in official reports by public clubs in order to pay less fees to the superardinate federation.com and www. see the Kwon Jaehwa Taekwon-Do websites at www. because public clubs have to pay fees for their registered members to the regional umbrella organization (Landessportbund. 2007). its headquarter is located in Fort Lauderdale in Florida. 8 And up to 15. they would contribute to another few hundreds TKD participants. The minutes are available on the official ITF-D website at www.kwonjaehwa-taekwondo. this would be an average ratio of 250 participants per club and school.de. both accessed on 18 December 2009. far more than in the DTU and ITF-D. On the other side.000 members. plus one in Austria and one in Switzerland. this would be an average ratio of about 40. accessed on 18 December 2009. are associated with the private international association of TKD pioneer Kwon Jae-hwa.5 members per club or school. about 5-10% of unregistered participants should be added. a more recent online research reveals 66 schools in Germany affiliated to the Kwon association.7 sums up to about five to ten percent of the clubs. To get a more realistic number.
Lee Academy is mainly selling Haidong Gumdo (해동검도). The remaining amount of TKD practitioners. The sum of those TKD practitioners might sum up to about one thousand. called Dr. the first 20 Hyong (형. without formal registration to a German sports association. Sometimes. remains reserved for the day South and North Korea get reunited. The final Hyong. Lee Academy website. and thus without official counting of their members. 10 also. their respected figures can be estimated only vaguely. One of the most prominent Korean TKD masters of this kind is Lee Keun-tae. the DTU features Poomsae (품새.sport-dr-lee. grandmasters and instructors residing in Germany. who runs a network of commercial schools in North-Western Germany (and. Actually. the Dr. but their affiliated schools are also offering . Also. hanja 統). 11 See the Dr. while the ITF-D features Tul (틀) and semi-contact sparring with hand and feet protectors. postures and movements are different. According to the rules of their superordinated international organizations. resulting in athletic zero-contact matches which are often criticized as unrealistic (Capener 1995). hanja 品勢) and full-contact sparring with chest and head protectors.de. since German reunification. Many Korean TKD masters. Tong-il (통일. they are forming tiny networks across their own TKD clubs and schools. however. The Kwon organization features a similar dobok style and terminology as the ITF-D. also in Eastern Germany). clubs and schools is divided across a growing number of organizations and networks. schools. dobok style and the Korean terminology for techniques. only the first 19 Hyong are actually performed.TKD in these three organizations is very different. and clubs. for example. 10 Usually. accessed on 19 December 2009. sparring style with abandonment of substantial protective gear is supposed to be more essential. in forms and sparring style. where TKD and several other martial arts can be trained.5- . Lee Academy. a less elaborate way is promoted. Within the Kwon association.11 Another one would hundreds of members with them. www. hanja 形) General Choi Hong-hi originally developed are practiced. are personally affiliated to the WTF or the ITF.
the International Budo Organization. the International Taekwon-do and Budosport Federation and many more. it would be a reasonable guess that these and other groups cover a few dozen TKD clubs and schools. the International Martial Arts Federation. 12 See the International Son Jong Ho Classic Taekwondo Federation website. 12 Although concrete figures about membership can hardly be estimated. Kung Fu. 7 in Austria. and with rising intensity since 2000. the Global Taekwondo Federation Germany. Kuksoolwon (국술원. According to this website. Some examples of these new organizations are the European Taekwondo Federation (ETF). the DTU. Originally. 4 in Italy and 2 in Switzerland affiliated to the Son Jong-ho organization. a Hapkido style).be Son Jong-ho. Beginning in the mid-1990s.de. and given an average membership ratio per school or club. Many of these schools and clubs remain independent since then. the Korean Lee Keun-tae started with TKD. forming a loose connection to other so-called Independent Single Dojangs (ISD). which are sometimes affiliated to the ITF or WTF independently. the World Association of Martial Artistry.6- . sometimes consisting of not more than one single club or school. who is operating several clubs in Southern Germany. Many others established new organizations. this would sum up to one to five percent of all German TKD practitioners.classic-taekwondo. the Federation of International Taekwondo in Germany. and others. thanks to an associated Korean TKD master with useful personal connections. the International Mu-do Federation. several native German TKD masters and instructors dissented from further participation at the German WTF-affiliated TKD body. www. the International Budo Association. accessed on 19 December 2009. after severe disagreements about the direction German TKD was taking. . there are 11 TKD clubs in Germany. with no concrete figures about members.
de. And finally. sometimes performing techniques and forms practically identical to those in old-school TKD. these organizations do not formally offer TKD lessons. . and the Jin Jung Kwan Hapkido Federation Germany. for example.de. www. Estimations about the respected amounts of practitioners of all these new groups are virtually impossible. www. hanja 唐手道) and Korean Karate.taekkyon. the German Hapkido Federation website. www.And finally.7- . a German Taekkyon (택 견) master who learned the native Korean martial art in Korea is offering Taekkyon classes and training courses all over Germany. other Korean martial arts with some connection to TKD also cover several thousand practitioners. hanja 合氣道) organizations. But it just mirrors the situations of other East Asian 13 See.dtsdv.14 They are usually filled with TKD practitioners.de.13 it is not unusual for a Hapkido club or school also offering TKD lessons. an unidentified number of practitioners of early predecessors of TKD. see also the Association for Traditional Budo Sports. Such a confusing situation could not be found in other Olympic sports in Germany. all websites accessed on 19 December 2009. See. for example. and thus could raise many questions. 14 15 See the website of the German Taekkyon Circle.koreanischeskarate. an unidentified number of people are practicing TKD at public middle and high schools and leisure-time University sports programs without formal association to any sports organization. and the German Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan association.15 To be clear.hapkido-germany.tangsoodo. but may also sum up to about one to five percent of all active German TKD practitioners.org. are organized in several associations in Germany. Most of those participants could be found in the different German Hapkido (합기도. roughly since the 1980s. www. but also joined by practitioners of Brazilian Capoeira.de. clubs and schools. the websites of the German Tangsoodo Federation. But both instructors and participants often have a TKD background.jinjungkwan.deutsche-hapkido-federation. www. Since 2002. http://germany. www. Furthermore. like Tangsoodo (당수도. all websites accessed on 19 December 2009.de.de. German Hapkido Association website. accessed on 19 December 2009.
are even not represented by a dominating administration in Germany. The current situation with about two dozen TKD organizations in Germany emerged successively during the last ten to fifteen years. but most of them summed up into ITF-affiliated federations.8- . like the ITF-D (mentioned above). DSB) was renamed in 2006 after merger with the German National Olympic Committee. was nearly down. Therefore. . 16 are represented by one huge major association with DOSB affiliation. Some remained independent. Others. the ITF-D. accessed on 1 December 2009. the German Olympic Sports Confederation (Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund. and the only competitor. Before that. Judo (柔道). the four other East Asian martial arts officially acknowledged by the top German sports umbrella. Jujutsu (柔術). The first separation of individuals and groups from the main German TKD administration happened during the establishing of a proper WTF-affiliated association. a few went abroad. it is a reference to today’s DOSB. see the DOSB website. shortly DOSB). the process of establishment of the DTU and the immediate reactions it provoked. the DTU was the universally present TKD representative. for instance. whenever the DSB is mentioned in this study.martial arts in Germany. in 1981. like Muay Thai.dosb. also deserve careful examinations. which can be observed until today. Therefore. or the German TKD Federation (Deutscher TKD Bund. and one to several minor associations which are officially ignored. Karate (空手) and Aikido (合気道). www. the DTU.de. What had happened since then? Which processes caused the explosive diversity of TKD organizations in Germany since TKD got Olympic (in 1988) and Germany got reunited (in 1990)? 16 The former German Sports Confederation (Deutscher Sportbund. Kickboxing and the several Chinese Kung Fu styles. DTB). Several Korean TKD masters did not want to be formally associated to the WTF and left the DTU.
While these processes led to the development of an internationally highly competitive West German TKD scene on one side.9- . as well as an exploration of the socio-political situation related to Korean migrant workers and other foreigners living in Germany around the time of the official introduction of TKD in 1965. This step covered the years before and after the official introduction of TKD in Germany in 1965. Third. This was required to provide a basis for understanding of subsequent processes. both for the German WTF and ITF branches. This step included examinations of particular conflict lines within the German TKD scene and the process of the formal establishment of the German ITF branch. the same processes resulted in growing discontent by members. It closed with the final resurrection of DTU's competitiveness and the realization of the need for structural reforms around the time of the 1988 Seoul Olympics. Fourth. Second. the German reunification proved to be a heavy burden for . This step included an examination about the actual socio-cultural position of other East Asian martial arts and European combat sports for comparable issues. from the time Korean and American martial arts experts residing in Germany started to teach TKD on their own efforts until the sustainable establishment of the main TKD association led by native Germans. the impact of the German reunification and the aftermath on TKD in Germany. examinations of the crucial decisions and actions in the establishment and further development of the ruling German TKD body. Contrary to most other sports. an examination about the formative years of TKD in Germany. the DTU. First. determination of the socio-cultural position of TKD in Germany.2. schools and clubs about the direction the main organization was heading at on the other side. Objectives of the Study The study followed four objectives.
Especially. the DTU.the main TKD organization. . In some respects. like the ITF’s and others. The study closed with four conclusions about the examined subjects and two recommendations for the future transition of TKD in Germany. the DTU’s responses to these challenges harmed the further development of Olympic TKD in Germany.10 - . much to the benefit of non-Olympic TKD styles. the divergence of TKD as leisure and recreational sport and TKD as elite sport started to become a major issue. where increasing pressure from outside and existing as well as newly emerging inner conflict lines reinforced each other.
many of the German TKD proponents of the early days (including the majority of persons interviewed for this study) were still vivid and actually engaged in several activities during the period of this study. But West Germany was the only European country both groups were located at that time. even before this official introduction. 17 this study was focused on the proceedings of TKD in Germany. Second. This danger could adequately be handled by trying to confirm or refuse allegations by external validation efforts. but with a stronger political habit of guiding others in the direction of their own opinions. even earlier TKD practitioners could be found.11 - . the possibility remained that. .3. Some of them did not want their actual lifes getting interfered with old stories. a Korean student at another European country’s university started practicing Korean Karate even before this happened in Germany. Limitations of the study First. for example. such odd possibilities need not furtherly be examined. Contrary to them. it might be found some day that somewhere else in Europe. others with less important first-hand experiences. with only rare additional views beyond the border. based on the justified assumption that West Germany was the first European country where TKD was introduced. which was later called TKD. Herein lays the systematic danger that the results of the research about the past might be biased in one respect or another. But since it was generally acknowledged that West Germany was the spearhead of European TKD until the mid-1980s and that the evidences of earlier traces of TKD in other European countries would not affect the main results of this study. were sometimes more willing to share their views. so they might have felt some reluctance to comment on several aspects relevant to the proceeding of TKD in Germany. old problems and old clashes from the past. thus. yet Korean migrant workers as well as American GIs in Germany had taught Korean Karate. However. Therefore. by means of identifying supportive 17 The rationale for this assumption was that officially. TKD was introduced to Europe in 1965.
many personal visits to Germany had been necessary throughout a period of three years. secondary literature and interviews were used as compensations. especially of the top athletes of the national competition teams. which could be conducted much easier from within the country than from abroad. Fourth. Therefore. Those factors would probably bear significant explanational values. but in the hands of individual persons. successful research in this field meant access to those documents. especially including comparable social data in these fields. where as much data was collected and as many connections were established as possible. the German Olympic Sports Confederation. as could be illustrated by the fact that the top athletes of the first and second generation of German TKD competitors were often native Germans situated on a higher educational level and occupying a higher social position. and the amount of this access was a function of time and energy devoted into appeasing those subjects. Third. such as nationalities. original documents about the formative years of TKD in Germany and later periods were rare and usually not accessible in public museums or archives. while the top athletes of the .12 - .or contradictory facts and documents. odd allegations were not taken too seriously. and family as well as educational backgrounds of the participants. social positions. Otherwise. private schools and public clubs and associations. These data distinguished between age groups and sexes. the comparative part in this study was based mainly on the basic statistics provided by the official German sports body. there was just a very limited amount of academic literature about East Asian martial arts and similar areas of sports. but were omitting several other social factors. Consequently. Thus. Where the access to original documents could not be enabled.
such as Mohammed Ebnoutalib. though it would most probably add extra explanational value which could not be provided in this study.13 - . Wolfgang Dahmen. future social research on this topic would strongly be admired. since 2000) was virtually dominated by athletes of a foreigner’s origin. that trace could not be followed in this study. . some aspects of the situation and development of TKD in Germany might have remained untouched on this level of research and might be discovered in further examinations. and Pinar Budak. such as Musa Cicek. Dirk Jung. Aziz Acharki. Levent Tuncat. this current study could not claim to reveal the complete truthful picture about all aspects of the historical processing. from native Germans to Germans with a foreigner’s background and from higher-level educated athletes to athletes on a more average level. Therefore. top athletes of the third generation (roughly. statements and conclusions. and might as well interfere with some of its assumptions. top athletes of the first generation (roughly. Therefore. Georg Streif. athletes of the 1980s) would include Reinhard Langer. CEO Michael Arndt. given the small basis of previous studies in this field plus the limited access to original documents for a researcher from abroad. was also stressed by Gilbert Kapkowski as a general tendency in German TKD (interview G. Kapkowski. the 1990s) would include a rising amount of persons with a foreigner’s background. and since it would have been far beyond the scope of this study to gain that kind of information by extra social research. Dr. Moreover. 18 For example. could interfere with some of the allegations raised in this study. Faissal Ebnoutalib. Rainer Müller. complete statistical coverages of this kind were missing. although it would have been a topic of significant interest. second-generation’s top athletes (roughly. in turn.18 However. and the fourth generation (roughly. but should be regarded as a first step in its congruent reconstruction. 2009). This social shift in the pool of top athletes. athletes competing in the 1970s) would include Prof.second and fourth generation were typically of foreign origin with a usually unspecified level of education and on a probably average social position. Dr. besides rather anecdotal evidences. which.
letters. thus making the internet an indispensable source for research. or in the issues of the originally published media. And third. those documents were usually in the hands of their original owners. articles. finally. as well as intended ones. original documents from the respected time period about the central topic in question. diaries about particular events. and. 4. kup (급) and dan (단. Original Documents Original documents included unintended documents like contracts. hanja 段) grade promotion certificates. or other regions than Germany.1. photographs of individuals and teams as well as photographic reproductions of original documents. like statistical and chronological data. It could be assumed that this limited collection usually results from a pre-selection which would guide research in an awkward direction. But fortunately. respectively. they provided useful additional information. reports and books and particular promotion items.4.14 - . such as pamphlets and advertisements. nevertheless. teaching and instructor's licenses. appearance sheets. Research Method The research in this study was based on three pillars: First. such as additional martial arts. published interviews. as well as summarizing literature about related areas which were beyond the central topic. one-on-one interviews with proponents and critiques of the central topics of the respected time period. this affected only a fraction of original documents. earlier time periods. particularly written explanations and overviews about aspects of TKD. However. core assumptions should have not been based on thereafter gathered documents. additional commenting and analyzing literature on the subject. Second. Hence. In case of contemporary history. an increasing amount of them was actually reproduced and published on the internet. . member lists.
articles about TKD in Germany were usually published in monthly magazines about other East Asian martial arts. At the end of 1984. In the 1960s and 1970s. 19 The Karate magazine changed its name every few years. since then (Stix 1993: 8. In the new Millennium. letters to the editor. reports.Published original documents from the time period in question included monographies by proponents of the early TKD years. A standard source for the official introduction of TKD in Germany in 1965 was Choi Hong-hi’s famous book Taekwon-Do. and others about TKD in Germany published in these magazines date back until the late 1960s. Moreover. announcements. the magazine merged with another. 1994). 20 The Taekwondo Aktuell was originally published by DTU president Heinz Marx in cooperation with publisher Rainer Kawan.15 - . the decline of West German TKD during the 1980s and the conflict lines in the 1980s and 1990s could be directly observed at that very source. Kim 1993: 3). the leading German TKD periodical. as it could be shown by Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). Taekwondo Aktuell (shortly TA).19 Articles. the DTU. this magazine played a key role in Park Soo-nam’s crucial stepping back as national head coach of the German TKD competition team in 1985. the leading German TKD organization. they got separated after financial disagreements. which was its actual name at the time of the study. Budo-International. In 1993. interviews. such as Carl Wiedmeier (1966) and Kwon Jaehwa (1971). In 1980. launched its own monthly magazine. from Karate Revue (in the 1970s) to Karate Journal (1980s) to Karate-Budo-Journal (1990s). to become Karate Budo International. .20 For example. like Judo Magazin (since 1961) and Karate Revue (since 1975). where original documents were regularly published ever since. whose German translation was based on the 1972 English edition (Choi. and Heinz Marx continued to publish the magazine on his own. he sold the magazine to Park Soo-nam. who was running the Taekwondo Aktuell.
German TKD dissidents.000 citizens) being the smallest. NorthRhine Westphalia with its protestant Hohenzollern-Prussian heritage. which are operated independently. although both had different publishers. During the 1980s.21 All the above-mentioned magazines were available in the library of the German Sports University in Cologne.22 Its articles documented first-hand the numerous clashes between the official German DTU opinion and policy. Taekwondo Spiegel (TS). and sometimes confront each other. .8 Million) and Bremen (about 700.e. hypocrites or just alternative points of view appeared in competing East Asian martial arts magazines of that time. it was the predecessor of the Budo-Magazin. LSB) are administrating leisure and recreational sports. the biggest West German regional DTU branch released its own bimonthly magazine.16 - . several more magazines joined the above-mentioned. the biggest and (in terms of international medals) most successful regional DTU branch. which started in the same year Kawan’s Budo-Welt was terminated. having always been led by Bavarians. including the DTU.5 Million) being the biggest ones. and Bavaria with 21 The magazine Budo-Welt was published by Rainer Kawan.As the TA usually presented the official viewpoint of the DTU (i. Likewise. the North-Rhine Westphalian Taekwondo Union (NWTU). Olympic TKD in the nutshell. and the City States Hamburg (about 1. such as Budo-Welt (since 1982) and Budo-Magazin (since 1987). This clash reflected the traditional line of conflicts between Northern and Southern Germany. but often in disagreement with WTF politics). then co-publisher of the Taekwondo Aktuell (together with DTU president Heinz Marx). all member associations of the DOSB. most visibly between the two biggest German states. while subordinated regional sports confederations (Landessportbund. Between 1988~2007. renegades. Probably. in 1987. The German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) is administrating elite sports in all Germany. are running subordinated regional branches in the different Federal States. and its main opposition. 22 The Federal Republic of Germany consists of 16 Federal States (West Germany until 1990: 11 Federal States). with North Rhine-Westphalia (nearly 18 Million citizens) and Bavaria (about 12. ideally one LSB in each Federal State.
dissenting viewpoints could most likely be found on the internet. The TS was published between 1988~2007 by the North Rhine-Westphalian Taekwondo Union.its catholic Wittelsbach heritage and close ties to Habsburg. 4. moreover. or other experts with inside knowledge. 2009). headed most of the time by Dieter Jebramcik (NWTU president 1984~2001).25 or published in one of the competing martial arts magazines. At the time of the study. As noted above. were rarely published there. 24 A critical review about these sources should note that articles with a critical intention about the actual publishers did not appear in the TA or the TS. 2009). 23 This traditional conflict line was referred to once in the mid-1980s by the North Rhine-Westphalian TKD president Dieter Jebramcik. the TA was published by Heinz Marx. Secondary Literature The majority of the secondary literature was published in the two competing German TKD magazines.2.24 However. clearly dissenting viewpoints and comments. by Park Soo-nam. for example. But this happened only rarely. from renegades who left the DTU and joined another organization or remained independent. Other viewpoints. they were expressed in letters to the editor. like opinions of the German ITF branch or of minor associations like Kwon Jae-hwa’s or Son Jong-ho’s. TA and TS. also appeared there sometimes. but this should not lead to the impression that there weren’t any dissenting opinions. respectively. from 1981~1993. . usually written by officials of the DTU (and its affiliates) and the NWTU.17 - . as Jebramcik once complained (Interview 22.23 This and other conflict lines were regular subjects in the secondary literature. while DTU president Heinz Marx was in charge of the TA. at best. when he refused an offer from the Bavarian DTU president Heinz Marx with the following words: “I’d rather be the King of Prussia than the powerless Emperor of Germany” (interview Jebramcik. and since 1993. after statements were published contrary to the facts. this judicial right of reply was ignored at least once. 25 Another way would have been an enforced counter statement.
Both of them had 26 See Taekwondo/Taekwon-Do/Tae Kwon Do-Nachschlagewerk. accessed on 10 December 2009. sometimes. analyses with secondary-literature status.kampfkunstforum. clubs and a few individuals who care about TKD in Germany. accessed on 10 December 2009. One of the most frequently visited independent information websites for TKD in Germany was the Taekwondo Reference Book. Besides websites of associations. Kampfkunstforum. 27 28 Taekwondoforum. Furthermore. The discussions on this board have been dominated by TKD experts. www. both hyong and poomsae.taekwondo. which were the Kampfkunst-Board and the Kampfkunstforum. not newbies. . and covered all aspects of martial arts and combat sports. 28 They were administered by experts of various martial arts. most prominently explanations and analyses about TKD forms.info. reports. even officials of the DTU or one of its subordinated Federal State member associations engaged in discussions. several discussion boards with TKD insiders regularly participating provided relevant research information for the topics in question. accessed on 10 December 2009. One of them.taekwondoforum. most discussion board activists argued in favor of Olympic-style TKD. from all over the world.Thus. de. www.info. www. including (WTF) TKD. www. schools. the internet provided a reliable source of opinions. was devoted to TKD only and administered by several enthusiasts from various TKD styles and associations.kampfkunst-board. Kampfkunst-Board. but viewpoints from the ITF and other styles were also expressed there. 27 Similar to the distribution in real life. 26 It contained several kinds of information about TKD in Germany and in general. accessed on 10 December 2009. the internet discussion board Taekwondoforum. Two other German internet discussion boards have been visited by TKD enthusiasts regularly.de. including pictures and videos. overviews. it provided internet links and postal addresses of TKD clubs and organizations in Germany and world-wide.18 - .
once stressed the importance of the internet for his small organization (interview G. such as (Kick-)Boxing and Mixed Martial Arts. this facilitated individuals and groups to dissenting from established organizations and remaining independent. Most participants of TKD-related topics had a background of DTU experiences as well as of other associations. the internet could provide a huge margin of the explanation about why most minor and dissenting TKD organizations appeared in the New Millennium. Kapkowski. were regularly the aim of scorn and derision by practitioners from other martial arts with a different sparring system. no matter which style. head of the dissenting European Taekwondo Federation (ETF). 30 For example.special sections where topics about TKD and other Korean martial arts could be discussed. The regular point of critique was that all TKD sparring systems were unrealistic models for a real-life setting. a number of participants of TKD discussions on these two boards originally practiced other martial arts. Therefore. the internet was the only way to spread information. the same argument would be valid for all sports competitions with a fixed set of rules. On the other side. mostly from Japan. postings on these boards often did not reach the quality level of the Taekwondoforum.19 - . thus TKD training would badly prepare for real fights. and many also had experiences in related arts or sports. Furthermore.30 29 For example. it turned out that TKD competition in general. such as Karate. Gilbert Kapkowski. for many minor and private TKD organizations. but provided viewponts from fresh new angles on TKD.29 Thus. Hence. 2009). China or Thailand. . Many participants regularly engaging in TKD-related discussions on these boards were also regular visitors of the above-mentioned Taekwondoforum. On the other side. Hapkido and Taekkyon. but often not from Eastern Asia. However. internet portals like those discussion boards could be rated as precious sources for minor or alternative opinions about general and particular aspects of TKD. or opening another organization and to stay in contact with other TKD practitioners and the main important TKD information.
several experts tried to clarify particular aspects of different martial arts. started with the very critical. Goldner’s empirical research of about 350 martial arts practitioners in the 1980s (49) gained some public attention. One of the results was a television debate between the author and the president of the German Taekwondo Union (DTU). . but also one of its causes (37). 1992: XI. usually written by acknowledged or self-acclaimed martial arts experts. Goldner’s main fault was his calculated intermingling of Japanese Karate. Bruce Lee’s Kung Fu and Western Kickboxing by intentionally ignoring the differences (Goldner. in September 1990 – one of the very rare occasions a German TKD official was on TV.31 Since then. together with short passages about the alleged historical and philosophical background of Korea and TKD. both in Germany and on global scale. mostly about correct performances of the movements and a proper terminology. 31 The first edition of Goldner’s book was released in the Olympic year of 1988 and caused some attention in the public. and TKD in particular. This was possible because at that time. and did not care at all. 1992: 13). Before that. Hans Siegel. Korean TKD. book by psychologist and Karate practitioner Colin Goldner about East Asian martial arts in 1988 (second edition 1992). More thorough historical examinations about martial arts in general.Monographies including historical overviews and analyses about TKD in Germany emerged first around the time of the 1988 Seoul Olympics. but also in respect of an accurate historical context which separated the different arts and styles. not necessarily with TKD expertise. Goldner’s main hypothesis was that the martial arts boom of the 1970s and 1980s in Germany was not only a reflection of an increased aggressive attitude in the German society. the German public knew little about those differences. TKD books were focused on names and illustrated descriptions of techniques and forms and reprinted promotion and competition regulations. see Goldner. but not very thoughtful.20 - . and particularly resulted in severe criticisms by various martial arts practitioners.
German TKD pioneer since 1964. This little book. informing the reader about the past glory and recent decline of German TKD competitiveness. TKD pioneer in Austria and Poland in the 1970s. That passage covered about one quarter of the whole book and included a section about the German ITF branch. it explained which techniques and movements could reasonably be expected from the different styles of TKD. Knoll (1994). DTU Secretary for Media in the 1980s. written by its head at that time. Paul Weiler (president ITF-D 1989~2007). Knoll pointed out that “Taekwondo does not elicit violence” (Knoll.32 Generally. Gerd Gatzweiler. titled Comprehensible Taekwondo.21 - . fomer DTU media secretary Peter Knoll published a monography about the basics of TKD two years after the 1992 Barcelona Olympics (where TKD had been a demonstration sport for the second time). 33 See Knoll. later WTF deputy secretary-general and vice president. Registering the need to explain the public what exactly TKD was (and what it was not). this text book contained a lengthy passage about the history of TKD in general and in Germany in particular. Especially. so that the reader could establish a proper concept of the possibilities and constraints of TKD.33 Together with the nice pictures. and Gatzweiler (2008). Lee (2000). instead. the less historical accuracy can be found. Lee Kyong-myong.Likewise. the older the TKD text book. as well as about the two competing world governing bodies. . 1994: 74~103. 1994: 13). For the first time in Germany. several TKD experts tried to clarify particular aspects of TKD history in techniques-based TKD text books. did not teach how the different TKD techniques and forms should be performed correctly. the reader could get the impression that TKD was an exciting new sport with a democratic openness 32 Peter Knoll. for example. like standard text books.
or for the DTU as a whole. with a clear focus on the chronology of TKD events in Bavaria (by partly ignoring other regions). however.g. BTU media secretary since 2003. was the long-time official photographer for the DTU and BTU with arguably the hugest collection of original German TKD photographs. That BTU book was written by two outstanding experts about historical aspects of TKD. Werner Schuldes was a long-time BTU official since 1995. followed by the quick replacement of the successful Korean national 34 See. far away from the brutal violence Goldner’s book was promoting.36 The anniversary BTU book provides both descriptive and interpretive secondary-level information as well as reprints of original documents. as was shown in Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). the publication for the 50th anniversary of the German Sports Confederation. the BTU officials Peter Bolz and Werner Schuldes published a book completely dedicated to the history of TKD in Germany. For example. Taekwondo Aktuell. However. in 2008. . DSB (Mevert. 35 Peter Bolz. for example. Although such anniversary books are quite a tradition in Germany’s public clubs and associations.35 Such expertise would not easily be available for other DTU branches. 2000). the inofficial TKD chronist of the biggest DTU branch of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. not only in Germany. 36 For example. therefore also being a primary source for information.22 - . Wolfer had published significant articles about TKD in Germany (e.safely enough for the whole family to practice. In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Bavarian DTU branch. the earliest possible date for a 50th anniversary of an existing German TKD association would not be before 2017.34 other regional DTU branches did not follow the BTU’s example until the end of the study. Norbert Wolfer. passed away after long disease in the same year the BTU anniversary book was published. the decline of German TKD was enforced in 1985 with an act of severe disloyalty by the DTU magazine. the Bavarian Taekwondo Union (BTU). Wolfer. 2001). it is not free from errors or omissions in its descriptive part.
de/Hochschulschriften. see http://zb-sport. 1989).html. 2008). a few words on academic research and diploma.de/Hochschulschriften.23 - .38 The most interesting ones for this current study have been Cremer (1985). as could be seen in the books by Knoll (1994) and Bolz & Schuldes (2008). Dirk Jung. three years later. Likewise. . 38 This figure covered all diploma and master theses until 20 November 2009. with the former flagship athlete. the general tendency to deliver historically accurate information about TKD in Germany and in general.). deserved full respect. which took about one third of the whole book. and Beyer (2005). The first observation was that this area is not covered by many academic gradual and resarch writings in Germany. However.dshs-koeln. Park Soo-nam. This whole chain of events was completely omitted in the anniversary BTU book (cf. Finally. 37 one of them dealing with performance enhancing in judo athletes (Jarmoluk. accessed on 24 November 2009. 2001). Another step in this direction was the (also in its technical parts ambitious) Handbook Taekwondo by German TKD pioneer Gerd Gatzweiler (Gatzweiler. 2008: 63ff. The diploma thesis of Leo Cremer sported the most similar topic to this current study. less than 1% covered the field of East Asian martial arts.dshs- koeln. just for the 1988 Seoul Olympics.head coach. among the 13. It started with a lengthy introductory part about the historical and philosophical roots of TKD. Bolz & Schuldes. master and doctoral theses about the topic of East Asian martial arts in Germany. Nigro (1997). it 37 On 12 June 2008. finally. Jung was replaced by Park.html. see http://zb-sport. some biomechanical analyses of movements and strikes in Karate (Pfeifer. the German Sport University of Cologne enlisted just three dissertations out of 537 with a martial arts-related topic. For example.846 graduation theses of the Cologne Sport University. and. another one about games and sports at the Japanese imperial court from the 7th to the 14th century (Möller. Arend (1989). 1993). accessed on 24 November 2009.
Dr.39 The diploma thesis of Hans-Peter Arend about the athletic and organizational development of Karate and TKD in Germany and beyond suffered from a lack of details concerning TKD history at all. Taekkyon master Song Duk-ki (송덕기) was mentioned as a main forerunner of TKD with a causal influence on this martial art (Cremer.). It featured useful insights into the international Karate administration.24 - . Dr. Roland de Marco from the U. but contained a rich collection of details concerning the Karate history in Germany (Arend. but fell short in terms of providing information about international TKD administrations. was one of the two initial vice presidents of the WTF (the other one being Dr. the diploma thesis of Ulrich Beyer about opportunities and obstacles for professional TKD instructors provided some insights into TKD as a business enterprise 39 For example.was titled “The History of Taekwon-Do” (Cremer. there is a photocopied reprint of the list of the complete board of directors of the first WTF term from 1973~75. it clearly featured the flaws of a misconducted TKD history which was promoted by both WTF and ITF prior to the 1988 Seoul Olympics. The diploma thesis of Raffaele Nunzio Nigro about TKD and Karate as competitors for the acceptance as official Olympic events was focused on comparisons between the main governing bodies of these two East Asian martial arts (Nigro. critical study of TKD in Germany. Leo Wagner. many crucial details about TKD in Germany remained untouched by Arend. Oddly. it could be used as a reference for individual aspects. on page 68. At best. 1997).S. Wagner is not mentioned in overviews about German TKD any more. the passage about TKD in Germany (82~94) contained so many factual errors that Cremer’s thesis could hardly be regarded as a starting point for a modern. Finally. For example. since Cremer added several photographies and photocopied documents to his study. Thus. Likewise. Written about 25 years ago. 1985). However. thus delivering first-hand historical information. 1989). . 1985: 42). Arend’s study provided a decent basis for comparisons between the developments of Karate and TKD in Germany. which revealed that the Member of the German Parliament (Bundestag).
For the first time in Germany.de. which covered 11.hessen-tkd.797 files at that time. titled “Aggression. see his website at www.diplom. Ferger & Shin. Based on interviews with three TKD school owners from different TKD styles.de/Geschichte/wer hat angst vor der wahrheit. Gu was professor at the Youngsan University near Busan. 2007). Gu started in 1992 spreading a paper everywhere he went in Germany (interview Gatzweiler. delivered just three hits. the two common German translations for “martial art”.in Germany (Beyer.sportstory. 1986b. for it touched this study’s topics only marginally. That thesis was just partly interesting for the current study. During the time of this study. for example. 1997). Gu Hyosong. titled “Who Fears the Truth” (Gu. 2001). among diploma and master theses at the leading German diploma website. The most important academic researches about TKD in Germany could be found in the two academic publications and one preliminary paper of Prof. who had studied sport science in Hamburg in the 1990s.net/home/ghs/base/index.25 - . Gu sported a 6th dan degree in TKD (Kukkiwon) and was an official dan promotion inspector in Germany. 1998). Mr. the Hessia Taekwondo Union.41 Mr. it could be used as a reference point for assessing the role of TKD in the German culture and society. 1986c. instead of Subak performed by the hwarang in ancient Shilla. 42 This paper can be found on several websites.pdf. Another one was less interesting for the topic of this current study. see. 1992)42.40 one of them already mentioned (Nigro.php. www. Dr. 40 41 See www. One year later. 1986d). accessed on 30 November 2009. An online research about the topics Kampfkunst and Kampfsport. as it was usually portrayed (cf. a Korean expert openly revealed the real origins of TKD from Japanese Karate. . Dr. Gu completed his diploma thesis. 2005). dealing with the benefits of Chinese martial art’s principles in the realm of economy (Mack. accessed on 29 November 2009. 1986a. During the time of his studies in Germany. And the third academic diploma thesis was about TKD as school sport (Radtke. accessed on 30 November 2009.
there actually was some influential and particularly interesting literature about TKD in Germany. . such as the general history of TKD in Korea. other topcs which did not represent the primary focus of this study could have been accessed by way of summarizing and analyzing secondary literature. 1993/94). However. but it got frequently spreaded around on websites and martial arts discussion boards later on. neither about the situation when and how TKD was introduced to Germany (chapter III of this study). which would be referred to in this study. However. All three topics were dealt with in chapter II. In 1999. Gu completed and published his dissertation thesis. Contrary to that. and the situation of Korean migrant workers in West Germany. and had to rely heavily on usage of original data and literature. To summarize. 1999). titled “Combat and Locomotion”. he published his thesis on his own efforts with limited effects. there was no satisfying ground-breaking research about the peculiarities of TKD in Germany which could provide a starting basis for the current study. the socio-cultural comparison between East Asian martial arts and European combat sports.26 - . At first. where he analyzed typical martial arts moves in a biomechanical and a broader cultural context (Gu. These papers by Dr. nor the conditions and problems of its subsequent transition in Germany (chapter IV). This thesis included a more thorough explanation about the question why the real TKD origins were kept hidden by the ITF and WTF. Gu clearly have been the most influential writings in Germany about TKD history and its origins. they did not contain much material about the particular situation of TKD in Germany. all crucial research about these topics had to be started at the very beginning. This paper was also spreaded frequently on the internet. especially since the German reunification of 1990 (chapter V). Therefore.Nationalism and Martial Arts in Eastern Asia” (Gu.
Such interviews included proponents and participants of the formative years of TKD in Germany and other critical time periods. outstanding critiques of the DTU and founders of separatist administrations (ETF) or independent TKD schools. former and actual top officials from the DTU. see the “Appendix Table: Interviews and other Interrogations. NWTU. That list also includes several telephone and E-Mail communications with key figures of German TKD. BTU. only a limited number of classic interviews with key figures of German TKD could have been conducted. where the interrogator designed specific questions which were freely answered by the interviewee. However. For a complete list of interviewees. as well as critical observers of the changes and transitions during the time period in question. 2006~2009” at the end of this study. former top athletes (Olympic style) and head coaches.3. this method was time and energy consuming. therefore.27 - . interviews had been mandatory. Interviews had preferably been conducted one-on-one.4. Those interviews included early pioneers of Korean Karate in Germany. the German ITF branch and the private Kwon association. and the leading German Taekkyon expert. Interviews To cope with the situation of a relative small basis of literature about a time period of 40 years. former and actual leading staff from the TA and TS magazines. .
28 - . Research Plan .5.
The reporter speaks enthusiastically about the competitor from the U. which could be found. allegedly the most successful TKD athlete on the planet. there are several images of TKD in the German society. he hopes. In his gym. His little sister likes the artistic moves. Gillis. a Taekwondo match is broadcasted. old Grandmaster Kim smiles in his favorite meditative position while listening to the sports news on the radio. dubbing this “take-one-dough” coward dancing and phony fighting. It was one of the most exciting athletic performances he had ever seen. finally. ranging from a fiercy “killing art” (cf. while filling the acion-lacking boredom of the bout with bad jokes.II. for example. who is on his way for his third Olympic gold medal in a streak. as he imagines international protests erupting after the obvious match fixing … Although a made-up story. from traditional meditative exercises to recreational fitness programs. Obviously. he remembers the first public TKD demonstrations in Germany. who likes Bruce Lee and K-1. with real selfdefense situations and stone-breaking knife-hand strikes which could kill a man – but what he sees on TV now bears no resemblance to the furious action of his childhood. this was a collection of actual reactions by German spectators of an Olympic high-class TKD match. The son. Socio-cultural Background for Taekwondo in Germany The family is gathered in front of the TV screen. more than 40 years ago. she wants to join Mr. on the various internet discussion boards on TKD and martial arts. days might be numbered for his traditional martial art getting sold-out for soft drinks and hamburgers. Suddenly. It is the summer of 2008.S. The father looks up.. 2008) to a professionally organized Olympic entertainment event. which enable elegant quickness dominating over massive muscle power in this sport. . Kim’s Sports Academy across the street next week. is laughing about the uselessly swinging arms of the competitors.29 - . and everybody is following the Games of the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. a semifinal.
research in this area might mainly be based on secondary literature.net.A careful analysis of the transition of TKD in Germany would require an understanding of the historical situations of both TKD and Germany before they came into touch. styles . without deeper explorations of critical details. before the official introduction of TKD in 1965. 1990). 1994). Kim Young-Ok’s book “Principles Governing the Construction of the Philosophy of Taekwondo” (Kim. While this was a field of some controversy (cf. 1997).43 which was further cemented by Burdick (1997) and Dohrenwend (c.30 - . a rough sketch along the key events and decisions of the development of TKD in and outside of Korea were seen as sufficient. Gillis (2008) added much material by gaining information through numerous interviews with key proponents of TKD. This chapter deals with overviews about the integration of martial arts. As long as such an exploration would only be a preliminary enterprise paving the way for the core topics of the current study. Capener (1995) paved the ground. This internet project covered all disciplines. 1999). Most recently. which could be based on recent English literature on this topic. Instead. see www. as well as an exploration of the socio-political aspects related to Korean migrant workers and other foreigners living in Germany. accessed on 11 December 2009. the introductory section of this chapter provides an overview about the history of TKD and other Korean martial arts in general. combat sports and related disciplines in general in the German culture and society. Furthermore. brief overviews of relevant aspects should be sufficient. For the sake of shortness. Gu.44 43 Steven Capener (1995) based his arguments on the same source as Gu Hyosung in Germany (1992.bullshido. including big names such as Choi Hong-hi and Jhoon Rhee. 1993/94. A final source of expert knowledge on this topic was the Martial Arts History Project on the internet. questionable details and analyses had not been examined here. namely. independent online discussion board. 44 The Martial Arts History Project was a section of a strictly critical. and finally settled by Kang & Lee (1999).
and TKD history was a regularly appearing subject of hot debatings. or the other way around. some kinds of combat practice had occurred in the areas of ancient Korea. for example.1. the German Taekwondo Union (www. nor if Korean martial arts had a greater impact on Japanese ones. Judo (柔道). shortly.kukkiwon.de).kr). It was not the concern of this study to explore the question if the famous Hwarang (화랑. On the contrary. the Korea Taekwondo Association (www. It could further be expected that the crucial developments of Japanese Jujutsu (柔術). as everywhere else in the world. hanja 拳法). it should be expected that they influenced each other during more than one and a half millenniums of coexistence. Of course. respectively. Taekwondo and other Martial Arts in Korea Contrary to official statements of the leading TKD organizations. Other martial arts. HKD) developed from the Japanese martial arts of Karate and Jujutsu.dtu. but explorations in that direction would have gone far beyond the scope of this study. . the history sections of the Kukkiwon (www.31 - . hanja 手搏) and Kwon Bop (권법. They had been assigned with different names.org). all websites had been accessed on 11 December 2009. hanja 花郞) of the ancient Silla kingdom were engaged in anything similar like that. even from more remote countries than Japan. 45 See. and traditions of martial arts.org). or that prerunners of TKD had been practiced in several states of ancient Korea by special elite fighting groups. evidences were overwhelming that Korean TKD and Korean Hapkido (hanja: 合氣道.45 it was growingly believed that TKD did not originate in a 2000 year old Korean tradition of foot-fighting excercises.or. such as Soobak (수박.koreataekwondo. might also have had an influence on these developments.wtf. Ssireum (씨름) and Taekkyon (택견). the World Taekwondo Federation (www. Aikido (合気道) and Karate during the period of Korean occupation would have had a significant impact on Korean martial arts as well. Consequently.
However, the most significant impacts on modern Korean martial arts stem from the mentioned Japanese arts, as the simple fact revealed that the prominent pioneers of TKD and HKD, Choi Hong-hi and Choi Yong-sul, originally have studied and mastered Karate and Jujutsu, respectively, in Japan. 46 It should be mentioned that the regular denial of Taekkyon experts about Taekkyon ever have been involved in the early development of TKD was taken for granted here. In fact, proponents of early German TKD also confirmed that at first, their art was more similar to Shotokan Karate than anything else, and especially Taekkyon moves and principles, as they discovered decades later, were totally different from anything they learned from Korean TKD masters (interview Gatzweiler, 2009). To understand the situation of Korean martial arts properly when TKD was officially introduced to Germany in 1965, the historical roots of TKD prior to 1965 was examined first. This examination led to a discussion about the proper usage of terms like Taekwondo, Tangsoodo, and Korean Karate. Second, to understand the transition of TKD in Germany, and especially the influence of the different world governing TKD bodies – the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF) and the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) – on TKD in Germany, the progress of TKD in Korea since 1965 was outlined.
Choi Yong-sul (최용술; 1904~1986) is believed to have lived by master Takeda Sokaku (武田 惣角;
1959~1943) since he was 11, and learned everything about Dayito-ryu Aiki-jujutsu (大東流合気柔術) in that time. His student Ji Han-jae (지한재; born 1936) chosed the name Hapkido (合氣道) for the art, which has the same hanja characters as original Japanese Aikido (合氣道; since 1945, a more simplified character is applied: 合気道), but both are significantly different martial arts. Aikido was founded by Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平), who was also a student of Tadeka’s from 1915~37.
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Origins of Taekwondo in Korea until 1965
The origins of TKD could be traced down to five Korean martial arts masters. 47 During the period of Japanese occupation of Korea, all of them had learned some kind of Japanese Karate in Japan or in Manchuria, which was also occupied by the Japanese at that time. These master’s names were enlisted in the table 01 below, which also shows the Karate style and other martial arts they had learned, and the name of the kwan (TKD school) they founded in Korea, and therefore, which tradition (TKD style) they established.
Table 01. Founding Fathers of TKD and their Traditions Name Lee Won-kuk (1907~2003) Ro Byung-jik (1919~) Hwang Ki (1914~2002) Martial Arts Training Shotokan Karate in Japan by Funakoshi Gichin (1868~1957) Shotokan Karate in Japan by Funakoshi Gichin (1868~1957) Kwon Bop (hanja 拳法; chin. Quanfa, jap. Kempo) & Karate in Manchuria Chun Sang-sup (~1953)* Judo, Karate in Japan Yeonmu-kwan (1946) Jido-kwan (1953)** Judo & Kongsoodo Yoon Byung-in (~1953)
Kwan/Tradition Cheongdo-kwan (1944) Tangsoodo/Kongsoodo Seogmu-kwan (1946) Tangsoodo/Kongsoodo Mudeuk-kwan (1945) Tangsoodo/Soobakdo
Kwon Bop (拳法) in Manchuria; Shudokan Karate in Japan (5th dan) by Toyama Kanken (1888~1966)
YMCA Changmu-kwan (1946) Kwon Bop (Kempo Karate)
Sources: Burdick 1997; Kang, Lee 1999; The Free Encyclopedia48
Chun Sang-sup and Yoon Byung-in disappeared during the Korean War. After Chun Sang-sup’s disappearance, his students changed the school’s name into Jido-kwan.
Much of the material in this chapter is gained from Burdick (1997); Kang & Lee (1999); Gillis (2008). The Free Encyclopedia, www.wikipedia.org; accessed on 13 November 2009.
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Table 01 shows that two of the founding fathers of TKD actually had studied by the founding father of Japanese karate, Funakoshi Gichin (船越 義珍, 1868~1957), and one had studied by the founder of the Shudokan Karate style, Toyama Kanken (遠山寛賢, 1888~1966). Both Japanese masters were born and raised on the Ryukyu Islands, where they had learned several styles of the traditional Okinawan martial art Tode (唐 手), meaning Chinese hand, because it is originated in much older Chinese martial arts styles. In the 1920s, Tode was introduced to Japan by Funakoshi, Kanken, and others. At first, Funakoshi adopted the traditional name of the art, which was pronounced in Japanese as Karate (唐手). But during the time of Japanese Imperialism in the 1930s, the Chinese roots had to be cut off, and Funakoshi changed the art’s name into Empty Hand (空手), which is also pronounced as Karate in Japanese. In Korean, these names, written with Chinese hanja characters, are pronounced differently, as Tangsoo (唐手) and Kongsoo (空手), respectively. Consequently, the founding fathers of TKD named their martial art Tangsoodo and Kongsoodo, while it was introduced as Korean Karate to foreigners (Kang & Lee, 1999). Another term sometimes used was Kwon Bob, which is the Korean pronounciation of the traditional Chinese martial arts style Quanfa (拳法), known in Japan as Kempo or Kenpo. Based on their various training backgrounds, the founding TKD fathers practiced and taught different Karate styles, with Hwang Ki’s style being the most significant one (interview Gatzweiler, 2009). He was also the first who applied a unique name for his style by using the term of the legendary ancient Korean martial art, Soobak, after he had rediscovered and translated the old Korean textbook about combat techniques from the late 18th century, the Muye Dobo Tongji, in 1957 (Burdick, 1997). Before that, he also used to call his martial art Tangsoodo, which remained the term he used in international contexts. Later, after the term Taekwondo had been generally accepted, Hwang Ki stuck to Tangsoodo, which grew into a martial arts style on its own.
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Since the 1950s, there had been efforts to unify the different styles under one umbrella organization. Unfortunately, those efforts had been sabotaged first by the Korean War (1950~53), later by interferences of the student revolution in 1960 (Kang & Lee, 1999). To become a proper Korean martial art, at least two things were required: a unique name, common for all proponents of Korean Karate, and a unique style in its movements, shared by all kwans, and which had to be significantly different from any Japanese or Okinawan Karate style. Furthermore, unique theoretical considerations about the historical purpose or the function of the martial art could also have been useful (Capener, 1995). Ten years after Korean liberation, General Choi Hong-hi created the new term Taekwondo (태권도, hanja 跆拳道), and on April 11, 1955, it was chosen to unify the different styles under one label (Kang & Lee, 1999; Gillis, 2008: 64~51). Choi (1918~2002) had studied Shotokan Karate in Japan in the early 1940s, had gained experiences in the Japanese Imperial Army, and after Korean Liberation, he had started a bright military career in Korea.49 All the time, he practiced and promoted Karate. After a few years, he was a high-ranked member of the Korean army and influential enough to emerge as the most powerful leader of the early Korean TKD pioneers. Supported by the Rhee government, he made it mandatory for military training and installed his own martial arts gym in a military base in Kangwon Province, one year after the end of the Korean War. 50 Choi named his school Ohdo-kwan (“School of My Way”), and he centered the military martial arts training there (Gillis, 2008: 43). Eventually, sooner or later, nearly every young man came into contact with Choi’s martial arts style, including
For the following, see Burdick (1997), Kang & Lee (1999), Choi (2000), Gillis (2008), and The Free
Encyclpedia, www.wikipedia.org; accessed on 1 December 2009.
Technically, the Korean War ended with an armistice between the U.N. and Communist forces on 27 July
1953; see Lee (2005: 380).
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36 - .members of one of the original five kwans. Both kwans consistently applied the new term Taekwondo after its establishment in 1955. he got lost of all his power in the army quickly after the coup d’état led by Park Chung-hee in 1961. For the following four years. In 1959. as well as of Choi’s invention. “for communist activities” (Gillis. and the less powerful one had to subordinate under the orders of the new big man in Korea. For some reasons. 2008: 57). Thanks to his raising influence. but Park was one year older than Choi. The main reason for their bad relation was. other kwans were pressed to get along with Choi. However. Choi Hong-hi was ordered out of duty and sent to Malaysia as ambassador. But outside of Choi’s realm of influence. a name which was made up both to get rid of the Chinese and Japanese connotation. as a means to unify all kwans under one umbrella organization. KTA) was established for the first time. But unfortunately for Choi. Consequently. not least because the military Ohdo-kwan system accepted only dan certificates from their own students and the associated Chungdo-kwan. in that same year of 1954. army general Park Chung-hee and army general Choi Hong-hi didn’t get along at all. Choi Hong-hi managed to get the position as first KTA president. Choi got also honorary president of the leading civilian Tangsoodo school. according to an explanation presented by Choi. Choi’s influence was growing. . that he had once voted for Park’s execution. Taekwondo/Taesoodo was carried on without the interference of Choi Honghi in Korea. the term Taekwondo was not yet accepted. shortly after Park Chung-hee took the charge. One of the first actions of the new KTA directors was renaming the KTA into Korea Taesoodo Association. the Chungdo-kwan. the Korea Taekwondo Association (shortly. who had been a former Japanese collaborateur. 51 Choi had been Park’s senior at the military academy.51 And so.
and in the same year. player.53 But in his exile in Malaysia. one death”. for TKD strikes and kicks were demanded to be powerful enough to instantly kill the opponent. 1994: 29). by strictly trying to root every technique in scientific reasoning. such as P = ½ m v2 (Choi. Therefore. because speed counts more than mass. a light. for example. but quick player could deliver more energy with a blow than a heavy. 2000: 19. see Cho. 53 Sihak Henry Cho. and there was no generally accepted sparring style. called kata. Choi devoted all his energy on that problem. called hyong. One of his first 52 It could be argued that at least.52 It was still Karate practiced in Korea. not tradition.54 And finally. he added a unique theoretical contribution. This formula means that the power (P) of a strike equals half of the mass (m) multiplied with square velocivy (v). Choi developed a theory of power using formulas of mechanical physics. Supported by several TKD masters such as his former right-hand Nam Tae-hi. see Capener (1995). they could hardly be counted on the plus side of claims for an ancient TKD heritage any more. and the Muje Dobo Tongji (see Gillis. Yet as these discoveries turned out to be inaccurate constructions rather than historical evidences (Burdick. In the gyms.Yet Taesoodo was still not distinctively unique to regard it a proper martial art on its own. For example. Choi published a voluminous book in 1965. the traditional Karate forms were still practiced. 1997). described in a famous book of 1968 the Korean martial art as “identical to Japanese karate”.55 After his return to Korea. he strictly insisted on zero-contact sparring. . Furthermore. there had been some unique theoretical contributions. the Kumgang Yoksa guards in the Seokguram grotto of the Bulguksa temple complex in Gyeongju. 2008: 50). 54 55 For elaborations into this philosophy of “one blow.37 - . but slow. titled “Taekwon-Do”. who was actually training soldiers in Vietnam in close combat techniques at that time (including Ohdokwan TDK). such as the alleged historical roots of TKD Choi was promoting since 1960 – the Goguryeo tomb paintings near Pyongyang. Choi got president of the KTA. Choi transformed an unsystematic collection of Karate kata into a system of 20 TKD forms.
the term Taekwondo was used since 1955. Beyond Choi Hong-hi’s influence. military camps in Germany. kwan and tradition that was administered by the KTA in 1965. however. Jung. especially since he settled in America. TKD was introduced to Germany the same year the KTA was renamed as Korea Taekwondo Association. 2007. Therefore. until Taekwondo was used by every style. Kongsoodo and Korean Karate were regularly applied. the term Taekwondo finally became the official title for this martial art. It was just required here to establish a proper usage for the purpose of TKD in Germany. soldiers in U. ten years after its creation. Therefore. the term Tangsoodo (shortly. general usage of the term Taekwondo for the martial art in Germany since 1965 seems justified. and enriched with a unique theoretical background. TSD) was referred to Hwang Ki’s Mudeuk-kwan style. 2006.actions was to reverse the renaming of the KTA and change it back into Korea Taekwondo Association.S. in the military and in the Chungdo-kwan. “Zen-Kunst der Selbstverteidigung. who had learned Japanese Karate in Okinawa. 1971). it would be inappropriate to apply Taekwondo on all variations of this Korean martial art. 1966). 2009). and sometimes Korean 56 For application of the term Karate in TKD contexts in Germany after 1965.38 - . which could be called a unique Korean martial art from that year on. Since 1965.S. the martial art practiced and taught in Germany could be called Korean Karate. In Korea.56 Another term used was Tangsoodo. a name which in fact was widely applied. The usage of Korean Karate was also confirmed by several TKD masters (interviews Gatzweiler. the terms Tangsoodo. To sum up. Taekwon-Do – Karate” (Kwon. a coherent sparring style. Gil. . Before that time. Thus. see the titles of the first TKD books in Germany: “Karate – Die Welt des Taekwon-Do” (Wiedmeier. he had preferred to call it Soobak. which happened in 1965. it has not been the purpose of this study to fix this confusing situation. since it was provided with remodeled forms. However. even after 1965. Officially. especially by U.
26 July 2006. Kim Jun-kun (5th dan). who later became the chairman of the Kwon Jae-hwa TKD organization.-F. TSD is applied in Germany until today. or TSD. 1993: 34). started with TSD in an American military camp in Hessia. he set up a TKD demonstration team which included some of the best available TKD athletes of that time: Han Cha-kyo (then sporting the 6th dan). this tradition dryed out. Kwon Jae-hwa (5th dan) and Park Jong-soo (5th dan) (Choi. For example. TSD was again introduced to Germany. 1. except for Kwon Jae-hwa. powerful (wood and rooftile breaking) and simply exciting (self-defense techniques. Choi recruited the team members from the military. Taekwondo in Korea since 1965 Before Choi Hong-hi became KTA president in 1965. who was a civilian and assigned as reporter (Seo. freestyle sparring) moments of action never shown before. Many years later. and the term Tangsoodo could be reserved for the later imports since the 1980s. including several European countries. all Korean martial arts in Germany prior to 1965 could justifiably be named Korean Karate. which was significantly different from the TKD he learned later57. athletic (twisting and airborne kicks).39 - . . In that respect. Hunkel. 1994: 501). which became one of the birth places of TKD in Germany (see the next chapter).2. German TKD pioneer Hans-Ferdinand Hunkel. Yet apparently. The purpose of the delegation was to introduce and promote TKD as a unique Korean martial art. 57 E-Mail from H. The demonstration team travelled through the world. but this time as an import from America. except for one military camp in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. such as the Netherlands and West Germany. performing artistic (hyong). Therefore. in Vietnam.Karate.
but Choi didn’t let international TKD getting out of his grip. the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF). was running a successful TKD business enterprise. During the following years. played a major role in favor of the WTF. where Park Jong-soo. Choi moved the ITF to Toronto. In the same year of 1972. was opened. On the other side. Followed by the successes of the international TKD demonstrations. Choi Hong-hi got in heavy troubles with most of the other kwan leaders.Back in Korea. the two international TKD bodies competed about the global TKD leadership. where WTF-TKD was selected as demonstration . Kim opened the Kukkiwon and took the charge of TKD in Korea. Choi fled the country heading towards Toronto. another international TKD organization. but eventually. former KCIA chief Kim Un-yong (see Gillis. in 1972. the WTF was victorious in all relevant areas. Constantly backed by the government. they forced him to leave the KTA and to quit his duties. so much that the next year. the World Taekwondo Head Quarter.58 58 Two of the most important victories for the WTF had been at the 83rd general IOC assembly of the International Olympic Committee in Baden-Baden in 1981. the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). the Kukkiwon. they supported him in establishing the first international TKD organization. 1999). Juan Antonio Samaranch. Canada. A new KTA leader was generated and set into office in 1971.40 - . in the same year of 1966 (Kang & Lee. where it was located from 1972~1985. It would be safe to argue that the influence of multiple top international sports official Kim Un-yong in the IOC. 2008). After the tournament. in May 1973. and especially on the IOC president since 1980. the Park government discovered the power of sports diplomacy on behalf of TKD. was formally established. Thus. where the first Taekwondo World Championships took place one year later. a member of the 1965 demonstration team mentioned above. Suddenly.
including the military and the secret service. 59 Another example about secret-service missions involving Korean TKD masters in the sport at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. . both openly and in secret. Therefore. and might have been activated by them to deliver reports about people and events in foreign countries or even to do some service. these TKD instructors had all been selected and approved by the totalitarian military government. 1993: 18. which would not have allowed them to leave the country without approval of the secret service (interview Ferger. and the 103rd general assembly in Paris in 1994. Moreover. which enabled them to purchase or rent facilities for running TKD schools. and the (German) security guards did not let him pass. An anecdote often reported is Park Soo-nam arriving at the conference hotel with a trunk full of Kimchi in his car.But the basis for TKD’s quick distribution all over the world was provided by heavy financial and personal support of the authoritarian Park Chung-hee government (Kim. For example. 1994: 3). 2008). where WTF-TKD was added as an official Olympic event for the 2000 Sydney Olympics. to be ready against possible interferences by North Korean agents (Park. several Korean TKD masters residing in West Germany were engaged as inofficial security guards for the South Korean delegation during the IOC congress in Baden-Baden in 1981. 1994: 3. It would have been in the very interest of the KCIA to make sure these subjects would not betray their land by revealing information of the KCIA’s international operations. 2008: 149). They sent TKD instructors around the world and supported them with huge financial aids. it seemed safe to assume that the Korean TKD instructors sent by the KTA/WTF across the world during the 1970s and 80s stayed in contact with South Korean authorities. see also Gillis. suspecting bombs or other terrorist material hidden in the spicy Korean dish (Park. 2008). 59 Two TKD masters from Germany being present in Baden-Baden had been Park Soo-nam and Kim Kwang-il. which held high stakes for WTF-TKD. Gillis.41 - .
This would cover both.). accessed on 2 December 2009.3. competitors in the early 1960s tried also chest and head protectors similar to those used in Japanese Kendo (剣道) or Korean Kumdo (劍道). started national and international tournaments during the late 1950s to promote his Mooduk-kwan TSD style (Kang & Lee. 61 62 See also Dan Nolan’s Tang Soo Do Web Page. Struggling for a modernized Taekwondo TKD could be seen as a unique Korean martial art distinguished from Japanese Karate since it featured at least two elements: a unique sparring style. for it is reported that a Taesoodo competition was an official sport event during the 43th National Sports Festival in October 1963 (Burdick. 1997. and the art (forms).bullshido. Hwang Ki.budget. According to Capener (1995). the martial aspect (sparring). thus enabling full contact matches. regularly practiced bare-knuckled full-contact sparring 60 . the different kwans applied several sparring rules and fostered various interpretations of the traditional karate katas. see www. 1999).42 - . accessed on 3 December 2009. www. 1999). At first.net/~dnolan. for example. with competitors wearing chest protectors and forbidden head punches.net. “TKD discovers its roots”. 1. for example.62 60 Reports about regular bare-knuckled full-contact sparring bouts in early TKD training prior to the establishment of the ITF were published in several threads of the Martial Arts History Project at the independent martial arts website Bullshido. .61 A first common sparring system could be traced down to the period of Taesoodo. Kang & Lee. Others were seeking for ways of establishing rules and a point system to enable athletic competitions. Some schools. the sparring rules at that time were already similar to the modern Olympic style TKD.US during the so-called Koreagate Scandal in the 1970s is reported by Gillis (2008: 107ff. According to a photography reprinted in Kang and Lee (2002: 108). and a unique forms style.
thus faulty. Canada. Choi Hong-hi left Korea for Toronto. contacts should have been tried to avoid. had started teaching Korean Karate in 1958 in Texas.C. Choi Hong-hi. Later in the 1970s. which focused the further development of TKD in a direction that made it applicable as an Olympic sport. he became one of the first professional instructors for Korean Karate outside Korea. In the same year of 1972. power or targeting would have been inefficient. It was headed by the new KTA president. strictly insisted on a zero-contact sparring system. if not. until he took over the term Taekwondo from Choi Hong-hi (Gillis 2008: 93). called the “Father of TKD in America”. featuring bare-knuckled full-contact sparring.Around that time. Originally in the U. and since 1986. Rhee started in 1964 conducting National Karate Championships. The reason was simply because TKD featured such devastating techniques aimed at vital body parts that actual full-contact sparring would be deadly. all TKD in Korea was now unified under one administration. safety quality of the chest protector had to be increased. . putting Hwang Ki’s TSD aside. Korea’s national sport. TKD pioneer Jhoon Rhee established regular tournaments in America.S. competitors “sent each other to the hospital right and left” (Gillis 2008: 93). enabling light-contact TKD matches very similar to semi-contact kickboxing. but in fact.43 - . the Kukkiwon was erected and completed in the following year. respectively. for his university studies. Kim Un-yong. After South Korean president Park Chung-hee declared TKD being Kukki.S. a head protector was also required. 1994). 63 Jhoon Rhee. and since 1962 in Washington. D. in March 1971. however. Thus. While full-contact sparring was maintained. Choi integrated Rhee’s safety equipment in the ITF sparring system. who later also became president of the WTF. thus paved the way for the later development of Kickboxing. on the other hand. Rhee later developed safety gear for hands and feet to prevent from severe injuries. described in the chapter “freestyle sparring (ja yoo matsoki)” of his elementary book Taekwon-Do (Choi. U.63 In theory.
1999. Second. newly developed safety technology facilitated full-contact sparring. First. the KTA developed another forms system. At first. was developed by Choi Hong-hi and his aides during his Malaysian exile (Kang & Lee. some two steps ahead (WTF TKD). Second. since the mid-1960s.Therefore.44 - . some of them very close to Japanese Karate (TSD). better adapted safety gear enabled light-contact sparring. an interesting lineage of sparring systems in the progressing of TKD could be reconstructed. Choi developed his forms system further into a tul system. there had still been several interpretations of TKD at that time. in the stage of withdrawing. Because of the many resulting injuries. the palgwe forms. and at the same time. which met the requirements of the Olympic Movement. Choi earned the credit of putting the rather loose collection of Karate forms (kata) into a system of successively structured and increasingly complex TKD forms. ways to protect competitors were examined. Although the heritage of Japanese (Shotokan) Karate was still too obvious to be overseen. in the experimental stage. and the taeguk poomsae forms since the early 1970s. Many years later. Concerning forms. resulting in practically the abandonment of fighting. and Taesoodo still maintained the old Karate kata. Shortly thereafter. hyong. with a few additional forms and a complete change in the basic movements by adding the so-called sino wave. and others somewhere in between (ITF). which would be elaborated in a later chapter. it could help explaining . any research about TKD in Germany had to take into account that before the mid-1970s. the first unique set of TKD forms. it was reduced to zero-contact sparring. promoting the martial prowess of the art. bare-knuckled sparring without restrictions could be found. during the mid-1980s. After Choi’s return and quick dismissal afterwards. this could help understand the variety of TKD associations early in Germany. This beared several consequences for the study of TKD in Germany. Third. 2008). in the third stage of institutionalization. Yet the KTA refrained from using the new system. Gillis.
Fourth.45 - . . And last. it should have made clear that TKD in Germany could truthfully be united only after the TKD unity in Korea was on its way.the sudden switch of German TKD from ITF affiliation to that of the WTF. but not least. it helped understanding the reluctance of traditionally oriented Korean TKD masters in Germany about TKD reforms of the KTA/Kukkiwon/WTF.
46 - . 2005). Japan. and Korea? And did they eagerly engage in establishing administrations for their sports? These and other questions would be answered in this chapter.C.1. Japan. But first. Judo. dating back to the ancient Germanic tribes conquered by the Romans. the term (East Asian) martial arts should refer to the combatting disciplines from the East Asian realm. the main task for a free Germanic was being ready to fight. Following Poliakoff (1989). while the females and servants had to care about house and home and the children (Tacitus. a conceptual clarification was needed. and China – Taekwondo. Hapkido. such as the athletic festivals at Olympia. Delphi. Korea. in this study. It was substituted by another combatting discipline which was performed widely in the ancient and medieval world: fencing. . Karate. According to Tacitus’ description in his Germania (around 98 A. Kendo. Soobak.2. and the like. Yet at the modern Olympic Games. Kwonbop. boxing. Nemea and Isthmus of Corinth: wrestling.). Jujutsu. Kumdo. Combat Sports and Martial Arts in Germany How were combat sports and martial arts positioned in the German society? Did Germany have a tradition in East Asian martial arts? Did Germans engage in combat sports and martial arts for the purpose of challenging athletic confrontations. 2. Taekkyon. Combat Sports Germany had a rich history of combat sports. pankration was not performed any more. or were they looking for something else? How accurate did German people know about the differences of the particular martial arts of China. Quanfa. the term combat sports included the heavy-athletic disciplines of the ancient Greek sports festivals. and pankration. Contrary to that.
hunting and hiking and circus performances like trapez artistry. still stuck to activities like hunting. and fencing. Among different ball and other games. one of the fathers of modern education. But German turnen was a reformist and somehow intellectual activity widely performed at schools and universities. However. did not aim at struggling with. described in his aubiography Poetry and Truth his experiences in riding and fencing training in his youth (169f. the Thing. the carpenter Hans Abs (1851~1895) from Hamburg became inofficial World Wrestling Champion by beating the American William Muldoon in New York. riding.In the northern Germanic assemblies of the free people. contrary to English sports. oddly. One reason was that German turnen. on the other side. it was not uncommon for men of honor to engage in duels against personal rivals.47 - . fencing. and fist fighting. wrestling.). and boxig were not seen as proper elements of a true physical education any more. which he described. wrestling. After the Thirty Years’ War (1618~1648). as the duels were not only conducted with pistols. epee and saber. but also with rapier. Johann Amos Comenius (1592~1670). fencing instructors never had troubles of finding new students (Umminger. physical excercises and wrestling competitions were regularly held (Barisch. The conservative nobility. which was the starting signal for wrestling’s popularity in Europe (Müller. Until the 20th century. 1992: 92). and defeating an opponent. swimming and bathing. Like . the first children’s textbook which was published in 1658 in the German city of Nuremberg. for example. 1971: 105f. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749~1832). Fencing as physical excercise was officially sanctioned by Christian authorities during the Middle Ages (128). 1971: 163). In 1885.). 1999: 23). Germany’s master poet. he enlisted three kinds of activities subsumized under the label fencing school: stick and weapons fencing. since the gymnastics movement of the German Turner under Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778~1852) since 1807. described the situation of physical education in his Orbis Pictus (“The Visible World in Pictures”). as performed with covered eyes (Barisch.
the further progressing of the three combat sports in Germany in the 20th century would be presented separately. wrestling and boxing were popular among the working class. providing the basis for professional prize-fighters among the underprivileged. the following overviews will be limited to athletic achievements at the Olympic Games. In the laborer’s sport movements in Europe since the late 19th century.48 - . and to make comparisons easier. for example. while fencing (and to a lesser degree. boxing) was popular among educated people and the nobility. eventually turning into show events. 121.000 wrestlers were organized in 860 clubs (Müller. The nobility. In 1932.horse riding. Regarding the long history of combat sports in Germany. 1999: 25). the key aspects of the administrations of these three combat sports would be presented in tables. wrestling and bare-knuckled boxing became a spectator’s sports. For a better overview. it could be said that at the beginning of the 20th century. 1992: 99). In the following. boxing and wrestling became popular events. gentlemen and university students discovered boxing with boxing gloves as training in self defense (Umminger. . For the sake of brevity.
2.de. accessed on 12 December 2009. www. The Free Encyclopedia.8 Current Name Deutscher Ringer-Bund (German Wrestling Federation) established in May 1972 Associated International Federation Members International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA) 68.org. German Wrestling Federation website.64 German Wrestling Federation website. but excluding American show-wrestling) Subject Original Name Content Deutscher Athleten-Verband (German Athletics Federation) Date founded on 1891.ringen.1.de.1. Wrestling Table 02: German Amateur* Wrestling Administration (*originally including professional sports wrestling.07. .wikipedia. http://vid. accessed on 12 December 2009. Germany (total) Olympic Medals.sid. accessed on 12 December 2009. Vereins-Informations-Dienst website.49 - . www. East Germany (included) Outstanding Athletes 8 x gold 26 x silver 15 x bronze 2 x gold 6 x silver 1 x bronze (1) Carl Schuhmann (2) Werner Seelenbinder (3) Wilfried Dietrich 1952~1988 1954~1988 (1) 1869~1946 (2) 1904~1944 (3) 1933~1992 Sources: Umminger 1992: 179.612 members in 476 clubs formation in 1912 2008 Olympic Medals.65 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website66 64 65 66 The Free Encyclopedia.
the other two are Werner Seelenbinder and Wilfried Dietrich. The events attain some media attention. who was also successful in his primary disciplines and in weight lifting. The first National Wrestling Championships for individual athletes date back to 1893 and for teams to 1922. German wrestlers had been successful at the modern Olympic Games from its start at Athens in 1896. Carl Schuhmann. such as Schifferstadt and Luckenwalde with about 20. In the current season of 2009/2010. won the wrestling competition in an unlimited weight class. which produced annual German Champions in a mixture of Greco-Roman and Freestyle wrestling since. he only reached the 4th place. . 68 See German Hall of Fame in Sports website. He was executed by 67 One reason for this phenomenon might be that the local sponsors would prefer to support the fringe sport with its huge media coverage than the local football team competing in a minor division and thus getting just weak media attention. Typically for a fringe sport.de. In bigger cities. In 1963. accessed on 13 December 2009.hall-of-fame-sport.50 - . or Köllerbach with just 8. Schuhmann is one of the three wrestlers in Germany’s Hall of Fame in Sports. it was rated as a fringe sport. a top division for team wrestling.000 citizens. was started.Although wrestling has been of mayor interest in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. culminating in broadcasted TV reports about the finals. the Ringer-Bundesliga.68 Werner Seelenbinder was a secret activist in the German Resistance against the Nazi regime in the 1930s and 1940s. He had planned to refuse the Hitler salute after winning a medal at the Berlin 1936 wrestling competition to embarrass the Nazis in front of the spectating world. measuring just 163 cm. One of Germany’s gymnasts. but also weight lifting. although Schuhmann was the shortest participant. at the time of the study. www. twenty club teams are competing about the title in the top division. sponsors usually support more popular sports. The first German wrestling organization was founded in 1881. but unfortunately.000 citizens.67 the centers of wrestling are focused on peripheral regions. which covered both amateur and professional wrestling (without American show-wrestling).
including the freestyle gold medal 1960 in Rome. Germany’s greatest wrestling talent called the “Crane from Schifferstadt”. Athletes like those mentioned had been the spearhead of a vivid tradition of wrestling as a competition and spectator sport. . excelled in both wrestling styles winning several Olympic medals. together with the Greco-roman silver medal at the same tournament.51 - . and until today. Wilfried Dietrich. both in East and West Germany.the Nazis on 24 October 1944.
de. (German Boxing Federation) Associated International Federation (1) Federation Internationale de Boxe Amateure (FIBA) (2) Association Internationale de Boxe Amateure (AIBA) Members 62. Germany (total) 11 x gold 14 x silver 22 x bronze Olympic Medals. 406. The Free Encyclopedia. www.2.70 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website71 69 70 71 The Free Encyclopedia.461 members in 643 clubs Olympic Medals.org. http://vid.52 - .de. accessed on 12 December 2009. www.05 Sources: Umminger (1992: 332.V.12. Vereins-Informations-Dienst website.sid. Boxing Table 03: German Amateur Boxing Administration Subject Original Name Content Deutscher Reichsverband für Amateurboxen (German National Federation for Amateur Boxing) Current Name Deutscher Boxsport-Verband e. accessed on 12 December 2009. . German Boxing Federation website.69 German Boxing Federation website.2.wikipedia. accessed on 12 December 2009. East Germany (included) 5 x gold 2 x silver 6 x bronze Outstanding Athletes (1) Max Schmeling (2) Henry Maske (1) 1905~2005 (2) born 1964 1956~1988 1952~2008 2008 (2) since 1946 established at the end of 1949 (1) since 1920 Date founded on 1920. 417).boxverband.1.
East German Olympic gold medalist of Seoul 1988 and light heavyweight World Champion (IBF) from 1993~96. . After Schmeling. Max Schmeling (1905~2005) remained Germany’s sole international top boxing athlete. and heavyweight World Champion from 1930~32.53 - . However. For a long time. Schmeling was national champion in 1927. thus spearheading a new wave of boxing enthusiasm in Germany. but being defeated by him in the fight for the World Champion’s trophy in 1938.Although boxing was prohibited in Germany until 1918. Thus. 1928 and 1938. but low 72 East Germany was also present in international amateur boxing on administrational level. boxing was one of the sports East Germany was particular successful in. comes Henry Maske. knocking him out in 1936 in a preliminary bout (Luis’ only knock-out defeat in his career). Maskes title-defending matches became major TV events in Germany in the 1990s. And in its last participation at the Olympic Games.72 In Melbourne in 1956. the enthusiasm in Germany about Maske’s later engagement in professional boxing (and that of other professional boxers) gained no reflection in Olympic amateur boxing. for East German Karl-Heinz Wehr had been vice president of the International Amateur Boxing Association (AIBA) during the 1980s-1990s. in terms of popularity. with huge media interest in high-stake professional bouts. Henry Maske secured one of the last gold medals for East Germany. bantamweight Wolfgang Behrendt gained the first Olympic gold medal for East Germany by beating the Korean boxer Song Soon-chun in the final. The first national championships date from 1920. at the 1988 Seoul Games. boxing remains a divided sport. 2006: 45). gaining gold medals in its first and last Olympic participations (Huhn. early boxing clubs reach back to 1912 (SV Astoria Berlin) and even 1906 (SC Colonia 06). He was most famous for his two fights against Joe Luis. thus establishing a rich tradition of East German amateur boxers. On Olympic scale.
spectator’s interest in amateur boxing.54 - . . making it only a fringe sport with less participants than wrestling.
de. http://vid.org.org.29 1949.27 Date founded 1911. Fencing Table 04: German Fencing Administration Subject Original Name Content Deutscher Fechter-Bund (German Fencing Federation) Current Name Deutscher Fechter-Bund e. German Fencing Federation website.55 - . it has the longest unbroken tradition in history. (German Fencing Federation) Associated International Federation Members Fédération Internatioale d’Escrime (FIE) 23.3. Before fencing 73 74 75 The Free Encyclopedia. www. although fencing was clearly the smallest one during the time of the study. .12.301 members in 472 clubs Olympic Medals.2. accessed on 12 December 2009.1. Germany (total) Olympic Medals.11. www.sid. Vereins-Informations-Dienst website. accessed on 12 December 2009.74 Vereins-Informations-Dienst website75 Of all combat sports in Germany.wikipedia.fechten. accessed on 12 December 2009.11.17 Sources: Umminger (1992: 804).V. The Free Encyclopedia. East Germany (included) Outstanding Athletes 13 x Gold 16 x Silver 11 x Bronze 1 x Bronze (1) Helene Mayer (2) Thomas Bach (3) 1910~1953 (4) born 1953 1956~1988 1951~2008 2008 founded 1913.73 German Fencing Federation website.
Foil). adopted fencing duels for special ceremonies and rituals. To unify the several fencing groups. Épée. Thomas Bach was member of the gold-winning Foil team at the 1976 Montreal Olympics. The most outstanding German fencers would include Helene Mayer and Thomas Bach. Already a politically minded athlete. different weapons and various styles. and currently holds several top positions as sports official. she was still one of the best fencers in the word. and the last ones in 2008 (female individuals. and the first national Championships took place in the year of the first modern Olympics. and also performed in serious life-and-death duelings until the 20th century. Germany’s politically oriented University student’s clubs. when the three German female Foil competitors shared all three medals. something which several traditionally oriented clubs still feature. the Nazis tried to withdraw her from the team. both since 2006. But because of her Jewish heritage.56 - . and at the time of the 1936 Berlin Olympics. and male individuals. the German Fencing Federation as top umbrella organization was formally founded in December 1911. called Burschenschaften. Outside of Universities. including president of the German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) and vice president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). it was practiced as a means of self defense. After all. . Dr. One of the most remarkable events was at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. Sabre). Since the 19th century.became a sport. he got into sports politics afterwards. The first Olympic gold medal had already been won in 1906 (male team. in 1896. Helene Mayer was gold medal winner of the 1928 London Olympics and got a 5th place at the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics. she was happy to compete for the Germans and won the silver medal. which was reversed after interference of the American public and the International Olympic Committee. fencing clubs emerged since the 1860s.
Nevertheless. the existence of as many sports clubs in fencing as in wrestling might have been a hint for the stable fencing tradition in Germany. it lacked media attention and broad spectator’s interest. while sheltering them from external power struggles with competing organizations. the German Fencing Federation does not cover fencing practices at traditional university clubs. a comparable overview among their participants in terms of age and gender could be useful.57 - .1. except for the Olympics. didn’t have a tradition of athletic idols of this kind. which apparently is a result of the sports’ long tradition in Germany. 76 This situation kept the organization focused on the administration and development of their sport. in contrast.4. where everybody regularly expected fencing medals for Germany.Although fencing was just a minor fringe sport with about one third of the participants of wrestling or boxing at the time of the study. In East Asian martial arts. Résumé At first it should have been noted that all European combat sports are administered by one single association in Germany. the situation was completely different. Those activities are not considered sports. Second. fencing is not much more popular than in Germany. For the further interpretation of the situation of traditional European combat sports in Germany. as would be shown. all European combat sports have produced widely respected athletes with a strong place in the German public and culture. One reason for Germany’s lasting international successes in fencing might have been that in other countries. 76 For the record. 2. They were regarded as idols for young ambitious talents who would accept the inheritance and impersonate the next generation of the sports’ athletes. but rather ceremonies. at least not in Germany. East Asian martial arts. .
Furthermore. on the second observation. third. children and the youth made for the majority of members. Both findings could at least partly be explained by the combatting nature of the sports.77 77 Further explanations would go far beyond the scope of this current study and must remain untouched. since in most sports in Germany. . also the high percentage of higher-aged wrestlers was an unusual result.) Thus.58 - . which might prevent parents from encouraging their children in engaging in those activities. the untypical age distribution in boxing was mostly apparent.Chart 01: Member Distribution in 2008 (Age) European Combat Sports 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Members ~6 years 740 236 2441 7~14 8117 7494 11266 15~18 11758 4010 5718 19~26 13845 2739 7528 27~40 13264 3219 11161 41~60 10415 3793 18758 60+ 4322 1810 11740 Boxing Fencing Wrestling Source: DOSB (2008: 6f.
and much more boxing. such as physical elegance and game play. were considered as sports promoting “male” attributes. Together with the age distribution. the ratio was about 2:1. such as physical strength and beating opponents. the gender distribution revealed that fencing fell into a different category than boxing and wrestling. respectively. . in fencing. While both were featuring about five times more male boxers and. wrestlers than female ones.59 - . it could be interpreted that wrestling. while fencing was considered a sport promoting “female” and childoriented attributes.Chart 02: Member Distribution in 2008 (Gender) European Combat Sports 80000 70000 60000 Members 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 females males Boxing 11239 51222 Fencing 8156 15145 Wrestling 12703 55909 Source: DOSB (2008: 7) Finally.
It was compiled in 1993 in preparation of the promotion for his 4th dan degree. Before 1965. Andreas Niehaus and Wolfram Manzereiter. which were Jujutsu (at first in 1906).2. and its statements had been further reviewed in preparation for his 5th dan degree 78 The most prominent researchers about Japanese martial arts include Don Draeger. Others. revealing every aspect of the various interconnections about the different arts and styles. without detailed extractions of preceding conditions. there was already a vast collection of literature. but only of TKD. Klaus Trogemann. As long as the purpose of this current study did not include researching the history of all East Asian martial arts in Germany. more recently. Kickboxing and the several Chinese martial arts.2.78 But there was just little literature covering the topic of Japanese martial arts entering and developing in Germany in the 20th century. without critically examining the findings of the previous research. Judo (officially in 1933). the development of East Asian martial arts in Germany prior to the official introduction of TKD in 1965 should be outlined briefly. Diane Skoss. and much less dealing with Chinese and other Asian martial arts. four Japanese martial arts already had found their ways to Germany. Concerning these Japanese martial arts. Muay Thai. it should have been sufficient to summarize the main facts and developments of the above-mentioned Japanese martial arts in Germany. Martial Arts To provide a better understanding of the situation when TKD entered Germany. . and. Thus. and could therefore be neclected.60 - . it was fair to rely on already accomplished research about these other martial arts. underlying motives and resulting consequences of the events. like Kendo. Karate (1957) and Aikido (around 1960). One of the most informative papers on these topics was an unpublished essay by the head of the German Tangsoodo Federation. did not enter Germany before the 1970s.
info. such as the relevant organization’s websites.80 For a better comparison.61 - . The Free Encyclopedia. many of the information of the following sections were gathered by various internet sources.79 Furthermore. the core information about the most important administrations for the researched East Asian martial art in Germany would be presented in a table form similar to the ones used for European combat sports at the end of every section. accessed on 13 December 2009. accesed on 13 December 2009. www.de and www.wikipedia. The two general German martial arts discussion boards.kampfkunst- board. and multiple entries on the two general German martial arts discussion boards. www.org.promotion in 2001 and 6th dan degree promotion in 2009. 79 80 E-Mail by Trogemann on 11 December 2009. .kampfkunstforum. The Free Encyclopedia.
More than one hundred years ago, in 1906, East Asian martial arts entered Germany after a Japanese fleet visited the (far Northern) German port of Kiel. Its crew performed a Judo (柔道) and Jujutsu (柔術) demonstration in front of a German audience, including Emperor Wilhelm II (reigning from 1888~1918) who got the idea that this kind of closecombat practice should be added to the young cadet’s curriculum. Later in the same year of 1906, Japanese Judo and Jujutsu master Agitaro Ono from Tokyo started teaching the military and the police of Berlin in Jujutsu (Trogemann, 1993: 3). Also around that time, the first Jujutsu school was opened in Berlin by Erich Rahn (1885~1973), a student of Japanese Jujutsu master Higashi Katsuguma. Rahn’s student Alfred Rhode (1896~1978), later called the “father of Judo in Germany”, opened the first public Jujutsu club after World War I (1914~18), followed by the first governing body for Jujutsu and the first national Jujutsu Championships soon after. Before World War II (1939~45), Jujutsu was going to become a popular new exercise, resulting in about 44 German Jujutsu and Judo text books until 1939 (Trogemann 1993: 4). During the War and the following governing of Germany by the different occupying forces, the developments of East Asian martial arts in Germany came to a halt until the 1950s. In 1952, Alfred Rohde gathered the highest-ranked German Jujutsu and Judo dan grade holders, and they formed the German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium; shortly, DDK), by now the oldest German uninterrupted martial arts organization. Yet the DDK’s main focus was on Judo, which could be compiled into matches and championships, and at the beginning of he 1960s, Jujutsu was struggling. A committee of German martial arts experts of different styles, including Jujutsu, Judo, Aikido, and Karate gathered together at the DDK and created a new style, presented in
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1968 as Ju-Jutsu.81 It was considered to include reformed training and modernized defense techniques, such as defense against gun attacks. It was also designed to facilitate Ju-Jutsu competitions, but failed to gain broad international recognition. In 1990, JuJutsu separated from the DDK and became a proper member of the top German sports organization, the German Sports Confederation (since 2006, German Olympic Sports Confederation), one year afterwards. Besides reformed Ju-Jutsu, there were still several organizations promoting more traditional Jujutsu. One was the successor of Erich Rahn’s original Jujutsu organization, the German Jujutsu Ring Erich Rahn (Deutscher Jui-Jitsu-Ring Erich Rahn e.V.).82 Two other major Jujutsu organizations were the German Jujutsu Union (Deutsche Jiu-Jitsu Union, DJJU) and the German Jujutsu Federation (Deutscher Jiu-Jitsu Bund)83. The different organizations separated successively from the German Judo Federation (DJB), not the least because of internal power struggles which, unfortunately, could not be examined further in this current study.84
In German, the new style was named Ju-Jutsu, to distinguish it from the traditional Japanese martial art,
which is usually spelled as Jiu-Jitsu in German, but Jujutsu in English. See the German Ju-Jutsu Federation website, www.djjv.de; accessed on 14 December 2009.
See the website of the German Jujutsu Ring Erich Rahn, www.djjr.de, accessed on 14 December 2009. See the website of the German Jujutsu Federation, www.djjb.de, and the website of the German Jujutsu
Union, www.djju.de; both accessed on 14 December 2009.
For the record, since 2004, the reformist German Ju-Jutsu Federation was also accepting traditional
Jujutsu clubs; yet for the sake of clarity, it was regarded here as the Federation for reformist Ju-Jutsu only.
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Table 05: German Ju-Jutsu Federation Subject Original Name Content German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium) Date (1) DDK since 1952.09.20 (2) Jujutsu since 1969 Current Name German Ju-Jutsu Federation. (Deutscher Ju-Jutsu Verband) Associated National Federation (1) German Judo Federation (DJB) (2) German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) Associated International Federation Members Ju-Jitsu International Federation (JJIF) 53,637 members in 914 clubs 85 Sources: German Ju-Jutsu Federation website;86 The Free Encyclopedia; 87 DOSB (2008: 9) founding member in 1987 2008 (1) since 1969 (2) since 1991 1990.10.20
Table 06: German Jujutsu Ring Erich Rahn Subject
National Jujutsu Federation (Reichsverband für Jui-Jitsu)
German Jujutsu Ring Erich Rahn e.V. (Deutscher Jiu-Jitsu Ring Erich Rahn e.V.)
Associated National Federation Associated International Federation Members
independent independent 47 participating clubs, about 2,700 members (estimated) 2009
This ratio of about 58.7 members per Ju-Jutsu club should be regarded as the basis for further estimations
concerning Jujutsu members.
See www.djjv.de, accessed on 14 December 2009. The Free Encyclopedia, www.wikipedia.org; accessed on 12 December 2009.
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Sources: German Ju-Jutsu Ring website;
The Free Encyclopedia
Table 07: German Jujutsu Federation Subject Original Name Content German Jujutsu Federation. (Deutscher Jiu-Jitsu Verband) Current Name German Jujutsu Federation. (Deutscher Jiu-Jitsu Verband) Associated National Federation Corporation of International Dan Grade Holders (Korporation Internationaler Danträger) Associated International Federation Members United Nations of Ju-Jitsu (UNJJ) 22 participating clubs, about 1,300 members (estimated) Sources: German Jujutsu Federation website;90 The Free Encyclopedia 91 founding member in September 1991 2009 since January 1975 January 1975 Date January 1975
88 89 90 91
See www.djjr.de, accessed on 14 December 2009. The Free Encyclopedia, www.wikipedia.org; accessed on 12 December 2009. See www.djjb.de, accessed on 14 December 2009. The Free Encyclopedia, www.wikipedia.org; accessed on 12 December 2009.
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the year after the German Dan Board (DDK) had been formed. Erich Rahn’s student Alfred Rhode had already founded the first German Judo administration.92 The Free Encyclopedia93 founding member 1984 2009 1982 Date 1982 2. Judo Judo got officially introduced to Germany by a promotional tour of Japanese Judo inventor.djju. accessed on 12 December 2009. Three years afterwards.wikipedia. In 1953. 92 93 See www. about 5. The Free Encyclopedia.de. conducting annual national championships until all sports came to a halt due to the ongoing Second World War. across Europe in 1933. and the DDK was integrated into the DJB. (Deutsche Jiu-Jitsu Union) Current Name German Jujutsu Union. the German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund. the DJB got officially recognized by the supreme West German sports body.2. 100 participating clubs.org.870 members (estimated) Sources: German Ju-Jutsu Union website. The Nazis were quite fond of Kano’s martial art and quickly integrated it into their sports system.66 - . now DOSB). the German Sports Confederation (DSB. The previous year. www. DJB) was established in Hamburg. (Deutsche Jiu-Jitsu Union) Associated National Federation Associated International Federation Members independent Jiu Jitsu International c. Kano Jigoro (嘉納治五郎).Table 08: German Jujutsu Union Subject Original Name Content German Jujutsu Union. Prof. accessed on 14 December 2009. .2.
accessed on 15 December 2009. Since then. the Judo Magazin. hhtp://www. including Jujutsu. to certify Judo kyu (Korean: keup) and dan degrees from its start in 1952. and Kendo (1970). Thus. the DJB could serve as the umbrella for other martial arts’ administrations. the DDK also administered other popular martial arts. . Likewise. TSD. before any other martial arts organization was established after World War II. until the DJB decided to focus on Judo only at the early 1980s. the DDK was subordinated under the DJB. and Thai Boxing. news. Japan. while the DJB remained responsible for Judo as both recreational and elite sports. In cooperation with the DDK. TKD (1967).ddek-ev. TKD. the DDK promoted Judo as mass sports.It should be noted that the DDK was always run by native Germans and was headed by the universally respected senior martial arts grandmaster Alfred Rhode from 1952~67. It had been rewarded by the Kodokan Institute in Tokyo. and technical advises not only for Judo training. Aikido. but formally. which contained interviews. background information.67 - .94 94 See the DDK website. Karate. which was the official representative of martial arts in the DSB. In 1990. the DJB depended on the DDK and its direct connection the the Kodokan. the DJB and the DDK separated from each other due to financial disagreements after they had worked closely together on the administration and further development of Judo and other martial arts in Germany for about 35 years. the DJB was the top umbrella organization for Japanese martial arts. Meanwhile. In 1961. such as Karate (1965). the DJB launched its official periodical. Originally also responsible for Jujutsu. the Judo Federation established special sections for the organized administration of other martial arts during the 1960s.de. including Korean Karate and its successor. but also for the other martial arts the Judo Federation was administering. The DDK was considered as the informal superordinate organization for all martial arts in Germany. Aikido (1966).
the DJB counted just about 10. after Japan with 3 gold and 1 silver. which could serve as an explanation for Germany’s constant competitiveness in Judo.org. Germany was one of the top Judo nations in Europe.000 members by 1965 (Trogemann. while in 1957. Judo was not East Germany’s flagship sport.000 members. furthermore. In expectation of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics where Judo was a demonstration sport. . accessed on 15 December 2009. 1993: 6). Judo had become increasingly popular in Germany. The German Judo team won one silver and one bronze medal and was the third-most successful Judo nation.At the time of the study.68 - . East German Judoka collected one silver and seven bronze medals at several Olympic Summer Games.de. One Olympic gold medal was won by a Judoka from East Germany in Moscow 1980. 96 See the report about Han Ho-san on the website of the North Rhine-Westphalian Judo Federation. and remained in this position for about 35 years. France has collected the same amount of Judo medals in total than Germany (31). Han became national Judo head coach at the DJB. Germany had been successful in Judo competitions from the start. but with 9 gold medals nearly doubling the figure of Germany. and always a strong candidate for gold medals at international competitions. but it 95 See the website of the International Olympic Committee. Germany ranked on 7th place in the all-time medal ranking for Judo at the Olympic Games. www. and the Netherlands with 1 gold medal.96 Later. the German Judo team was supported by Korean Judo expert Han Ho-san who was living in Hanover in that time to study architecture. http://www. it had been more than 30. accessed on 22 December 2009. which got 5 overall. ranking on 3rd place overall. The best European Judo nation would be France. In preparation for this first Olympic Judo event. Considering its further successes in World and European Championships.nwjv.95 which was the second-best rank for a European country.olympic.
97 However. while only the DOSB-affiliated DJB remains responsible for competitive Judo.69 - . East Germany’s administration of Judo would not be further examined here. there were currently two organizations administrating Judo in Germany: the German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund. .was the only Asian martial art being open for the public and officially supported by the East German sports machinery. as East Germany’s sport administration did no longer exist since the German reunification of 1990. 97 For example. Karate and even Yoga had been explicitly abandoned from any support in terms of facilities and instructors. until the very end of the East-West German split. see Austermühle 1998. DJB). DDK). Summing up the brief overview. and the German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium.
accessed on 12 December 2009.V. Germany (total) Olympic Medals. 1 x Olympic Silver) (2) Udo Quellmalz (1 x Olympic Gold.) Associated National Federation German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) Associated International Federation European Judo union (EJU) International Judo Federation (IJF) Members 184.de.judobund. 2 x World Champion) Sources: The Free Encyclopedia.98 German Judo Federation website. www. German Judo Federation website.wikipedia. accessed on 14 December 2009. . East Germany (included) Outstanding Athletes 5 x Gold 8 x Silver 19 x Bronze 1 x Gold 1 x Silver 7 x Bronze (1) Frank Wieneke (1 x Olympic Gold. www.672 clubs Olympic Medals.Table 09: German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund. DJB) Event Original Name Content German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund e.) Current Name German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund e.70 - .99 DOSB (2008: 7) (2) 1991~96 (1) 1984~88 1964~1988 1964~2008 2008 no data since 1956 1953 Date 1953 98 99 The Free Encyclopedia.org.V.765 members in 2.
org. . 100 101 The Free Encyclopedia.ddk-ev.wikipedia. www.de. accessed on 12 December 2009. German Dan Board website101. DDK) Event Original Name Content German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium) Current Name German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium) Associated National Federation German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) Associated International Federation Members Outstanding Presidents independent no data available Alfred Rhode 2006 1952~67 since 1956 1952 Date 1952 Sources: The Free Encyclopedia100. accessed on 15 December 2009.71 - . German Dan Board website. http://www.Table 10: German Dan Board (Deutsches Dan-Kollegium.
the members of that delegation had been Japanese Karate masters Kase.72 - . one of the first German Karate masters who got their black belts in France was Judo master Jürgen Seydel. where it was practiced since 1954. . Around the same time. From 1958~60. the DSB refused to acknowledge this new sports organization (Arend. the famous “King of Rock ’n’ Roll”. a delegation from the Japan Karate Association (JKA) visited Germany. DKB). more other Karate organizations were created in some regions. Kanazawa. The first Karate organization was formed in 1961.102 Afterwards. Because of the famous Elvis Presley. near Frankfurt. Elvis Aaron Presley.3. the DKB already counted more than 1. in 1965. near Frankfurt.2. and many young people tried to follow their idol. yet the DJB refused to accept the DKB and opened its own Karate section instead. German Karate got officially acknowledged by the JKA.000 members in 45 Karate schools and clubs. Karate got a huge media attention in West Germany. promoting Karate by performing several show demonstrations. the German Karate Confederation (Deutscher Karate Bund. In 1965. Japanese Karate was introduced to West Germany via France. He opened the first German Karate school in Bad Homburg. did his military service in Friedberg. and he started practicing Karate in 1959 at Jürgen Seydels Karate school. leading a oneweek training course and certifying several dan degrees to German Karate students.2. which created a huge demand for Karate training facilities. The same year Choi Hog-hi’s TKD demonstration team toured across Europe and Germany. Enoeda and Shirai. 1989: 56). Because some schools focused more on the commercial than the athletic aspect. Karate Around 1957. including the German-Japanese Karate Federation (Deutsch-Japanischer Karate-Verband. in 1957. DJKV) in 102 According to Arend (1989: 55).
At least two different national Karate teams competed at different international tournaments: while the DKB team participated at the Championships of the European Amateur Karate Federation (EAKF) and the International Amateur Karate Federation (IAKF). Despite numerous discrepancies (cf. the DKB hired Japanese Karate expert Kanazawa as head coach. such as the Wado-Kai Germany (Wado-Kai Deutschland. and the other one was remaining . GKD) in Southwestern Germany. The DJKB fostersed traditional Karate and relinquished sports competitions. later Goju-Kai Deutschland. who was succeeded by Hideo Ochi in 1970. the highest German sports umbrella. To maintain its leading position.Northern Germany. the team of the Karate section at the DJB participated at the Championships of the European Karate Union (EKU) and the World Union of Karate Do Organizations (WUKO). WKD). the DJB dissolved its Karate section and agreed its members to joining the DKV.73 - . the German JKA-Karate Federation (Deutscher JKA-Karate Bund. For both sides. DKV) in 1976. in 1993. this was not a satisfying situation. 1989). In the 1960s and 1970s. and after difficult negotiations. all the above-mentioned Karate organizations merged together into the German Karate Federation (Deutscher Karate Verband. Ochi was the leading Karate expert in the DKB until he opened his own association. Arend. so that the current situation of Karate at the time of the study resembled the situation in Judo: one association was affiliated to the DOSB and responsible for high-level international competitions (and sports several subordinated sections taking care for remote Karate styles). DKU). DJKB). and the DKV was finally acknowledged by the DSB. One year later. and the German Karate Union (Deutsche Karate Union. the different factions of the DKV managed to stick together. and the Goju Ryu Federation (Goju Ryu Bund. More Karate organizations were established. Karate boomed in Germany.
de. accessed on 12 December 2009.org. World Karate Federation (WKF) Members 106.051 clubs Sources: Arend 1989.karate. www.104 DOSB (2008: 9) 103 104 German Karate Federation website.677 members in 2.independent. German Karate Federation website. Table 11: German Karate Federation Subject Original Name Content German Karate Confederation (Deutscher Karate Bund) Current Name German Karate Federation (Deutscher Karate Verband) Associated National Federation German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) Associated International Federation European Karate Federation (EKF). thus not officially engaging on the international stage as representative for Germany.74 - .wikipedia. 103 Date 1961 1976 since 1977 no data 2008 The Free Encyclopedia. http://www. . accessed on 15 December 2009. The Free Encyclopedia.
75 - . accessed on 12 December 2009.org.000 members 2009 1993 1993 Date 1993 Sources: German JKA-Karate Federation website. .wikipedia.Table 12: German JKA-Karate Federation Subject Original Name Content JKA-Karate Federation (Deutscher JKA-Karate Bund) Current Name JKA-Karate Federation (Deutscher JKA-Karate Bund) Associated National Federation Associated International Federation independent Japan Karate Association (JKA) World Karate Confederation (WKC) Members about 20. www. http://www.105 The Free Encyclopedia106 105 106 German JKA-Karate website.de. The Free Encyclopedia.deutscher-jka-karate-bund. accessed on 15 December 2009.
and very similarly to Karate. to teach Aikido in Germany. the German Aikido Federation (Deutscher Aikido-Bund.2. he set up another organization. Under the guidance of Rolf Brand and Erhard Altenbrandt. DAB). but one year later. was formed in 1977. accessed on 12 December 2009. www. just as the German Sports Teacher Federation. a student of Ueshiba Kisshomaru. Aikido At the early 1960s. In 1966. the Aikikai Germany. see the DOSB website. or the German Association for Sports Science. but in 2003. the Aikido Union Germany. another proper Aikido organization. the DJB set up a section for Aikido. Japan. It was acknowledged in the 1980s by the DSB as the official German Aikido administration. characterized more by competing against each other instead of mutual cooperation. It was led by Asai Katsuaki.dosb. Aikido entered Germany.2. after internal disagreements which can not be examined further in this study. but it was accepted as an association “with a special purpose”.de. who was officially sent in 1965 by the Aikikai Honbu Dojo in Tokyo.76 - . the DAB was not accepted by the DSB as a proper elite sports association as usual.4. also via France. since Aikido did not feature high-level sports competitions. Aikido was at the time of the study diversified into various administrations in Germany.107 Rolf Brand chaired the German Aikido Federation from 1977 to 1999. the son of Aikido founder Ueshiba Morihei. 107 To be clear. Thus. . another organization was formed.
04.aikikai. accessed on 12 December 2009. 109 DOSB (2008: 10) Table 14: Aikikai Germany Subject Original Name Content Aikikai Germany (Aikikai Deutschland) Current Name Aikikai Germany (Aikikai Deutschland) Associated National Federation Associated International Federation independent European Aikido Federation (EAF) International Aikido Federation (IAF) Aikikai Honbu Dojo Tokyo Members about 6.000 members in c. accessed on 15 December 2009. The Free Encyclopedia.org.10 1977. The Free Encyclopedia. accessed on 15 December 2009. accessed on 12 December 2009.77 - .110 The Free Encyclopedia 111 2009 1967 1967 Date 1967 108 109 110 111 German Aikido Federation website.wikipedia.wikipedia.890 members in 162 clubs Sources: German Aikido Federation website. 108 Date 1977. 180 clubs Sources: Aikikai Germany website. Aikikai Germany website.de.org. www.aikido-bund. . www. http://www.de.Table 13: German Aikido Federation Subject Original Name Content German Aikido Federation (Deutscher Aikido Bund) Current Name German Aikido Federation (Deutscher Aikido Bund) Associated National Federation Associated International Federation Members German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) International Aikido Federation 7.04.10 1980s unknown 2008 The Free Encyclopedia. http://www.
non-existence of international top-level competitions. was covered by the German Fencing Federation. apparently. Then. but usually a multitude of associations. accessed on 12 December 2009. the need to focus on competitive successes forced leaders of martial arts to get along with each other.aikido-union. . this might just seemed like the result of the freshness of East Asian martial arts in the German culture. While recreational fencing.5. Obviously.org. it was far too obvious that East Asian martial arts were administered by at least two (Judo and Karate).2. accessed on 15 December 2009. and 112 113 Aikido Union Germany website. to establish strong and unanimously leading national administrations. and Jujutsu and Aikido on the other was the existence vs.04. The main difference between Karate and Judo on the one hand.27 Sources: Aikido Union Germany website. http://www. such as in Aikido.27 Date 2002.78 - .wikipedia. fragmentations would occur only in fields where such needs do not exist. or recreational Judo and Karate. But just the martial art with the longest history in Germany – Jujutsu – featured the greatest variation of associations.112 The Free Encyclopedia 113 2.04. and thus. The Free Encyclopedia. Résumé Contrary to the European combat sports. At first. while much younger Karate (in Germany) reduced its administrations to just a pair.Table 15: Aikido Union Germany Subject Original Name Content Aikido Union Germany (Aikido Union Deutschland) Current Name Aikido Union Germany (Aikido Union Deutschland) Associated National Federation Associated International Federation Members Federal Association for Aikido in Germany 85 Aikido dan grade holders 2002 2009 2002. www.de/start.
114 114 Unfortunately. there was a lack of athletic idols for young talented ambitious athletes in martial arts. no matter how tiny they might be. . due to its status as a member with a special purpose. On the contrary. That might be explainable by recourse to the young history of East Asian martial arts in Germany. data of this kind are not available for Aikido. Even Olympic gold medalists. universally respected athletes of East Asian martial arts in Germany. things were different for Judo and Karate.similarly. the most well-known (and thus. More results could be gained by taking additional statistical data into account. and it was much easier for an experienced martial artist in Germany to open a new association than to win an international high-level competition. recreational wrestling covered by the German Wrestling Federation. respected) martial arts figures in Germany were usually the founders of associations. were practically unknown outside of Judo circles. there was no history of outstanding. like Judoka Frank Wieneke (Los Angeles 1984) or Udo Quellmalz (Atlanta 1996). contrary to European combat sports. Therefore. Second.79 - .
see the section above. although each martial art counted more practitioners than the German Fencing Federation. This resemblance was also apparent in respect of the gender distribution. . which showed a figure for male participants twice as much as that for female participants in the researched East Asian martial arts:115 115 The ratio for males to females in fencing was also about 2:1. a third finding would be that the membership structure of the researched East Asian martial arts resembled most the structure of European fencing.Chart 03: Member Distribution in 2008 (Age) East Asian Martial Arts 120000 100000 Members 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 ~6 years 9986 984 1985 3137 7~14 15~18 19~26 14432 7153 4612 6454 27~40 12287 9348 20950 6420 41~60 13195 7534 12651 4894 60+ 2043 677 668 249 Judo Ju-Jutsu Karate Taekwondo 109262 23560 20193 52309 29612 7748 13502 9178 Source: DOSB (2008: 6~9) Thus.80 - .
but one precondition for Germany’s success in this area was clearly that other countrie’s athletes were not doing better. such as top national prestige. It would be reasonable to assume that they would do so. and amounts of money. The reasons for this might have been multitudinous. Germany was quite successful in international competitions. Now in fencing.81 - . not boxing nor wrestling. .Chart 04: Member Distribution in 2008 (Gender) East Asian Martial Arts 200000 180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 females males Members Judo 56119 128646 Ju-Jutsu 17492 36145 Source: DOSB (2008: 7~9) Karate 37197 69480 Taekwondo 22451 37493 Therefore. if they would be provided with the appropriate incentives to devote more time and energy in better preparations. the best European combat sports comparable for East Asian martial arts would be fencing. although it featured fewer members than in any East Asian martial art.
82 - . can get a life-long pension enabling them the life of a rich person for an Olympic gold medal in TKD. . www. www. it would go far beyod of the scope of this study to examine the question if Japan would qualify for such a country or not.dosb.kampfkunstforum.de. 117 Similarly. and from multiple entries in the German TKD-related internet discussion boards. and in which respects. Greece. in Judo. there were still several countries where TKD competitors train and compete as professional athletes. for the sake of the argument. Mexico and several former USSR countries. athletes from Turkey. for example. www. it was not known that other countrie’s athletes would be regarded as national heroes. where they could gain much more experiences in high-level TKD competition than any German amateur TKD athlete ever (interview Arndt. 117 These figures were taken from the website of the German Olympic Sports Confederation. earning nation-wide fame and huge bonuses for top places at international tournaments.info.taekwondoforum. professional TKD athletes were competing regularly in premier divisions in Iran. the 116 By ignoring Japan.000 Euros for an Olympic gold medal. the situation was just as described above. It would be an interesting enterprise to examine the origins of such a huge interest and those huge amounts of money in these countries. or be awarded with unimaginable amounts of money. however. for the sake of argument.For example. Based on the previous reasoning. no matter in which sports she or he participated. But that would not be the concern of this current study. one could be wondering why such structures of professional TKD did not develop in Germany.de. the situation was similar in Karate. But as long as there were no professional athletes in any East Asian martial art or European combat sport in Germany at all.kampfkunst-board.116 In TKD.info. www. Ignoring. Other countries with professional TKD athletes would include Spain. While a German athlete gains just about 20. it was only to state that German TKD athletes have some clear disadvantages compared to some other countries. all accessed on 22 December 2009. 2009). the situation in Korea. here.
East Asian martial arts were not followed with a similar public interest. and TKD in particular. in Germany could be summed up like this. East Asian martial arts were still seen as exotic activities where people assign in for some unconventional fitness training for sometimes unconventional students. not comparable to serious European fighting sports which require tough guys being ready to beat up unknown opponents. . or that physically challenging matches would be a regular part of that sport. where parents could assign their children to without worries. just like fencing (and.de. because there was not enough public attention. both accessed on 22 December 2009. Thus. and www. Yoga). grossly spoken. and sometimes even for spiritual reasons. The situation of East Asian martial arts in general.83 - .kampfkunstforum. and thus get some regular media attention around the time of highprofile competitions. just as boxing. see www. the current situation reflects the distinction between European combat sports as elite sports for ambitious athletic heroes on the one hand. and East Asian martial arts as a 118 It was a generally observed tendency reflected in the postings at the German internet martial arts discussion boards that many parents would assign their children to martial arts when they feel their children were physically weak or underdeveloped. especially at the Olympics. while young people assigning in wrestling or boxing often want to showcase their physical prowess. One reason might be that they were considered more a healthy and safe physical activity. for fighting sports. Although combat sports were deeply rooted in the German culture.kampfkunst-board.info. probably.118 Despite their quite long tradition in Germany – now over 100 years –. and thus media coverage. just as in case of wrestling.answer would be too obvious: there was just not enough money in these kinds of sport. but that people would not regard them as serious fighting sports with thrilling bouts.
according to the analysis above. this would have a great impact on the pre-selection of participating members.000 Newton. while European combat sports were usually seen as activities without such disturbing constraints. which promotes physically challenging full-contact bouts more resembling European combat sports than Zen Buddhist meditation practices. But regrettably. this trace could not be followed within this study. At the time of the study. the most media attention was generated on local 119 Most probably.84 - . it would be interesting to examine how the German Taekwondo Union.119 Considering this. And that would require a self-confident administration capable of communicating that very distinction to the possible audience and pool of participants.rather recreational activity including meditation. Bavaria. it was also widely seen as a family-friendly activity. after TKD master Kwon Jae-hwa demonstrated his famous boulder-breaking knife-hand strikes at the BMW laboratory in Munich. One reason for this might be the missing media coverage of TKD competitions. which would be equal to a weight of 1. It would require the clear distinction between TKD as elite combat sport promising Olympic metal for highly specialized athletes. It was revealed that master Kwon managed to accelerate his hand so vigorously that he hit the stone with a force of up to 10. In 1984. 2008: 61). Since then. Naturally. and TKD as a safe and fun activity for the whole family. . traditional forms and exotic philosophical concepts on the other. although TKD was a challenging Olympic sport. and successfully managing that distinction. for it would reach far beyond its scope. The following examination of TKD in Germany in the remaining three chapters would be guided by this question. thus. both fields of activities would most probably be separated in different cognitive categories. East Asian martial arts were usually seen as enriched with desired philosophical values.000 kg (Gatzweiler. tried to get along with that situation. TKD once got a huge media attention. An important aspect would be the image switch of TKD throughout the decades.
2009). there remained a lack of facilities where martial arts (besides Judo and Jujutsu) could be learned appropriately. In fact. during the martial arts boom of the 1970s. and the preparations for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics with Judo as a demonstration sport. the first reception of TKD in Germany should be examined properly. since the 1980s. any opportunity to get access to a genuine East Asian martial arts instructor was regarded as a huge value. like Germany’s national Judo head coach from 1965~2000. due to a shortage of qualified instructors. Han Ho-san. with nobody questioning the qualifications of the instructor for teaching a particular martial art. the situation of the earliest Koreans entering Germany should be taken into account. In the 1970s. Thus. TKD in Germany had also benefitted from an increased demand for East Asian martial arts in the 1960s. Elvis Presley’s Karate exercises during his military service in Germany. turned out to be actual Korean citizens. several Judo instructors. many physically strong and ambitious young men joined TKD. Since Bruce Lee had adapted several TKD techniques (he collected everything he seemed to be useful) and had performed them in front of the spectating world. But before that. Despite that. usually on invitation by the fomer Korean head coach. This would be the task of the following section. and later additionally offered TKD in their schools. Ko Eun-min. To provide a basis for the examination of subsequent transitions of TKD in Germany.levels when Korean competition teams travelled (mostly) through Southern Germany. TKD benefitted from the huge media hype around the famous Bruce Lee-movies. which was based on three pillars: the long tradition of Jujutsu and Judo in Germany. fans discovered several of his kicks and movements in TKD and engaged in that sport. Therefore.85 - . . thanks to its image as containing the exciting fighting elements of the movies (interview Arndt.
everything seemed ruined. But some areas were less demolited than others. production facilities of industry companies had been destroyed by air bombings to a much lesser degree than residential areas. (183). the first Korean TKD masters entered Germany for other purposes than teaching TKD. 1991: 27). As this special North-Western German TKD region crucially affected the development of TKD in all Germany later. France and Russia in 1945. resulting in an unusual development of TKD in that area.S. industrial production capacities had been enhanced to a larger degree than other areas. and the second-largest Korean migrant group after those who settled in the U. This group originally resided in the West German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia with its huge coal mining companies. unusual to all other German. They remained the only Korean workers in Europe (Lee. Korean Migrant Workers in West Germany As mentioned. 3. it requires a closer observation of the processes in that region. the situation of the German-Koreans and their impact on TKD in Germany would be analyzed. the political background that enabled labor migration to West Germany would be sketched shortly. Most of them worked as migrant workers in West German hard coal mines.86 - .1. For example. 2003: 192). First. probably all over the world.3. even European regions. Labor Migration in West Germany After Nazi Germany was defeated by the allies of the US. England. and industrial facilities had been updated and still were on a qualitative high level after the war (Herbert. This was at least partially because during the war. . the country was in a devastating situation. Second.
i. technicians. GDR escapees. 2008: 59). But there was a lack of qualified workers. more than the U. caused by increased armament and private treasuring-up (Knortz. shrinked dramatically. the flow of fresh workers came to a halt after the Berlin Wall was erected in August 1961. Some scholars even argue that the flexible reservoir of workers in early West Germany (unemployed Germans. loans which are officially regarded as helping West Germany’s economy getting ignited after World War II. But then. 2008: 53). Especially the refugees from East Germany had usually been highly mobile and well-educated young laborers. the basis for ignition of the later economic miracle in West Germany was already set. 2008: 54). Knortz. professors and professionals from other highly qualified fields. was worth more than 30 Billion German Marks.87 - . since the so-called “economic miracle” during the 1950s and 1960s guaranteed a constant economic growth. overall. to less than one percent in 1960 (40). Nevertheless. displaced people. if not the most important factor for West Germany’s explosive economic growth (cf. 2003: 194). a period of global economic prowess during and after the Korean war of 1950~53. In West Germany. But West Germany was still in a need for more workers.S. the unemployment rate. some scholars estimate that their contribution. around 10 million people by 1960 (Herbert.e. then foreigners of different nationalities) was one. millions of fugitives from the former Eastern territories of Germany in Poland and Russia and escapees from East Germany spread into the land. Through the following years. with an above-average amount of engineers. According to Knortz. and proper accomodation. The West German economic miracle was a result of the so-called “Korea boom”.Therefore. which was above 12% in 1950 (Knortz. . especially for dull and dirty jobs. refugees from the former far eastern German regions. doctors.
becaue since the early 1970s. requests have been made by Syria. and problems like different culture and the language barrier could be overcome. Tunis. the industry started getting interested in foreign work craft. several non-European countries approached West Germany. 2008: 83). Venezuela.exports of heavy-industry products. seeking for ways of sending their (often unemployed) workers to the once again rich country. Sudan. as Knortz (2008) pointed out. 1955 (Knortz. Spain. According to this summary. South Korea. The Turkey contract was also significant because it paved the way for contracts with other non-European countries. Additionally. India. In the long run. Togo.120 120 The reprint of an unpublished. Afghanistan. the areas with dramatic seasonal variations in work amounts (Herbert. which was signed between West Germany and Italy in December 20. (113). the Turkey contract appeared to be the most significant. the Philippines. were raised dramatically. that unconventional measures were needed to get the relationship with this European ally back into some kind of balance. socalled “guest workers” were hired from abroad to work on West German construction and agricultural fields. However. and unofficially even from the U. which. Brazil. in return. Greece. Iran. the South Korean government has asked in May 1962 for two issues: (a) . Once the first migrant workers proved to make a good job. similar contracts were signed with Portugal. Bolivia. Singapore. Egypt. and the central-African federation. internal summary in Knortz (2003: 116-120) enlists requests of the following non-European countries: Barbados. the Dominican Republic. Morocco. China (both).88 - . United Arab Emirates. the Lebanon. Quickly afterwards. Through the following years. Chile. and Turkey. West Germany had such a huge trade surplus over Italy. Turkish descendants make the hugest amount of foreigners in Germany.S. Thailand. Pakistan. Japan. Jamaica. especially armament technology. Since 1953. the real incentive for the first official contract for work migration. came from the area of foreign politics. Canada. ignited consuming rates within Germany. 2003: 203).
from 96 million tons to 88 million tons. our special field of interest is mining. from 1958 on. requested 10. were ready to accept the dirty. including migrant workers. The hugest mining pits were located in the Ruhr and Saar areas in Western Germany. although there was a huge reduction of coalmining jobs. there was no mentioning of Korean coal miners. especially from Eastern Europe.89 - . on the other hand.300 Source: Knortz (2008: 40) sending 60 young engineers for further education during 1962-66. until mid-1962.000 jobs got lost in that industry (193).000 coal miners from Pakistan in 1960 (118). which traditionally attracted foreign workers. in prices from 1913) 1913 1945/46 1950 1960 1975 720 500 850 1. as the average per-capita income was raised dramatically during that time period (see the table below). people tried to raise their living conditions. Therefore. However. employing several hundred thousand miners. Hard coal mining was one of Germany’s main important industries.000 employees in 1957 to 287. 2008: 43). The consequence was a dramatic reduction of jobs in the coal mining industry. the necessary amount of coal mining laborers was maintained only by employing new foreigners (195).Although most migrant workers were working in production and construction industries. Table 16: per-capita income in West Germany 1913-1975 (German Marks. since the late 19th century. due to increased usage of the much cheaper mineral oil (Knortz. However. The West German industry. from 607. and less workers.000 industrial laborers for several years. difficult and low-paied jobs in the coal pit. Between 1958 and 1960.480 2. about 100.000 ten years later. . West Germany registered a dramatic reduce of hard coal consumption. and (b) sending about 1. including further education. Therefore.
000 pit workers on May 21. for on January 30. had a need for 121 Also. 1962. which was seen as too dangerous for working in the pits (Knortz. and some Eastern Bloc countries (140).g. On the other hand. together with two smaller pits. for especially skilled workers. and the complete culture of working and living. . German coal mining companies suddenly. climate. language. 1963. the experiences with the about 7. one major West German coal mining company. New Zealand. West German coal mining companies have had quite good experiences with East Asian coal miners. traditions. the US. except for Tunis. Israel. Morocco. which resulted in negative answers to the requests of about 20 countries (Knortz 2008: 121). and most unexpectedly. Therefore. this time currently unemployed persons. whose government signed a contract to sent about 9. After all. with exceptions in single cases only. Finally. this program was seen as successful. the general policy was that no laborers from non-European countries should be assigned again. in June 1965.500 coal miners. pushed forward an agreement with Morocco. because of the massive problems concerning travel fees. there was a sudden. Therefore. Obviously. Australia. presumably also beneath its laborers. which caused death for 455 miners and injured more 947 persons (114) The Japanese migrant workers stayed at home to compensate for the losses. immediate need for coal miners. after a severe mine disaster happened in the Japanese Mitsui pit.To fill that need. a decision was made by ministers of the federal states that non-European countries should not be granted sending workers. this project was finally cancelled by the German Interior Ministry because of the high illiteracy rate in Morocco. 2008: 133)121. e. food. again. Japan had sent 500 employed coal miners for three years for educational purposes to West Germany. They were on vacations during that time and returned to their companies afterwards (113). Thus. Canada. But the project was cancelled soon. In 1957.000 non-European migrant workers in West Germany in mid- 1962 was disillusioning.90 - . both sides agreed to enlarge the contract for more 1.
fresh workers. 3. which promised a loan of about 150 Million German Marks if the Koreans would send Korean coal pit workers (Kim. 123 The German literature about guest workers keeps mysteriously silent about Korean migrant workers and the respected contracts between the South Korean and the West German governments. the Park Chung-hee government turned desperately to West Germany. the Koreans came like a heaven-sent opportunity. There were war-related destructions of a far bigger scale than they had been in Germany. although all relevant documents until 1973 are already accessible (Knortz 2008: 7).123 122 According to Yoon & Kim (1996). Korean Migrant Workers In South Korea. deep in the heart of the Ruhr region. and the new Kennedy administration was especially concerned about the direction South Korea would take after the military coup d’état by Park Chung-hee in 1961. and the economic situation was disastrous. close to Aachen. the companies had been the Ruhrkohle AG in Herne. Both Koreas could not help themselves out of this mess. and the South depended on aids by the US and other western states. The North was supported by other communist countries. as was shown above.2.91 - . and the much smaller Eschweiler Bergwerksverein in Eschweiler. the effect of the Korean War was anything else but a “Korea boom”. In this situation. 2006). 122 therefore it was the perfect win-win agreement. But the fact that this agreement was not mentioned in a summary about possible agreements from May 1962 (see one of the footnotes above). In this situation. Moreover. is a . being the hugest German coal mining company. they were already ready for migrant laborers from remote countries. all of them located in North Rhine-Westphalia. The Germans. were also in desperate need of additional coal miners. One immediate reaction was the freezing of gratuitous financial aids South Korean economy needed desperately. Now the US was interested in a democratic South Korea.
The first official contract between the two states about migrant nurses was in 1965.org).124 In the end. even in the mid-1950s. South Korean nurses have entered Germany before. on both sides. see Lee (1991: 28).600 Korean migrant workers entered West Germany (see the following table): strong indicator that this decision was a very urgent one.According to Lee (1991: 26). Kim 1996).wikipedia. the first South Korean migrant workers arrived in West Germany. more than 7. December 16 (de. . and about one year later. the new South Korean government quickly installed a law about ‘emigration to abroad’ in 1962. According to Kim (2006). it was a group of 123 Korea laborers. or December 22 (Kim 2006). 124 Sources differ on the exact date the first group of South Korean migrant workers set their feet on West German soil: November 23 (Yoon. However.92 - . this was a small number based on private efforts conduted by religious interest groups.
140 Source: Lee (1991: 28).Table 17: Korean migrant laborers in West Germany. based on several other sources * ** trained nurses: requires College degree practical nurses: high school degree sufficient According to Lee (1991).279 893 2. with the immediate consequence that the unemployment rate grew suddenly. Since the Korean migration workers usually signed three-year contracts. and. recruitments of foreign workers were completely stopped first. followed by the global oil crisis. these figures reveal several major migration periods for Korean coal miners: before 1965. a pattern like that one above could be expected. 1965~1977 Year ~1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 Total 723 216 9 450 832 360 624 763 962 331 5.270 Trained nurses* Practical nurses** 128 297 191 62 875 988 815 419 255 55 3. 1977.959 799 7. and Germans began to return to uncomfortable jobs (Knortz.93 - . and West Germany’s economy got in a severe crisis. the constant economic growth came to a halt.630 Coal miners 2.233 286 1. It should be noted that in 1973. officially on November . 2008: 41). 1970/71. 1973/74. As a reaction. finally.
According to Yoon & Kim (1996). all of them located in West Germany’s hugest federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. This had been a reaction to severe demonstrations from Koreans in 1980. To enable this. because many Korean nurses had been forced to return to their home country (Park & Fehling. On the contrary.23. Table 18: total number of Koreans living in Germany 1972 8. thanks to family reunions for those who stayed in Germany. 2008: 41). the expiration of Korean worker’s status of sojourn in Germany was changed in June 1978. 2003: 203). Also. Nevertheless. As a consequence. the Koreans weren’t divided equally over the Federal Republic of Germany. However.800 Source: Lee (1991: 30). 2003: 84). recruitment of new migrant workers got finally prohibited in 1978.705 1981 14. many Koreans married Korean nurses to be able to further stay in West Germany. the pure territorial . * Figure of 2007: according to The Free Encyclopedia As mentioned. it was again allowed for several branches.231 1979 12. he assumed that a large portion of those original Korean migrant workers went further to America.460 1976 13. and completely abandoned in November 1980.94 - . see the following table. many of those Koreans who originally came as pit workers switched to different jobs as soon as their three-year contracts ran out. including coal miners and nurses (Knortz. the total number of Koreans living in Germany was constantly rising since.518 1975 14.824 1973 11. 1973 (Herbert.960 1984 15. based on data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. only 2171 Koreans were still working in the pit. they were originally gathered in a few areas around the coal mining companies which had hired them. but after the last team of Korean miners had arrived on October 25 in 1977.733 1983 15.853 2007* 29. Yet quickly afterwards. in September 1972. according to Lee (1991: 29).
Essen.853 = 100% All foreigners (in 1000) 1. and Dortmund.0% 2.1 0.3 240 845.3 273.363.7 161.0% 179 = 1.2% 109 = 0. based on data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany This table also shows that on the large scale. This is a traditional center for migrant workers.2 506.7 61. people never being noticed by most Germans. Also.1 Source: Lee (1991: 31).6 Citizens (in millions) 16.8 9.324.4% 866 = 5.2 3.0% 2. it shows that by far most foreigners were residing in North Rhine-Westphalia. the Ruhr Area with cities like Duisburg. together with the neighboring Rhein Area that includes cities such as Cologne. and they started spreading all over the country. by far the biggest cluster still remained in North Rhine-Westphalia. which features the most densed region in Germany.5 1.6 666.5 86.5 46. . as the following table shows: Table 19: total and relative numbers of Koreans divided across German Federal States (in 1984) Federal state North Rhine-Westphalia Hesse Berlin Baden-Württemberg Hamburg Bavaria Lower Saxony Rheinland-Pfalz Schleswig-Holstein Saarland Bremen All FRG Koreans 6.2 1.0% 1.6 2.8 5.0% 475 = 3.8 4.95 - .0 7.171 = 7.concentration of Korean workers was dissolved. the Koreans remained a minor group of foreigners living in West Germany.3% 15.6 11.067 = 13.202 = 39.6 1.2 168.253 = 7.2 44.9% 1.703 = 17.4% 781 = 5.7% 47 = 0. Leverkusen. However. sporting.
894 people applied for the first 375 available jobs in 1963. Garmisch-Partenkirchen) and Baden-Württemberg (Stuttgart. demanded experienced Korean coal miners. after Moscow. looking for an opportunity to make a living.former West German capital Bonn and the North Rhine-Westfalian capital Düsseldorf. and the first list of people who actually got the jobs was published in a daily newspaper. more than 12 milion people. 2. who analyzed Korean newspapers from that time period. After their arrival. these newspapers reported about the alleged 150 Million German Marks loan ‘in return ro Park’s making a “heroic” gesture of sending workers to West Germany’. It is considered the fourth largest urban area in Europe. many of them who actually entered the country had no experience in coal mining. Also. And finally. Nuremberg. day laborers. they received one month of intensive German-language training and then were sent to their work places below earth. According to Kim (2006). bad accommodations. Karlsruhe). and Paris. bankrupt entrepreneurs and other unemployed persons. Despite the fact that the West German industry. Korean migrant workers in West Germany lived under horrible conditions – low wages. plus. and maybe to escape from the hopeless situation in South Korea of that time. they often kept just about 250 German Marks for themselves and sent the rest to their families in South Korea. high school and college graduates. where they earned minimum wages due to their inferior working performances. and no contacts to their German colleagues (for an overview. extremely uncomfortable work. based on their experiences with the Japanese coal mining trainees. where the other main regions of TKD in Germany are located. there were farmers.96 - . According to Yoon & Kim . and a few real miners. see the following table). the table reveals an unusual low amount of Koreans in the two Southern German states of Bavaria (Munich. London.
this was a result of the failure of the Korean government to negotiate better working conditions for their people. there were no compensations for workers or their families Of varying quality. often just 4-7 pyeong shared by four laborers. Table 20: Korean migrant worker’s situation in West Germany: Sitution Working conditions Working contracts Accomodation Description About 1000 m below ground.97 - . and most of them ceased to . which reinforced isolation of Koreans Source: Yoon & Kim. This resulted in further re-orientation of many Korean workers. the air filled with stone and coal dust Unfair working contracts favored employers: in case of accidents or deaths. excluding German colleagues Official translators by Korean embassy were suspected to have other functions. one kitchen and one toilet for 120 persons. Germany rewarded Korean workers standard working and living conditions equal to other nation’s migrant workers. and under the impression of the Gwangju massacre in May 1980. 1996 After serious demonstrations by Koreans in November 1980. such as spying out and controlling Korean laborers. many of them kept about 250 DM for accommodation and food and sent the rest to their families in Korea Language aquisition Social contacts Official support One month of German language training after arrival Usually just between Koreans.50 m height and up to temperatures of 40° C . three showers. with floors of 1.(1996). therefore they were often renounced. including bonuses for efficiency. fostering conflicts between Korean colleagues Wages Minimum wages of 800~1100 DM after a three-months training program.
for their working contract did not allow any other engagement than the work they officially signed for. 2008: 59). recalled “many Koreans” among the coal miners being responsible for the quick spreading of Korean Karate in Germany. because the Korean instructors usually taught at Japanese martial arts schools or locations where they had to pay a fee for. 2003: 79). and switching to this profession after their contracts ran out. Another one was his successor. One of the earliest examples of a coal miner-turned TKD instructor was Kim Byungwook.work in the coal mines. German TKD pioneer Gerd Gatzweiler. especially in Judo schools (Gatzweiler. who started learning “Korean Karate” as early as in 1964. such as wine cellars or backyards of rstaurants. Another example would be Pak . willing and capable of teaching students. for example. Kim Woo-kang. until he went on to the Cologne Sports University after two years. there was just one Korean miner left actually working at a coal mine in the Ruhr Area. interview 2006). and they were paied by their German students for the lessons. But there had been several. because many reports about the early practice of something like “Korean Karate” unter Korean instructors who worked officially as coal miners can be found on the internet. This was strictly forbidden. Unfortunately. Jeong Yong-Gi (Park & Fehling. For example. but quickly came back to Germany to become the so-called “father of TKD in Noth Rhine-Westphalia” (Gatzweiler. who began teaching the Korean martial art in 1964 in Essen. it is not known how many of the Korean workers were also TKD masters. who returned back to Korea after his contract had run out in 1966. By 2002. then 3rd dan TSD instructor of the Mooduk-kwan tradition. and they could have been sent out of the land if it was discovered by the authorities. also a firstgeneration Korean coal miner. During the early times.98 - . such reports were not published openly. in discussion boards and in historical overviews in different TKD and other martial arts magazines.
In Shyuk (1938~1995). Lee Bum-i. who worked between 1965~68 in a German coal mine. Pak was a 2nd dan degree hapkido master and tought German students together with Kim Sou Bong. Lee worked first as a coal miner in Germany for 1 year.99 - . who left Korea in 1966 to spread TKD around the world. . later. to study sports science in 1974~76. But both of them left Germany for America after their working permits ended after three years. went to Zurich in Switzerland as TKD instructor for 2 years. Finally. but came back to West Germany to teach TKD and.
where the big stars like Kwon Jae-hwa and Kim Kwang-il were teaching masses of students in huge martial arts schools. It was as if the inventor of the wheel suddenly detected the existence of complete cars somewhere else … How could it happen that TKD emerged at two remote locations in Germany independently from each other. To ignite the movement. Down in Bavaria. Marx had organized the first dan graduation event for Germans. when suddenly two guys from North-Western Germany appeared. the German Taekwondo enthusiasts gathered together for the first nation-wide assembly in order to revitalize the Taekwondo section of the German Judo Federation. This was mostly unbelievable! That meant that there was another vivid Taekwondo scene somewhere else in the Republic. Heinz Marx. completely independently from the Bavarian Taekwondo boom. and he had promised to award them with official inspector’s licenses for future dan grade aspirants. waving their already earned dan grade certificates around – the very first two dan grade certificates in Germany.100 - . and even before the official introduction of the Korean martial art in Europe? In what respects was TKD developed similarly in these areas. How Taekwondo Entered Germany (1960~1965) On a nice Saturday morning on May 1st in 1971. and the black belt applicants knew each other well. They considered themselves the center of the German Taekwondo movement. The new strong chairman of the section. signed by the General already three years ago! Everybody was wondering all the time why the earliest certificate in Bavaria started with the number 3. But what a surprise. had called them up from all over the Federal Republic to join him in his hometown in Munich. the hot spot of Taekwondo in Bavaria. and where the first two certificates had been going. Taekwondo had just emerged from Korean Karate a few years ago.III. in what respects differently from each other? And which one of the two TKD scenes would .
there are several reports of a TKD-related martial art entering West Germany independently of the appearance of Korean migrant workers. including Kim Byung-wook and Kim Woo-kang. and Wiesemann. It covered the period of the introduction of TKD in Germany. 1. Kim Byung-wook followed an offer by the German Sports University in Cologne. as was already shown. and started teaching this pre-TKD before it became officially known as TKD. even before 1963. as early as in 1960. and have started to teach TKD to Germans clearly before 1965125. the Korean migrant workers in North Rhine-Westphalia. But first. and his first students in Germany included Heinz Wiesemann and Gerd Gatzweiler. later the two very first official TKD dan grade holders in Germany. who 125 More precisely. among the Korean migrant workers who entered West Germany from 1963 on were several martial arts masters. 126 During the time of this study. many Korean TKD masters had entered West Germany occasionally as coal miners. Moreover. 2006). Gatzweiler and the other students found a successor in Kim Woo-kang. they were masters of a martial art which would later become TKD. Korean Migrant Workers Teaching “Korean Karate” in their Spare Time As already mentioned. thus teaching TSD. both Heinz Wiesemann and Gerd Gatzweiler have received their honorary 7th dan degree. imposing its regulations and claims of leadership onto the other? Those have been the guiding questions of this chapter. which was officially recorded as having happened in 1965. Kim Byung-wook was an offspring of Hwang Ki’s Mooduk-Kwan in Korea. probably in all Europe (interview Gatzweiler. .126 After two years.emerge as the dominating one. But.101 - .
One of their motivations for these activities could reasonably have been to get away from their uncomfortable existence for a while. 2006. a position which he upheld for 35 years. 2007). several Koreans could start teaching officially Judo. The following year. while inofficially introcucing their TKD-style to the audience. interview Weiler. he is a 9th dan degree Judo grandmaster. 2008: 60). or. In fact. There was just the problem that activities of this kind had to be conducted unofficially. they were strictly not allowed to engage in any extra work and earn some extra money. in 2004. It might also have been an opportunity to improve the language learning. with the result of one silver and one bronze medal. but also Hapkido. until he retired in 2000. because as foreign laborers with a signed contract as their only basis for sojourn. Having gained 5th place at the Judo World Championships in Paris in 1961. Karate. Kim was later called the “father of TKD in North RhineWestphalia” (interview Gatzweiler. Germany’s first national Judo head coach was a Korean. the Germans trusted his expertise in their Judo team’s preparations for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. Han Ho-san came to Germany to study architecture in Hanover. moreover. and get in contact with the locals instead. Han Ho-san127. TSD or Taesoodo. they made him national coach. Many Korean martial arts experts did not only know TKD. which could be sold as something like a Jujutsu or Aikido style. Like him. But another motivation was clearly that they got paid for their lessons.had been in Germany as a coal miner and returned in 1966 to teach Chungdo-kwan TKD (Gatzweiler.102 - . . Jujutsu or Kendo. they did not run their own martial arts school and taught as many students as possible. Currently. like Kendo and Judo. but they were usually hired as unofficial assistants by established martial arts schools or clubs. he was awarded with Germany’s National Order of Merit. truly Japanese martial arts. Therefore. It was at least in 1964 when these two martial arts masters and others started teaching something closely related to TKD to German students. 127 In 1962.
why the commands and countings during practice weren’t in Japanese. nobody insisted on using a Korean term. the Korean migrant workers did not teach a coherent TKD system initially. it was often called “Korean Karate” instead. 2007). interview Jung. but in Korean. Therefore. at this early stage. since the re-naming of the KTA into “Korea Taekwondo Association” in 1965 (Kang & Lee. Korean instructors got increasingly confident in using this term for naming their art. several young people were interested in learning this fascinating new kind of physical education. Therefore. and interpretations. The first coherent system came with Choi Hong-hi’s demonstration team in 1965. Some clever students started to wonder. after a while. but serious complaints about this issue weren’t recorded anywhere (interview Gatzweiler. China or Korea or anywhere else. 1999). but whether it was Japan.Following the development of Karate in Germany since the late 1950s. like “Taekwondo” or “Tangsoodo”. but the description as “Korean Karate” could be found even in the 1970s (interview Jung.103 - . . but applied a variation of techniques. 2006. nobody really bothered back then. 2007). styles. All they knew was it came fro East Asia. Eventually.
2. That team conducted performances in four West German cities: in Frankfurt (in the federal state of Hesse). many TKD clubs. TKD practitioners believed that this story contains the whole process. Officially. former and future KTA president. According to Seo Yoon-Nam (1993: 34). not in Hesse. TKD was introduced into (West) Germany by a trip of a TKD demonstration team across Europe. the DTU128. in 1965. with Kwon Jae-hwa being the only civilian member. but more North-Western. Munich (capital of Bavaria) and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (host city of the 1936 Winter Olympics in Bavaria). the question arised about the reason for Choi’s team to choose only West Berlin and southern cities as performance locations for a new martial art. including West Germany. According to the official story line. there was no single hint about Choi Hong-hi’s demonstration team performing in a more North-Western region than Frankfurt. in North Rhine-Westphalia. and usually. schools and private websites copied this foundation mythos. accessed on 3 December 2009. Park Jong-soo (according to Choi Hong-hi. West Berlin. nor in Bavaria. 2008)129. Kim Jun-kun and Kwon Jae-hwa (Choi. . the team was. and further included TKD masters Han Cha-kyo (who later went to the US). 1994: 501. while the presumably 128 129 See the DTU website. Kwon joined the team as sports journalist. which earned him the allowance to travel abroad with the demonstration team. Korean TKD masters belonging to the migrant workers group were located neither in Berlin. This could already seem a little odd. The Official Introduction of Taekwondo in 1965 The official story line of how and when TKD entered (West) Germany remained continuously repeated and spread by the leading German TKD body. a military team.de.104 - . But a closer look reveals some odd aspects. Based on this. Thus. his best student. later went to Canada). That team was led by Choi Hong-hi. for as far as we already know. 517: see also Gillis.dtu. www. mainly. However.
who invited the team to Germany and organized performances for them at different locations? Clearly. to rent a decent location with comfortable seats for the audience (and 130 The answer might be found in the facts that the Korean ambassador. changed their clothes in their hotel rooms and went on the street to do their performance. Choi Duk-shi. had to place advertisements. . If Choi Hong-hi’s TKD demonstration team visited West Germany on the official invitation of the South Korean embassy.interested audience with some background knowledge about the performance could be found more North-Western? One first guess would be that Choi’s team visited Germany on the invitation of someone connected with the Korean embassy. one of the most famous cities in North Rhine-Westphalia. But it wasn’t by invitation of the Korean embassy. Choi Duk-shin. why would they not have performed in Bonn or somewhere more closely to the embassy than Frankfurt. as one could expect. Thus. the South Korean embassy was located in Bonn (not Berlin). a quiet city just southern of Cologne.130 But then. someone had been there before. This anecdote illustrated that the Korean embassy officially did not know (or did not care) about Choi’s visit to West Germany. Gillis (2008: 71) presents photography where the Korean ambassador to West Germany. On the contrary. joined the demonstration team on stage. it could hardly have been the case that the team just travelled into a city. it took his driver quite a while to find the hotel again. which is about 170 km away? There was only an anecdote about Choi having visited Bonn. but on a private basis (interview Weiler. 2007). After his drive back to Frankfurt. Choi forgot his hotel’s name.105 - . on behalf of a dinner invitation during his trip through Germany. and the only thing he remembered was that it was located just next to a pharmacy. And in fact. was an old friend and supporter of Choi’s. the West German capital from 1949~90. But again. who could probably had invited Choi privately when he was in town.
independently from Korean migrant workers. Allen Steen was the first non-Korean receiving the black belt in a TKD-related martial art (Bolz & Schuldes. but quickly 131 In 1962. closely to the Southern border of Germany. the young U.). Rhee had left Korea at the end of the 1950s to study engineering in America. 2008: 11f. 2008). using as a retreatment location for their stressed soldiers. . Anderson was responsible for close combat training since 1963. In that very camp. and to organize accommodations. sporting a brown belt.one entrance to charge fees). he held the 1st keup of a new kind of East Asian martial art. Especially for a rather tiny town like Garmisch-Partenkirchen (about 26. meals and transfers for the team members. roughly as far from North Rhine-Westphalia with its Korean migrant workers and “Korean Karate” masters away as possible. this tiny Olympic town was one of the hot springs of TKD in Germany. Gillis.000 citizens) where only a limited audience interested in the new martial art could be expected. After their victory over Nazi Germany. Anderson had learned this art in America by Allen Steen. But how did they get assigned to the first official Korean TKD demonstration team in Germany? 3. American military police officer Mike H. proper organization of the event was mandatory. 1999. Back then. That had been the task of the village’s traditional sports club. the so-called “father of American TKD” (Kang & Lee. the Americans erected their German head quarter at the Sheridan military camp in the revitalizing region of GarmischPartenkirchen.131 who had been one of the most talented students of Jhoon Rhee. “Korean Karate” in Garmisch-Partenkirchen Garmisch-Partenkirchen was located right in front of the Alps.106 - . However.S.
In the 1970s. 26 July 2006).107 - . therefore his style originally was TSD. (13).133 It was not undoubtedly clear which year Anderson started his training. 2008: 13). the Korean Karate department of the TV Garmisch 132 Jhoon Rhee had been a student of Hwang Ki’s Moodeuk-kwan. Rhee quickly joined Choi’s international ITF movement after it was established. who already had established quite good relations with Choi Hong-hi. D.C. 2009). Anderson and Vierthaler founded the first official Korean martial arts association in Germany. TV Garmisch 1868. In the same year of 1964.). together with German fellow Hans Vierthaler. as we already saw the American GI Elvis Presley studying Karate in a German Karate school a few years before. The European Championships were conducted as part of a visit by Jhoon Rhee. but it was in 1964 that he opened the very first TKD department at the traditional local gymnastics club. 133 Also. As a photography picture reveals. . Thus. However. After a while. Rhee Institute in Washington. Not surprisingly. They started conducting the very first German as well as European Championships (although on a quite local scale). Rhee was instrumental in the development of Kickboxing. featuring a very offensive combat style with no protection whatsoever.132 and he got so successful that he never formally completed his studies.V.started teaching something very much related to TKD there. the German-Korean Karate Federation (DeutschKoreanischer Karate-Verband e. thus much closer to modern Olympic-style TKD than Choi Hong-hi’s TKD at that time (interview Gatzweiler. Hans-Ferdinand Hunkel had originally started with TSD at an American military camp near Frankfurt (E-mail Hunkel. This was not unusual. for it was he who had invented the safety gear first used at full-contact Kickboxing bouts. Anderson started teaching German friends in this new martial art which was somehow similar to the already known Karate. this department was something like a franchise of the J. they called it “Korean Karate” (Bolz & Schuldes.
Also in 1964.1868 eventually got in contact with Choi Hong-hi. It seemed safe to argue that at least one of his purposes by this trip was to promote “Korean Karate” as a unique Korean martial art on its own. in the following year. In his hometown of Munich. For this. 1989: 55). the Japanese Karate Association (JKA) sent four of their best Karate instructors (Kase. The “Oh-Do-Kwan” in Munich Carl Wiedmeier had been an eager student of the “Father of Judo in West Germany”.108 - . serving about 5. but he was also invited to West Berlin by one of Germany’s largest Karate schools. owned by German Karate pioneer Georg Brückner. including TV news and shows. Enoeda. And he associated with probably the hugest martial arts school in Southern Germany. where they realized their lack of competence. Carl Wiedmeier’s Jujutsu school in the Bavarian capital of Munich. who was to get president of the KTA the following year. he ran one of the biggest commercial martial arts schools in the whole Federal Republic of Germany. the friends of “Japanese Karate” in West Germany organized their first instructor course. 4. he not only established close ties with Germany’s first Korean Karate department in little Garmisch.000 students . Alfred Rhode. named “Taekwondo”. when Choi Hong-hi conducted the TKD demonstration team’s journey to West Germany. which was completed with a national championship. Kanazawa. and Shirai) to a one-week seminar to Germany. Therefore. in late October. covered by several media. and the official promotion of four German black belts (Arend. It was in this very same year of 1965.
Wiedmeier founded the first German association with the proper name of the Korean martial arts in its title.000 in 1968)134 in different martial arts. Wiedmeier was instrumental in Choi Hong-hi’s visit to Germany. Later.com/odk/historie. for his own school in Munich – a name that was in use until the period of this study. i.109 - . According to his own records. Wiedmeier had learned TKD first in 1961. and he was responsible to get his team for a demonstration show in Munich. he got in contact with Choi Hong-hi. in 1966. it remained a local institution. he did not offer proper TKD in his own martial arts school in Munich. the German Taekwondo Federation (Deutscher Taekwondo Verband) in Munich.htm. until he engaged a professional TKD instructor. There. somehow related to. master Kwon Jae-hwa. “Oh-Do-Kwan”. if not Europe. but he combined elements from different areas to get better results. probably on one of his trips to Korea. Yet as a martial arts teacher. although he might have been the first German TKD student. Despite its name. see Carl Wiedmeier’s website: http://zsd- international. he had learned Judo. South Korea. which took him to Japan and. for several weeks. which could make him the first German ever to learn TKD (Wiedmeier.(about 10. and to complete his studies. For some reasons. he grabbed the opportunity of learning a formerly unknown martial art. 134 For this and the following information. who later rewarded him with the honor of using the name of his famous Korean TKD school. As a young man. he preferred a unified approach. but also different from Japanese Karate. 1966). . Afterwards. Jujutsu and Kendo. Therefore. he didn’t teach just one particular martial art in its pure state. he engaged Choi’s team member Kwon Jae-hwa as the first professional TKD instructor in Germany.e. he took a lengthy trip to East Asia at the beginning of the 1960s. accessed in September 2009.
therefore. 1993: 18).5. Francesca Rhee (born as Franziska Donner). Kim’s early trials could not be seen as sustainable. and university students. and his students the very first German practitioners of that art. The president promised to support Kim. who arrived in Germany in late 1959 to study brewery at the Technical University of Munich. Among them had been nurses. One of them was Han Ho-san. According to his self-report. who started studying architecture in Hanover in Northern Germany in 1962. and became Germany’s national Judo head coach after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics for 35 years. industrial trainees. Another one was Kim Kwang-il. during his spare time in 1960 (Kim. only few Korenas had found their way to Germany or a German-speaking country before Korean coal miners came to Germany in 1963. he explained that he used the Korean martial art as a kind of tool for sports diplomacy. However. 1993: 18f. . Kim put on his TKD dobok and cheered at the Munich airport. a small city north of Munich. A Lonely Student’s Efforts in 1960 Despite the fact that the wife of South Korea’s first president. However. This was registered by the president with some interest.). was from Austria.110 - . This would make him the very first instructor of a TKD-related Korean martial art in Germany. he sent 2. There. No one of them is known as having practiced this new martial art continuously until it officially became Korean TKD. and shortly afterwards. When South Korean president Park Chung-hee visited Germany in 1963. and Kim was granted an audience at the president’s hotel suite the next day. Kim’s efforts did not seem to have a lasting effect on his students. he started teaching small student’s groups in the new Korean Karate-like martial art in Freising.000 doboks from Korea (Kim. Kim Kwang-il earned some more credits in the introduction and transition of TKD in Germany.
Kim Kwang-il also started teaching TKD on a professional basis (until then. it was just his hobby) after he had completed his university studies in 1966. then there should certainly have been some connections between the Choi-team and the South Korean embassy in Bonn. 135 and President Park Chung-hee was not involved in the mission of Choi Hong-hi. Likewise. in fact. in the region of their hard-working country pals in North Rhine-Westphalia.According to Kim. It is also reasonable to assume that in case of an official issue. He opened his own TKD school in Stuttgart. it is much safer to conclude that Kim just fostered a wrong assumption in this case. Carl Wiedmeier. establishing one of the leading international Kickboxing organizations. But none of this happened. which. German Karate pioneer Georg Brückner hired team member Park Jong-soo to teach Korean Karate in his Karate school in West Berlin. which would have make an official admission of Choi from Park very unlikely. engaged team member Kwon Jae-hwa as TKD instructor. as already mentioned. the World All-Style Karate Association (WAKO). the owner of the hugest martial arts school in Southern Germany. 137 Georg Brückner (1930~1992) later turned back to Karate and. .136 After the visit of Choi’s demonstration team. in 1977. He sometimes seemed to have mixed up dates in his recollection of events. starting in 1974 together with Mike Anderson. which became one of the most famous and athletically successful 135 This would not be Kim’s only mistake. “Kim’s Taekwondo School”. probably including a cheerful get-together.111 - . became one of the “fathers” of kickboxing. Therefore. But if this was correct. was one year later. by organizing some of the first international Kickboxing events and. for example.137 Following these events. 136 This statement of Kim’s would also contradict the well-known fact that former army general Park Chung-hee and former army general Choi Hong-hi fostered an exceptional bad relationship. the Choi demonstration team would have made a performance. it was President Park who had sent Choi and his demonstration team to Germany. he stated that the Choi demonstration team visited Germany in 1964.
112 - . after he felt too much disappointed about the directions TKD was heading to. he surrendered and sold his school to Park Soo-nam. . But eventually. in 1979.TKD schools in Germany.
he acts totally unprepared against the Korean opponent. he had nobody to fear for.IV. Administrational Effort for Taekwondo in Germany (1964~1990) Finally. because directors said they could make use of his positive influence on referees during the tournament. After severe power struggles. Thanks to a free ticket. he got European Champion. this was his only fight at the Olympics. His presence at the Olympics was a pure show event. saw no other choice than to step back for several reasons. and the old head coach was reinstalled. just for this tournament. Now the athlete is under stress. If only this one thing had not happened … Just six weeks before the tournament. his old foe whom he learned to dominate. But in this actual semifinal. And things went pretty good for him: The previous year. But they ignored him. because his old-school training style completely contradicted modern training concepts the athletes were used to work with. whom he dislikes so much. The year before. The directors ignored the protests of the athletes who have managed three years ago to get him out of the position. completely uninterestedly. . but the world can observe an actual World Champion cluelessly losing against someone he otherwise could have beaten up. his good friend who had always provided him with the right tactics before a match and had guided him with sophisticated tips durig the bout. he had won the gold medal in the heavyweight class at the WTF World Championships. He knows he could win the final against the Korean-American.113 - . the new head coach. they agreed to cooperate with him. He beat the biggest names in Taekwondo. but he dares not to look at the coache’s corner where the one person sits. He’s missing his old friend’s advises and encouragements so much. the athlete was at the Olympics! He never dared dreaming of this once-in-alifetime opportunity. they conducted their preparations on their own and did not allow him interfering the athlete’s matches with his useless comments.
Although these Korean TKD masters automatically created something like a community or network with several interrelations. Finally. which would lead to official acknowledgement and governmental support. the German Federal State of the huge coal mining companies and thousands of migrant coal mining workers. bad luck and. coach and administration should desperately avoid. mismanagement of the administration produced a downward spiral nobody was able to provide the rescue parachute for.Clearly. Unfortunate events. The situation was different for other martial arts. this led to an understanding why West German TKD was never united under one common administrative body.1. the study for this chapter examined the crucial steps in the establishment and further transition of the major TKD administration. arguably the majority of Korean TKD masters in Germany were located in North Rhine-Westphalia. The answer could partly be found in several elaborations of particular conflict lines within the German TKD scene.114 - . arguably. Lack of Effort in the Center In the mid-1960s. there were no major efforts of establishing a governing administrative body for this new sport. that situation described above is just the situation each athlete. indicating the end of a formerly glory tradition of TKD triumphs. How could it come to a situation like this? To answer this and related questions. 1. The Struggle for a Proper German Taekwondo Administration (1964~71) 1. after Choi Hong-hi’s first public presentation of the new Korean martial art TKD. but it actually happened. As was already .
and more enthusiasts with instructing licences. A possible explanation for the lack of administrative efforts in the presence of the majority of TKD training locations could be the nature of these facilities. For the Koreans. later renamed in Goju Kai Deutschland. when “Korean Karate” entered the scene.)139. on the other side. 1989: 52).shown. the German Sports Confederation (Deutscher Sportbund. Judo and Jujutsu had been formally administered even before World War II.115 - . DKB) in 1961 (Arend. which. in return. DJKV) and the Goju Ryu Federation (Goju Ryu Bund. there were already several German Karate dan grade holders. the German Judo Federation (Deutscher Judo-Bund. 140 Since Karate was introduced to West Germany about seven years before the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. got its very own administration first. like German karate masters did140. However. in 1965. with the creation of the German Karate Federation (Deutscher Karate-Bund. DJB). Therefore. 139 Including the German-Japanese Karate Association (Deutsch-Japanischer Karate-Verband. 1989: 56f. they depended upon the cooperation with friendly German martial arts masters sharing their own private training facilities without any official notification. DSB).138 and Judo got its own federation one year later. 138 More exactly. Japanese Karate. they could hardly apply for the usage of public training facilities. in other words. with commercial school owners. led to the creations of a variety of more Karate associations afterwards (Arend. but after Nazi Germany’s surrender. in 1956. teaching TKD as extra work in their spare time was illegal because this situation was not covered in their working contracts. GJK). these and most other administrative structures were dissolved and had to be rebuilt again. . So. which was reckognized by the top West German sports body. the DJB also created a section for Karate. Judo and Jujutsu were formally administered since 1952 through the German Dan Board (DDK).
Commercial schools. also in the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF). Another explanation would simply start with the language barrier. it was one main source of their income.By West German civil law. than to establish an official organization for the same purpose which would have to fulfil the requirements of the German civil law. it was probably less problematic to establish relations to the KTA and ITF on a private basis.116 - . . clever martial arts school owners could offer their students “original” Karate instructors for a special price (as long as nobody bothered about the differences between Japanese and Korean Karate). this was exactly the habit of the Korean TKD masters. they might already have been organized more or less in the Korea Taekwondo Association (KTA). commercial schools were not allowed to step in. For example. the official way would have had the disadvantage that dan and other grade promotion fees would have to be made transparent. the Korean TKD instructors already formed an informal network. since 1966. On the other side. and. keeping the difference as something like a silencing guarantee. on the contrary. no one was known with affluent German language skills. to prevent the organization from adding a profit to the fees. 1993: 19). so that their students could get officially approved promotion certificates. called “Verein”. Moreover. Among the Korean migrant workers. while at the same time paying lower salaries to Korean instructors than Japanese ones. including money. because governmental recognition means public tangible and intangible support. But according to a description by Kim Kwang-il. on the contrary. Thus. news spread around quickly in the community. and they might not have felt the need for more formal commitments. formal non-profit administrations could only be established on the basis of public clubs. were supposed to pay taxes. For Korean TKD masters in Germany. and they didn’t agree to cooperate with an official German TKD administration since they would have to abandon a portion of their share (Kim. they constantly needed the help of translators.
141 The motivation for this step remains unclear. in 1964 by Mike Anderson and Hans Vierthaler in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Another possible reason could have been his effort to hire the first professional TKD instructor. For some reason. The final explanation of this situation remains to be confirmed.142 The creation of a German association might have been a requirement for this prestigious position. compared to the situation of other East Asian martial arts. Kwon Jae-hwa. 1.To summarize. 142 See Wiedmeier’s website. in the region of the earliest TKD activities in Germany. the German-Korean Karate Federation (Deutsch-Koreanischer Karate-Verband). Instead. the early TKD pioneers in Bavaria did not hesitate in terms of building formal structures. The very first Korean Karate association was formed.2. it could be possible that he was only allowed to work on something like a 141 Interestingly. as was already mentioned. Carl Wiedmeier.com/zsd/odk/historie. there weren’t any registered efforts of administrative purposes.html. on May 1. 1966. Despite its ambitious name. it consisted of nothing more than the Korean Karate department at the Garmisch gymnastics club. http://zsd-international. called the German TKD Federation (Deutscher TKD Verband). . with the functions of a secretary-general. Wiedmeier did not occupy the president’s position in this federation. Power Struggles in the South Contrary to the situation in North Rhine-Westphalia. he became vice president.117 - . About one year after the visit of Choi’s demonstration team. accessed on 23 September 2009. which could be seen as quite odd. formed the very first German TKD association. the owner of Southern Germany’s largest martial arts school. One possible reason could be Carl Wiedmeier’s appointment as director of the newly formed International Taekwon-Do Federation in the same year.
After all. see http://zsd-international. 144 For this usage. From this perspective. followed the Japanese Karate way. but not as a professional instructor at a registered commercial sport school. 143 especially between both kinds of “Karate”. proponents of Japanese Karate were already in a state of internal struggles. accessed on 24 September 2009. From that time on. who were believed to be coming from the military. The ambitious name of “German TK-D Federation” could be seen as a hint in this direction. A third reason might have been resulted from the at least hidden rivalry between Japanese and Korean martial arts at that time. see Goldner (1992).volunteering basis for a public sports club. after it turned out that all of his hired Korean TKD instructors. DKU) in Berlin. Wiedmeier might have had the impression that TKD should be organized under one unifying umbrella administration from the start.144 As mentioned above. Anderson. and also as strong evidence that Wiedmeier’s further plan was a close relationship with Choi Hong-hi’s ITF. Wiedmeier’s ambitious plans got corrupted. former coach of Elvis Presley. that Mike Anderson left Bavaria that same year of 1966 for Berlin and joined forces with German Karate pioneer Jürgen Seydel. Wiedmeier mentions the “competition” between TKD and the several “dissenting” Japanese Karate federations on his website.html. were 143 For example. who explicitly includes TKD in his constant usage of the term “Karate” throughout his book. which resulted in the formations of various unrelated Karate associations. several of them claiming to feature the only true kind of (Japanese) Karate. It could be interesting. as the already existing German-Korean Karate Federation of Anderson and Vierthaler sported the wrong term. by forming the German Karate Union (Deutsche Karate Union. one of the few who brought Korean Karate first to Germany. .com/zsd/odk/historie.118 - . at least as a side note.
146 a young.in fact secret KCIA agents. 146 See http://zsd-international. 2006). Now Choi. But they established quite close relationships with Choi Hong-hi’s ITF. nor the military. 1999). as it is known. That was revealed after the so-called East Berlin spy incident (dongbaekniim) of 1967 happened. facing severe punishments. and he showed exceptional cooperation with the German authorities. who cultivated their enmity since their common days at the South Korean army (Kang & Lee. but there is also evidence that he was cleared of all charges afterwards (interview Gatzweiler. the above-mentioned Kim Kwang-il is usually suspected to be one of the agents (interview Ferger. . According to Gillis. which is sometimes explained as results of growing conflicts between Choi and South Korean president. torture and even death sentences. had to face increasing troubles in his homeland. Soon after. both of them former army generals. accessed on 23 September 2009. where South Korean citizens were captured by KCIA agents in West Germany and forcefully transported to Korea. ambitious KCIA man named Kim 145 Gillis (2008: 79-85) presents many new aspects of the East Berlin Incident. It seems safe to assume that most of the Korean coal miners-became TKD instructors in North Rhine-Westphalia did not have much business with the KCIA. 2008). he was released (84).com/zsd/odk/historie. Park Chung-hee. But then. the distinction between Korean TKD masters who came to Germany first as migrant workers. For example. and those from the military who arrived as pure TKD instructors later on. It is an open secret in the German TKD community that several KCIA agents residing in Germany and instrumental in the captures were disguised as TKD instructors.html. According to the report on Carl Wiedmeier’s website. Choi had to face another opponent within the TKD community.145 Taking a closer look on this case. for they needed the international connection for promotion certifications.119 - . Kim Kwang-il had been instrumental in the kidnapping of several Koreans in Germany. partly based on interviews with proponents and victims of that time. one important distinction could be made. But Kim got arrested by the German police afterwards.
formed a new association and got quickly recognized both by the ITF and the DJB. and Kim took over the charge of TKD in Korea. to the point that finally. the Kukkiwon. but in truth Kim Un-yong’s men. Wiedmeier was forced to fire them all.Un-yong. and together with some of the freshly fired Korean TKD instructors. A former student of Kwon Jae-hwa at Wiedmeier’s school. some former members of Wiedmeier’s schools grabbed the opportunity. and later the WTF.120 - . and got himself the position of the officer in . had followed the interactions between Wiedmeier and ITF president Choi Hong-hi carefully. 1968: 21). took the charge and collected Wiedmeier’s former elite students as well as the freshly released.3. including Kim Kwang-il and chief instructor Kwon Jae-hwa as unofficial ITF representative. Later that same year. 2008: 20). While all of Wiedmeier’s hired TKD instructors turned out to be KCIA agents. As Kim got increasingly powerful in the secret service. by becoming president of the KTA. 1. specialized TKD instructors. Unexpected problems Contrary to the story above. SWTV) in February of 1968 (Bolz & Schuldes. the official report of the German Judo Federation (DJB) explained that the DTV got separated and split up because of unspecified “internal reasons” (Brand. he was forced to leave his country. they founded a new administrative body. During this troublesome time. Weingarth arranged the integration of the new TKD administration into the wellestablished DJB as a section on its own. Wilhelm Weingarth. which was the temporary end of the TKD branch at his schools. thus not trustful ITF members. the South-Western TKD Federation (Südwestdeutscher Taekwondo-Verband. with an instinct for the importance of sports diplomacy. Choi’s influence on TKD in Korea was dramatically shrinking.
for they already had established connections to the ITF on private bases (Kim. He did not know that they had already established a system where they allowed Germans to practice on their own. many Korean TKD masters challenged his proposal. After all. ambitious federation. which turned out to be one major source of income. the alleged all-German TKD administration did only cover 147 That might be an explanation about why Korean TKD masters in North Rhine-Westphalia remained apparently disinterested in building up formal structures for the amateur sport of Korean TKD: from their viewpoint. This whole process was also approved by the South Korean embassy (Lee. 1968: 2). and remain separated from. one of the main goals was still unification of all TKD clubs under a common administration. sometimes in their own clubs. They simply feared that this system would be lost if they allowed Germans to create a newly structured system. while offering technical support as TKD instructors. the Koreans simply did not need it. 1968: 4). it was more a commercial enterprise than an amateur sport in need for public support. 1968: 21). while the Koreans remained in charge of all graduation promotions at their commercial TKD schools. for the moment. Japanese Karate. To his surprise. . which would result in immediate governmental support for every participating public TKD club in the whole republic. together with a structural guarantee that TKD will be different to.121 - . He argued that this decision was the only and quickest way to get official acknowledgement for this new amateur sport. Kwon Jae-hwa travelled to Koea to get the approval of Choi Hong-hi’s ITF (Brand. Kim Kwang-il summed up all Korean TKD masters of the republic to explain the latest developments and to convince them to support the Germans in building up the necessary structures. There. The intermediate name of “South Western-German TKD Federation” was immediately abandoned. The result was a general refusal of participation of Korean TKD masters at the new. 1993: 18). After everything was settled.147 So.charge of TKD (Weingarth. to enable participation of more Northern TKD clubs.
neither of them could be confirmed or refuted until now. According to his own report. Alternatively.regional TKD clubs of Southern Germany. However. Wilhelm Weingarth.com/zsd/odk/historie. accessed on 25 September 2009. he was addressing either to the commercial character of Wiedmeier’s schools or the fact that his alleged ITF TKD instructors had been KCIA agents in truth. or both. the initial idea about this might stem from Carl Wiedmeier. to settle his cooperation with Wiedmeier. it might also be possible that he turned to the Korean embassy for the first time. with the exclusion of commercial TKD schools like Wiedmeier’s. officer in charge for the section TKD in the DJB. 149 Moreover. who presents several photographs and one advertisement about a TKD demonstration at a pre-Olympic sports event in Munich in 1967 on his webside. according to Wiedmeier’s description of the events.148 As a side note. was replaced by Herrmann Oppermann (Judo Magazin 1969: 25). where ITF director Lee San ku (6th dan) served as cultural attaché. this was Choi’s third visit to Germany. At the time of the proper implement of the alleged all-German governing TKD administration into the DJB. Choi Hong-hi made a visit to Germany to approve the new developments concerning a proper TKD administration which he felt were quite satisfying. 1969: 8). .122 - . 149 See http://zsd-international. and Kim Kwang-il was announced as Germany’s first national head coach for the first national TKD team. The following year.html. there were just 14 German (1st and 2nd daegree) and five 148 It could be guessed that in this passage of the interview. it could be assumed that he visited Germany around 1966 or 1967. these efforts had been the initial idea for Kim Un-yong’s mission to get TKD as an official Olympic sport. it is interesting to mention that Choi expressed his wish that TKD could be presented to the sports enthusiasts of the world at the coming Munich Olympics of 1972 (Brand. Unfortunately. Given that his first trip was the demonstration tour with his team in 1965. Also. adding that he wasn’t quite content with the situation before (Brand 1969: 8).
which could assumedly consist of the 5 above mentioned. 1969: 8).Korean dan grade holders (4th to 6th degree) participating (Weingarth.123 - . Kim Kwang-il wasn’t successful in exciting his fellow Korean TKD masters from the north. As already mentioned. This situation remained constant on this rather low level for several years. dramatic developments were ignited. in 1971. it was recorded that he spoke in front of “the six participating high-leveled Korean TKD masters” (Brand. plus ITF director and cultural attaché Lee Sang ku (6th dan) from the South Korean embassy. The change started with the take-over of Heinz Marx as new head of the TKD section of the DJB. . until finally. definitely all of them were from Bavaria. mostly Munich region. 1968: 2). 150 During Choi Hong-hi’s third visit to Germany. 150 Presumably all of these Korean TKD instructors originally came from Carl Wiedmeier’s TKD school. This was the situation of German TKD when it got properly approved as an amateur sport by integration into the already established DJB.
2006. 1993: 12). According to an anecdote noted by Wolfer (2001: 4). Marx could quickly raise in status and power. followed by another big one. What had happened? Marx had invited all German TKD clubs to a re-vitalization of the TKD section of the DJB. he was selected by the DJB as new head of their TKD section (Stix. 1971. 2001: 4). which featured a zero-contact competition style.2. while the third rank went to the TKD department of the TV Garmisch 1868 (Bolz & Schuldes. becoming one of the instrumental figures of Karate. the year after he started with TKD. . the karate school of Georg Brückner in Berlin. In this community of young and mostly not fully educated people. school-owner Georg Brückner was forced by referees to compete against his own student. on April 1. when Marx was already 46 years old. ITF-approved examination licenses afterwards (interview Gatzweiler. Six months later. with 49. In 1967. Struggles for Dominance Heinz Marx started TKD as a student of Kwon Jae-hwa’s in 1966. the huge martial arts school of Carl Wiedmeier in Munich ranked first. later Kickboxing. The Struggle for a Self-Governed Administration (1971~1981) German Taekwondo 2. in Germany and on international levels. Angry about this incident. At that time. thanks to his appearance with a huge natural authority (interview Jebramcik. he was already appointed member of the referees at the first official German TKD championships in Munich. he passed the 1st dan promotion test.151 Two years later. 151 At these championships. for example. including a special 2-day seminar. which he tried to refuse. he went back to Berlin after the championships and said good-bye to TKD. the figures were nearly doubled. and another two years later.1. 2006). 2008: 19). organized TKD officially included only 485 members in just 11 clubs.124 - . with the opportunity to get official. to 800 members and 23 clubs (Wolfer.
1986d: 12). Now. Marx turned around. As mentioned. namely Heinz Wiesemann (no. 1) and Gerd Gatzweiler (no. especially Kim Kwang-il. 2) (interview Gatzweiler. and it was his task now to sign the fresh examination licenses. . pointed at Kwon and asked him in front of the participants if he would be willing to take over the vacant post as head coach. he would no longer be national head coach. This was conducted in something like a small ceremony at the end of the examination seminar in a sports center in Munich. 154 As we already know. 2006). Kim Kwang-il was the appointed national head coach (he had allegedly been in this position for two years. there also had been a dan grade promotion a few weeks before. as the proud TKDin from Bavaria. 153 Which included a big surprise. 2006).152 For the first time. and if he would sign the 152 To make sure that there were enough candidates. Considering the above-mentioned importance of conducting dan grade promotions for Korean TKD masters. Behind Marx. mentioning something like true TKD principles would not permit minor dan grade holders conducting and assessing dan grade promotions (interview Gatzweiler.see also Ferger & Shin. this was pretty much what Heinz Marx had expected. were received by practitioners from North Rhine-Westphalia. thanked Kim for his service and explained him that from that very moment. this move had the side effect of destroying the basis for commercial TKD structures in North Rhine-Westphalia. There was a remarkable incident which made clear the authoritative power of the new chieftain. there are no strong reasons against the conclusion that this knowledge in Kims mind played its part in his refusal. Heinz Marx. probably in all Europe. a relaxed Kwon Jae-hwa had placed himself comfortably on a seat. TKD practitioners from the whole Federal Republic came together and learned to know each other153. especially Munich. but apparently with not much to do so far). Kim knew from his meeting with fellow Korean TKD masters in the Korean embassy in 1968 about the importance of their dan grade examination monopoly.154 Obviously. But Kim refused to sign the documents. Marx stepped in. disappointedly discovered that the very first two ITF dan grade certificates in Germany.125 - . To the great surprise of the participants.
126 - . as it is told. he just couldn’t get along with Marx. . that Kim Kwang-il completely resigned from any further cooperation with the Germans. Kim was stunned. he lost the readiness of the many Korean TKD masters in Germany for fruitful contributions to the development of TKD in Germany. while Heinz Marx made a unanimous example in revealing himself as the administrative boss in German TKD. for there was extremely little readiness by Korean TKD masters living in Germany for participation in the administrative TKD affairs in the first place.licenses as his first duty. It should be noted that this self-acclaimed authority of a German patriarchic figure in East Asian martial arts followed quite a tradition which was established by Erich Rahn and further transported by his student Alfred Rhode. aggressively. according to a Gatzweiler interview in 2006. 1993: 18. Kwon agreed to the offer from his former student.155 And that is pretty much the point why this story was more than just another anecdote. which was the reason he actively resigned from his position (instead of getting fired). Never ever before had a German official demonstrated his dominance over a respected Korean TKD master so directly. Thus. even. Carl Wiedmeier was a student of Rhode’s. and Marx had trained under Kwon. besides the two Korean masters involved in the head coach affair.156 The following year. Meanwhile. Smiling. Marx stated another example. who got in charge about TKD in Korea the same year Marx 155 Following Kim’s own records about that time. For example. it could be argued that Marx did not worsen the situation with his behavior. his successor Kim Un-yong. lacking any incentive of further cooperation with the German TKD administration at all. as some could say. in South Korea. Every Korean TKD master who heard that story (and it is safe to assume that the ratio quickly rose up to 100%) must have had bad feelings against the new German TKD leader. 156 However. Choi Hong-hi had already settled in Toronto and tried to rebuild his international TKD Empire. no other Korean followed Marx’ call and participated in the meeting. who was the TKD head instructor at Wiedmeier’s school. see Kim.
stemming from 1968. the German TKD section in the DJB still had an agreement with Choi’s ITF about “friendly cooperation”. and that was Korean expertise in modern full-contact competition training and practice. But technically. Choi Hong-hi planned to visit Germany in February of 1972. Georg Karrenberg. However. to remind the Germans about this agreement. For anyone with an instinct for political issues. Instead. was building the Kukkiwon. Marx waited until the foundation of Kim Un-yong’s World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) at the end of the first World TKD Championships in the Kukkiwon in Seoul. West Germany is a founding member of that federation.157 157 Nevertheless.did about TKD in Germany – the two divided countries. a follower of Kwon Jae-hwa. German TKD athletes gained some medals: one silver and one bronze in 1973. was largely unprepared for this special kind of competitions. Kwon Jae-hwa. who later became the chief women’s coach.S. the German team under his successor Shin Boo-young. had some training experiences with a chest protector and full-contact sparring in preparation for the Championships. Moreover.. this was a promising playing field where power and honor (and money) awaited the clever ones. 1985). the year the TKD section was founded. and.127 - . both in 1973 and 1975. South Korea. he planned to open a new world-wide TKD body which would be backed massively by the authoritative South Korean government. only the bronze winner of 1973. and two silver medals in 1975. favoured zero-contact competitions. But he met a very selfconfident German TKD leader who refused any further cooperation with the then only international TKD organization (Gil. The World TKD Championships in the Kukkiwon. revealed that German TKD still missed something important. in May 1973. and Heinz Marx was selected as WTF Executive Member from the start. by the way –. . and although he left the country closely before the World Championships and headed to the U. as rumors had it. national head coach since 1971. and to renew it.
com. he was Korean Champion in 1969. both their male and female teams. For detailed information about past TKD competitions in general. accessed on 15 October 2009. 2006). Under Park Soo-nam. very little help from Korean TKD masters in Germany could be expected on this issue. accessed on 12 October 2009. 158 According to the self-presentation on his website. named Park Soo-nam. after the 2nd World TKD Championships in Korea in 1975. a gifted competition instructor with international experience was hired directly in Korea. see his profile at www. Germany quickly dominated European TKD competitions.128 - . www.159 With the help of Park Soo-nam. . the German national team won the European Championships five times in a row. ran “Park’s Gym” in Seoul from 1971~76 and was referee at the 2nd World TKD Championships in Korea in 1975. mostly in North RhineWestphalia. see the study of Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). and they produced two World Champions until the early 1980s. tactics and training practices were “state of the art” (interview Arndt.de. he was the materialized success factor for the Germans.taekwondodata. His tricks.taekwondo-aktuell. Until erection of the Kukkiwon.158 Park turned out to be highly efficient as national coach. 159 For a more detailed overview of the successes of Park and the aftermath. thus making Germany the second-most successful TKD nation after South Korea. see the Taekwondo Data website. 2009). TKD schools usually belonged to the kwan of their Korean grandmaster. in terms of internationally gained medals.For obvious reasons. But what happened to the schools of the Korean TKD masters. Consequently. and it was they who awarded their followers in Germany the right to conduct and to set quality standards for dan grading promotions. which marked an end to the separational tendencies of the many Korean TKD kwans. also his detailed knowledge about Korean WTF competition referees (interview Gatzweiler. which didn’t bother about participation in the TKD section under Heinz Marx’s leadership? They remained largely independent.
There was at least one trial of gaining new members for the TKD section of the DJB among the independent TKD schools in North Rhine-Westphalia. while at the same time. While Karate had beaten TKD at first both in the competitions of unity and of national recognition – the first Karate federation was founded in 1961 and remained the only one for several years. it was possible that new talents for full-contact competitions could be spotted. there was no line of karate unification on the horizon. a traditional laborer’s region where many independent Korean TKD enthusiasts could be expected to be interested in watching. 1989: 52. Thus. the TKD section of the DJB gained dominance over Japanese karate in terms of unity of the movement. Therefore. for about one year. or even participating. 1977a: 8). Much worse.). This was quite new in Germany.129 - . . did not belong to the 10 best competitors in their region so far. 1977a).160 Finally. as already seen. until in 1965. 56f. karate officials were obviously more interested in maintaining their own position 160 As the results show (Marx. Marx reorganized this event in something like an unconventional talent search. The National TKD Championships 1976 were conducted in the North Rhine-Westphalian city of Mühlheim. Karate got its own section in the DJB – it was divided in five or more competing associations ten years later (Arend. DJB (see Marx. plus. being one of the best 10 in a region. which were. being a formal member of the Judo federation. 1977a: 7). the TKD directors tried something new. Park Soo-nam. there was little danger for the favorites to be beaten up by unknown athletes from outside of the federation. which might have had some troubles with zero-contact competitions and. they abandoned the strict formal participation requirements. nearly all weight classes were expectedly won by the favorites from the national team. For the German Championships of 1976 were the first ones featuring full-contact competition style (Marx. therefore. of course. and the national cadre members had the advantage of having trained this style under their new coach.
a clear and present danger (Marx. which was. 1977b: 68) . such as power. and money) than in the overall development of karate. in his opinion. honor. This negative example might have convinced Marx that a strong zero tolerance-policy was the only solution to prevent his TKD movement to fall apart.130 - .(including advantages these positions bring along.
besides struggles for dominance. which happened twice. In the view of Marx and his merry men. One outstanding example of this was the foundation of a unified European TKD administration. first without. presumably. Several such struggles could be detected. Marx tried to develop his German TKD independent from influences of the mighty WTF. by the mighty Dr. Marx tried to lead German TKD independently from Korean influences.2. and second with the approval of the WTF. but the whole issue was not approved by Kim Un-yong and the associations he controlled. and Marx participated at the WTF inauguration meeting in person. functioning as president of German TKD. like the Kukkiwon or the WTF (see Gil 1985. when the WTF conducted the very same procedure again. and their response was delivered the following year. 1975. all of them selected.131 - . this was an illegal act. Struggles for Independence Another major agenda. from Marx’ perspective. because none of the new ETU directors were proper delegates of the alleged participating . with a totally new staff of directors. historically. as we already saw. this time in Barcelona. His motivation in this case might have stem from the fact that the German TKD section of the DJB was. 1986). Marx. German TKD had been independent from the WTF. Every other position had to be occupied by native Germans. 1985b. They were not quite amused. Heinz Marx was elected as president. older than the WTF. probably in the whole world. a phenomenon which was exceptional in Europe. and. The first foundation of the European Taekwondo Federation (ETU) took place on May 26. The only big exception from this line was the position of national team coach. Thus. Kim. Spain: foundation of the ETU (with the identical name). Second.2. more specially. was struggles for independence. initially. there was no reason why it should suddenly play a subordinated role. First and foremost.
Based on their experiences in organizing the first ETU Championships. For one year. Now. Instead. which was awarded by hosting the 4th WTF World Championships of 1979 in Sindelfingen in West Germany. As already mentioned. But they decided not to intervene. from this perspective. In the end. i. everybody was aware of their incompetence. this time with the approval from the WTF (Gil. . and he gained trustworthiness after demonstrating loyalty. at least in Europe. Marx managed to get the ETU directors he intended. 1985b). Therefore. had not been formally elected. Fortunately.European countries. the actual ETU directors were just replaced by the original board members from 1975. and they turned to the original ETU directors for help in this matter. with three gold and five bronze medals (Marx 1986). 1985b). organization of the following ETU Championships would be the task for the new ETU directors. the 2nd ETU European Championships were successfully conducted in 1978. the first directors had organized the first European TKD Championships. the German national team was the most successful one. which could be interpreted as a sign of devotion to Kim Un-yong and the WTF. and while Marx and his merry men kept silenced about this issue. everybody was satisfied. and in 1978.132 - . the original ETU executives believed in the incompetence of the new directors.e. totally inexperienced directors. the old ETU directors were confident that this task would be one too big to be mastered by the new. for they understood this maneuver as a sheer power demonstration by Kim (Gil. Thus. although Kim Un-yong and the WTF demonstrated that every crucial decision in the TKD world was theirs and could not be considered without their approval. close to Stuttgart. Help was granted. Marx demonstrated Kim and the WTF some degree of independence in return. including the new directors themselves. which were held directly after the new formation of the ETU’s directors. Marx and his men also demonstrated that Kim and the WTF could not realize everything as they liked. with the approval of the WTF. they needed the cooperation of Marx and his friends.
the DSB. membership to the DJB does not automatically prevent the TKD community from splitting up (Marx. 1977b: 9). coaches and officials etc. The first recorded activity in this direction was an open letter by TKD president Heinz Marx in January of 1977. . preparatory training seminars. Marx started to argue. At the end of the 1970s and the beginning 1980s. Therefore. he concluded. German TKD was the most successful branch of the DJB. As we already know. commercial schools were popular among Korean TKD masters in North Rhine-Westphalia. was that TKD wasn’t an Olympic sport (Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha.On the pure administrational level. However. of course. but a requirement for all formal members of the top German sports umbrella. wasn’t even a Japanese martial art. Thus. 1989: 65). 2007). in terms of medals at international competitions. While the international TKD community grew and sports contacts and competitions became more frequent. by the way. Its background was the latest developments in Karate. the status of TKD and its future development should better be reconsidered (Marx 1977b: 68). Judo executives tried to reduce their support for TKD. One reason why the DJB would foster departings was their strict member policy which allowed only public clubs being accepted as formal members of the federation. bigger and. By the mid-1970s. more expensive. there were about 5 Karate associations covering between 1. the Judo federation was also increasingly reluctant in supporting this success financially – coach’s salaries. too. which did not prevent other Karate organizations to be founded.000 and 20. was not the DJB’s sole decision. The official reason. but not commercial schools161.133 - .000 members (Arend. which. with the consequence that their 161 This. therefore. independence from the covering Judo organization was quickly growing in importance. Karate had a DJB section. as already mentioned. accommodations for athletes. in principle. travel costs. As already mentioned. after all. with the DJB section ranging just in the middle with about 10.000 members each.
like Carl Wiedmeier’s Oh-DoKwan. Overall.162 162 Marx could not know that this last demand.schools could not become members of the DJB-TKD. the DSB (69). including competitions and national teams. 2006). for example -. because their school they belonged to wasn’t allowed to. which should follow the policy of enrolling all clubs.134 - . that could lead to the foundation of a separatist TKD federation. But there were also many commercial schools ran by Germans. until it was finally replaced by a more restricted voting system in 2003. which would cause problems in the formal recognition of any future TKD administration by the top German sports body. in which case the DJB could no longer claim to represent all German TKD officially. for example. equal voting rights to every single member – no matter if it was a tiny TKD club with a handful of members and little annual fees. without any exceptions. Several of them were also instrumental in developing and promoting Kickboxing (Velte. they changed their direction and joined one of the emerging Karate associations. that TKD directors thought loudly about ways to get access to this hidden potential. then. . As it was not possible for them to be formally accepted members of the TKD community – they were not allowed to compete in national and international TKD tournaments. Marx’ solution to this dilemma was a quick independent German TKD federation. departments and schools as members. would cause immense troubles about ten years thereafter and since then. If such cases would sum up. 1977b: 68). Marx mentioned even a case of a public TKD club which wasn’t accepted by the regional branch of the DJB (Marx. Not surprising. Moreover. or a big one with hundreds of active participants and huge annual contributions to the federation -. many highly talented and motivated TKD enthusiasts could not participate in the official TKD community. and each such member should be granted an equal voting right at the annual assemblies. see Bolz & Schuldes (2008). even if they wanted to.
even the DJB was ready to release its TKD section soon. Thus. the German TKD Union (Deutsche Taekwondo Union. and independence both from other martial arts. But the 1980s was also the (first) decade of major desperations of the German TKD community.135 - . and TKD was the most successful martial art in Germany -. the more frequently occurred criticisms on the DJB and plans for an independent TKD federation. and from international federations. Finally. the 1980s promised to be the decade of a strong. dominance in this sport in Europe.The more the decade approached the 1980s. and the enduring struggle for independence finally got to an end.3. On April 20. especially Judo (totally). something unexpected happened that went across the . This should be examined in the next section. so to speak. for the ETU was. DTU) was founded in Frankfurt. not just dominating them. Disparity The year of 1980 produced a very positive headline for TKD. Marx and his cheering TKD family had reached both of their two long-term goals: dominance about rival sports – the situation in Karate was still troublesome. with the official recognition as an Olympic sport (administered by the WTF) at the 83rd session of the International Olympic Committee on July 17. self-confident. Around that time. even by maintaining a good relationship. 2. prior to the Olympic Games in Moscow. and the WTF was bound to cooperate with the Germans. In this light. in the hands of the Germans. But around the same time. 1981. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007) for more details on this matter. Unity vs. at the beginning of the 1980s. successful and united German TKD federation. Germany’s TKD successes on international levels were on its peak.
several German TKD school owners were assigned to the ITF.g. because until the 1990s. and something like an ITF organization. In fact.136 - . later called the “father of TKD in North RhineWestphalia” (interview Weiler. 2005: 33. Also. usually because their own German-Korean grandmaster was or had been. many established Korean TKD masters also preferred the hyong forms about the newly created taeguk poomsae forms of the WTF. For many. especially if they didn’t like to cooperate with Kim Un-yong’s WTF. 2007). was awarded the 5th dan. Choi tried harder than ever to enhance the influence of his federation.direction of unity German TKD was heading at.163 After Marx severed ties with Choi in 1972. the ITF remained silent in Germany. the ITF just seemed to be the better choice than the WTF. . his organization was officially affiliated to the ITF and re-named into ITF-GER.164 Now. the real motivations for individual choices often remain undiscovered. the North Rhine-Westphalian TKD Federation (Nordrhein-Westfälischer Taekwon-Do-Verband e. NWTV) that consisted of only Germans (Karate revue 1980 (9/10): 23). However. many WTF-affiliated German TKD clubs still fostered the hyong forms their grand masters had taught them before formation of the WTF. Choi Hong-hi had been back in Germany. So Choi made some efforts: The head of the NWTV. many of the Korean TKD masters in North Rhine-Westphalia established a loose connection to the ITF over the years.V. his interview in Brand. In Germany. Karate revue 1980 (9/10): 23. 163 164 See Weiler. he found a situation which was not helpful in this context: many Korean TKD masters running their schools without formal affiliation to any major federation. However. and Kim Woo-Kang. as TKD was officially accepted as an Olympic sport – something which Choi Hong-hi dreamed about one decade ago (see e. But this alone could not be a reason for the choice of ITF.. and he was looking for ways to establish a German ITF branch. Max Geburt. was appointed with the task of building up the organization among his fellow Koreans. 1969) -.
mainly in the Munich region and in far northern Germany. private federation with practically no connections to Olympic-style TKD. And finally. For example. Commercial TKD schools couldn’t become members of public federations anyway. Karlsruhe). 81 of the attendees. A further split happened the following year. the split happened during the 1990s. there is a reprint of the original attendance list of the inauguration meeting. and officially opened the first franchise of his own private (commercial) organization. He gave a few special training seminars to his followers. Later on. that was none of the federation’s businesses. the departure of several high-leveled Korean members of the ITF-GER. was one of the leading female TKD athletes during the 1980s.). who were still numerous. more such centers were opened. apparently more from southern Germany (Stuttgart. like its current head.137 - . Shin Booyoung. and today. attended the inauguration meeting of the German Taekwondo Union after its separation from the DJB in 1981 (TA 1981 (9): 24). the Kwon Jae-hwa’s Black Belt Centers constitute a rivaling. Sabine Hunkel. a strong indicator of not unfriendly relationships.In that same year of 1980. which enlists Shin as No.165 Also. in 1989. But eventually. the International TaekwonDo Black Belt Center. in Munich. Hans-Ferdinand Hunkel. another temporarily forgotten TKD grandmaster appeared again: Kwon Jae-hwa. who had left Germany in 1973 and was running a huge TKD school in Florida since 1974 (Karate revue 1980 (9/10): 22f. but they could additionally create a public club associated with their school. If the school then belonged to some further organization. wife of Hans-Ferdinand Hunkel. 73 and Hunkel as No. But this was not a real split from the main TKD line then. or Kwon Jae-hwa’s successor as national team coach from 1973~75. and formation of the German TKD Association (Deutscher Taekwondo Bund. in Hamburg and beyond. husband Hans-Ferdinand received the golden needle of honor from the Union. leading members of the Black Belt Centers in Germany. 165 In that issue. .
68. and got formally approved by the top German sport body. after all these separations had happened. of if these persons. they moved ahead and navigated their new vessel through a few prosperous years. were fostered and got stronger. 2005: 33). However. on December 4. 1981 (Siegel.138 - . Yet several internal conflicts and other problems already existed from the start. choosed to serve two different federations. no. 2007). DTU) was founded in Frankfurt on June 20. 1983: 4. .DTB) in March of 1981 (Karate revue 1981 (6): 36f. until they got the German TKD movement in serious troubles. the German TKD Union (Deutsche TKD Union. This move was a serious blow to the just re-established German ITF branch. together with their clubs or schools. Linden. the DSB. Jang Kwang-myung. while it didn’t affect the DJB-TKD. 166 In details: Song Chan-ho. 1981). On the contrary. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha. several leading members of the new DTB also attended the foundation meeting of the DTU just three months afterwards (TA 1981 (9): 24). no. respectively.166 Finally. and on a background of excitement. 1982: 4. That was something the main proponents of the German TKD community were waiting for quite a long time.). 71. for more details on this topic. That should be examined in the next section. 86. it remains unclear if the DTB was dissolved thereafter. the ITF-GER (Weiler. 1982 (Siegel. and Kwak Kum-shik. no.
functioning administrative structures. the secretary for international affairs. Problem I: Lack of Korean Taekwondo Masters It might sound odd. not examined again in length. 3. but although West Germany hosted the biggest community of Koreans. Because that article should not be repeated here. Conflicts and Problems within the German Taekwondo Community For a more chronological examination about the events in the period between 1980~1989. The best way seems to select crucial problems and conflict lines within the TKD movement. 1981: 22). As was examined above. for details. Repetitions from the article will just be mentioned here. Joachim Hey. the leading West German TKD organization contained probably less Korean TKD masters than any other of the big TKD countries in and outside of Europe.3. . it is not advisable to make the same discoveries twice. see the two sections before. and occasionally. Kim Kwang-il. a more systematical description for this period should be applied. Arguing that in the past ten years the Germans had gained quite a lot without 167 Remember Heinz Marx’ humiliation of the first national team coach. 167 At some point it was realized that this was a situation which could be advantageous to change. For example. sent an open letter to all Korean TKD instructors in the Federal Republic of Germany (Hey. special offers were made to Korean TKD masters living in Germany. this was at least partly a homemade problem. including TKD masters. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). Only cases which were not examined in detail in the article will be treated with all sincere academic respect.1.139 - . in Europe since the early 1960s. in 1971. But Kim had tried unsuccessfully in 1968 to convince his fellow Koreans to cooperate with the Germans in building up strong. shortly after the DTU foundation in June 1981.
but also more harmonically. On private levels. and even boycotts. refusals. it pops in the eye that the only possible position in the federation for a native Korean was that of a coach.much contribution of many Korean TKD masters. the issues were too complex to determine the responsibilities. But considering official positions in the federation with decisive power. this call for a new cooperation might have been fruitful. he expressed his opinion that with their cooperation. misunderstandings. But. see the tables below. each party should just forget about it. therefore. such as arguments about opinions. and that never was a director’s position. .140 - . he argues. things would have been conducted not only quicker. Then he collects wrongdoings in the past. he recommends.
Manfred Kloweit retired in 1984 and was replaced by Werner Paties. Wolfgang Schütz * Manfred Kloweit ** Vice President Dr.TABLE 21: The board of directors of section TKD (DJB) and DTU Position President Prior to 1981 (DJB) Heinz Marx 1981~1985 (DTU) Heinz Marx Dr. Werner Paties passed away at the end of 1984 and was replaced by Peter Mauser. Hans Siegel Norbert Hahn Dieter Kuckel Kurt Nauth Joachim Hey Wolfgang Ganser Winfried Anders Werner Paties Park Soo-nam (head). Wolfgang Schütz Werner Paties *** Peter Mauser Technical Director Secretary-General Treasurer Secretary for Referee's Affairs Special Secretary Secretary for Promotional Affairs Secretary for International Affairs Media Secretary Secretary for Women's Affairs Secretary for Youth's Affairs hired Team Coach (no Director) Hans Siegel Norbert Hahn Dieter Kuckel Kurt Nauth Joachim Hey Alfred Kayser Mathias Schütz Werner Paties Park Soo-nam (head). Siegel. Wolfgang Schütz stepped back after less than one year in office and was replaced by Manfred Kloweit. Shin In-shik (assistant) Georg Karrenberg (assistant) * Dr.141 - . Sources: TA. 1981: 7 ** *** . 1981: 38.
2007 ** *** In these tables. Sources: TA. Dirk Jung (head)***. 1989: 12. these had been very crucial steps affecting the competitiveness of the national teams dramatically. (females) Josef Wagner (females) * Hans Siegel Norbert Hahn Dieter Kuckel Georg Dorff ** Joachim Kessler Dieter Jebramcik Ferdinand Hillen Dieter Kuckel Kurt Nauth Edwin Ferger Josef Ragotzki Ute Güster Wolfgang Pattberg Peter Mauser stepped back as vice president and was replaced by Joachim C.TABLE 22: The DTU's board of directors. It can also be seen that the pattern of coach’s replacements shows a striking covariance with the pattern of . Dirk Jung (and his team) stepped back in 1988 and was replaced by Park Soo-nam. Georg Dorff was fired after one and a half year due to incompetence and replaced by Kurt Nauth. 1985b: 30. Helmut Gärtner Georg Karrenberg (females). 1985~1989 Position President Vice President 1985~1989 Heinz Marx Peter Mauser * 1989 Hans Siegel Peter Mauser Joachim C. Hey Technical Director Secretary-General Treasurer Secretary for Referee's Affairs Secretary for Promotional Affairs Kurt Nauth Secretary for International Affairs Media Secretary Secretary for Women's Affairs Secretary for Youth's Affairs Joachim Hey Konstantin Gil Dorothea Kapkowski Wolfgang Pattberg Dr. hired Team Coach (no Director) Shin In-shik (youth) Josef Wagner Park Soo-nam (head). (head). As was examined in Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha (2007). it can also be seen that the Korean head coach got replaced twice.142 - . Gil. Hey. interview Jebramcik.
shows the opposite pattern: whenever he was in a responsible DTU position. 169 170 171 According to his website. for some reasons.masterko. Kim Chul-hwan lives in Germany since 1980. It was not before this current year of 2009 that Kim Chul-hwan was finally appointed as additional coach . Joachim Hey was working at the German embassy in South Korea during the two first World Championships. 2006). there definitely were. on the contrary. Peter Mauser could not be questioned in person about this topic until now. at least two of them: Ko Eui-min.169 the two-times Korean national team coach at the World Championships of 1975 and 1977. he was quite befriended with Park (interview Gatzweiler.168 Apart from that. accessed on 11 November 2009. this alone does not reveal relations of causes and effects. the position as national team coach was occupied by Park Soo-nam. or anything comparable. Korea’s sports man of the year in 1974. Now. But it leads to a hypothesis which should be tested.170 Or Kim Chul-hwan. www. especially with the persons Joachim Hey and Peter Mauser involved. So. 2006. and he remained quite fond of Korea thereafter. Currently. interview Jebramcik. Hey was responsible for the open letter to the Korean TKD masters in 1981. Park Soo-nam was gone. as stated. moreover. the question could arise if there really weren’t any competent Korean TKD masters willing and able to participate in the DTU. Peter Mauser.de. father and coach of two-times World Champion Kim Yeon-ji. who entered Germany in 1978 and settled there since.143 - . Unfortunately. There is no evidence that any of both was ever considered for the position as national team coach.replacements at the vice president’s position. It was he who discovered Park Soo-nam as gifted coach in Seoul and who was instrumental in getting Park in the position of national team coach. World Games gold medalist of 1978. Ko Eui-min is chairman of the technical committee of the WTF (since 2005).171 168 To be clear. dubbed the “head coach of the world”. Well. this is just a covariance. member of the Korean World Champion team of 1973. this fits perfectly with the fact that (nearly) whenever Hey held a responsible position within the DTU’s board.
Problem II: Commercial Taekwondo Schools
According to German civil law, sports federations seeking governmental support are required to accept only public sports clubs as members, not commercial sports schools. Yet many Korean TKD masters living and teaching in Germany were running commercial sports schools, simply because they had to make a living with their martial art. Thus, while Germans were starting one TKD federation after another, Koreans were largely left out. Therefore, most public sport clubs were operated by native Germans with a regular job, plus income, in a different field. And that’s why sports federations, like the DTU, enlist nearly exclusively native German sports friends, while Korean TKD masters were usually left out, their schools not operating under the official DTU banner, but were associated directly with the WTF or ITF (or another, like Kwon Jae-hwa’s private association), respectively.
Conflict Line I. North vs. South
One of the most traditional conflict lines in the history of Germany is North vs. South, more exactly, the northern part of Germany, which is historically connected to the protestant Prussian Empire, and southern Germany, traditional catholic regions
with special functions for the DTU; see www.dtu.de, accessed on 1 December 2009. In a telephone communication with Park Soo-nam, the question if any of them was ever considered for an official position in the DTU, such as national team coach, was simply answered with the expression that neither of them was ever considered as an able coach (Park, 2007). Of course, it could be suspected that other aspects played also a role. Both Ko and Kim came as TKD superstars to Germany, and it was their task to make a living there out of their martial art. It is clear that with a network of flourishing martial arts schools, money could be made easier than with the stressful job as national head coach, which apparently was not enough to prevent Dirk Jung during his term in 1985~1988 from engaging in a side job.
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historically related to the Wittelsbach and Habsburg dynasties. In modern Germany, this conflict line often occurs between Germany’s two biggest federal states, North RhineWestphalia in the north-west, and Bavaria in the south-east. North Rhine-Westphalia contains Germany’s most populated region, the Ruhr area, featuring cities like Dortmund and Essen with about 5.5 million citizens overall, together with the Rhein area around Cologne about 10 million. Thanks to the huge coal mining companies and the heavy industry, the Ruhr area is a traditional worker’s region where Germany’s labor party, the Social-Democratics, has its traditionally strongest backyard. Contrary to that, Bavaria is a more urban region, traditionally fostering agriculture, nowadays high technology, and the most catholic region in Germany; Bavaria features a unique party, the ChristianSocialists, traditionally the most popular party in Bavaria, which is often more radical than its sister party in the other German states, the conservative Christian-Democratics. The diversity between these two outstanding German states can further be demonstrated with the fierce rivalry between the two football clubs of FC Bayern München on the one, and VFB Borussia Dortmund on the other side. Coincidentally, it was exactly these two regions where TKD entered Germany first, but on quite contrary ways, as was already shown. Plus, the development of TKD in these states also was divergent. The following table should provide an overview.
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TABLE 23: Different ways of TKD in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria (1960~present)
First TKD masters Kind of early TKD practice Coal miners In spare time; in disguise; illegal payments Organizations Loose ITF connection; NWTV, ITF-GER, ITF-D (all ITF) TKD (DJB) chairmen none
Students; American GIs Professional schools, professional coaches DKKV, DTV, SWTV, TKD (DJB), KWON, DTU (ITF, WTF, Kwon) Wilhelm Weingarth, 1968~69 Herrmann Oppermann, 1969~71 Heinz Marx, 1971~1981
Heinz Marx, 1981~1989 Hans Siegel, 1989~1992 Stefan Klawiter, 1992~1998 Walter Schwarz, 1998~2002 Heinz Gruber, 2002~present
WTF World Champions
Rainer Müller (Iserlohn), 1979 Dirk Jung (Essen), 1982 Michael Arndt (Neuss), 1987 Aziz Acharki (Bonn), 1995
ITF World Champions (sparring)
Natalija Kapulica (Lünen), 1999 Andreas Hampel (Lünen), 1999 Birgid Sasse, 2001
Hosted TKD World Championships
14th ITF World Championships, Dortmund 2005
4th WTF World Championships, Sindelfingen 1979; 16th WTF World Championships, Garmisch-Partenkirchen 2003
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This table shows that until today, the leaders of the main German TKD body, the DTU, always came from Bavaria; as a result, the DTU office was always located in Bavaria. Moreover, most DTU executives also came from southern Germany. Two DTU presidents, Stefan Klawiter and Walter Schwarz, had also been presidents of the Bavarian TKD Union (BTU) at the time of their service; the curret DTU president has a position in the BTU director’s board. On the other side, only one president of the North Rhine-Westphalian TKD Union (NWTU), Dieter Jebramcik, had a leading position in the DTU; he served as secretary-general from 1989~1991, and again from 1996~1998. This indicates that the Bavarian influence on the development of German TKD was far more apparent than the influence of the NWTU, although the NWTU provided the majority of successful TKD athletes. Therefore, it was a constant topic that NWTU athletes were missing thorough support by DTU authorities. One apparent example was the re-installment of Park Soo-nam as head coach just before the 1988 Seoul Olympics (the following is based on an interview with Michael Arndt, 2009). In 1985, Park had been replaced by a former athlet, Dirk Jung, TKD World Champion of 1982. Jung, who had just completed his medical school studies, had changed training style to a more systematic, scientifically based approach. But due to lack of successes and raising criticisms, he quit the job just before the Seoul Olympics, and the DTU directors asked Park Soo-nam to take care of the team. However, the athletes did not want Park being in charge again, for he fostered an unsystematic, unscientific training style which was out of fashion, and the athletes had the impression that his training methods would not enlarge, but inhibit their performances. Thus, the athletes, under leadership of their captain Michael Arndt, tried to boycott Park’s coaching, but the NWTU athlete Arndt, heavy-weight World Champion of 1987 (without Park’s assistance), had to subordinate under the Southern-German decision. Yet in the end, Park’s coaching at the Olympics had no effect. He was just physically present,
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for the audience. were much quicker than Japanese Karate masters to break through this tradition and to develop competition rules which would enable sparring matches without severe danger to life and health of the participants. a zero-contact competition style somehow looks more like dancing than real fighting. As the founding fathers of TKD. which are especially distinctive from Japanese Karate. 3. no matter how deadly they would be in a real situation. including Choi Hong-hi. 1995). . Therefore. which. one death” (Capener. Zero-Contact Competition System One of the core elements of TKD is its sparring style and the resulting competition system. like safety gear. they originally adopted this philosophy of “one blow. show no effect on the opponent. Thus.148 - . Stemming from combat practices developed in Okinawa against Japanese oppressors. for strikes and blows and kicks. it was not possible to conduct competitions within this system.4. Conflict Line II: Full-Contact vs. Semi-Contact vs. It was only required to stop a strike just before it touched the target. The first way to enable competitions was applying a zero-contact sparring system. just one match (by an athlete from the NWTU) was won during the whole tournament. Korean TSD and TKD masters. in return. the self-concept of a Karate practitioner was getting ready to kill an opponent with just one strike. Due to the obvious danger of this practice to sparring participants. the idea of contact competitions never wore off. which could be done without any major changes in technics and supplementary equipment. had learned Karate on Japanese soil. had to compete without the backing of a proper coach. moral and tactical support lacking. However. like Hwang Ki and Choi Hong-hi.without interfering in athlete’s performances.
some traditionalist TKD grandmasters like Kwon Jaehwa. 1997). featured a full-contact competition style. together with the whole Kyokushinkai Karate style (see Burdick. . Therefore. to stress their legacy as the historically earliest. during the 1960s. the history of Karate competition styles also shows the pattern of zero-contact (original Shotokan Karate). from their point of view: most original. who started teaching TKD in Germany before foundation of the ITF. was needed. supplementary equipment. but handy enough to enable quick and powerful movements. this could hardly be conducted as a proper competition system. the Kyokushinkai Karate style already applied bare-knucled full-contact combat matches since the late 1950s. was needed for full-contact sparring style.149 - . it is beyond our knowledge if Choi Hong-hi planned to adopt the competition style as well. Interestingly. and therefore further developed equipment. was born in Korea as Choi Hyung Yee (崔永宜/최영의). Similar to the developments in TKD. Therefore. established seven years later. known also as Choi Bae-dal (崔倍達/최배달). a full-contact competition system was not established before the 1970s. it seems like a logical consequence that a semi-contact competition style was developed and applied by the ITF. while the WTF. While light protection enabled semi-contact sparring style without evere injuries. kind of TKD. Moreover. Oyama Masutatsu (大山 倍 達. and full contact sparring (Kickboxing).Although there are several reports about bare-knuckled full-contact sparring in the old days of TSD and TKD. However. It should be noted that the founder of Kyokushinkai Karate. after new chest protectors were developed. This pattern could be described 172 Moreover. which were safe enough to prevent severe injuries.172 Therefore. like a chest protector. 1923~1994). semi-contact (modern sports Karate). and in fact. Koreans tested different materials as proper protection gear since the 1960s. still feature zero-contact competitions instead. which requires much more sophisticated protection equipment. better protection. Oyama/Choi was approached by Choi Hong-hi who tried to persuade him joining his TKD movement.
but the more contact. they practiced semi. . more original than others. In general. the notation of something as “original” has its benefits. for many Germans would prefer choosing the original than a mere copy. No wonder.150 - .or even zero-contact competition styles. it was not uncommon for DTU TKD clubs all over the Federal Republic to feature other styles than full-contact sparring.or zero-contact style sparring before the WTF introduced its chest protector-based full-contact sparring system. understanding practicing martial arts as a way of a universal. Even for official dan grade promotions. promoting full-contact style only. there is a variety of DTU TKD clubs: some are focusing on forms (poomsae). the less moral. with the general tendency to feature as few contacts within sparring as possible. more true. Also. and even others focus on the more meditative aspects of East Asian martial arts. full-contact sparring was not always mandatory.as the less contact. many traditional DTU TKD clubs in Germany are older than the WTF. while WTFaffiliated DTU increasingly disallowed it during the 1990s. the “do”. the more original. Especially in Germany. Therefore. the more pure. Many DTU TKD clubs which weren’t interested in preparing for (international) competitions didn’t bother enduring the pains of full-contact sparring. while others have their focus on competition (Olympic style).or even zerocontact sparring instead. More traditional-oriented German TKD friends tend to prefer semi. and they originally featured semi. harmonic life. than. the less art. that many German TKD (and also Karate) clubs promote their style as more pure.
DTB). interview Weiler. 2008). which remained top secret until his death (Gillis. 2007). 2007).173 As an immediate reaction to this act. So. Choi Hong-hi approached North Korea for that kind of support he was neglected from the south (Burdick. because at the beginning of the 1980s. especially high-ranked Korean TKD masters who have been in the country prior to the formation of the WTF. the German TKD Association (Deutscher TKD Bund.S. .3.5. and in Canady by Alex Gillis. 173 According to recently conducted interviews with TKD experts in the U. Not everybody was fond of the new forms and sparring style the WTF was promoting. the ITFGermany. the key positions were divided between Korean TKD masters. Inner Conflicts Within the ITF-D During the process the German WTF branch. Choi Jung-hwa. Unlike in every other TKD organization in Germany. interview Weiler. which was strictly illegal according to the South Korean National Security Law. was released into independence from the German Judo Federation.151 - . Choi Hong-hi already started to contact North Korean agents in the 1970s. 1997. who also held the personal contacts to Choi Hong-hi and his ITF. in 1980 or 1981 in Witten. However. including about 5. including Choi’s son. shortly ITF-GER. while the early 1980s had been the high time for the DTU. it seemed to be getting more difficult once the DTU was established. the DTU. 2007). there also emerged a formal German ITF branch for the first time. which was a hard blow against the young organization (Weiler 2005: 33. And while it was much easier to perform old-school TKD under the judo cover. they formed their own organization. taking with them most clubs and schools.000 TKD practitioners overall. close to Dortmund (interview Weiler. most of the Korean TKD masters of the ITF-GER severed ties with Choi and formed an independent non-WTF TKD organization. it was the opposide for the ITF-GER.
In this situation. but Lee took the charge at the disciplinary committee. reorganized and renamed it into ITF-D (D for “Deutschland”). After a report about that trip was published in one of the mayor German martial arts magazines. . he used his position and power in the ITF to be the mighty ruler of the ITF-D. when their team of 6 athletes won one gold. At the time of the interview. he was the most powerful ITF-TKD master in Germany. by Paul Weiler. for anything which went against his wishes could be enforced by applying disciplinary methods (interview Weiler. many former ITF friends remembered their old interest. Lee Ki-young increasingly abused his ITF position so much that eventually in the 1990s. he let native Germans take the director’s positions of first and second chairmen as well as treasurer. Germany. including renegades from the nearly- 174 According to Paul Weiler (interview 2007). after less than one decade. for example. that ITF secretary-general Lee Ki-young regularly delayed sending information material to member nations which he didn’t like.Closely thereafter.174 Thanks to those demotivating measures. Due to the language barrier. which immediately pushed through constitutional and regulative modifications. the ITF-D was on the verge of dissolution. and as the only remaining Korean TKD master sticking to his connection to Choi’s organization. Lee was still living in Kassel. Lee agreed to allow a team around Paul Weiler being elected for the new director’s positions in 1989. the Karate Budo Journal. plus a switch of the office back to North-Rhine Westphalia (this time. Choi Hong-hi had to kick him out personally. 2007). Lee Ki-young from Kassel in Hesse (next to North RhineWestphalia) rescued the young organization. two silver and three bronze medals. Weiler reported. Lee was also secretary-general of the ITF at that time. Cologne). deliberately by two weeks.152 - . the ITF-D competition team was surprisingly successful during the 1989 World Games for Youth and Students in Pyongyang. The same year. with just 150 members left. in 1982. Throughout the following decade. as an old man no longer engaged in TKD at all.
Since then. at least one World Champion title at every World Championships since 1994 (interview Weiler.vanished DTB. . the ITF-D of West Germany was clearly dominating the 1991 European Championships in Reading. the ITF-D struggled. the development of the ITF-D could be summarized as follows: while the DTU remained successful. the following year. losing only to the North Koreans. Thus. 175 And the next year. 2007). and about 1. England. Thus. 2007). a strongly improved competition team could be sent to the 1990 World Championships in Canada. the ITF-D performs uncomparably successful.200 people instantly rejoined the ITF-D (interview Weiler. and since the DTU is struggling. winning the vice champion title. the ITF-D remained on a European and global top position.153 - . gaining 11 gold 4 silver and 3 bronze medals. winning. for example. 175 While Paul Weiler still remains convinced that there was some cheating to let the North Koreans become the World Champion.
.154 - . all regional DTU administrations had to be built up from scratch after German sports unification. Taekwondo in East Germany In East Germany. except for one or two known small TKD training groups on a private basis. there was nearly no TKD. which practiced ITF-style TKD with North Korean TKD masters. One of these groups was located at the University of Rostock. which consumed much energy from DTU officials with a sense for responsibility. As none of their practitioners set up any East German TKD organization which lasted until the German reunification of 1990. 2009). the other somewhere near Berlin (interview Jebramcik.4.
expertise and. But he had no choice. since most martial arts had been banned by the Socialists. they did not gain many members. The president of a huge regional DTU branch conducted this five-hour drive into the far East of Germany together with his treasurer. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Shaolin Kung Fu. but they still didn’t have instructors for each big city! Don’t forget. money of the big West German DTU branches for. such as Thai Boxing. he would have to take the same journey again. Another wasted day in his life. without major success. the treasurer calmed his president down. What would be needed was heavy promotion in favor of this Olympic sport. Although the new regional DTU branches for the five new Federal German States had formally been established already a few years ago. He sighted. But. not the least. something the poor East German DTU branches need the enduring support. He desperately needed the votes of this regional DTU branch for the next general assembly to push through the reforms his athletes back at home demanded to gain back the lost ground in the international tournaments … . again. Next week. None of them existed when Taekwondo was the hot issue in West Germany in the 1970s. thus could not collect many fees. the president remembered bitterly.155 - . nobody seemed interested in this sport. Taekwondo in Reunified Germany (since 1989) That was another one of those fruitless trips deep into the countryside of former East Germany. to help one of those new regional DTU branches getting ignited. Now that the East German people were provided with real free choice. and therefore could not do a decent job.V. Taekwondo was widely unknown in East Germany. Today the president and his treasurer just delivered another cheque containing a huge number and negotiated further exchange programs with experienced Taekwondo instructors – unbelievable. they prefer more exciting activities.
Although German reunification formally happened in 1990. the German reunification happened to be a major disadvantage for German TKD. for in their race against commercial martial arts schools. Moreover.As illustrated in this story. which covers the transition of German TKD in reunified Germany. resulting eventually in a crash landing . the Berlin Wall fell down one year before. However. Similarly. it it usually said that in 1989. For the DTU.156 - . the DTU was in desperate need for those precious resources to regain the competitive prowess they lost during the last decade. it could be expected that a major impact of the German reunification in 1990 was the unification of East and West German TKD associations. because both federations registered major changes in leadership. as was shown before. at least not of a formally organized nature. both for the WTF-affiliated DTU and for the ITF-D. The same is true for German TKD. an era came to its end after Heinz Marx was replaced as ETU and DTU presidents. However. especially for the DTU which was expected to spread TKD throughout the five new Federal German States. there was no TKD in East Germany. which consumed much time and energy and other resources of the federation. Given now that most work in a German sports association is done on a volunteering basis. they had to built up DTUstructures from scratch in all East Germany. that caused immense problems for the DTU. which were added to the still existing conflicts between the North-West and the South. a new era began after Paul Weiler took the charge. both on athletic and administrative levels. How could the DTU administration manage that situation? Especially in light of the coming Sydney Olympics in 2000 where TKD was an official event for the first time? These and related questions were the guidelines for this final chapter. it could be said that for the ITF-D. increasing pressure by the WTF had to be endured. and that year of 1989 is usually seen as the real turning point in German history. replacing Lee Ki-young as president in 1989. For a neutral observer. despite a few training groups on a private basis.
more clubs left the DTU and went into independence or formed new minor TKD associations on their own.157 - . on the other hand. in fact. the key aspects of the process of the German political reunification should therefore be taken into consideration. especially West Germany. As this is a political process. To gain a better understanding of the situation of German sports after 1990. the model for the several German sports unifications was set by the German political reunification of 1990.1. which should be adapted to the actual situation. GDR) debated about changes of travelling regulations. One of the demands of the protesters was free travel to the West. German Sports Unification since 1990 Unification in sports basically means the merger of two associations of one sport. which. like Hungary or Czechoslovakia. The ITF-D. To fully understand the situation of TKD in reunified Germany. didn’t have to bother much about building up structures in formerly East Germany.of the administration in front of the courts. In November of 1989. 1. with prospering results in competitiveness. authorities of the German Democratic Republic (shortly. 1. As a consequence. Political Reunification The German Reunification was the result of changes in politics of Eastern European communist states since the mid-1980s. Yet a final decision was not reached when politburo member Günter Schabowski was scheduled to inform international press and media correspondents . they continued to focus on their main regions. together with peaceful protests of the East German people in 1989. the key aspects of German sports unification should be considered. was actually enabled by travelling through allied Eastern European countries.
That news was broadcasted quickly by East and West European television and radio stations. but the night from 9th to 10th November in 1989. In terms of economic prowess and political democracy. In March 1990. surprised the auditorium with the unexpected declaration that the borders to all West Germany and West Berlin would be opened from that very moment on. and thus should impose its superior structures on the minor party (Rummelt. when the border lost its function. the heavily armed East German and Russian border guards hesitated. but eventually let the people pass the checkpoints to West Berlin. This unification treaty was approved by the legislative chambers of both states on 20 September. The new government quickly signed a treaty about financial and economical unity with the Federal Republic of Germany (shortly. which assumes that one of the parties is more advanced in modernization. and they got into further negotiations about a unification treaty. which became the official unity celebration day afterwards. On Christmas 1989. Lacking any official order in that direction. GDR authorities started allowing West German citizens enter the GDR without any visa. and officially realized on 3 October 1990. is seen as the official date the Berlin Wall fell. During that night. FRG). tens of thousands of peoples crossed the border.about the procedure on the evening of November 9. trying to confirm the declaration right away. thousands of GDR citizens in East Berlin approached the Wall. From June 1990 on. a figure that reached about one million until 1990. 2001). the FRG of . 1989. who had not been present at the debates about the regulations. The slightly confused Schabowski. the GDR conducted their first (and last) free elections. the Berlin Wall was gradually torn off. This unification treaty had been designed according to the philosophy of “rescheduled modernization”. and during that night.158 - .
at the 1988 Seoul Olympics. – and sports. Lower Saxony. North Rhine-Westphalia. For all areas. however. the paradigm for unification efforts was the political reunification based on the principle of rescheduled modernization. in the case of sports. According to the unification treaty. it was the GDR that featured the more superior structures in most respects. which were added to the eleven existing federal states. Saarland. it was treated like an associated federal city-state on its own. consisting of the eight areastates of Baden-Württemberg. However. 2009). Saxony. and the German constitution was enlarged to cover the five new federal states as well. technically. West Berlin was not formally a city-state.West Germany clearly was superior to the GDR of East Germany. the media. and West Berlin. Hesse. criminal and civil law. which basically went down because of this divergence. and Schleswig-Holstein. literature. For example. but had a peculiar legal status. education. with 102 medals (including 37 gold medals) overall. 1990).159 - . and Thuringia. Bavaria. the task of structural unification was faced by the different areas of society: science. . while West Germany just gained 40 medals (11 gold medals) and was ranked on the 5th place (for more details. 1. culture. together with the two city-states Bremen and Hamburg. art etc. West Germany had been so advanced over its Eastern brother state that there were no debates about alternative ways of getting unified. East Germany ranked on the 2nd place after the Soviet Union. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha. RhinelandPalatinate. Unification in Sports Following the economical and political reunification.2. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. the area of former East Germany had to be divided into 5 regions. Saxony- Anhalt. which were to become the five new federal states of the Federal Republic of Germany (see Einigungsvertrag. 176 The five new federal states were Brandenburg.176 East Berlin was integrated into West Berlin.
having been about 15 years ahead of Western states in this area. Exceptions were made for subjects with a proven connection to the East German secret police. However. like the German Sports University in Leipzig and the 25 Sports Schools for Children and the Youth. Jennings. see for details KuklinskiRhee & Ha (2009). so that after all.The only area in sports where West Germany could be seen as unambiguously constantly more advanced to East Germany had been some professional sports. In the end. East German sports structures quickly got abandoned without thorough discussions. the so-called “Stasi” (Staatssicherheit). 1996. 2005. Despite the public expecting that approved elements. Another main issue was illegal medication. 177 To get an impression about the amount of money ruling the sports world. imposing the West German sports system on East Germany never really got in question. Therefore. and car racing (Formula 1). Estimations claim figures of about 10% of all persons involved in East German elite sports having co-worked with the Stasi. something no one in a key position in German sports could risk.177 Therefore. sports unification was performed in several steps. This kind of professional sport was hardly possible within the East German sport system. 2000. East German sports structures were destroyed. adopting elements of the East German sports system would endanger West Germany’s edge in professional sports. see Simson & Jennings. 1992. Formally. It is an open secret that East Germany was one of the leading countries researching and applying performance-enhancing drugs. Smit. only one case of illegal mediation was detected until the end of the GDR. tennis. would be preserved and West German sports leaders openly claiming a fair procedure.160 - . which was based on statesubsidized amateurs. . golf. and former East German athletes and coaches were largely welcomed in the unified German sports system. East German sports authorities had also been extremely cautious with drug detection. Thus. like football. 2006.
officially. tennis balls and oversized basketball shoes were expensive import products and could simply not be afforded by the clubs. which were responsible for providing facilities and equipments. most German medals were gained by athletes of the former GDR (for details. Based on this fact. alpine skiing. see Kuklinski-Rhee & Ha. For example. for example. The GDR mainly encouraged. But for the majorit of average sports people. During the following Olympics. and also chess. . most top GDR athletes and coaches were integrated into the West German sports system. It could be said that the integration of East German sports elements worked best with top athletes. the import of an alien spoart system based on a capitalistic society brought massive problems.161 - . amongst which only the divergence between public sport clubs and commercial sport schools can be addressed here. “Sport II”. water polo. supported and promoted Olympic sports where the GDR had a fair chance to win medals. and facilities. not even regular training sometimes. and did not receive the support which would enable participants visiting international or even national competitions. 2009). where they regularly played a central role. and the whole branch of mass sports. tennis. especially most martial 178 According to the GDR’s sport system. like basketball. for the sake or argument. despite a few cases of additional drug detection and past Stasi collaboration discovered by researchers. not private individuals. dubbed “Sport I”. All the others. top coaches) into German sports teams. could be found only at a few sport clubs.178 Some sports. coaches. all East German athletes were technically clean. it seems safe to claim that reunified Germany’s sports successes were a function of successful integration of East Germany’s top athletes (and. Thus. it was the sport clubs. and the DSB officially applied an amnesty on all former GDR athletes until 1990.
they were regarded as subversive. mass sports in West Germany is. to guarantee decent quality levels of instructors. offering kinds of sports and physical excercises the East German people never had access to before. Contrary to the East Germany’s sport system. were even forbidden for the sports clubs of the masses. With increasing frequency of commercial school openings. But for mass sports and sports for all in the five new federal states. But in the East German region. large areas of former East Germany faced massive lack of capable people ready to engage in volunteering jobs. and ever was.162 - . . instructors often preferred working there than engaging in pubic sport clubs on a volunteering basis. instead of getting paid for their work. Nevertheless. with the result that many sports federations had troubles in offering their sport in all regions. qualified instructors could earn more money in commercial sport schools. and commercial sport schools. except for school and professional sports. West German sports federatios have developed a system of educating their instructors. based on leisure-time efforts by volunteers. and instructors without proper training could only work there.arts (except Boxing and Judo). To summarize. the instructor’s quality was shrinking. Moreover. from general fitness training to body building. Under the new capitalistic sport system. Thus. the import of the capitalist West German system resulted in unexpected extra difficulties. 2009). from yoga to East Asian martial arts (interview Jebramcik. professional and elite sports found ways to get the advantage of the sport unification of east and West Germany. in a region of growing unemployment rates. commercial sport schools and fitness centers popped up everywhere in the new five states.
engaged people. In TKD. TDK demonstration teams performed in the most important urban regions to promote TKD and get the people joining the newly established TKD clubs. there had not been any structures for the different martial arts in East Germany. The same is true for the work force. China increasingly promoted its traditional martial arts of wushu. mainly by means of annual membership fees. like North Rhine-Westphalia. The clubs then create the financial basis for the federation. for example.163 - . But in cases when the federation is organized prior to the opening of most of its member sports clubs. which should be responsible for opening and managing of the new clubs on their own. Bavaria. Following the changes in the communist world. started organizing the new franchises in Germany’s new Eastern states.1. the Bavarian BTU president also got president of the DTU franchise in Saxony. Situation for Taekwondo and other East Asian Martial Arts Except for Judo and amateur Boxing.3. 2009). the biggest DTU franchises from the hugest federal states. and Baden-Württemberg. and the North-Rhine Westphalian NWTU president also got president of the DTU franchise in Thuringia (interview Jebramcik. sending selected Shaolin monks around the world for demonstrations and as instructors of shaolin wushu classes. The plan was just the foundation of franchises of a federation (Landesverbände) in each of the five new states. so everything had to be built up from scratch. people from other state’s federations must fill the organization’s positions before capable people from member sports clubs can be found and activated. the organization must be supported by other state’s federations. . To bridge the vast lack of capable TKD instructors in the East. For example. like Saxony and Thuringia. and financial resources. weekend seminars were conducted regularly by leading West German and Korean TKD masters residing in the West. TKD and other public East Asian martial arts clubs had to face the rising competition with commercial sport schools. Building up sports structures from scratch requires a plan.
As the official representative for the Olympic sport of TKD. they had to be constantly supported financially by the DTU or other state’s federations. Since East German people had lacked first-hand experience with East Asian martial arts. Therefore. like increasing or decreasing demands for East Asian martial arts. This was a big advantage for commercial sport schools. Usually applying short-termed working and membership contracts. they still had to test their real interest and talent in this kind of activity. The claim that the DTU represented TKD all over the Federal Republic of Germany was. the basis for the DTU being supported by the DSB. they can adept better to the current situations in their region. The biggest problem for public German sports clubs in this competition was that they are conservative in structure. increasingly more commercial sport schools offered wushu classes. If the East German regional branches of the DTU . Additionally. but for a limited period only. the DTU had no choice but to engage in this manner and to try as hard as possible. their biggest advantage over commercial sport schools. while commercial sport schools can act and react more flexible. thus most fundamental. martial art of all East Asia. But low fees combined with a low number of clubs in the first place do not lead to a stable financial basis for the federation. successfully promoting them as the original. since that behavior pattern fitted much better to their system than to the long-termed agreements of public sport clubs. And that forced public sport clubs to stick to low membership fees. As the people in East Germany were discovering their interest in East Asian martial arts. the shaolin monks did not come to stay forever. and frequently travelled around to perform and teach courses elsewhere.164 - . thus they behaved rather unstable in joining and abandoning martial arts classes. after all.It should be noticed that Chinese martial arts schools in Germany are mainly commercial enterprises which could rarely be found in public sports clubs.
the situation of athletic TKD in West Germany had been coming down just before the German reunification. Now. The unified German TKD teams still had to consist of pure West German members (including West Berlin). 1. up to a separation from the DSB.165 - . because there hadn’t been a pool of competitive East German TKD athletes and experienced coaches. Athletic Taekwondo achievements during the 1990s As was shown. it could lead to massive problems. athletic successes grew and put the German teams into international top positions (see table below). Adding to these kinds of problems was the increasing pressure the WTF pushed on the DTU. From this perspective. The ITF-D and the private Kwon Jae-hwa organization. In case of the ITF-D. on the other hand. but the level of European superiority of the early 1980s could not be regained again (see table below). an overview about the athletic achievements during the 1990s would be needed. there had been a few athletic successes during the 1990s. both for the DTU and the ITF-D.were not in charge of TKD. In case of the DTU. German sport unification was a straight disadvantage for TKD. as was shown. They could continue focusing on their main regions. exactly as before.4. and prosper. did not have to bother about the five new German states. . the only surplus of the German sports unification was the integration of former East German coaches and athletes into the reunified German sports system. To understand that situation in full scale.
While the DTU administration faltered in the 1990s (compared to the glory 1980s).Table 24: Athletic Achievements of the DTU and the ITF-D since 1989 Tournament Olympic Games (1992~2004) World Championships (1989~2005) DTU athletes 1 x Silver ITF-D athletes - 1 x Gold 4 x Silver 9 x Bronze 4 x Gold 5 x Silver 13 x Gold 20 x Gold 11 x Silver 10 x Bronze European Championships (1990~2006) 19 x Gold 6 x Silver 29 x Bronze Sources: Taekwondo Data website. 179 Weiler (2005) This discrepancy clearly indicates diverging processes on the administrative levels of both federations.166 - .com. 179 Taekwondo Data website. .taekwondodata. accessed on 23 December 2009. www. the ITF-D administration prospered (compared to the problematic 1980s).
starting with the external pressure from the WTF. such as the ITF-D and the Kwon Jaehwa Black Belt Centers. As a contrast. Both tasks turned out to face more obstacles than initially expected. the WTF. only faced the lurking danger of internal power struggles. This pressure further increased the tension between TKD as elite sports and TKD as a recreational activity. One was caused by the intensed focus on TKD as elite sports. DTU franchises had to be built up in the five new German federal states. especially since TKD officially became an Olympic event in the mid-1990s. Taekwondo in Reunified Germany: from Unity to Disparity The DTU administration faced two main tasks after German reunification.167 - . While the old conflicts and problems from the 1980s were still not solved. growing anger occurred. As a reaction. the problems within the DTU should be examined first. stressing the benefits of TKD as a recreational activity. the world governing TKD body. And on top of this. Together these problems caused many TKD practitioners and clubs to leave the DTU and establish separational TKD organizations or stay independent (interview Sobota. the former level of successes should be regained. the developments of the ITF- . Therefore. the decade after the German reunification had a very different process for them. other TKD organizations. On the athletic level. Of these problems. In the following. three more problem fields emerged.2. increased its pressure on the DTU to a point that made many TKD clubs and participants feeling hurt. And on the administrative level. Another problem was the raising power struggles inside the DTU organization. 2008). and both dramatically stimulated the internal power struggles within the DTU. culminating in a legal battle between the presidents of the NWTU and the BTU at the end of the 1990s.
Semi-contact sparing Championships were conducted especially in North RhineWestphalia (Knoll. The WTF announced that from now on. The impact of the WTF on the DTU during the 1990s During the 103rd general assembly of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in Paris. 180 It should be noted that during a short trip of WTF president Kim Un-yong to visit his daughter’s concert in Cologne six months before the Paris decision. . Germany was one of the last countries to abandon the Hyong as a substitute for Poomsae in competitions and grading promotions by the WTF-affiliated organization (68.00 p. he was very careful not to comment on the possible outcome of the IOC decision about TKD at the 2000 Sydney Games. 2008). either to celebrate (WTF affiliates) or to get angry about it (other TKD practitioners). Likewise. 1994: 41). at 6. France. 4 September 1994. WTF-TKD was acknowledged as an official Olympic Event during the 2000 Sydney Games (TA 1994b: 20).168 - . While the global TKD community registered this news eagerly. and many DTU members preferred performing them (interview Sobota. many DTU clubs and members were quite surprised about the top-down decision of the WTF in Paris.1. he did not announce that the WTF would prohibit the further practice of Hyong forms and semi-contact sparring after a positive decision (TA 1994a: 7). only full-contact sparring and Poomsae forms would be allowed (26).m.. Kapkowski. interview G.180 At that time. 2. and the Hyong forms had been officially integrated into European TKD forms Championships until 1993 (42).D and the Kwon Jae-hwa Black Belt Centers in the same decade of the 1990s should be presented briefly. and felt unfairly suppressed afterwards. 2009). another decision of the WTF on the same day did not receive that much attention first. on Sunday. Hyong forms and semi-contact sparring was widely applied in DTU clubs. Thus.
smaller TKD administrations to emerge. Now the WTF offered the last opportunity: the Kukkiwon approval of each single DTU dan grade would cost between 130 DM (for 1st dan) to 2. the 5th dan and so on. This was the perfect opportunity for other. . to not get in troubles later on. 2008: 145). like the ITF-D or the Kwon Jae-hwa Black Belt Center. The WTF had demanded for ten years that the DTU should get their acknowledged dan grades be approved by the Kukkiwon. But on the other hand. many DTU members chosed to “buy” their dan grades.Now with the pressure of the WTF that only Poomsae and full-contact sparring were officially allowed in TKD competitions and graduation promotions. It is estimated that in the aftermath. about 5. not few German TKD practitioners looked for ways of sticking to their familiar Hyong and semi-contact sparring practice. That meant. without joining any of the other federations. offering members the parallel practice of Hyong and Poomsae. about two months before the start of the Olympic Games in Sydney. they would no longer be accepted on international WTF tournaments.169 - . and semi-contact and full-contact sparring style. As a result.000 DM (for 7th dan) (Bolz & Schuldes.000 TKD practitioners left the DTU and joined other organizations or remained independent (interview Sobota. including the Olympics. and German TKD players would only be allowed to compete if the whole DTU would obey to this demand. 2007). this was an invitation for many more to finally leave the DTU. a 7th dan grade holder had also to approve the 6th dan. Otherwise. Especially TKD practitioners who weren’t interested in participating in official WTF events at all did not accept this new WTF precondition and started thinking about just leaving the WTF. and every single grade would cost several hundreds to thousands German Marks. The next attack on the DTU by the WTF came in July 2000.
the causal relation hypothesis should not further be maintained.181 For example. by the raise of recreational TKD. sometimes newly developed or advanced aspects of their martial art. Until then. and learned to know each other from all over the Federal Republic of Germany. after the overwhelming successes of German TKD teams had faded away. This must not be regarded as a causal relation.2. 1994: 5). 1994: 98). or the differences from and similarities to related martial arts. it finally cemented the focus of the DTU on promoting TKD as elite sports (Klawiter. were frequently visited by ordinary DTU and other TKD enthusiasts. both the absolute number and the relative ratio to grown-ups. it is not impossible that some day. recreational activity The approval of TKD as an official Olympic event in Paris in 1994 had another consequence for the DTU. Since the 1980s. the later BTU vice president Wilfried Harloff. the decline of elite TKD performance in the second half of the 1980s was compensated. where ordinary practitioners summed together to learn new. and more than 2000 in the following year and ever since (Knoll. the amount of underaged TKD practitioners in the DTU. Taekwondo: elite sports vs. this Pentecost training course was established as a fixed annual institution for recreational TKD. from about 40% at 181 There is no known fact which would back such a causal relation hypothesis. it was just a coincidence. and similar training courses throughout the year. This training course was a copy of similarly popular events of Judo and Karate in Germany and other European countries.170 - . . with a highly increasing number of participants: more than 500 participants in 1987. started organizing recreational TKD training courses during the public holidays at Pentecost. However. very likely. together with his wife Angelika. During the 1980s. those facts could be found. including guests from abroad. was increasing steadily since the 1980s. more than 1000 in the year of the Seoul Olympics.2. in some respects. Thus. also in neighboring countries.
and the young people could be aiming at excelling in TKD to participate at the Olympics some day. It could be argued that this was the result of TKD being promoted as an Olympic sport since the 1980s.171 - . But this line of reasoning would fail to acknowledge the fact that the vast majority of underaged TKD practitioners do not eagerly engage in sparring. there is no statistical data available backing this statement. but it is such a common knowledge in TKD that people are regularly questioning the DTU’s engagement in youth training and competitions. cf. 183 Comparisons of the medal rank lists of youth tournaments with the medal rank lists of senior’s tournaments a few years later show no significant name matches. Therefore. the Taekwondo Data website. with a still growing tendency (Knoll.the early 1980s to more than the half of all DTU members in the 1990s.com. Moreover.182 Moreover. and that just the smallest fraction is investing enough concentration and energy in tough competition preparations. thus printing their names in the medal ranks of youth tournaments. But this is the unanimous impression of experienced TKD instructors regularly visiting one of the internet discussion boards relevant for TKD in Germany. .taekwondodata. as this line of reasoning would conclude. accessed on 17 December 2009. And finally. are usually not the same who would excel in this sport as seniors. the growing number of underaged in the DTU should rather be seen as an indicator for a stronger elite TKD attitude there. www.183 The reason for this odd finding remains yet to be discovered. this seems to be a more universal observation which is also reported by instructors outside of Germany. 1994: 22). an observation shared by many German TKD pioneers with decades of experience is that the social structure of the people engaging in TKD fundamentally 182 Unfortunately. even those children and youngsters who engage in sparring training and excel in competitions.
allowing opponents exchanging full-contact kicks and blows. including spectacular flying and twisting kicks widely admired in Bruce Lee movies. And to become an official Olympic event. would not find their way any more into a WTF TKD gym today. And until the early 1980s. more unique. Hans-Jürgen Sobota (2008). head protectors were not in use. Norbert Wolfer (2007).172 - .184 Back then. together with other TKD athletes who competed on equal levels with them during the late 1970s and early 1980s. . Michael Arndt (2009). Unique individuals such as the first three German World Champions. WTF TKD competitions changed dramatically. Dieter Jebramcik (2009). Before 1986. 184 The following is the summary of statements and stories from the interviews of German TKD pioneers Gert Gatzweiler (2006. but all experts agree that in the past. 185 This is a special analysis of Michael Arndt. Today’s WTF sparring style might be much safer and equally challenging for the athletes. dominated by violence. TKD matches looked more dynamic. TKD had to become more family-friendly than in the old days of the Bruce Lee movies. the change in the social structure of TKD practitioners would just reflect the changes in athletic TKD.185 There are no Top Circles any longer in Germany. more spectacular. WTF heavyweight World Champion of 1987 (interview Arndt. Since the early 1970s. TKD was regarded as a kind of athletically enhanced Karate. decades before the emergence of UFC and K-1 matches and shortly before the invention of Kickboxing. vengeance and vendettas. weaker body protectors resulted in more usage of punches and in a more attacking sparring style than today. while it disgusted caring parents looking for nonhazardous physical activities for their children. This image attracted athletic young adults seekig and flourishing in adventurous challenges. Dorothea Kapkowski (2009). Dirk Jung and Michael Arndt. 2009). Therefore. 6 August 2009). Gilbert Kapkowski (2009). which is dominated by two opponents mainly observing each other and waiting for an opportunity to counterattack. Rainer Müller.changed since the 1970s.
Before TKD became an Olympic event. including Olympic Bases. 1996. this led to raising debates about the direction the DTU should navigate at – more elite TKD for the price of less support for recreational TKD. Also. Between 1994 and 2000. National Performance Centers. Yet Jebramcik (interview 2009) made some remarks which could lead into this direction. as there is no evidence in this direction. the available money ready for investments in elite TKD never was enough186. huge amounts of money were put into WTF TKD in Germany to ensure Olympic medals. two positions for TKD athletes were established at the German military sports unit in Sonthofen in the 1990s. and just a margin in recreational TKD. and much more since Paris 1994. such allegations would not be raised here.173 - . Clearly. which is not uncommon in sports.The TKD athletes of the 1970s and early 1980s were not only ready to invest their time and physical energy into their hobby. which was not easy to be communicated to ordinary DTU members. Jennings. the DTU and its regiolan branches could not help but enhance the annual fees for clubs and members several times during the 1990s. of vice versa? 186 It could be guessed that some sorts of self-service happened. as it was supposed to. they also invested their money. 1992. professional sports structures for TKD were established. Therefore. where athletes can devote nearly all their time for training and competitions by getting full salary. Oddly. the DTU did not receive much financial support for their teams. 2006. most of this money was to support elite TKD. Since Seoul 1988. Clearly this money was invested in sports structures for elite TKD. see Simson & Jennings. not recreational TKD. to enhance national prestige. and Elite Schools of Sports. and therefore. However. . although the DTU was continuously supported by governmental facilities. especially all the costs for the Top Circle project. 2000. For some reasons. so large amounts paid the athletes by themselves.
consequently. Edwin Ferger. they organized the votes in their direction. Stefan Klawiter. together they had ruled the German DTU and the European ETU. and as Heinz Marx’s right hand. similar to Judo. Greece. with the emphasis on the art. but their in-game protest was not accepted.3. this seems to be the core conflict within German TKD. The DTU tries to define TKD as a sport. to be the next DTU president (interview Jebramcik. they led the team moving out of the tournament during the final celebration. 2006). Siegel got DTU president and Jebramcik DTU secretary-general. But Jebramcik joined forces with the Bavarian secretary-general of the DTU. and. and the women’s team. 2. similar to Karate. Josef Wagner. days before the election. Jebramcik led the DTU team at the World Championships in Athens. together with NWTU comrade and DTU secretary for international affairs. This conflict is still not solved. North Rhine-Westphalian and Bavarian TKD authorities were in an unusual state of cooperation at first. were from North Rhine-Westphalia as well.174 - . 188 During the tournament. . As a sign of protest.187 Two years later. Klawiter had been BTU president since 1983. there was the unique situation that all responsible persons at an international tournament came from the NWTU. supporting this was Knoll. Hans Siegel. Helmut Gärtner. a move that was inofficially approved by other nation’s coaches and team 187 188 According to an interview wich D. Internal Power Struggles in the DTU After the Marx era had ended.In the end. Thus. TKD is still a martial art. Jebramcik in 2006. the two coaches of the male’s team. and on election day. there was a plot against the election of Marx’s protégé. Dieter Jebramcik. But in the public attention in Germany. they successively witnessed disadvantageous treatment of their team. Coincidentally. 1994: 100. in 1991. According to the NWTU president of the 1980s and 1990s. swimming and track and field.
175 - . trying to force Schwarz out of office. and continued as the sole ruler of both Bavarian and German TKD for the next three years. and the following years. officially. and the decision was reached by the athlete’s votes. 2006). they got punished for something which was even not their own idea. as the most successful athletes still came from the NWTU. Stefan Klawiter. Jebramcik joined forces with a Bavarian. got elected as DTU president. One year thereafter. Ferger and Jebramcik got punished by the WTF’s sanction committee. Jebramcik joined forces with the president of the TKD Union of Baden-Württemberg. there had been some legal constraints with these elections. 189 According to the report of these events by Dieter Jebramcik (interview Jebramcik. i. and it was regarded as a failure of the delegates from the NWTU. This time. this relation did not last long. . Their relationship broke apart just nine months after election. In 1998. and Siegel ordered early re-elections of the whole DTU directors later the same year.e.189 This was the first open disagreement between the DTU and the WTF. the two presidents of the main German TKD branches. NWTU president Jebramcik still tried to get a grip on German TKD. while they just had tried to support the athlete’s wishes. But six weeks thereafter. the actual BTU president. However. Under the impression of the events in and after Athens. Schwarz and Jebramcik. But the two officials had been the persons in charge. they were seen as the bad guys. BTU president since 1995. and the old order was reset gain. Harry Weber. They were forbidden to visit WTF events for the next two years. But Schwarz beat them. which originally had been scheduled for 1993. They were successful. Thus. The idea for the protest was the athlete’s. while Jebramcik was again secretarygeneral. Bavaria was again in charge of German TKD. this time Walter Schwarz. And again. Again.managers. However. when the directors ordered reelections again in 1999. quickly confronted each other. Jebramcik stepped back as secretary-general. most TKD clubs had enough of Klawiter and demanded early reelections. and Schwarz got DTU president. Jebramcik initiated a legal battle.
What had been the basis for the enmity between the BTU and the NWTU leaders? For some reasons. semi-contact instead of full-contact competition style. that led to more money (and influence) for independent Korean TKD masters. so they made efforts to appease the renegades. mostly from southern Germany and straight WTF friends. especially of the NWTU president. referring to his weak condition. Schwarz surprisingly stepped back. also suffering from bad condition. . like featuring hyong and semi-contact sparring style. and less fees and influence for the DTU in NRW. an appease which went contrary to the WTF’s way. for example. While the DTU disregarded this situation. One year later. Furthermore. In 2008. Therefore. which made the DTU a prey for WTF’s powerful demands.yet unsuccessfully. respectively) instead of taking the formally correct DTU way. refused to follow the latest WTF developments: they featured hyong instead of poomsae. Many NWTU TKD schools and clubs. followed him. tried to repress NWTU’s influence. Dieter Jebramcik. the NWTU recognized that they couldn’t change it. and old-style Korean commands and (sometimes) cloths instead of the latest fashion from Korea.176 - . many TKD clubs still remained in contact to their original TKD grandmaster who often was running a TKD school in NRW which was not affiliated to the DTU. Another price was the huge loss of international credibility and influence. as was shown above. NWTU was something like the bad guy in the DTU. his old nemesis Jebramcik. Finally. he suddenly passed away. But that battle had consumed much of the precious resources of German TKD. in 2002. But the DTU’s leaders. it often happened that TKD practitioners preferred getting their dan degrees from their old grandmasters (who had direct contact to the ITF or the WTF. In a further step.
from about 40% at the early 1980s to about 70% in 2008. In Southern Germany. After TKD became a family-friendly Olympic event with obligatory head protectors in order to minimize health risks at competitions.VI. TKD was introduced by American GIs and continuously controlled by German martial arts school and club owners who hired famous Korean instructors. the study of the formative years of TKD in Germany revealed that the roots for the peculiar development of TKD in Germany were seeded at the very beginning. Originally introduced to Germany as a tough martial exercise featuring the most spectacular fighting moves. In .177 - . In Germany of today. These Germans had been the moving forces behind regulating TKD administrations. which could help explaining the decline of German TKD competitiveness during the mid-1980s. Conclusion & Recommendation 1. the study of the socio-cultural situation for European combat sports and East Asian martial arts in Germany revealed that TKD has endured a radical image change during the past four decades. and the ratio of children grew dramatically. more females entered the sport. Second. Conclusion First. further socio-cultural as well as psychological data should be gained on this subject to confirm the hypothesis. Therefore. TKD attracted particular fighting talents until the early 1980s. Olympic TKD is regarded a rather beneficial method of physical exercise suitable for the whole family than a potentially dangerous combat sport similar to boxing. However. it is concluded that the image change of TKD from the 1970s to the 1990s resulted in a significant shift from more competitive to less competitive participants engaging in TKD. or to refute it. including jumping-twisting kicks and stone-breaking knife-hand strikes (and actually being used in physical confrontations in secret-service missions during the late 1960s and for guarding purposes against North Korean threads in the early 1980s).
whereas the main German TKD administration. they were quick in switching to another connection if this promised to be more useful. the available data did not unanimously support the elevation of this coincidence into a causal relation. the analysis of the situation of German TKD after the German reunification showed the widening gap between TKD as elite sports and TKD as recreational activity. the study of the circumstances of the rise and decline of Germany’s TKD successes in the 1970s and 1980s showed that amongst others. the more apparent became the decline of German TKD. Moreover. and who were primarily interested in making a living with their art.North-Western Germany. while in Southern Germany. This DTU strategy is contradictory to the general tendency of the German people to assess TKD mainly as a recreational activity. Only future research could clarify this case. the study also showed that the more these factors got corrupted. Third. Germans opened several formal organizations built up by public TKD clubs run by Germans to establish similar international connections. two factors being a prerequisite for international high-level athletic competitiveness of any kind had been fulfilled in German TKD at first: state-of-the-art training conditions and instructors. on the other hand. or TKD as mass sports. The concept of TKD for all.178 - . as was shown before. lays the clear focus on high-level athletic competitions. the Deutsche Taekwondo Union (DTU). The clear majority of people interested in TKD in . while most of the Korean TKD masters in Germany were increasingly reluctant against ongoing reforms by the new TKD rulers in Korea and started to value their traditional connections. With a sense for the politically feasible. task-oriented administration taking care of these conditions on athlete’s behalf. is only marginally supported. However. Fourth. and a stable. They established direct connections to international TKD organizations bypassing controlling German administrations. TKD was brought along as an extra of Koreans who happened to stay in Germany.
or at least less frequent hikes. The German TKD administrations cannot change the situation of highly specialized TKD athletes training on professional levels in other countries which have surpassed Germany on the international medal ranks. And a rise in members would also be beneficial for the elite sports section. aesthetic forms. as it might have been 20 or 30 years ago (cf. It could also be used for events with an educational purpose for ordinary members. especially for the many participating children and the youth.e. self-defense. fun. But it could reasonably be expected that during the coming few . the DTU. first of all because many of the latest separatist TKD organizations would lose their ground. most of all.or even zero-contact sparring. and TKD in Germany is not attracting the outstanding fighting talents as during the Bruce Lee-boom of the 1970s any longer. These days. i. Surely this would result in an increase in the number of members. wood-breaking strikes and kicks. artistic moves.179 - . This would mean more financial engagement in TKD for the masses and less focus on TKD as elite sports. Recommendation This leads to the first recommendation for the further transition of TKD in Germany. and as a joyful leisure time activity. or enhanced website appearances revealing the revisionist history of TKD and the true purposes behind its concealment. such as fitness.Germany are not looking for a stone-breaking combat sport rewarding aggressive fighting skills. 2. and at best risk-free. The leading TKD administrations. they most probably look for other qualities. which should result in lesser annual fees for ordinary members. light. Goldner 1992). should emphasize more the role of TKD as a recreational tool. times are changing. Also. such as special Taekkyon courses to teach German TKD enthusiasts the difference between the two Korean martial arts. especially for silver sports.
decades, TKD will undergo further developments on the global scale, and one of them might be the merger of the main international TKD governing bodies, since sportspolitical constraints are no longer prohibiting such possibilities. That would enable the integration of all forms and sparring styles of TKD into one administration, similar to the integration of different fighting styles in wrestling and fencing. From a pure athletic viewpoint, there is no reason why the different TKD styles should remain separated. The main obstacle against a merger seem to be power games between the world TKD bodies acting as lobby groups in the interest of their directors. Thus, it could be predicted that from that very moment on when such power political restraints fall apart, hyong and poomsae, and semi- and full-contact sparring styles quickly get reunited. Therefore, the second recommendation for German TKD would be that its administrations ought to show greater willingness for mutual cooperation, to get an advantageous edge in case of a future merger of WTF and ITF TKD. Both the DTU and the ITF-D could remember their history of proud independence towards the international governing TKD bodies – rejection of Choi Hong-hi’s offers in the 1970s and partly successful trial to beat Kim Un-yong’s power grip on European TKD in the 1970s and 80s – and start working together more closely, instead of trying to ignore each other. It would be nothing than advantageous for the greater benefit of TKD in Germany, and probably a signal world-wide. It would also be beneficial from the perspective of the athletes. Many fighting talents competing for one of the administration’s competition teams could be interested in getting closer experience with the “wrong” fighting style. It could turn out that some would do better with the one style they currently never experienced deeply. And that would clearly lead to better competition results.
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Finally, this would also have a beneficial effect on new member recruitment. A reunified TKD featuring a variety of forms and sparring styles would much better fit to people’s expectations about East Asian martial arts in Germany. The most apparent disadvantage for such a move would be the probable lacking of qualified hyong or zeroand semi-contact sparring expertise in many DTU TKD clubs, similar, in some respects, to the lacking of TKD in former East Germany at all. But the DTU already proofed that they can handle such a situation, so, why don’t give it a try a second time?
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2006~2009 (in alphabetical order) Interviewee Arndt. one of the first two official German TKD dan grade holders 21 August 2008 (Cologne) 10 August 2006. successor of Park Soo-nam as national head coach (1985~1988) 31 July 2007 (Berlin) 190 See www. Edwin Gatzweiler. . former secetarygeneral of DTU (1989~1992.192 - . Gerd former DTU and NWTU official. an expert in Korean-German relations German TKD pioneer since 1964 and famous DTU club coach. Dieter Long-time president of NWTU (1984~2002).taekwondodata. 22 January 2009 (both in Essen) Gil.Interviews Appendix Table: Interviews and other Interrogations. 22 January 2009 (both in Dortmund) Dr. Peter long-time official photographer for Taekwondo Aktuell and the DTU.com. accessed on 10 December 2009. 1998~1999). owner and operator of the TKD information website Taekwondo Data190 6 August 2009 (Munich) Ferger. responsible for media affairs in the DTU in 1993 and since 2003. Dirk Germany’s second WTF World Champion of 1982 (heavyweight). Michael Description Germany’s third WTF World Champion of 1987 (heavyweight). HansFerdinand Jebramcik. Konstantin Bavaria-based TKD pioneer since 1967. passed away in 2009 26 July 2006 (E-Mail) 19 February 2007. later in charge of adidas’ engagement in TKD in Germany Date (Location) 6 August 2009 (Nuremberg) Bolz. long-time official Taekwondo Aktuell correspondent and critical observer of German TKD 6 August 2009 (Munich) Hunkel. Jung.
Hendrik Sobota. Paul Wiedmeier. 1988).193 - . accessd on 10 December 2009. gifted instructor. Hans-Jürgen Weiler.com. see www. later DTU dissident and outstanding critic. passed away in 2008 02 August 2009 (E-Mail) 15 February 2007 (Altena) 191 She also won the gold medal at the WTF World Tournament 1983 in Kopenhagen. three-time European Champion191 former successful DTU club coach. Gilbert Most succesful female German TKD competitor of the 1970s and 1980s. 192 This association is the European Taekwondo Federation (ETF). the inofficial female’s World Championships before 1987. currently president of an alternative German TKD association 192 20 January 2009 (Iserlohn) 20 January 2009 (Iserlohn) Maier. DTU vice president (since 2009) Summer 2007 (telephone communication) Streif. . see www. established contact to Choi Hong-hi.etf.taekwondodata. Carl Wolfer.com. hired Kwon Jae-hwa and Kim Kwang-il long-time NWTU official and reknown TKD chronologist. Georg Rubbeling. switched discipline to become Germany’s leading Taekkyon expert former student of G. Soo-nam Most successful German national head coach of the 1970s and 1980s (1976~1985. now eloquent and careful DTU dissident (since 1995) and critic long-time president of the ITF-D (1989~2007) 27 February 2008 (Schwerte) 27 February 2008 (Schwerte) 24 February 2007 (Cologne) Absolute German TKD pioneer (he started in 1961).de. owner of the Taekwondo Aktuell (since 1993). Udo chief editor of the Taekwondo Aktuell (since the 1990s) Summer 2006 (Stuttgart) Former Bavarian TKD athlete of the 1980s. Sibylle Mönig. Kapkowski. Professor for TKD at Youngsan University (since 2004) Summer 2007 (Busan) Park. accessed on 10 december 2009. Norbert Germany’s national head coach (1992~2006) 1 May 2006 (E-Mail) former DTU athlete.Kapkowski. Dorothea Kapkowski.
194 - . 독일이 태권 도에 있어서 위상을 상실하고 다시 되찾지 못하고 있는 데에는 어떤 요인에 기인하는 것인가? 본 연구로부터 다음과 같은 네 개의 결론과 이에 따르는 두 개의 제안에 도달하였다. 1990년대 이후로는 국제랭킹에서 부수적인 역할에 그치고 있다. 이에 반해. . 1980년대 초 독일은 종주국인 한국에 바로 뒤이어 2 위의 위상에 있었다.[국문요약] 태권도의 독일 유입과 변천 (1960년부터 2000년까지) 쿠클린스키-리 토마스 한국체육대학교 대학원 체육학과 독일 태권도의 경기스포츠로서의 위상은 1988년 서울 올림픽을 앞두고 극 적으로 변모하였다. 국제태권도시합에서 획득한 메달 집계를 볼 때.
넷째. 태권도는 1970년대의 극도로 격렬하고 현란한 격투술이란 인식에서 출발하여.첫째. 1980년대 경기스포츠 분야에서의 태권도의 성과에 관한 연구 결과. 이 현상은 1990년대를 통해 더욱 심화되어 경기스포츠 차원에서의 명백한 실패로 그 결 과가 드러나게 되었다. 경기성과의 저하는 외적인 요인(다른 나라의 태권도경기력의 전문화) 외에도 내적인 요인(DTU 지도부의 부실운영)이 있었음을 보여 주었으며. 최근 동향을 분석한 결과 DTU는 태권도를 전문경기스포츠의 측면에 치중하여 지원하고 있으며 이에 따라 일반인을 대상으로 하는 저변이 넓은 대중스포츠로서의 측면을 상대적으로 소홀히 하고 있는 것으로 판명되었다. 과거의 이미지보 다는 오늘날의 이미지가 더 많은 스포츠인들을 태권도로 유인하는 것으로 보 여지는데. 이는 독일 태권도선수들의 취약한 경기성과와도 부합되지 않으며. 타 격투스포츠와의 사회-문화적 비교연구를 통하여. 독일 초창기 태권도의 연구를 통해 두 개의 상이한 역사적 근원에 도달하였다: 남부독일 주둔의 미합중국의 군인과 노르트라인-베스트팔렌주의 한국인 광부가 그들이다. 독일에서 태권도 는 그 이미지에 있어서 근본적인 변화가 있었다는 것이 밝혀졌다. 이후로는 경기스포츠 분야에서 뛰어난 성과를 나타내었다. 셋째. 이에 반해 ITF-D는 두 가지 요인 모두에서 해결책을 획득하였고. . 또한 태권 도는 대중스포츠라는 독일사회에 뿌리내린 사회-문화적 인식에도 부응하고 있지 못하고 있는 실상이다. 이는 80년대 이래 독일 태권도의 경기력약화현상을 부분적으로 설 명해 주기도 한다. 30년이 지난 2000년대에는 회원의 70%가 미성년자로 이루어진 가족친화적인 올림픽 경기종목이라는 이미지에로의 인식의 전환을 이루어내었다. 이들의 상이한 삶의 조건과 상이한 동기의식으로부 터 독일 태권도의 두 개의 상이한 태권도 전통이 형성되어갔으며.195 - . 둘째. 이는 현재 까지도 그 영향을 미치고 있다.
독일태권도. 독일체육사. 세계태권도연맹 .이로부터 독일 태권도를 위한 첫 번째 제안이 나온다: 독일에서 태권도는 건강증진활동 및 여가활동으로서의 가치를 더욱더 뚜렷하게 부각시켜야 할 것이다.196 - . 이렇게 한다면 태권도로 분명히 더 많은 신규 회원들의 유입이 일어 날 것이며 이는 결과적으로 경기스포츠적인 차원에서도 강화를 가져올 것이 다. 주요어 : 태권도. 상호 협조적으로 교환하고 공동작업을 강 화해 나감으로써 유익함을 창출해 나갈 수 있을 것이다. 두 번째 제안은 세계태권도연맹 (WTF: World Taekwondo Federation)과 국제태 권도연맹(ITF: International Taekwondo Federation)이 장차에는 펜싱과 레슬링이 그러하였던 것처럼 서로서로 접근하여 서로 상이한 스타일을 하나의 스포츠 로 통합할 수도 있다는 가정을 전제로 제시해 보는 것이다: 독일의 태권도 단체들은 서로를 견원시하는 대신.