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GFL-T + GFL-R

DC BATTERY SYSTEM EARTH


FAULT LOCATOR

Presented by: TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS


D.C. Earth Fault Locator
Purpose
The D.C. Ground Fault Locator (GFL) is used for locating
resistive or non-resistive current paths from DC Battery
Distribution System to building ground without de-
energizing components or loads in the system.
The equipment
D.C. GFL Description

Instrument consists of two basic


parts:
A) TRANSMITTER Unit, used
to pulsate current through the
DC battery DC GFL building
ground loop
B) RECEIVER Unit, used to
detect pulses generated by the
TRANSMITTER Unit in the DC
battery to building ground loop
Operational Overview
The D.C. GFL repeatedly opens and closes (pulses) the closed
circuit, established when D.C. GFL is connected. Current flows
from the (+) battery pole, through the wire shorted to building
ground, through the D.C. GFL building ground lead, then back
through the D.C. GFL +/- battery lead to the negative battery
post.
Note that the ground detection system battery is the source of the current
flow, not the GFL. This has distinct advantage that we are not injecting any
external signal in the system , thereby avoiding any possibility which may
lead to tripping as in conventional sets being supplied by our competitors.
UNIQUE ADVANTAGES OVER OTHER SYSTEMS
Works on ON Line Condition without switching off the feeders
No External Signal Injection, thus no possibility of system
tripping
No need for Capacitive current balancing, thereby making
fault localization much easier and simpler
Easy to operate and understand
Proved in PGCILs largest sub-stations upto 765KV, Various
other 400 and 220KV sub-stations
Already in successful operation with clients like PGCIL, NTPC,
BHEL, GETCO, Adani, Lanco, TNEB, GSEG, Lanco and many
more for last several years
Most efficient fault localization compared to any other brand
Indian or Imported
Located smallest faults also where all other brand of
equipment failed
Operational Overview

The D.C. GFL Detector Unit can then detect


and show these pulses on the Detector Unit
Meter where the RECEIVER Current
Transformer Probe is clipped over a wire in
the current path.
This systematic approach of noting where
pulses have been detected, then moving
down the wire to where pulses are not
detected, pinpoints the ground fault location.
TRANSMITTER UNIT
D.C. GFL Precautions

Always wear proper Personal Protection


Equipment when working on and around
energized circuits
Work involves energized circuits
Inspect all energized equipment for proper
installation and functions before initializing
work
TRANSMITTER ELEMENTS
1. GROUND TERMINAL BLACK 6. SIGNAL AMPLITUDE ADJUST KNOB 11. LEAKAGE CURRENT AMMETER
2. BATTERY TERMINAL RED 7. MAINS ON LAMP 12. AMMETER RANGE SELECTOR 0-30 OR
3. TRANSMITTER ON/OFF SIGNAL SWITCH 8. FAULT SELECTION SWITCH S2 (FOR 0-300
4. SIGNAL PULSES INDICATOR SHORT OR RESISTIVE FAULTS) 13. SWITCH S3
5. SIGNAL FREQUENCY ADJUST KNOB 9. FAULT SELECTION SWITCH S1 (FOR +VE 14. FUSES AND MAINS INPUT
OR VE EARTH FAULTS) 15. SWITCH S4
10. SWITCH SELECTION GUIDE
Operation Instructions
Follow all tag out and safety procedures for
working on energized circuits.
Ensure all systems operators are aware of
fault situation and procedures to follow
Determine if Ground is Positive (+) or
Negative (-)
Controls on D.C. GFL Unit will be set to locate
the problem. If it is a Positive Ground, set
controls to (+) GRD, or (-) GRD
Operation Instructions
Set controls on the TRANSMITTER unit as
follows:
If ground is positive (+), set Fault Selection Switch S1 to (+).
If ground is negative (-), set Fault Selection Switch S1 to (-).
Set pulse amplitude adjust control to minimum current
position.
Set TRANSMITTER ON/OFF switch to OFF.
Verify fuses for battery fuse and ground fuse are 100 mA
(1/10A).
Plug in D.C. GFL TRANSMITTER Unit 230 VAC power cord.
Operation Instructions
Set controls on the TRANSMITTER Unit as follows:
If ground is positive (+), connect D.C. GFL TRANSMITTER
Unit as follows:
Connect black BLDG GROUND lead to building ground wire.
Connect red BATT. +/- lead to negative (-) bus.
If ground is negative (-), connect D.C. GFL TRANSMITTER
Unit as follow:
Connect black BLDG GROUND lead to building ground wire.
Connect red BATT. +/- lead to positive (+) bus.

Negative Bus
Connection

Building Ground
Connection
Operation Instructions
Adjust D.C. GFL TRANSMITTER Unit as follows:
NOTE A solid ground has zero resistance to
ground. A resistive ground will show up on both
positive and negative indicators, but one will show
more strongly than other.
If system voltage is 24, 48, 125 VDC with a
solid ground:
Set Switch S3 - ON (closed).
Set Switch S4 - OFF.
Set Fault Selection Switch S2 switch to <5K.
Set 30mA/300mA meter range
switch to 300mA.
Operation Instructions

Adjust D.C. GFL TRANSMITTER Unit as


follows:
If system voltage is 250 VDC with a solid ground:
Set Switch S3 - OFF.
Set Switch S4 - OFF.
Set Fault Selection Switch S2 switch to <5K.
Set 30mA/300mA meter range
switch to 300mA.
Operation Instructions

Adjust D.C. GFL TRANSMITTER Unit as


follows:
If system voltage is 24, 48, 125 or 250 VDC with a
resistive ground:
Set Switch S3 - OFF.
Set Switch S4 - OFF.
Set Fault Selection Switch S2 switch to >5K.
Set 30mA/300mA meter
range switch to 30 mA.
Operations Instructions
The D.C. GFL package has an External Pulse
Indicator Lamp. This lamp is handy for seeing
when each pulse from the TRANSMITTER Unit
occurs, even when the user may be 40 yards or
more away from the TRANSMITTER Unit.
Plug the External TRANSMITTER Lamp jack into the
TRANSMITTER Unit External Lamp Output plug.
The lamp has velcro backing to place it in the
upper right side of the units lid when open.
Operation Instructions

Set up D.C. GFL RECEIVER Unit as follows:


Plug RECEIVER unit current transformer probe into
banana jacks of on back of RECEIVER Unit.
Turn on RECEIVER unit by ON/OFF switch.
Adjust balance control until meter needle is centered
on meter.
Perform a battery check by pressing green button on
back of unit; meter needle should deflect to BATT
position on meter face.
Clamp current transformer probe around red BATT
+/- lead of TRANSMITTER unit.
Operation Instructions
NOTE In some cases, DC GFL TRANSMITTER Unit Pulse Meter
will not register minimum detectable ground current of 4 to 5
mA (i.e., a highly resistive ground). For this reason,
manufacturer specifies DC GFL is only effective for use on
ground currents that generate 5 mA reading.
If a minimum of 5 mA cannot be obtained, perform following:
Turn pulse amplitude adjust control to minimum.
Set both Switches A and B to ON.
Slowly adjust pulse amplitude adjust control to 5 mA.
Operation Instructions
The RECEIVERunit meter needle should begin deflecting left and
right.
Adjust sensitivity knob, on back of RECEIVERunit, for a wide
deflection both ways from center mark on meter scale.
Clamp RECEIVERprobe around load wires to trace pulse to
grounded circuit.
The RECEIVERUnit meter needle should now be deflecting right
then left of the meter center for each Pulse Unit pulse. If the
meter needle deflects to the left on each pulse, reverse the
clamp on direction of the Detector Unit Probe.
Tracing the Fault
Expose the load wire in the distribution panels, using caution
to avoid tripping any circuit breakers or disconnecting
switches.
Clamp the Detector Probe around each load wire and note
the wire or wires, which have pulses that coincide with the
generated pulses. Determine the locations of the panels or
devices these circuits feed. Continue to follow the pulses
until the grounded wire or device is found. BE SYSTEMATIC
AND USE YOUR PRINTS.
Usage Tips

At times there can be difficulty discerning


between the desired pulses on the Detector
Meter and random pulses, or noise.
For those pulses/spikes, which are circulating from (-)
to (+) in the circuit, clamp the D.C. GFLs RECEIVER
Probe around both (-) and (+) wires at the same time.
The circulating pulses will cancel out and you should
see only the D.C. GFLs pulse, which is not circulating
on both the (+) and (-) wires.
Usage Tips
For those pulses/spikes that are radiating down a
wire and are not circulating, move down the wire, if
possible, to get away from noisy systems such as
choppers, and inverters. It may be necessary to
decreases the sensitivity of the RECEIVER and
increase the amplitude of the D.C. GFLs pulse in
order to override the remaining interference.

The Pulse Frequency Adjust control on the D.C.


GFL TRANSMITTER Unit can be adjusted so that the
frequency of the GFLs pulses stand out from the
existing noise.
Additional Applications

Locating A.C. Grounds:


The D.C. GFL can be used to locate grounds on
A.C. system up to 480 volts, provided the following
conditions are met.
The A.C. circuit must be totally de-energized and
disconnected from its source. This means all phase
leads and the neutral lead, if used.
A 130 Volt D.C power supply must be available that
is capable of supplying 200 mA of current. This
D.C. voltage must be isolated from ground. This
means that the (+) and (-) leads each read zero (0)
volts to ground when energized.
Additional Applications

Ground locating on Fire Alarm and Marine


Systems:

The D.C. GFL has been used successfully to


locate grounds on fire alarm systems, using
the procedures outlined.
These procedures will be useful for marine
systems as well.
We welcome comments, reports, and
questions from users.