Analyzer Training Course Introduction to SVS for GSM 1.

3
Actix Training Services Edition B

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Contents
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 5 SCOPE OF THE COURSE ................................................................................................................................ 5 WHO SHOULD ATTEND ANALYZER TRAINING?........................................................................................... 5 PREREQUISITES............................................................................................................................................ 6 TOPICS TO BE COVERED .............................................................................................................................. 7 INTRODUCTION TO ACTIX ANALYZER ......................................................................................................... 8 ANALYZER’S KEY FEATURES ...................................................................................................................... 9 WHAT’S NEW IN SVS VERSION 1.3..................................................................................................... 10 TECHNOLOGY ENHANCEMENTS................................................................................................................. 10 DATA VISUALIZATION ............................................................................................................................... 10 LICENSING ................................................................................................................................................. 10 GETTING STARTED WITH ANALYZER ............................................................................................ 11 STARTING ANALYZER ............................................................................................................................... 11 CONFIGURING ANALYZER ......................................................................................................................... 13 LOADING CELL SITE DATA ........................................................................................................................ 17 DATA AGGREGATION (BINNING)............................................................................................................... 22 VIEWING DATA IN ANALYZER........................................................................................................... 23 LOADING FILES ......................................................................................................................................... 23 VIEWING SCANNER DATA IN ANALYZER................................................................................................... 26 INDEPENDENT NODE DATA IN ANALYZER ................................................................................................. 26 THE FAVORITES GROUP............................................................................................................................. 28 VIEWING DATA ON MAPS .......................................................................................................................... 29 MODIFYING LEGEND RANGES ................................................................................................................... 30 VIEWING DATA ON CHARTS ...................................................................................................................... 40 VIEWING DATA IN THE MESSAGE BROWSER ............................................................................................. 44 VIEWING DATA IN THE PROTOCOL STACK BROWSER ................................................................................ 45 VIEWING DATA IN TABLES ........................................................................................................................ 47 VIEWING DATA ON WORKBOOKS .............................................................................................................. 48 THE REPLAY TOOL .................................................................................................................................... 49 VIEWING DATA ON STATE FORMS ............................................................................................................. 50 UPLINK DATA ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................... 61 EXPLORING CALL TRACE DATA ................................................................................................................ 61 SUPERSTREAMING CALL TRACE AND DRIVE TEST DATA .......................................................................... 62 MERGING MULTIPLE DRIVE FILES IN THE WORKSPACE ........................................................ 64 THE NETWORK IMAGE......................................................................................................................... 65 CREATE A NEW NETWORK IMAGE ............................................................................................................. 65 BATCH LOAD FILES INTO THE NETWORK IMAGE ....................................................................................... 67 DISPLAY DATA FOR THE ENTIRE NETWORK .............................................................................................. 68 START A NEW DAY – ATTACHING A NETWORK IMAGE ............................................................................. 68 ANALYZER QUERIES AND FILTERS ................................................................................................. 69 FILTER ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................................................... 70 BINNED QUERY / CUSTOM ANALYSIS QUERY ........................................................................................... 74 CROSSTAB QUERY – SORT BY SITE AND SECTOR ...................................................................................... 78 EVENT QUERY - DROPPED CALL WINDOW ................................................................................................ 81 STATISTIC ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................. 86
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CELL SITE CONFIGURATION USING THE NETWORK EXPLORER ......................................... 87 IMPORTING NETWORK DATA..................................................................................................................... 87 UPDATING CELL SITE DATA ...................................................................................................................... 97 REPORTING GSM NETWORK PERFORMANCE ............................................................................. 99 APPLICATION PACKAGES ........................................................................................................................... 99 RUNNING A PRE-DEFINED REPORT .......................................................................................................... 103 CREATING A CUSTOM REPORT ................................................................................................................ 105 PRINTING DATA .................................................................................................................................... 108 SAVING YOUR PREFERRED LAYOUT............................................................................................. 109 WHERE TO GET MORE HELP............................................................................................................ 110 HELP FILE ................................................................................................................................................ 110 TECHNICAL SUPPORT .............................................................................................................................. 112 ACTIX WEB SITE ..................................................................................................................................... 113 CONTACT YOUR INSTRUCTOR ................................................................................................................. 113 MORE ADVANCED TRAINING .................................................................................................................. 113 APPENDIX A – GSM EVENT DEFINITIONS..................................................................................... 114 APPENDIX B – GPRS OPTIMIZATION PARAMETERS................................................................. 116 GPRS TEST DESIGN ................................................................................................................................ 116 GPRS DATA ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................... 117 APPENDIX C – STATEFORMS ATTRIBUTES.................................................................................. 122

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Introduction
Scope of the Course
Introduction to Analyzer for Network Optimization provides a comprehensive overview of Actix Analyzer – Service Verification Solution (‘Analyzer’). Our goal is to give new users an understanding of what Analyzer can do and how it can help them improve the quality of service for their network subscribers. This course is led by experienced instructors. These instructors are experts in using Analyzer to increase productivity and are familiar with the challenges faced by engineers working in cellular/PCS environments. Class size is limited to ensure that everyone receives extensive one on one instruction. Participants are given ample opportunity to ask questions relevant to their particular optimization needs. Upon completing the course, participants will be able to put what they learned in the class to work to identify and solve real network problems. Introduction to Analyzer for Network Optimization begins with a high-level presentation of the Analyzer interface and its capabilities. We will then cover how Analyzer can be customized to tailor existing optimization processes to the specific needs of the participants.

Who Should Attend Analyzer Training?
• • Engineers responsible for enhancing cellular performance and implementing wireless system optimization System Performance Engineers responsible for measuring and quantifying network quality relative to competitors and/or established benchmarks Engineers looking to further understand the application of drive test, call trace and protocol data in optimizing networks Experienced technicians involved in field optimization Anyone looking to maximize the return on their investment in Actix Analyzer

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Prerequisites
• • Familiarity with network infrastructure and operation of the air interface A general understanding of drive test and call trace collection and post-processing methodology and advantages and limitations of each dataset Access to Actix Analyzer software Basic computer literacy, including familiarity with Windows and MS Office applications A machine meeting recommended, or at least minimum requirements: Recommended: Processor – Pentium III 700 MHz Operating System – Windows 2000 Professional Memory (RAM) – 512 Megabytes Available Hard Disk Space – 15 Gigabytes Minimum: Processor – Pentium II 333 MHz Operating System – Windows 95 or NT SP3 I Professional Memory (RAM) – 128 Megabytes Available Hard Disk Space – 1 Gigabyte In addition to the hardware requirements listed above, Analyzer performs best when the Windows Virtual Memory Paging size is set to between 1000 and 1500 MB. The method for setting this parameter varies by operating system. Please consult your operating system help for specific instructions regarding this parameter.

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Topics to Be Covered
• Configuring your Analyzer workspace including map, cell site, and parameter configuration in order to display your geographic area and network cell plan. Viewing data in a variety of ways to gain insight into possible network problems. Diagnosing and solving quality of service problems with drive test and switch data. Using pre-defined and custom analyses to analyze data and devise tailored optimization solutions. Identifying the impact of wide area network optimization changes in terms of quality of service using advanced features that allow Analyzer to be tailored to integrate seamlessly into developed optimization processes and procedures. Using some of the latest task-oriented application packages and their supporting engineering notes, which highlight how Analyzer can be used to fine-tune network performance and further enhance quality of service. Using the Help options and maximizing the benefit of technical support.

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Introduction to Actix Analyzer
Mobile phone network operators strive to maximize the capacity and quality of their networks in order to ensure customer satisfaction and increase revenues. The collection and analysis of network performance metrics forms a large part of this effort. There are many sources of performance data available, including field-test equipment, scanners, and call traces. Actix Analyzer provides the ideal solution for your network optimization problems. It supports a wide range of file formats and provides you with a straightforward user interface. Actix Analyzer is a post-processing tool for the top-down optimization of wireless networks. Actix supports a wide variety of collection file formats, including: • • • Drive Test Collection Tools, including Ericsson TEMS, Nemo TOM, Comarco Baseline, and Ascom Q-voice Switch (Mobile Traffic Records) Traces, including Ericsson MTR, and Nokia Online Protocol Analyzers on the A, Abis, and Gb interfaces for GSM/GPRS networks including Tektronix K1205, Ocean, and Nethawk.

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Analyzer’s Key Features
• • • • • • • • • Supports most of the industry standard file formats for drive-test, OMC-R traces, and A, Gb, and Abis traces. Easy-to-understand Windows user interface means information can be interpreted quickly. Data may be queried on user-defined criteria and filtered accordingly. Access to high-level statistical information and detailed engineering parameters. Analyses may be run quickly using pre-defined report templates. The most commonly requested analyses and calculations are carried out automatically. Drive test and call trace files may be combined to link forward and reverse link data. Interface with Excel allows detailed statistical and mathematical analysis of any data set. The Network Image feature enables aggregation of large volumes of drive test data into one file, including only key parameters, resulting in a much smaller file.

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What’s New in SVS Version 1.3
Technology Enhancements
AMR Measurements – Adaptive multi-rate (AMR) parameters available for analysis include Setup Parameters and Frame Measurements. AMR measurements are currently available for the TEMS, Invex 3G and XTel data collection formats. GPRS and EDGE Protocols - A-SVS supports the analysis of GPRS and EDGE networks. GPRS parameters are available for all major collection vendors. EDGE support is currently available for Nemo, and will soon be available for TEMS and XTel. Data testing measurements provide technology independent data protocol metrics provided by wireless data collection equipment.

Data Visualization
Preconfigured StateForms - A number of preconfigured GSM and GPRS StateForms enable the user to quickly identify and troubleshoot important network events. Protocol Stack Browser – The Protocol Stack Browser allows the user to quickly browse through messages by examining the header only. Once a message of interest is identified in the top pane of the Protocol Stack Browser, the details of the message can be examined in the bottom pane. Cell Site Configuration – The Network Explorer has been updated to ease the cell site configuration process. The Auto Import feature is available to automatically update the cellrefs file with changes to network data. The Display Cell Data view provides easy access to network data details within the workspace.

Licensing
Several licensing options are available to meet the varied needs of different customers. Stand-alone Configurations – Users from the same customer will be able to readily interchange hardware keys without the inconvenience of having to move, copy, or replace license files. Commutable Network Configurations – The Actix customer who uses the Analyzer in a commutable network configuration will now have more flexibility in configuring the use of licenses to support usage in the office and in the field.
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Getting Started With Analyzer
Starting Analyzer
As with any Windows application, you can start Analyzer in several ways. When you install Analyzer, a folder is created from the Start button that contains a shortcut for Analyzer. To use this shortcut to start Analyzer, select Start → Programs → Actix → Analyzer.

Note: If you would like to add an Analyzer shortcut to your desktop, right-click on the Analyzer item on the start menu and choose Create Shortcut. It will appear on the desktop.

Actix Folder

Analyzer Shortcut

Start Button

Figure 1 - Starting Analyzer Using the Shortcut on the Start Menu

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After starting Analyzer, the splash screen is displayed while the application loads. A blank Analyzer workspace then opens:

Toolbar

Main Menu

Workspace

Status Bar

Figure 2 - An Empty Workspace in Analyzer

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Configuring Analyzer
Before you can begin analyzing data, there are a few configuration matters to attend to. In order to obtain some geographical reference points for your log files, you will need to load some MapInfo maps and point Analyzer to a valid, applicable cell site database, known in Analyzer as a “cellrefs” file.

Setting up Maps
This section shows you how to load MapInfo tabular (.tab) data to present data analyses on map backdrops. 1. Open a new map by selecting View → Display new Map. 2. Click on the Maximize icon to maximize the Map window. 3. In the Map Window, click on the Layers icon: Control Dialog will open:
Current Layers

. The Layer

Layer Options

Layer Properties

Layer Reorder

Figure 3 - The Layer Control Dialog

4. In the Layer Control dialog, click Add to open the Open Layer dialog. 5. Select or type in the name of a MapInfo Map (*.tab) file, then click Open. In class, the map file we will open is Maesseh.tab, which can be found in: C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\MapFiles\Maesse MapInfo layers are named according to the geographic location of the data (usually abbreviated US state name and county name), and by the

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type of data contained in the file. The following table lists some of the common abbreviations used for MapInfo data types:
Suffix Layer Type Y1 RtHwy010_Top Y2 RtHwy010_Bot X1 IntShld010 X2 IntShld1040 Pc Cultural Points Pn Natural Points Pm Municipal Points R Railroads H Highways S Streets Wr Water (rivers) Wb Water (bodies of water) Lm Landmarks Cb City Boundary Mc Minor Civic Division Cy County Other MapInfo layers: Voting District, Native American Lands, Sub-MCD, State level tables (school districts and elevation contours)

For example, the MapInfo layer named Maesseh.tab contains highway-level data for Essex County, Massachusetts.
6. You may want to modify the layer properties by selecting the layer and choosing the various options within the Layer Control Dialog:

A. Properties → Labels: Use the Label Properties dialog to show, hide, or modify map labels.
§ § § § § To turn off labels (recommended to improve map load time), uncheck both the Display within range box. Check boxes also are also available to Allow Overlapped Text and Allow Duplicated Text. The label font can be controlled through the Label Style button. The label position and label offset can be modified at the bottom right corner of the dialog. Select OK to exit the Label Properties dialog.

B. Properties → Display: Use the Display Properties dialog to control the display features of the map layer.
§ Override the default vector coloring by checking Override Style and modifying the Layer Style.

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§

Select OK to exit the Display Properties dialog.

C. Reorder → Up and Reorder → Down: Use the Reorder buttons to change the ordering of the layers.
§ Moving map layers toward the bottom layer is recommended to set them as a backdrop for displaying cell site data and logfile parameters. Layer Accessibility: To display a layer, check the box next . To make a layer to the layer name under the eye icon selectable, check the box next to the layer name under the arrow icon . To make a layer writeable, check the . box next to the layer name under the pencil icon §

§

Layers → Remove: Use the Remove button to remove a map layer from the workspace.

7. In addition to the Essex County highway layer, open the Middlesex and Suffolk County highway layers and modify their labels and visibility as in Step 7. 8. After modifying any desired layer properties, close the Layer Control dialog with the Close button and changes will take effect.

Map Toolbar

Figure 4 - MapInfo Layer for Essex County Highways Displayed on a Map

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9. Pan the map viewing area to the new map by right-clicking in the map area, then choosing Zoom → Go to Layer and selecting the map layer you just added. 10.Reorder the map layers using the Up and Down buttons on the Map Layer dialog to improve the appearance of the map 11.Right-click on the map and choose Zoom → Zoom In from the popup menu or click on the Zoom In button on the Map toolbar. 12.Click and drag a rectangle around a small area of interest on the map. Return the cursor to the passive mode by clicking on the Select button. 13.To return to the previous view, right-click on the map and choose Zoom →Previous View. 14. For some detailed layers, like the street layers, you can control at what degree of magnification they become visible. This helps to eliminate cluttered map displays. In the case of the highway layer, you can control the point at which the highway names and highway numbers become visible on the map. In the Map Layers, select the highway layer, and use the Properties Display dialog to set the Display within Zoom levels 0-10 miles. For the highway numbers, use the Properties Labels to set the visible range to 0-3 miles. Investigate the impact of your changes.

More Pan and Zoom Options
The pop-up menu in the Map window offers a variety of convenient pan and zoom options. Previous View – Right-click in the map and select Zoom → Previous View. Returns to the last zoom setting by undoing the last zoom operation. View Entire Map – Right-click in the map and select Zoom → View Entire Map. Zooms out to show the entire map area you have defined. Panning – Right-click in the map and select Tool → Pan. The cursor will change to a hand symbol. Click and drag to move the map in the viewing pane. Centering – Right-click in the map and select Tool → Center, then click on a point in the map window. The map will pan with the point you selected as the center. Measuring Distances on the Map – Right-click in the map and select Tool → Distance. Click the first point of the two you would like to measure the distance between, and then drag the cursor to the second
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point. Notice that the distance is displayed next to the cursor and is continuously updated as you drag. The units are not displayed, so if you are not sure what the current units setting is, check under Map Units → Distance, changing the unit type if appropriate.

Other Mapping Options
Copy to Clipboard allows the current map to be pasted into other MS applications for reporting and presentation. Export Map - allows the map to be saved to many common graphical formats for viewing outside Analyzer. Zoom to Map Scale - permits the user to display the map based on common map scales. This may be useful if it is desired to overlay printed maps from Analyzer over other maps or coverage predictions. New Raster - allows the importation of raster images for use as backdrops. One application of this would be to bring in raster maps of coverage predictions from a planning tool for visual inspection of predicted against measured coverage.

Note: When you are finished panning and zooming, and have the map showing the area you are interested in, remember to return the cursor to the passive mode by clicking on the Select button on the map toolbar.

Loading Cell Site Data
In order to display cell sites in Analyzer, and integrate cell site data with real-time measurements, a formatted database must exist containing location and configuration data for each cell site. In Analyzer, we refer to this file as the ‘cellrefs’ file, although it can have any name. Later in the course, we will show you how to format your own data for recognition by Analyzer. For now, we will point Analyzer to a preformatted cellrefs file, and then display the sites on the map. 1. From the main menu, select Tools → Preferences. 2. In the Change Preferences dialog, on the File Location line, double-click on the name of the current cellrefs file. 3. In the Open dialog, navigate to the cellrefs file you would like to use and select Open. In class the file we will use is called ‘Training GSM Cellrefs.txt’ which has been installed in the following location:
C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\Cellrefs

4. Click OK to close the Preferences dialog.

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5. A message box will be displayed saying that the new cellrefs file takes effect when a new workspace is loaded. Click OK to close the message box. Analyzer loads cells upon opening Analyzer or starting a new workspace. From the Main Menu, choose File → New Workspace to create a new workspace. At this point, there is no need to save the current workspace. 6. In the new workspace, click View →Display New Map. By default the cell sites are now visible:

Figure 5 - Map with Cell Sites Displayed

Displaying Site Labels
Labels may be displayed on the map to show identifying information for each cell site. Site labels are displayed independently of cell labels, enabling the display of Site Name or Site ID, in addition to BCCH, Azimuth, or Beamwidth. In Analyzer, “sectors” are called “cells” based on the European terminology. The following instructions specify first site labeling, then cell labeling: 1. In the Layer Control dialog box, select the site layer (named GSM_Site-Site_Name) 2. Under the Properties heading in the Layer Control dialog, press the Labels button.
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3. The MapInfo-style Label Properties box will appear. Verify that each of the following options is checked: o o o Show Allow overlapped text (recommended) Hide adjacent duplicate text (optional)

4. In the Label Properties box, use the drop down Data Field menu to determine the label format to display. Currently, there are two label formats from which to choose: o o The Site_Name (default) shows only the site name. The Key Field label shows only the site ID.

5. If you wish to offset the label from the cell site symbol, use the options in the Position box in the Label Properties dialog. 6. If you wish to change the font of the labels, use the Label Style button in the Properties dialog. 7. Select OK to exit the Label Properties dialog. The Site Labels have been formatted. Next, format the Cell Labels: 8. In the Layer Control dialog box, select the cell layer, which is named GSM_Cell-BCCH-Beamwidth 9. Under the Properties heading in the Layer Control dialog, press the Labels button 10.The MapInfo-style Label Properties box will appear. Verify that each of the following boxes is checked: o o o Show Allow overlapped text (recommended) Hide adjacent duplicate text (optional)

11.In the Label Properties box, use the drop down Data Field menu to determine the label format to display. All GSM_Cell parameters are available as options for labeling. BCCH is a popular labeling option, as it allows you to quickly identify the BCCH frequency on each sector. 12.If you want to offset the label from the cell site symbol, use the options in the Position box in the Label Properties dialog. 13.If you want to change the font of the labels, use the Label Style button in the Properties dialog. 14.Click OK in the Label Properties dialog, and then OK in the Layers dialog to apply the labels.
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Figure 6 - Formatted Cell and Site Labels

Viewing Cell Site Information
A cell’s Azimuth, Beamwidth and Sector ID can be obtained by running the mouse over a sector on the map. To obtain more detailed information on each site or sector: 1. Display site data of interest on the map. 2. From the main menu, select View ? Display Cell Data. 3. From the main menu, select Window ? Tile Horizontally or Window ? Tile Vertically. 4. Click on a sector wedge or site dot on the map. Details about that sector or site will appear in the Display Cell Data window.

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Figure 7 - Display Cell Data Window

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Data Aggregation (Binning)
Analyzer aggregates data into groups called bins in order to provide a reasonable number of data points from a computing and analysis perspective. The aggregation method used to create one bin from many data points depends on the type of parameter. For example measurement parameters, such as RxLev and RxQual, are binned by averaging all component measurements into one data point. For network state parameters, such as ServBSIC and ServBCCH, a bin is given the most frequently occurring value in the component measurements. Events, such as dropped calls and handoffs, are binned by the number of events occurring within the component measurements. Analyzer has four modes for determining how to divide data into bins: message binning, time binning, distance binning, and location binning. • Message binning places a user-specified number of messages into each bin for averaging. If you set the number of messages to average equal to 1, each message is placed into its own bin thus the net result is no averaging of the data. Time binning combines data in the time domain using a user-specified duration for the bin. Time binning of 1000 ms is the default binning in Analyzer. Distance binning combines data into bins corresponding to the distance travelled by the test mobile. This mode is commonly used for drive test analyses. Use distance binning when road conditions, like traffic lights or congestion, require multiple stops and data from the same area may be consolidated. Location binning is analogous to overlaying a spatial grid on top of the data with a user-defined granularity. This can be used when examining several drive files crossing over the same geographic area. Use location binning when multiple drive test teams are collecting data in the same area and composite analysis using all the drives is required.

1. In the Tools → Preferences dialog, click on the ‘+’ next to Binning to expand it. 2. Set the binning mode for maps, charts, and reports to Time based. 3. Highlight the time field and set the Time to 1000 ms.

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Viewing Data in Analyzer
Loading Files
Now that you are more familiar with the Analyzer environment, we will move on to some of the basic viewing options for drive test data. 1. Load the following drive test files by selecting File → Open Logfile or by clicking the Open Logfile icon: . These files are located in the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\DataFiles directory: o o Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1 TEMS Investigation 1.log

2. Expand the file tree in the workspace and select the NemoGSM (0) stream from the Nemo Drive Test 1 file. 3. Expand the layers under the NemoGSM (0) stream, then expand the GSM node and examine each data group and parameter, as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 8 - Expanded Workspace Showing Data Groups and Parameters
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Upon loading a GSM data file, note that several data groups are created for each device contained in the file. To see these data groups, open any log file contained in the training package. The following data groups are created under the GSM node: • • • • Statistics Data – Information about handover interval and duration Serving Cell Parameters – Information about the serving cell identity, serving BCCH, and BSIC. Target Cell Info – Information about the target cell for a handoff including BCCH and BSIC. Dedicated Radio Link – Once a call has been established, parameters that are associated with the cell serving the call are contained here. Device Info – Information about the specifications of the mobile making the call. Downlink Measurements – Serving RxLev and RxQual measurements made by the mobile, which are also broken out by ARFCN. Neighbor Cell Info – BCCH, BSIC, and RxLev for each neighbor. In addition, all neighbor measurements are broken out by channel number. Event Data – Call events triggered by Layer 3 messaging or registered by the drive test vendor’s equipment. If an event is not present in the tree, it did not occur in the file. GPRS Measurements – Metrics associated with GPRS data calls, including throughput, coding scheme, channel usage, TBF information and events can be found here. AMR Measurements – Call setup and inband signaling measurements extracted from AMR-enabled handsets are contained in this group. Vendor Specific – Measurements that are specific to the particular collection device used. Specific events registered by the T+M vendors’ hardware not derived from layer 3 messaging by Analyzer are included here.

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The Data Testing node in a GPRS or EDGE handset stream provides data parameters that are not specific to the air interface. Under the Data Testing node, the following groups may be found: • Application Measurements – Find instantaneous application layer throughput here. This is the value that most closely approximates the end user’s experience. Protocol Measurements – This group contains throughput values for each layer in the IP stack. This group contains statistics for the IP, PPP, TCP, ICMP and RLP2 layers. • IP (Internet Protocol) provides a connectionless addressing scheme of packets, or datagrams, to be delivered in a packet-switched data network. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) establishes a virtual connection between a source and a destination in a data network. PPP (Point to Point Protocol) serves primarily to provide some security to datagrams in the IP network. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) supports error, control and informational messages within the data network.

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• • • • • •

Task Settings – This group contains task identifiers including Task_Id, Task_Name and Task_Key. Task Summary – This group contains application level parameters summarizing the entire task. Ping Statistics – This group contains metrics for any ping session within the logfile. Application Statistics – This group contains the number of bytes transmitted by the data application. Connection – This group contains details for data connections activated within the logfile. HTTP Statistics – This group contains metrics for any HTTP session within the logfile.

Right-click on several of the parameters under each group and note that they can be displayed on tables, maps, charts, and in workbooks.

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Viewing Scanner Data in Analyzer
Analyzer supports the GSM scanners including the TEMS scanner, Nemo Seegull, Comarco baseline, and XK series scanner devices. To better understand the Scanner data that is presented, open logfile Grayson CW Scan.LOG and expand the stream Spectrum Tracker (0):

Figure 9 - Scanner Stream Expanded to Show Its Contents

Note that under the Scanner data group, several groups have been created to help you easily drill down into the data.

Independent Node Data in Analyzer
The Independent data node in Analyzer includes measurements that are technology and T+M vendor independent. This includes GPS information, Site Data Node information and Message Type information. Information for the site data node parameters will be generated if a valid cellrefs file is loaded in the Analyzer when a logfile is loaded. The site data node contains information resulting from the integration of the cell plan information and drive test data. This information can be displayed on maps, charts, tables, and workbooks like all regular drive test parameters. The site data node information appears in the workspace similar to the illustration below.

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Figure 10 - Expanded Site Data Node in the Workspace

The Site Data Node contains the parameters listed below: • • • • ServingCellDistance – The distance between each point on the drive and the current serving cellsite ServingCellLat – The latitude of the serving cellsite at each point along the drive route ServingCellLon – The longitude of the serving cellsite at each point along the drive route ServingCellID/SectorID – The alphanumeric identity from the cellrefs file of the serving site name and sector name. This data can be viewed on a table synchronized to a map to eliminate the need to look up channel/color code information to determine the serving cell at each point on the drive NeighborCellDistance/Lat/Long/CellID/SectorID - The same information as above for each neighbor position along the drive.

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The Favorites Group
You may find that having access to all of the parameters within the log file in the Workspace is not necessary, and that it may make finding key parameters more difficult. Analyzer allows you to identify the subset of parameters you need quick access to and place them in the Favorites Group. This group can be viewed by clicking on the Favorites tab in the workspace. 1. In the workspace, click to select the ServRxLevSub parameter from the Downlink Measurements group, then right-click on it and choose Add to Favorites from the pop-up menu. 2. Under Downlink Measurements, find ServRxQualSub and add it to Favorites. 3. Under Events, find CallDropped and HandoverOK and add them to Favorites. 4. Under Serving Cell Parameters, find ServBCCH and add it to Favorites. . A tree 5. In the Workspace, click on the Favorites tab view of the items you added is displayed. You can easily move between All and Favorites as necessary.

Favorites Tab

Figure 11 - Workspace Showing the Favorites Parameters Displayed

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Viewing Data on Maps
You can use Analyzer to create maps to display your data. 1. Display the serving cell signal level for the handset stream NemoGSM (0) on the map from the file Nemo Drive Test 1. First, select Downlink Measurements → ServRxLevSub. Then right-click and select Display on Map. Notice that the legend appears to the left of the map. The count for each range is in parentheses to the right of the range.

Figure 12 - RxLevSub Displayed On a Map

2. If you would like to display a second parameter, you have two options: o You can add the second parameter to the same map as the first by clicking on the second parameter in the Workspace Browser and dragging it onto the original map. You can display each parameter on a separate map by rightclicking on the second parameter in the Workspace Browser and choosing Display on Map.

o

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Modifying Legend Ranges
1. Select the ServRxLevSub stream in the Map Legend window and right-click on it. Choose the Modify ranges option to change the number of legend ranges and some of the range boundaries.

Figure 13 - Modify Ranges Dialog For RxLevSub

2. Delete ranges you don’t need by selecting them one at a time and pressing the Remove button. 3. To edit an existing range to match your network thresholds, select and type in the new maximum or minimum and click on the Update button to register the changes. 4. To add a new range, type the maximum and minimum in the spaces provided and click on the Add button. 5. If at any time you want to back out of all of the changes you have made, click on the Cancel button. Note: The ranges set for the map are also used for grouping data for histograms in workbooks and the histogram tab on tables. Changes made to the ranges on the map legend will also be made to these other views.
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6. Modify the colors of each range to match your network schema from within the Modify Ranges dialog by selecting the range, clicking on the Selected button in the Set Colors box, and picking a new color from the palette. Note: These changes to the ranges are saved automatically. One file is created for each parameter range. These files are located in C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\FormatGroups\UserSettings. This file can be copied and shared with other members of your team. 7. To accept the changes you have made to the legend settings, click OK. 8. After clicking OK, you will be presented with the Selected Legend box. To overwrite the existing default legend range settings with your new settings, click OK. 9. To keep your default legend range settings as they are and add your new legend settings as an alternate set of legend ranges, type in a name for the new set of ranges, then click OK.

The Map Offset Tool
1. To add the RxQual from the handset to the current map, select Downlink Measurements → ServRxQualSub. Drag the selected parameter onto the map. The RxQual is drawn directly on top of the RxLev trail. 2. Click on the Layers button dialog. on the map to open the layers

3. Select the ServRxQualSub layer and click on the Offset button. You can use the Offset box to enter an amount to move the RxQual in the x and y directions. If you prefer, you can use the Offset Tool instead of entering specific x and y offsets. a. To use the Offset Tool to offset RxQual from RxLev, click on the Layers button to get into the Layer Control Dialog. b. Click on the Offset Tool button. Your cursor will change from an arrow to a ‘+’. c. Click any where on the map. Your cursor will stay at ‘+’ and will now have a dotted line connecting it to the point you just clicked. d. The dotted line indicated by how much the ServRxQualSub layer will be shifted. Click on a second point to complete the offset.
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4. You can return a layer to its original position by manually setting the x and y offsets to zero or by clicking on the Reset button in the Map Offset Tool.

Visibility Check Boxes

RxQual Stream

1.1.1.1.1.1

R

Figure 14 - Map of RxLev and RxQual Data

5. Turn layer visibility on and off by clicking the layer’s checkbox in the legend.

Creating a Multi-Dimensional Map Stream
You can create a two-dimensional map by dragging two parameters onto a map, then dragging one on top of the other in the legend. This will replace the two data streams with one composite stream. The color of the points in the resulting stream will be determined by the value of the stream that was dragged and the size of the points is determined by the value of the other stream. 1. Close the current map. 2. Display ServRxLevSub and ServRxQualSub on a map. 3. In the legend, drag the RxLev layer on top of the RxQual layer in the legend. The points will be colored by RxLev with their size determined by RxQual.

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Figure 15 - Multi-Dimensional Map Trail

4. A third dimension can be added to the plot. You can set the symbol type to denote the value of the third parameter. 5. Drag the ServBCCH from the Serving Cell Parameters group onto the map. 6. In the legend, drag ServBCCH on top of the ServRxLev and ServRxQual multi-dimensional stream. Note that the new plot shows color corresponding to RxLev, symbol size based on RxQual and symbol type denoting serving BCCH. The legend information is automatically updated when multi-dimensional plots are created. 7. Remove the multi-dimensional layer through the Layers dialog by selecting it and clicking the Delete button. Note: Separate legend ranges exist for each parameter for the size, symbol, and color ranges. For example, you may choose to display ServRSSISub divided into five ranges when it is viewed by color, and only two ranges when viewing it by size.

Lines to Cells and Cell History
With a cell plan loaded, lines from each location on the drive route to their corresponding serving cell and neighbor cells will be drawn. Set the map cursor in the Select mode and click on any point on the drive route.

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Line to Serving Cell

Lines to Neighbor Cells

Figure 16 - Map Showing Lines to Cells

You can view the serving or neighbor cells for more than one point on the map by clicking on the Area Select button on the map toolbar and choosing one of the options now available on the toolbar, either Select Box, Select Radius, or Polygon Select. In addition to viewing serving and neighbor cells for an individual point data point or a subset of the data, a Cell History plot can be drawn. This plot shows the line to the serving cell for each point on the drive route. 1. To create this type of plot, click on the Layers button on the map toolbar. 2. Select the Lines to Serving Cells layer

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3. Click on the Lines button to access the dialog below:

Figure 17 - Line Layer Properties Dialog

4. Select the All datapoints option for the Lines draw mode. 5. For the Technology, choose GSM from the drop-down list. 6. For the Color lines with, choose ServBCCH. 7. For Label lines with, choose None.

Figure 18 - Map Showing Lines to Serving Cell For Each Point

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Displaying Data Values as Text on Maps
The values for one or more parameters can be displayed as text on the map. This can be used to display the serving cell number value or serving site identity name adjacent to the drive route. All the options are controlled through the Label Properties dialog accessed from the Map Layers for the layer under observation. 1. Drag RxLevSub, RxQualSub, and BCCH onto the map. 2. Move BCCH below the RxLev and RxQual layers in the Map Layer dialog. 3. Move the RxLev layer between the RxQual and BCCH layers. 4. With the BCCH layer selected, click on the Label button to see the dialog box below:

Figure 19 - Label Properties Dialog

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The settings on this dialog are as follows: Data Data Field – Select this option to display the parameter value next to the data point. Formatted Field – Select this option to display the parameter name and value next to the data point. Visibility Show – Controls whether or not the labels appear on the map. Allow Overlapped Text – Use this option to draw all labels, even if they overlap partially or fully. Hide adjacent duplicate text – Controls whether each adjacent bin with the same data value has a label displayed. Disable this feature for parameters like Serving Channel Number or Site ID where the point of interest is where a change occurred. Display within range – Use this option for layers like maps or cell sites when you would like to see the values when zoomed in close to the area but the labels clutter then viewing area when zoomed farther out. Styles Label style – This button opens the Text Style box. From this box you can modify the font face, size, background color, and text effects for the label text.

Figure 20 - Text Style Box

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Position Across the line – Used with Lines to Cells layers, choose this option to have the labels drawn in the direction of the line to cell. Along the line – Used with Lines to Cells layers, choose this option to have the labels drawn horizontally, across the line to cell. Vertical – Draws label from left to right. Horizontal – Rotates the label 90 degrees. Alignment – Choose Left, Center, or Right. Label X offset – Set the vertical distance from the label to its data point. Label Y offset – Set the horizontal distance from the label to its data point. 5. For the ServBCCH layer, Data Field. For visibility, check Show and Allow overlapped text. For the position, set Label X offset to -10 and Label Y offset to 5. 6. In the Layer Control dialog, select the RxLev. Select the Data Field option. For visibility, check Show and Allow overlapped text. For the position, set Label X offset to 10 and Label Y offset to -15.

Figure 21 - Map with Labels Displayed and Formatted For RxLev and ServBCCH
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Map Scale and Coordinates
By default, the map scale will appear in the lower left corner of the map window. In addition, the latitude and longitude coordinates of the cursor can be displayed. • • To turn on or off the scale, right-click on the map area and click to check or uncheck Show Scale. To show or hide the cursor coordinates, right-click on the map area and click to check or uncheck Show Lat/Lon.

Map Scale and Coordinates

Figure 22 - Map Scale and Coordinates Displayed

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Viewing Data on Charts
Analyzer can create a variety of charts for the analysis and inspection of data. 1. With the Nemo Drive Test 1 file open in the Workspace, expand Downlink Measurements and select ServRxLevSub. 2. Right-click on ServRxLevSub and choose Display on Chart from the pop-up menu. Your chart should look like this:

Figure 23 - RxLev Displayed On a Chart

3. Click on the Histogram button distribution. 4. Click on the Series button chart.

to view the data as a

to return the chart to a time series

5. Select ServRxQual and drag and drop it onto the first chart to display both parameters on one chart.

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6. From the Neighbor Cell Info node, expand the NborRxLev node, and drag and drop NborRxLev_0 onto the chart. Your chart should look like the figure below.

Figure 24 - RxLev, RxQual And Strongest Neighbor RxLev displayed On a Chart

Note that RxQual appears on a separate axis from the RxLev values. Multiple values can be dragged onto a single chart. When parameters are expressed in different units they will appear on separate y axes. 7. Drag and drop a few events onto this chart. The events will appear on the chart as vertical lines.

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You can zoom in on a section of interest, such as a dropped call, by dragging a rectangle from upper-left to lower-right. You can return to the original view by clicking and dragging a rectangle from lowerright to upper-left. 8. Drag and drop the dropped call event onto the chart you currently have open. 9. Click and drag a rectangle from upper-left to lower-right on the chart around the second dropped call.

Figure 25 - Chart Zoomed In On a Dropped Call

Modifying Chart Properties
1. Many chart properties can be customized through the Properties dialog. Right-click on the chart and choose Chart Properties from the menu. 2. Use the Axis dialog to increase the RxLev max value to -15 dBm. 3. Reposition the Properties Dialog so that you can see the chart with the dialog open. As you change the properties of the chart, the chart is automatically updated. 4. On the Chart Series page, click on Titles… to change one of the titles.

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5. Still on the Chart Series page, use the up and down arrows to change the order in which the parameters are plotted. 6. On the Chart Legend page, modify the fonts and colors. 7. On the Chart Axis page, redefine the style for the axis, labels, and ticks. 8. Create a three-dimensional chart using the options on the Chart → 3D page. 9. Click on the Copy icon to place a copy of your chart on the clipboard. 10.In Word or PowerPoint, click Edit → Paste to paste your chart into that application. 11.In Analyzer, with the chart still open, create a map displaying the same data. Click to select data on either the map or the chart and notice that the views are synchronized. 12.If you want to select a point on the map, click the Select button to activate the selection cursor.

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Viewing Data in the Message Browser
Analyzer provides the Message Browser to allow you to analyze all the messaging seen from the phone. The browser also includes events derived from the Layer 3 messaging, searching, and filtering operations on the data. To open the browser right-click on the stream name NemoGSM (0) in the workspace and choose Display Message Browser from the pop-up menu.

Figure 26 - Messaging Displayed in the Message Browser

1. Click on an event in the Event Panel. Watch as the Messaging Window synchronizes to display the messaging information corresponding to the event you selected. 2. In the Search box, type ‘drop’, then click the Find Next button to find the next occurrence of this text string in the file. Continue the search by clicking the Find Next icon to find each subsequent occurrence of the string. 3. Select a section of text in the Message Browser and click on the Copy icon.
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4. Open Word and click Edit → Paste to paste the text into the current document. 5. In Analyzer, click on the Properties button then on the Message Format tab, and investigate the results of checking some of the options. 6. In the Properties dialog, click on the Message Format tab and modify the Font for the Message Browser. 7. Investigate the use of bookmarks by selecting a subset of messages and marking them with the Toggle button and then using the adjacent Next and Previous Toggle buttons to step through them. As with the maps and charts, the message browser synchs with other Analyzer data views. To try this out, display a parameter, such as ServRxLev or ServRxQual, on a map or chart. Click on a point on the map or chart, and watch as the message browser scrolls to highlight the messaging corresponding to that point in time. If you click to synch the message browser with an event, it will point to the message whose receipt triggers that event.

Viewing Data in the Protocol Stack Browser
The Protocol Stack Browser is a view that allows you to quickly browse through messages by examining the header only. Once a message of interest is identified in the top pane of the Protocol Stack Browser, the details of the message can be examined in the bottom pane. The following Protocol Stack Browser views are available for GSM and GPRS drive test data: • • • • • Layer 3 – Message pane displays GSM Layer 3 messages and message direction Layer 3 Signaling – Message pane displays GSM Layer 3 messages only All – Message pane displays all GSM Layer 3 and handset-specific messages GPRS Events – Message pane displays messages signifying GPRS events GPRS RLC / MAC – Message pane displays GSM Layer 3, and GPRS RLC and MAC messages

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Figure 27 - GSM Layer 3 Protocol Stack Browser

Open the Layer 3 Protocol Stack Browser view for the Nemo Drive Test 1 sample file: 1. Right-click on the NemoGSM (0) stream in the workspace and choose Protocol Stack Browser ? Layer 3 from the pop-up menu. 2. Click on a message header from the series in the top portion of the Browser Window and notice the complete message displayed in the bottom pane for the message you selected. 3. In the Search box, type ‘CC Release’, then click the Find Next button to find the next occurrence of this text string in the file. Continue the search by clicking the Find Next icon to find each subsequent occurrence of the string. 4. Select the All Rows button at the top of the Protocol Stack Browser to view all messages including Layer 3 and handset-specific messages.

As with the maps and charts, the Protocol Stack Browser synchronizes with other data views. To try this out, display a parameter, such as ServRxLevSub on a map. Click on a point on the map and watch as the Protocol Stack Browser scrolls to highlight the message in the top pane and display the complete message contents in the bottom pane.

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Viewing Data in Tables
Tables provide a quick and simple view of numeric data for a selected attribute. You can look at statistics, such as mean, minimum, and maximum, histogram distribution information, and the time series data for the parameter displayed the a table. 1. Display ServRxQualSub from the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset on a table. To do this, select Downlink Measurements → ServRxQualSub, then right-click and select Display on Table.

Tabs for View Options

Figure 28 - RxQual Series Data Displayed in a Table

2. Click on the Histogram tab to see the ranges and their counts. The ranges on the Histogram tab are determined by the ranges set in the map legend. 3. Click on the Statistics tab to view the automatically calculated statistics. 4. Add RxLev to the table by right-clicking on the RxLevSub parameter in the workspace and dragging it onto the table. 5. Display the dropped call event on a map. Click on the dropped calls to synch the map with the table.

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Viewing Data on Workbooks
The Workbook feature allows you to manipulate data within a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet environment, provided that you have Excel installed on your computer. You can display the data in charts, produce reports, and save and share your work. If you just want to browse numerical data, you may find Analyzer’s table feature easier to use. If you are looking to save your results or do more comprehensive formatting, a workbook is the best choice. 1. Select Downlink Measurements → ServRxQualSub, then right-click and select Display on Workbook. Notice the series data being displayed in Excel with time, latitude, and longitude.

Figure 29 - RxQual Displayed in a Workbook

2. Click on the Histogram tab to view the ranges and counts. 3. Click on the Statistics tab to see the automatically calculated statistics.

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The Replay Tool
The replay tool allows you to sequentially view data points in the files you are analyzing. Resembling the controls of a VCR, you can move forward or backward, automatically or manually advancing through the data. You can move through data displayed on a chart, map, or table. The stream selection box allows you to choose which stream to watch. It will display all open logfiles, whether or not you have a parameter from the stream displayed. 1. Display RxLev from NemoGSM (0) on a map, then drag the dropped call event onto the same map. 2. Display the dropped call, RxQual, RxLev, and ServBCCH on a table. 3. Use the Window menu to tile the map and table horizontally. 4. To access the replay tool, select Tools → Display Replay.

Step Backward

Step Forward

Play Forward Stream Selection

Play Backward Play Speed

Figure 30 - The Replay Tool Progress Bar

5. Making sure that the NemoGSM (0) stream is selected in the replay tool, select a point on the map, near the beginning of the drive. 6. Click on the Step Forward button to move to the next point on the drive. 7. Notice that the selection box on the map moves to the next data point in the drive. The table has also updated by highlighting the relevant data. 8. Experiment with the remaining buttons to see how they interact with the rest of the views.

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Viewing Data on State Forms
Actix State Forms allow you to view multiple performance metrics simultaneously. Used in conjunction with the replay tool, maps, tables, and charts, you can quickly ascertain the values of several optimization parameters for problem identification.

Using Preconfigured StateForms
A number of preconfigured GSM StateForms enable the user to quickly identify and troubleshoot important network events. The preconfigured forms available for GSM drive test data are: • • • • • • • • GSM Call Events GSM Current Channel GSM CW Scan GSM Event Navigator GSM Neighbour Chart GSM RxLev Measurement Chart GSM Scan Chart GSM Serving + Neighbours

Figure 31 - GSM Current Channel Form

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The preconfigured forms available for GPRS drive test data are: • • • • • GPRS Data Session GPRS Data Timeslots GPRS Event Navigator GPRS Throughput (DL) GPRS Throughput (UL)

Figure 32 - GPRS Throughput Chart

View the GSM Current Channel form for the Nemo Drive Test 1 sample file: 1. Right-click on the stream name NemoGSM(0) in the workspace and choose Display Form ? GSM Current Channel. Forms can also be selected from the View ? Forms option on the main menu. 2. In general, when selecting a form, make sure that the form that you have selected applies to the type of data you want to analyze. For example, do not select the GSM CW Scan chart for a logfile containing handset data. 3. If the Stream Selector is not visible, right-click on the form and select Stream Selector. The Stream Selector drop-down will appear. Use the drop-down list to select the stream you wish to view data for. If you are not seeing information in the forms, verify that the right data stream is selected.

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Figure 33 - Select GSM Current Channel Form

4. Forms with measurement views like the GSM Current Channel form or the GSM Call Events form may be best viewed when docked with the replay tool at the side of the screen as seen in the figure below.

Figure 34 - GSM Current Channel Form Docked in Workspace
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5. To dock a form on the left side of the workspace, bring up the form and click the docking button (to the left of the minimize button). Click the gray horizontal line at the top of the form, drag over the bottom section of the Workspace Browser, and release. Once docked like in the view above, you can adjust the top and right-hand borders to allow for more viewing space in the platform. 6. Forms with chart views like the GSM Handoff Event Navigator or the GSM RxLev Measurement Chart may be best viewed when docked at the bottom of the screen as shown below.

Figure 35 - GSM Event Navigator Form Docked in Workspace

7. To dock a form at the bottom of the workspace, bring up the form and use the docking button (to the left of the minimize button) to dock it next the Workspace Browser. Then, making sure that the right border of the form does not stretch past the midpoint of the entire Analyzer viewing platform, drag the thin gray line of the form to the bottom right side of the screen so that it is completely on the left half of the viewing platform. Once docked like in the view above, you can adjust the top border to allow for more viewing space in the platform. Preconfigured forms can be edited to meet your individual analysis needs. The following sections describe the modification of existing forms, and the creation of new forms from scratch using the State Forms Editor.

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Viewing Custom Forms with the StateForms Editor
The StateForms Editor allows you to view custom forms, modify existing forms, and build new forms from scratch. The components of the StateForms Editor window are shown in the figure below.
Stream Selection Box Bar

StateForms File Options Toolbar

Parameter Values

Figure 36 - The StateForms Editor

1. From the Tools menu, select StateForms Editor.
Note: If the generic GSM handset form does not launch, right-click on the blank StateForms box and select Open File. Browse to the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\State Forms directory and open the file called gsm handset.axl.

2. Once loaded, make sure the appropriate stream is selected in the StateForms stream selection box. In this case, with the Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1 file open, select the NemoGSM(0) stream. Note: If the stream selection box is not visible, right-click on the StateForms box and select Stream Selector. The stream selection box will appear. 3. The selected stream must correspond to data currently displayed on another Analyzer view (map, chart, table or message browser). In this case, display ServRxLevSub on a table. 4. Select any point on a map, chart, or table and notice that the contents of the form will update to reflect the state of the network at the point you selected.

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Modifying an Existing StateForms File
You can use an existing StateForms file as it is, or you can make modifications to it. Suppose the GSM handset file has almost everything you would like to see, but that you are also interested in the timing advance. To modify the StateForms display: 1. If you do not already have the StateForms file displayed, click Tools StateForms Editor. Click Open File and choose the gsm handset.axw file. on the StateForms File 2. Click on the Toggle Design Mode button Options Toolbar. Note: If the File Options Toolbar is not visible, right-click on the form area and choose Show Stream Selector. 3. The StateForms window now shows the design view: The attribute window will be displayed, showing all of the attributes that can be set for the selected object and the Design Mode toolbar will be displayed, showing all of the types of objects that can be added to a form along the options for manipulating objects already on the form.

StateForms Design ToolBar

Attribute Window

Figure 37 - StateForms Window in Design Mode

The buttons on the StateForms toolbar are, from left to right, Delete, Cut, Copy, Paste, Toggle Design Mode, Select, Label, Attribute Value, Array Attribute Value, Line Chart, Scan Chart, and Group Box. Delete – Removes an object from the form. Using the delete key on your keyboard will not work. Cut – Removes an object from the form and puts it on the clipboard. Copy – Copies an object to the clipboard.

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Paste – Places a copy of the object on the clipboard on the upper-left corner of the form. Toggle Design Mode – To exit the design mode and return to the view mode, click the Toggle Design Mode button. Select – To put the cursor into select mode to allow you to select an object on the form. Label – Click and drag a rectangle, then type your text into the Caption field in the attribute window. Attribute Value – Click and drag a rectangle then choose an attribute from the list. The attribute value can be displayed as a text value or on a scale bar. In addition to being able to display parameter values, expression values can be shown. Array Attribute Value – Click and drag to define a table. In the attribute window, specify the number of rows and columns your table will have. For the attribute corresponding to this table, select a parameter that is collected as an array, such as Neighbor Cell Info → NborRxLev. Time Chart – Click and drag to define the chart area. One or more parameters can be displayed on a line chart to see how the values vary across the drive. Scan Chart – Click and drag to define the chart area. This type of chart is used to display information like signal levels from neighbor or scanner information in bar chart form. Group Box – Used to visually group attributes on your form that belong together, click and drag to define a rectangle. On the GSM handset form currently open, we will add timing advance and serving cell distance, with serving cell distance displayed in miles instead of meters. 1. Click on the Toggle Design Mode button to open the StateForms file in design mode if you are not in design mode already. 2. Hold down the CTRL key and select the RxLev and RxQual meters, as well as the labels for those meters. With these items selected, click the Delete button. 3. Add the ‘Timing Advance’ label by clicking on the Label button. Click and drag the rectangle where you would like the label to appear.

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4. Select the label object, and modify the Caption in the Attribute Window to read ‘Timing Advance’. If all of the text does not fit in the label, expand the label object by dragging a corner handle. 5. For Auto Size Font, choose False. 6. To create the timing advance attribute, click the Attribute Value button and drag a rectangle to the right of the timing advance label object. 7. Select the timing advance attribute object and click on the box next to the Attribute field in the Attribute Window. Use the Attribute Picker to select GSM → Dedicated Radio Link → ServTimingAdvanceActual. 8. For the Bar Color, choose the same color as the background of your form. 9. For Use Value to Color, choose 0) None. 10.For Font Auto Size, choose False. 11.To add the information about serving cell distance, create a label whose caption is ‘Serving Cell Distance’. You can do this by creating a label from scratch or by copying and pasting an existing label. Note that pasted objects always appear in the upper-left corner of the form. 12.For the Bar Color, choose the same color as the background of your form. 13.For Use Value to Color, choose 0) None. 14.For Font Auto Size, choose False. 15.For the Expression, enter ‘ServingCellDistance/1609.344’. 16.For the Expr. Decimals, enter 2. 17.Click on the Save button to save the changes you have made. 18.Click on the Toggle Design Mode button to return to the View Mode. Notice that the State Form now incorporates the changes that have been made.

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New Timing Advance and Serving Cell Distance Parameters Figure 38 - StateForm Modified to Include Timing Advance Parameter

Creating Your Own StateForms File
Several sample StateForms are provided by Actix. You can also design your own forms from scratch, or modify an existing form to better meet your needs. You can start a new StateForms file or you can add a sheet to an existing file. We will create a new file for this example. Our form will look like this:

Figure 39 - New StateForms File

1. If you do not have the StateForms window open, click Tools → StateForms Editor. 2. To start a new StateForms file, click the New File button .

3. To begin adding objects to the StateForms sheet, click the Toggle Design Mode button to open the sheet in Design Mode.

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4. Add the RxLev label by clicking the Label button. Click and drag the rectangle. 5. Select the label object and make these modifications in Attribute Window: o o o Caption: RxLev Autosize Font: False Font Height: 10

6. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for the RxQual label, setting the caption to ‘RxQual’. 7. To create the Attribute Bar for RxLev, click the Attribute Value button and drag a rectangle to the right of the RxLev label object. 8. Select the RxLev Attribute Value object and make the following modifications in Attribute Window: o o o o o o o o o o o o Specify Min+Max: True Bar Range Max: -50 Bar Range Min: -100 Bar Color: Use the pallet to pick blue Show Min Text: True Show Max Text: True Use Value to Color: 3) Value Bar Attribute: GSM → Downlink Measurements → ServRxLevSub Font Auto Size: False Font Height: 10 Extent Right: True Extent Bottom: True

9. For the RxQual attribute value, click the Attribute Bar button and drag a rectangle to the right of the RxQual Attribute object. 10.Select the RxQual Attribute Bar object and make the following changes in the Attribute Window: o Specify Min+Max: True

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o o o o o o o o o o o

Bar Range Max: 7 Bar Range Min: 0 Bar Color: Use the pallet to pick purple Show Min Text: True Show Max Text: True Use Value to Color: 3) Value Bar Attribute: GSM → Downlink Measurements → ServRxQualSub Font Auto Size: False Font Height: 10 Extent Right: True Extent Bottom: True

11.To add the Group Box object, click the Group Box button and click and drag a rectangle around the other objects on the form. 12.Select the Group Box object and make the following modifications in the Attribute Window: o o o o o o Caption: Network Parameters Text Color: Use the pallet to select dark blue Font Auto Size: False Font Height: 12 Font Use Default: False Font Bold: True

13.Click the Save As button and save the StateForms file in the State Forms directory and call it Training StateForms.axl. 14.Return to the View Mode by clicking the Toggle Design View button. 15.Test your new StateForms file by displaying a parameter from the NemoGSM(0) stream on a map, selecting that stream in the StateForms window, then selecting a point on the map.

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Uplink Data Analysis
Uplink data is as important as downlink data to the overall heath of a wireless network. Because uplink data is collected at the base station, without the benefit of associated GPS data, it is not possible to view uplink parameters such as Uplink RxLev and Uplink RxQual on a map. Analyzer supports GSM call trace data from most major base station equipment vendors. Call trace data by itself may be displayed on an Analyzer table, chart, workbook, or message browser. When merged with drive test data collected at the same time as the call trace, GPS coordinates contained in the drive test file are associated to data points from the call trace. This procedure allows the display of uplink data on a map, and allows the engineer to obtain a picture of the uplink performance of the network. In this section, you will look for uplink problems on the sample network using call trace and drive test data.

Exploring Call Trace Data
Call trace data may be opened in Analyzer using the same method as opening drive test files. Simply use the Open Logfile button and browse to find the files of interest. 1. Load the following call trace files into the Analyzer workspace. The logfiles can be found in the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\DataFiles folder. o o Ericsson MTR 1.txt Ericsson MTR 2.txt

2. Expand the Ericsson MTR 1 data file and explore the contents. Display a parameter on a table. Notice that the file includes downlink and uplink parameter values, but does not contain location data for each parameter. 3. Display the parameter ULRxQualFull from the Uplink Measurements group on a chart. Though it is easy to see when the areas of poor uplink RxQual occurred, there is no way to know where in the network these areas are located.

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Superstreaming Call Trace and Drive Test Data
Analyzer allows you to synchronize data from the different data sources it supports. The functionality supports a collection method where drive test and switch data are collected simultaneously on a cluster of cells of interest. It aligns the information in the files based on a parameter that was collected by both the drive test and switch trace devices. This allows you to plot uplink information on a map, or to plot the difference between uplink and downlink parameters on a map. The process is called superstreaming. In this example, a parameter common to the drive test and call trace files is specified in order to merge on. Files may also be merged on time, as long as the base station and drive test equipment times are synchronized. 1. Load the drive test and the switch data files from the CD into the Workspace: o o Drive test: Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1 Call trace: Ericsson MTR 1.txt

2. Select Tools → Create Superstream. 3. Change the name of the superstream from the default of SuperStream001 to Uplink and Downlink Data. 4. In the SuperStreaming dialog, check the Nemo Drive Test 1 (drive test) and Ericsson MTR 1 (switch file) streams. 5. Click the Settings button to display the Merge Method options. 6. Select Correlated Parameters as the merge method. 7. Highlight the Nemo Drive Test 1 stream. Use the attribute picker next to Correlated Parameters to select GSM → Downlink Measurements → ServRxQualSub as the correlating parameter for the Nemo file. The attribute picker is the button with the right-arrow icon . Used throughout Analyzer, an attribute picker allows you to select the Analyzer parameter of interest without the risk of mistyping the parameter name. 8. Highlight the Ericsson MTR 1 stream. Use the attribute picker to select GSM → Downlink Measurements → ServRxQualSub as the correlating parameter for the Ericsson file. 9. Click OK to create the superstream. Note: In the Superstreaming dialog box, the parameter that you associate with a stream of one type (i.e. .DT1, .TXT) will appear in the Attribute column for all streams of that type. However, only streams with check marks will be merged into the resulting superstream.
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10.When Analyzer has finished creating the superstream, it will appear in the Workspace: . You can perform analyses on the Superstream using the map, chart, message browser, and table features discussed earlier. 11.Display ULRxQualSub from the Uplink Measurements group of the newly created superstream on the map. Notice how easy it is to locate areas containing poor uplink quality! These trouble spots are caused by the phone’s inability to communicate back to the base station, and may be attributed to a mobile failing to increase its transmit power when required or to excessive path loss between the phone and the base station.

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Merging Multiple Drive Files in the Workspace
Analyzer’s superstream mechanism may be used to merge multiple files collected on the same link (i.e. drive test or call trace). Superstreaming multiple drive test files is desirable when you require one-click functionality for displaying the same parameter from multiple streams on any Analyzer view, or when aggregate statistics on multiple drives are required. Superstreaming creates a pointer to files already open in the workspace and does not create any new files. Superstreams may be saved in workspaces, as long as all component files are saved in the same workspace. To create a superstream containing several drive test files: 1. Ensure that the following files are loaded in the Analyzer workspace: o o o Network Drive 1.dt1 Network Drive 2.dt1 Network Drive 3.dt1

2. Select Tools → Create Superstream. 3. Name the superstream Merged Handset Data. 4. In the SuperStreaming dialog, check the Network Drive 1, Network Drive 2, and Network Drive 3 streams. 5. Use Timestamps is the default Merge Method. Click OK in the SuperStreaming dialog to create the superstream merged using timestamps. When Analyzer has finished creating the superstream, it will appear in the Workspace: . You can perform analyses on the superstream using the map, chart, message browser, and query features discussed earlier.

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The Network Image
Frequently, optimization engineers are asked to provide a complete network overview for management, customer service, and planning purposes. A complete network drive may consist of a large number of data files from different sources, that when combined include a very large amount of data. All of the parameters, messaging, and other information available from a logfile may be helpful when performing an in-depth analysis, but when you are interested only in general information about the state of your network, this information may not be worth the time required to load and manipulate it. Actix Analyzer allows you to create a composite database consisting of multiple drives that is much smaller than the sum of the individual drive files. This is accomplished in Analyzer using the Network Image feature. Network Images extract the most commonly used network parameters and store them in an external file (*.dat). This is useful when you are performing a system-wide analysis or benchmarking activity. Because only key parameters are saved into the Network Image file, this file is much smaller than the sum of its component files. A network image populated with data is saved as a separate, smaller file from the original logfile. The original logfile is not altered in the creation of a network image repository. The data contained in a network image file differs from normal logfiles, in that the image file contains only the parameters specified and is binned according to the image definition. Network image files are pre-configured by Actix. Please contact Actix technical support for any specific requests for network image templates.

Create a New Network Image
Assume you were asked to combine four logfiles representing a day’s worth of driving by four different engineers. We will create a network image to consolidate the data into one reasonably sized file: 1. Create a network image by selecting Network Image → Create Network Image from the main Analyzer menu. 2. For the name, enter ‘Network Drive’. 3. Select the GSM → Handset → Location Binned (3 sec) Image, then click OK. This will create a network image of the data sets that is binned based on location with a grid size of three arc seconds.

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Figure 40 - Creating a Network Image

4. In the Save dialog, save the file under C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\NetworkImageDefns. Your workspace will update after creating the network image. Browse the workspace and investigate the new template called Network Drive. This template is currently an empty shell that will be populated with data extracted from logfiles.

Figure 41 - Workspace Showing the Network Image

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Batch Load Files Into the Network Image
The Network Image that you just created is nothing more than an empty directory structure. You must now add data from log files into this structure. Files do not need to be open in the workspace in order to be added to the Network Image. 1. To load files into the network image, right-click on the Network Drive network image in the workspace and select Batch Load Files. 2. In the resulting dialog, select the following files located in C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Data Files\ (Note: Unlike with the superstream, these files DO NOT need to be open in the workspace). • • Network Drive 1.dt1 Network Drive 3.dt1 • • Network Drive 2.dt1 Network Drive 4.dt1

3. Click Open to begin processing the files. 4. A Load Results report, like the one shown below, will appear once processing is complete. Select OK to close the report.

Figure 42 - Analyzer Dialog Showing That File Processing is Complete

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Display Data for the Entire Network
Many logfiles contain data for more than one device. Network image templates, such as the location binned template used in this example, can accommodate multiple data streams collected under a single logfile. However, each of the files added to this particular network image were collected using only one handset. The handset was attached to Slot 0 of the device, so you will find all data in the populated network image under a stream called Network Drive. 1. Expand the Network Drive. Notice that key optimization parameters in the Serving Cell Parameters, Downlink Measurements, Neighbor Cell Info, Dedicated Radio Link, and Event Data groups are included in the network image. 2. Using standard Analyzer actions, display some parameters on charts, maps, and tables. Note that you can process scanner and handset data into a single network image or create a separate network image for scanner data, using the templates supplied with your Analyzer installation.

Start a New Day – Attaching a Network Image
Saving multiple files into one Network Image will allow a significantly faster load time than when loading each file individually. Demonstrate the faster load time by starting a new workspace and attaching the network image. 1. Create a new workspace by selecting File → New Workspace from the main Analyzer toolbar. 2. Attach the previously created network image by selecting Network Image → Attach Network Image. 3. In the resulting dialog, browse and select Network Drive. 4. Select Open to attach to the network image. The workspace will update to reflect the change. Notice how quickly the network image attaches! 5. Expand the Network Drive. Display some parameters on Charts, Maps, and Tables. Key optimization parameters from three separate files have been combined into a single, smaller file that loads into Analyzer much faster than the original files.

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Analyzer Queries and Filters
You can create customized analyses within the Analyzer. You may want to highlight potential problem areas, or test for common symptoms of bad radio link quality for the purpose of speeding up the analysis of data. Your customized analysis, called a query, can be saved in a Workspace and reused for future drive data. The queries can be created, accessed, and edited in the Workspace through the Analysis Manager. Queries are a means of searching and filtering data based on events and thresholds you define. Queries operate on binned data and are written using Boolean expressions and arithmetic operations containing data parameters from one or more data streams. Analyzer supports six types of query and filter analyses: • • • • • • Filter Analysis Binned Query Analysis Crosstab Query Analysis Statistic Analysis Histogram Analysis Event Query Analysis

Analyzer includes the ability to use queries to assist in the detection, correction, and presentation of network problems. You can save any or all of the analyses you create to use later and share with coworkers. These analyses can be saved in individual files or into a single file. In Analyzer, files of analyses have the AQF extension. All custom analyses can be saved for future use through the Analysis Manager: • • • • Select Tools → Analysis Manager In the Analysis Manager, select the Existing Analysis tab Select any queries to save and click the Export button Browse to a folder that you wish to save your query in. Analyzer’s default structure provides the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Queries folder for an easy place to store queries. Name the *.aqf file Training_Class_Queries. All queries created during training may be stored in the same file.

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To import the queries into a new Analyzer session, go to the Existing Analysis tab of the Analysis Manager and select the Import button. Open the saved *.aqf query file.

Filter Analysis
You can create a filter that highlights those points that have RxQual greater than or equal to 4 to identify all the locations on the drive with poor quality of service. A filter analysis tests data on a single criterion and passes the data if the criterion is met. Follow the steps to create a new filter: 1. From the Nemo Drive Test 1 data stream, display ServRxQualSub on a map. 2. Right-click on the Nemo Drive Test 1 data stream and select Filter → Create a New Filter. 3. For the Filter Name, enter ‘PoorRxQual’. 4. For the expression, choose the ServRxQualSub from the attribute picker. Access the attribute picker by selecting the right arrow icon 5. For the operation, choose >=. 6. For the Threshold, enter ‘4’. .

Figure 43 - Filter Wizard

7. Click OK to create the filter. Analyzer will automatically apply the filter to any information already displayed in the workspace.

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8. Confirm that the query was created by going to Tools → Analysis Manager and clicking on the Existing Analyses tab. The filter should be under the Filters category. 9. Add the ServRxLev and ServBCCH parameters to the map. Note that the data for all parameters, not just RxQual, is filtered. The points you see now are the values of RxLev and BCCH when RxQual was greater than or equal to 4. 10.To remove a filter, select the stream in the workspace, right-click on it, and uncheck the tick mark against the filter. 11.To edit a query once it is created, select Tools → Analysis Manager, and select the Existing Analyses tab. Highlight the analysis you wish to edit and press the Edit button. All query fields will be available for editing. 12.Save the query to a file called Training_Class_Queries.aqf. Select Tools → Analysis Manager, and select the Existing Analyses tab. Highlight the analysis (or analyses) you wish to save and press the Export button. Browse to a folder you wish to save your query in and click Save. All of the selected queries will be saved to a single file with a *.aqf extension. Note that the same filter will work on any GSM handset file that contains the ServRxQualSub parameter. Repeat the exercise above to create a filter for good signal strength. Assume that good signal strength is indicated by ServRxLevSub greater than or equal to –90 dB. The Filter dialog should look like this:

Figure 44 - Good RxLev Filter Wizard

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Investigate the AND and OR operators when using these two filters. What is indicated by good signal strength and poor call quality? The following figure shows the BCCH parameter from the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset stream with both the Poor RxQual and the Good RxLev filters applied.

Figure 45 - BCCH Filtered for Poor RxQual and Good RxLev

You can also use the filter function to determine which locations are being served by distant cells. We will use a threshold of 6000 meters for this filter.

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The parameter we are interested in for this analysis is Independent → Site Data Node → ServingCellDistance. The Filter Wizard screen should look like this:

Figure 46 - Filter Wizard For Creating the Distant Server Analysis

You can apply this filter to the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset and display ServRxLevSub on a map. There are only a few points served by distant sectors. You can zoom in on these points, then use the Select cursor to show the lines to cells for each point. That map would look like this:

Figure 47 - Distant Server Filter Results With Lines To Cells Displayed

Save all of the filters you have created to the Training_Class_Queries.aqf file.

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Binned Query / Custom Analysis Query
The Binned Query allows you to define a new parameter based on existing parameters, using functions and inequalities. The results of a binned query can be displayed on a map, chart, table, or workbook.

ServingCellDistance in Miles
By default, Analyzer displays the serving cell distance in meters. A simple, yet very useful example of a binned query is the conversion of the serving cell distance from meters to miles. Create the ServingCellDistance in Miles query using the Analysis Manager: 1. Select Tools → Analysis Manager. 2. Select the Binned Query icon in the dialog and click on New. 3. For the Description, enter ‘ServingCellDistance in Miles’.

Figure 48 - Creating the ServingCellDistance in Miles Query

4. In the parameters box, find the serving cell distance under Independent → Site Data Node → ServingCellDistance and double-click on it to add it to the expression. 5. At the end of the text in the Expression Builder, type in ‘/1609.344’. 6. Set the Format to Float. The easiest way to do this is to select the Format drop down dialog and start typing Float in the window.
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7. Click OK to create the query. 8. Click OK again to close the Analysis Manager. 9. The query will appear in the Queries group under every data stream in the workspace. Under the handset stream, expand the Queries → Binned Queries group. 10.Right-click on the ServingCellDistance in Miles query and choose Display on Map to display the query results on a map.

Dragging Handover Query
Occasionally in a GSM network, handovers do not occur as quickly as they should. This condition occurs in locations where the strongest neighbor is seen at a level that at least 6-8 dBm stronger than the server. When the neighbor is significantly stronger than the server, the handover should have taken place, and the condition is known as a “dragging handover”. This condition may be indicative of a sector that propagates outside of its intended footprint, and can result in interference and poor perceived call quality when frequency reuse plans get tight. Create the Dragging Handovers ? query to detect locations that are suffering from the dragging handoff condition. The query will detect locations where the strongest neighbor is at least 8 dBm stronger than the server. Create this query using the Analysis Manager: 1. Select Tools → Analysis Manager. 2. Select the Binned Query icon in the dialog and click on New. 3. For the Description, enter ‘Dragging Handovers?’.

Figure 49 - Binned Query Wizard
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We will create a custom parameter that identifies locations where the RxLev for any neighbor is more than 8 dB greater than the RxLev of the serving sector. The Expression is: (array_max(NborRxLev[])-8)>ServRxLevSub 1. In the Expression Builder, type ‘(‘. 2. From the available functions, double-click on the array_max function. This function will parse an array and select the largest value in it. 3. Click to select the <<attribute[]>> placeholder in the Expression Builder. In the Parameters pane select GSM → Neighbor Cell Info → NborRxLev and double-click on it to add it to the expression. 4. At the end of the text in the Expression Builder, type in ‘-8)>’. 5. In the attribute pane, go to GSM → Downlink Measurements → ServRxLevSub and double-click to add it to the expression. 6. Set the Format to Boolean. The easiest way to do this is to select the Format drop down dialog and start typing Boolean in the window. 7. Click OK to create the query. 8. Click OK again to close the Analysis Manager. 9. The query will appear in a new Queries group under every data stream in the workspace. Under the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset stream, expand the Queries → Binned Queries group. 10.Right-click on the Dragging Handovers ? query and choose Display on Map to display the query results on a map.

Figure 50 - Results of the Dragging Handovers Query Displayed On a Map
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Determining the locations of dragging handovers in the network may be interesting, but this data is not useful unless you know which frequencies are causing the problem. Once the problem BCCHs are identified, you can perform adjustments to the network to resolve the problems. A custom state form may be used in conjunction with the query results in order determine the why handovers are dragging. Synchronize the GSM Neighbors state form with the map to investigate some of the areas suffering from dragging handovers. Refer to the StateForms section for instructions on using Analyzer StateForms.

Figure 51 - GSM Neighbors StateForms

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Crosstab Query – Sort by Site and Sector
The crosstab query is used to group data and display statistics for each group. The groups can be sorted, and a query can contain several options for grouping data. This example will have the Serving Site and Serving Sector as the grouping options, and the mean ServRxLevSub, mean ServRxQualSub, and number of dropped calls as the statistics to display for each group. When the query is completed and the results are displayed on the statistics explorer, it will look like this:

Figure 52 - Results of Crosstab Query on the Statistics Explorer

To create the crosstab query: 1. Select Tools → Analysis Manager. 2. Select the Crosstab Query icon and click on New. 3. Name the query “Sort by Site and Sector”. 4. Click on the New Dimension button. The query dimension allows you to group and order your results using the attribute you select. Use the attribute chooser to select Independent → Site Data Node →
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ServingCellID to add the serving site as the first dimension. Use the attribute chooser again to select Independent → Site Data Node → ServingSectorID to add the serving sector as the second dimension. 5. The query statistics are the results that you would like to include for each dimension. The parameters that you choose will be displayed as the columns in the statistics explorer. The statistics that we will include in this query are the mean ServRxLevSub, the mean ServRxQualSub, and the number of dropped calls. All of these statistics will be available for the complete drive, for each serving site and sector. Specific parameters relating to each statistic are included in the table below. 6. Click on the New Statistic button to launch the Statistic Window. 7. Enter the Statistic name. 8. Use the attribute chooser to select the statistic of interest.

9. Select the method to use to calculate the statistic. 10.Click OK when finished with the Statistic Window.
Statistic Name Mean ServRxLevSub Mean ServRxQualSub # Dropped Calls Expression ServRxLevSub ServRxQualSub EventCallDropped Method of Calculation Mean Mean Count

11.Once completed, click OK in all other active dialogs to complete the query. 12.Be sure to save the Sort by Site and Sector crosstab query, in addition to the other queries you’ve created, in your Training_Class_Queries.aqf file.

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Figure 53 - Specifying the Dimensions and Statistics for the Crosstab Query

Display the Crosstab Query Results
Once created, the crosstab query results can be displayed in the Statistics Explorer by right-clicking on the query in the workspace, and selecting Display in Statistics Explorer. The Statistics Explorer will launch and the results can be viewed, sorted by serving channel and color code. The queries can also be displayed in Excel workbooks. Run the crosstab query on the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset stream.

Filter the Crosstab Query Results
The Filter button on the Statistics Explorer may be used to quickly filter query results in the Stats Explorer and in any other Analyzer view. In this case, it may be useful to view data for only one serving site, such as Site 95. 1. View ServRxLevSub from the Nemo Drive Test 1 handset stream on a map. Display the EventCallDropped event on the same map.

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2. Tile the map and the Statistics Explorer vertically in the workspace by selecting Window → Tile Vertically. 3. In the Statistics Explorer, select the row for Site 95. 4. With the row for Site 95 selected, press the Filter button in the Statistics Explorer. Notice that only data points served by this site remain in the Statistics Explorer and on the map. 5. To remove filtering, click the Filter button again. The filter will be unapplied from both the map and the Statistics Explorer.

Event Query - Dropped Call Window
The Event Query allows you to extract key performance statistics for a user-defined time or message window before or after a defined event like a handover failure or dropped call. Viewing the window surrounding an event can provide insight into whether a pattern exists among undesirable events, such as multiple handover failures or drops on the same cell, or multiple drops due to low coverage. We will create an Event Query to return statistics in a five-second window for each dropped call in the file 1. Select Tools → Analysis Manager. 2. Select the Event Query icon in the dialog and click on New. to select GSM → 3. For the Trigger Selection, use the attribute picker Event Data → EventCallDropped. The parameter will show up in the triggering window.

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Figure 54 - Setting Up the Event Query

4. For the Window Range, choose Time Based and set the window to 5,000 milliseconds before the event and 0 milliseconds after the event. 5. Click Next. 6. For the name of the query, enter ‘Dropped Call Window’.

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Figure 55 - Defining the Name, Dimensions, and Statistics For the Query

7. To define a statistic to be displayed in the event window, click on the New Statistic button to launch the Statistic window. 8. For the name, enter ‘Site ID’.

Figure 56 - Choose a Calculation Method for Each Event Query Statistic
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9. Choose the Edit button below the line that reads “Enter the expression that should be calculated in your statistic:”. 10.The Expression Builder will launch. Inside the top portion of the window, type State(). This State() function is required to ensure that the last valid value of the parameter persists. 11.Click inside the parentheses of the State() function. In the Parameters area of the Expression Builder, expand the Independent → Site Data Node tree. Double-click on the ServingCellId parameter to insert it into the expression. 12.Click OK to exit the Expression Builder.

Figure 57 - Expression Builder for the Event Query

13.In the Statistic window, select the method to calculate the statistic. In this case, select Last Value. Click OK when finished with the Statistic window. 14.Repeat steps 7 through 13 above to define the following statistics (choose an appropriate name for each one). The statistics that do not require the use of the State() function can be picked using the Attribute Chooser instead of the Expression Builder.

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Expression State(ServingSectorID) State(ServBCCH) State(ServBSIC) ServRXLev ServRxQual State(NborBCCH[0]) NborRxLev[0]

Method to Calculate Last Value Last Value Last Value Mean Mean Last Value Mean

15.Once completed, click OK in all other active dialogs to complete the query.

Displaying Event Queries
Once created, the event query can be displayed in the Statistics Explorer by right-clicking on the query in the workspace, and selecting Display the Statistics Explorer. The Statistics Explorer will launch and the results can be viewed, sorted by the time of the event (in milliseconds). The queries can also be displayed in Excel workbooks. Run the event query on the Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1 handset stream. How many dropped calls occurred in this file? What appears to be the primary reason for the dropped call(s)?

Figure 58 - Displaying the Results Of the Event Query

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Statistic Analysis
The Statistic Analysis is used in conjunction with a binned query to generate statistics for the results of the query. We will use it to generate statistics for the ServingCellDistance in Miles binned query.

Generate Statistics for a Binned Query
1. Select Tools → Analysis Manager. 2. Select the Statistic icon in the dialog and click on New. 3. Enter ‘ServingCellDistance in Miles Stats’ in the Description field. 4. Use the drop down list to select ServingCellDistance in Miles. 5. Do not remove any data points. Click OK to create the analysis. 6. Find the new statistic analysis under the Queries node. Right-click on it and display it on a table. 7. Click on the statistics tab of the table to view the statistics for the ServingCellDistance in Miles query.

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Cell Site Configuration Using the Network Explorer
The Network Explorer allows you to import network element data into Analyzer, creating a cell plan file called cellrefs.txt. It also lets you browse and edit this network information once it has been loaded into Analyzer. The Automatic Import feature provides an automated method of updating cell site information in Analyzer as changes are made to the network. This section describes how to import delimited data into Analyzer, and how to configure the Automatic Import tool.

Importing Network Data
The important thing to remember about Analyzer’s network data import process is that the process requires two files: 1. A delimited text file that contains unformatted data arranged in tabular form, with one row for each individual sector in a network. 2. A blank file, containing only Analyzer header information, to be populated with formatted data.

Obtaining Site Data in Tabular Format
In order to import cell site data from your own network, you will need to obtain a delimited text file containing the data listed in the table below. To maximize the benefit Analyzer can bring to GSM network analysis, the parameters listed in bold in the table on the following page are REQUIRED for cell data to function with logged data in the main workspace. All other parameters are optional. The data may come from a network database or a planning tool configuration file. As long as the data is in a tabular format with one row for each sector, Analyzer will be able to import the data.

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GSM Cell Site Parameters for Import:
Parameter Site Name Site Number Latitude Longitude Sector Number Azimuth Beamwidth Analyzer Group GSM_Site GSM_Site GSM_Site GSM_Site GSM_Cell GSM_Cell GSM_Cell Analyzer Name SiteName SiteID Latitude Longitude Sector_ID Azimuth Beamwidth Purpose Text description of the Site for display on map. Numeric identifier for the site. Locates site icons on map. Locates site icons on map. Sector-specific information useful for display on maps (can be alpha or numeric) Orients the sector icons on the map. Governs the shape of the sector “wedge” icon to reflect the beamwidth of antenna deployed at the site. Used for cell site identification and to calculate lines to cells. Used for cell site identification and to calculate lines to cells. BSIC is the concatenation of the NCC and BCC values for a cell. CI GSM_Cell CI Used for cell site identification and to calculate lines to cells. This field must be numeric! Base Station Power MCC MNC LAC BSC Name BSC ID MSC Name MSC ID GSM_Cell GSM_Cell GSM_Cell GSM_Cell GSM_BSC GSM_BSC GSM_MSC GSM_MSC EIRP MCC MNC LAC BSCName ID MSCName ID Base station power, for informational purposes only. Mobile country code, for informational purposes only. Mobile network code, for informational purposes only. Location area code, for informational purposes only. BSC name, for use with A and Abis link data BSC identity, for use with A and Abis link data MSC name, for use with A and Abis link data MSC identity, for use with A and Abis link data

BCCH BSIC

GSM_Cell GSM_Cell

BCCH BSIC

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The figure below is an example of a delimited GSM file that could be used to import a site list into Analyzer. Though the columns can be in any order for import into Analyzer, the figure shows all of the REQUIRED fields. Additionally, the Excel spreadsheet must be saved as a TEXT file for import into Analyzer.

Figure 59 - GSM Cell Site Data Spreadsheet

Guidelines for Formatting Tabular Data
Although Analyzer does not require cell site data fields to be listed in a particular order, following these guidelines will provide the best results: 1. The Site ID field must contain a unique value for each site location. Beware of non-unique Site ID's - that is, entries that have multiple sets of lats/longs for the same Site ID. Non-unique Site ID's will result in site markers appearing on the map without sector wedges. Site Names need not be unique - they are used for labeling purposes only. 2. Position information must be accurate in order for Analyzer to display sites in the correct location on the map. Longitudes that have a 'West' notation should be represented as a negative decimal, as should latitudes with a 'South' notation. Sites will appear skewed on the map if the latitude and longitude fields are transposed.

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Obtaining the File to be Populated With Formatted Data
Before importing new cells into Analyzer, ensure that Analyzer is pointing to a valid cell site database. • A valid cell site database is a text file in which the first line contains the text below:

; #NetworkData – datafile
• Every Analyzer installation comes with a clean file called cellrefs.txt located in the directory called:

C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\Cellrefs
• The file to be populated need not be named “cellrefs.txt”. We recommend renaming this file with a meaningful name in order to prevent the file from being overwritten during reinstallation.

To point the Analyzer to the file you wish to populate with the new cell site data, use the File Location line in the Tools → Preferences dialog. See the section on Loading Cell Site Data on page 17 for more details.

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Importing the Data
Once you have obtained your cell site database in delimited format and pointed Analyzer to a valid cellrefs file, you are ready to open the Network Explorer and import the site information. 1. To access the Network Explorer, select Tools → Network Explorer

Figure 60 - Network Explorer Window

The Network Explorer display consists of two panels. The left panel contains a tree view of the network element data. The right panel shows details about relevant parameters for the current selection. If you have pointed Analyzer to a cellrefs file containing only header information, you will not see any cell site data at this time. 2. On the toolbar select Import → Import From New Template to open the Import dialog. 3. Select the appropriate network data file and click Open to display the Import Settings dialog.

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Figure 61 - Import Settings Dialog (Step 1 of 2)

4. Give the Template a meaningful Template Name. 5. Check the appropriate Delimiter. 6. In most cases, the default information under the General Settings and Coordinate Information headers will apply. Adjust these settings if necessary. 7. Click Next.

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Figure 62 - Settings (Step 2 of 2) – Assign GSM_Site Data

8. Expand the GSM_Site data node. Click in the Column field next to the Site_Name parameter. Select the parameter name from your site database that corresponds to the Site_Name parameter. Repeat for each of the required fields in the GSM_Site data node, based on the table below: Field Site_Name SiteID Latitude Longitude Mapping required for proper operation? Optional, but this field is frequently used for the site label. Required, and this field must be unique for each site in the database. Required Required

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Figure 63 - Column Settings (Step 2 of 2) – Assign GSM_Cell Data

9. Expand the GSM_Cell data node. Click in the Column field next to the Sector_ID parameter. Select the parameter name from your site database that corresponds to the Sector_ID parameter. Repeat for each of the required fields in the GSM_Cell data node, based on the table below: Field Sector_ID Azimuth Beamwidth EIRP BCCH MCC MNC Required for proper operation? Required Required Required Optional Required Optional Optional
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Field LAC CI BSIC Face_Display

Required for proper operation? Optional Required, and this field must be unique for each site in the database. Required Optional, but map this field to the integer sector ID field (i.e. 1, 2, 3) in order to color sectors on the map by face number (i.e. 1 = red, 2 = blue, 3 = green). Optional, but map this field to the integer azimuth field in order to color sectors on the map by azimuth range. Optional, but map this field to a custom integer field to color sectors on the map by that field. An example of a custom field would be the phase of the site where: 1 = On Air 2 = Under Construction 3 = Planned for Next Year

Azimuth_Display

Phase_Display

10.Click Finish when all the columns have been assigned. If the current workspace contains existing site data, you will be asked whether you want to remove existing data before importing new data. Select Yes to overwrite existing data. Select No to append to existing data. 11.If any errors occur during the import, a pop-up message will indicate that an error log has been created. The error log specifies the cause of each error encountered and can be found in: C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\Cellrefs\ImportErrors.log 12.Inspect the cell data in the Network Explorer by expanding the All_GSM_Site_Elements folder in the left-hand pane of the Network Explorer. 13.Double-click on any site name in the right hand pane. The Name, Location and ID of the site will appear, as well as a folder containing GSM Cell Elements. Drill into the GSM Cell Elements folder and examine the values corresponding to each sector. 14.To save the formatted site information, select the Save button. 15.Close the Network Explorer by clicking the “X” at the upper right hand corner.

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16.After closing the Network Explorer, view a new map by selecting View → Display New Map. 17.If cell icons do not appear on the map, right click on the GSM_Cell layer in the map legend at the left hand side of the map window. Select Zoom to Layer to zoom the map to the appropriate location. Be sure to close the map with the “X” at the upper right hand corner to save all changes to the map view.

Figure 64 - Use Zoom to Layer to Locate Cells on Map

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Updating Cell Site Data
There are two convenient ways to update cell plan information in Analyzer: • Minor cell plan changes (a few azimuths, BCCHs, etc.) can be modified directly from the Network Explorer. Simply browse to find the site and sector of interest and double click on a single parameter to activate the text. Be sure to save the modifications before exiting the Network Explorer! If the cellplan file is updated (multiple sites added, complete frequency retune), use the Automatic Import feature to detect changes to an existing cell plan and import the updated cell site file into Analyzer. Instructions for using the Automatic Import feature follow.

Automatic Import of Cell Site Data
The Automatic Import feature detects changes to cell plan data and updates the configured site data every time Analyzer is opened.

Figure 65 - Automatic Import Setup

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To use the Automatic Import feature: 1. From the Analyzer main menu, select Tools ? Preferences. 2. Expand the Automatic Import option under Cellrefs and select the Enable Automatic Import option. 3. Select the Automatic Import Input File. This is the text file that contains your delimited site data. 4. Select the Automatic Import Template. Once a template has been created, a new Analyzer workspace must be started in order for that template to appear in this list. To use a template created on another computer, copy the template of interest from the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Bin\Cellrefs\Templates directory to the same directory on your machine. 5. Click OK to exit the Change Preferences dialog. A message will appear that Automatic Import has been enabled and that your currently loaded cellrefs will be overwritten the next time Analyzer is restarted. Once Automatic Import is configured, any changes to the Automatic Import Input File will be detected, and will be changed accordingly in your Analyzer cell site file each time Analyzer is opened.

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Reporting GSM Network Performance
The reporting features in Analyzer allow you to create high-level management reports based on your data. Two different mechanisms exist for creating for producing integrated, polished reports that can be used to analyze high-level network statistics or communicate test results in a professional format: • Application Packages are a technology-specific series of reports that are installed automatically with every Analyzer installation. Application Packs are typically used to obtain a high-level overview of call statistics. They can be used when a professional, formatted output is required, but time constraints do not allow for the creation of a custom template. Reports are user-definable formatted outputs that make use of Analyzer’s integration with Microsoft Excel. Reports may be included with an Analyzer installation (such as the GSM Training Materials), but are not always included. Reports, unlike Application Packs, allow for formatted outputs of multiple streams of data. Use Reports when generating outputs for multiple streams of data and when you want to design a custom formatted template from scratch.

This section describes the use of both reporting mechanisms, including running Application Packs, running pre-defined Reports, and creating custom Reports.

Application Packages
Actix Analyzer v4.1 contains application packages specific to each mobile technology supported by the software. The application packs are a series of reports, each focusing on a particular aspect of mobile network optimization. The two packs currently available for GSM users are: • • DT Design Validation and Quick Analysis DT Handover Settings and Power Control

Running Application Packs
Once a data file is loaded, the application packages can be accessed in one of two ways: 1. Through the Analysis menu on the main menu bar 2. By right-clicking on the stream name in the Workspace Browser

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Note: The application packs require Analyzer to be pointing to a valid cellrefs file in order to function properly. Once you have selected one of the Application Packs from the menu, an Application Pack window will appear. The window is divided into two panes. The top panel is referred to the Cell Explorer, and it contains a summary of major call events and statistics for the selected stream. Information in the cell explorer is organized by serving site and sector. The bottom pane is called the Report window and contains a list of available reports associated with the selected application pack. Once executed, the results of the reports can be saved, printed, and shown in their raw form in Microsoft Excel.

Cell

Report Window

Figure 66 - Report Options for the DT Design Validation and Quick Analysis

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DT Design Validation and Quick Analysis
This application pack contains the following reports: • • • • Call Details - A summary of the number of occurrences of various messages and events Design Validation - Classifies data points as having good or bad design according to interference, quality, and dominance thresholds Measurement Charts - Charts showing the distributions for RxLevSub, RxSubQual, and TA Neighbour Level Single – Band - Percentage of samples where at least one neighbor is stronger than the serving cell and all neighbors within 5 dBm from the server for PDF and CDF in tables and graphs Neighbour Level - Dual Band - Shows percentage of band usage, intra/interband handover and neighbors with 5dBm of the server for PDF and CDF, as tables and graphs

An example of the Call Details report output is shown below:

Figure 67 - Call Details Report
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DT Handover Settings and Power Control
This application pack contains the following reports: • • Handover Quality - Chart of quality measurements for the whole file, and for the five seconds before and after each handover Handover Level - Chart of the change in downlink received level due to handover, measured in five second windows before and after each handover Handover Interval - Chart showing the interval between handovers Handover Classification - Percentage breakdown between good and poor design, and breakdown poor design by class Power Distribution – Histogram of power, in dBm, by number of occurrences and includes the mean dBm Power Step Distribution – Histogram of power step changes, in dB Power Step Interval – Histogram of the time interval, in seconds, between power step changes

• • • • •

The Handover Interval report is shown below:

Figure 68 - Handover Interval Report

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Running a Pre-Defined Report
Since Application Packs are built into the Analyzer, they may not exactly meet your team’s reporting requirements. Additionally, App Packs can only be run on a single stream of data. Analyzer Reports allow you to create custom reports using Microsoft Excel, and those reports may include data from multiple streams. Reports from multiple measurement sources allow you to compare data collected simultaneously or look at your network before and after making a change. In this section, you will populate a pre-defined Analyzer Report template that contains multiple data streams. In the next section, you will create a custom report from scratch. To run the pre-defined report: 1. From the Analyzer main menu select Workbook → Open Workbook/Report. 2. Navigate to C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Reports and Open the report called GSM Before and After Network Change.xls. 3. Analyzer prompts you to select a data stream to replace the ‘before’ stream. Select the handset stream from Nemo Drive Test 1.dt1 and click OK. 4. Analyzer then prompts you to select a second data stream. Select the handset stream from Nemo Drive Test 2.dt1 and click OK. 5. Analyzer will generate the report and launch Excel. Expect for this to take a few moments. When this is complete, click on the Report tab in the Excel workbook and examine the formatted report. The output of the report is shown on the following page.

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Figure 69 - Results of the Before and After Network Change Report

The Analyzer GSM Training Materials come with several pre-defined reports that can be run according to the steps above. These reports are: • • GSM Before and After Network Change – Presents key call statistics for two different data streams. GSM Cluster Optimization Report – Designed for use during integration of a new site or cluster. Compares actual statistics against pre-defined metrics. GSM RxLev and RxQual Report – Presents key performance statistics for RxLev and RxQual, including graphical representations.

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Creating a Custom Report
Creating your own formatted report template is as easy as viewing the data you require on a workbook, and then formatting the report page using Excel. The objective of this section is to create a simple report, like the one shown below, to display a histogram distribution and statistics for the RxQualSub parameter. Since RxQual is the parameter that provides the best estimate of user-perceived voice quality, the value of this parameter throughout a network is of great importance.

Figure 70 - RxQual Histogram and Statistics Report

To create this report: 1. Ensure that the Nemo Drive Test 1 file is loaded into the Workspace. 2. Select the parameter ServRxQualSub from GSM → Downlink Measurements. Right-click on it and choose Display on Workbook. Excel will launch. The Workbook will contain three sheets, which can be accessed by clicking on the corresponding tab at the bottom sheet window.
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3. Click on any blank sheet in the workbook and rename the sheet “Report”. 4. Click on the Histogram Formatted Data tab. Click and drag to define a window around the data set, including the column headers. 5. Select the chart icon from the top menu bar of Excel: 6. The chart wizard will open: .

Figure 71 - Chart Wizard in Excel

7. Select a simple column chart and follow the Wizard prompts and instructions. 8. Click the Finish button in the chart wizard and a basic chart will be created. 9. Cut and paste the new chart onto the “Report” sheet in the workbook or choose to have the chart inserted as an object on the Report sheet. 10.To place the mean and standard deviation statistics in the table in your report, type “=” in the cell you would like to hold the value on the Report sheet. Then switch to the Statistic Formatted Data tab and select the cell containing the data you wish to add to your report. Press Enter after selecting that cell to create the reference. 11.Add a title to the worksheet, position the histogram on the page, format a table around the statistics and add any other desired formatting. 12.From the Excel main menu, select File → Save. Save the file in C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Reports folder and name it RxQual_Histogram_and_Statistics_Report.
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13.Close the Excel workbook.

Running Your Report with New Data
1. Ensure that the Nemo Drive Test 2 file is loaded into the Workspace. 2. Select Workbook → Open Workbook to open the RxQual_Histogram_and_Statistics_Report saved previously to the C:\Program Files\Actix\Analyzer\Reports directory. 3. A dialog will appear that prompts you to select a data stream(s):

Figure 72 - Running the Report on New Data

4. Select the Nemo Drive Test 2 handset stream and watch the formatted report regenerate for the new data.

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Printing Data
A-SVS features two different ways to obtain printed map outputs. The Map Layout Designer may be used to arrange the map and legend on the page, add a title, and preview the output. The Quick Print option allows you to bypass the Map Layout Designer and print the map with a legend in a fixed position. To print a map using the Quick Print option: 1. Display data on a map in the workspace. 2. Select the Print button from the map toolbar. 3. Select the paper source, page orientation, and margin sizes. 4. Use the Options button in the lower left hand corner of the Print Setup dialog to adjust map size, content, legend visibility and scale. 5. In the Print Setup dialog, select OK to print the map.

To print your map using the Map Layout Designer: 1. Open a map with data in the workspace. 2. Select the Layout button from the toolbar. 3. Choose the page layout for the map and select OK to bring up the Map Layout Designer. 4. Double-click on the Label box to change the title of the map. 5. Move the label box and the map so that they are not overlapping. Resize the text box as necessary. With the Label Box selected, choose Properties from the Toolbar to change the label font. 6. Move the Legend so that it is not overlapping the map trail. Resize the legend as necessary. 7. To change the map layers visible in the Legend, double click on the Legend to activate it and collapse any layers that are not to appear. Expand any layers that should appear. 8. Select Print Preview from the Toolbar to determine what the printed page will look like. Close Print Preview to make any modifications necessary. 9. Select Print when the map layout is arranged to your satisfaction.

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Saving Your Preferred Layout
In Analyzer, the workspace includes all data display windows within the Analyzer application window, together with the Workspace Explorer. Saving a workspace in Analyzer allows you to save the following items: • • • • • Window layouts Open files you are currently working with Custom analyses you have created Custom attributes you have executed Superstreams you have created

To save your workspace click File → Save Workspace As and give the file a name. The Analyzer file structure includes a ‘Workspaces’ folder that can be used to hold your saved workspaces, though you can save a workspace to any location. A workspace created with Analyzer may be opened directly from the Windows Desktop. To start up Analyzer with a set of commonly used queries, simply save a workspace with the queries of interest, but no data files. The workspace may then be saved as a shortcut on the Windows Desktop. Double-click on the Desktop shortcut to open Analyzer with all of your frequently used queries in place.

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Where to Get More Help
Help File
Analyzer includes comprehensive online help, which can be accessed by clicking on Help menu on the main menu. The primary help documentation can be found under Help → Contents. You can look up information about a particular topic either by choosing an item from the index or by entering keywords and performing a search.

Figure 73 - Actix Online Help Options

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Specific information, like the definition of engineering parameters, can be accessed by clicking on Help → Attribute Help. You can look up an item in the alphabetized list, or you can open the Attribute Help window, and then click on an item in the Workspace.

Figure 74 - Highlighted Parameter and Corresponding Attribute Help Entry

The contents of the Help window can be printed, stored under Favorites, and resized or minimized to enable side-by-side review as operations are performed in Analyzer.

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Technical Support
Technical support is available by phone, email, and on the Actix Web site. Technical personnel are located in Reston, VA, USA, London UK, and Singapore to provide assistance. In the US technical support can be reached at: Phone: 1 (877) 72-ACTIX (toll free) 1 (877) 722-2849 Between the hours of 09:00-17:00 EST If you are calling outside of hours, please leave your contact information and a brief description of the nature of the call. Email: support@actix.com On the Web: www.actix.com/html/support.htm When contacting Actix Support please have your license key number and the software revision number you are using ready to speed up the resolution of your problem. The version number of the software is available by going to Help → About Analyzer.

Figure 75 - About Analyzer Window
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Actix Web Site
Our Web site is located at: www.actix.com and can be accessed directly from the Online Help menu under Visit the Actix Web site. In addition to containing information about Actix, the Analyzer, and other products, it contains further application modules for Analyzer for common optimization tasks, and sections on Frequently Asked Questions. Actix frequently improves the Analyzer with incremental updates to the software as further test and measurement vendors’ formats integrated into the tool or updated in accordance with new versions of phones or infrastructure. To confirm you are using the most current version of the software please check under the Help → About Analyzer menu and compare that with the current release cited on the Web site. Upgrades can be downloaded from the web providing the support and maintenance contract purchased with the software is still current. If you have any questions please contact our support staff.

Contact Your Instructor
The objective of this training session is to provide all attendees with the knowledge and desire to use Analyzer on returning from the course. To confirm the training has met your expectations you are invited to complete a post training survey and highlight any aspect of the course that could be improved or did not meet your expectations. Unless you specifically decline, the instructor may contact you within six weeks of this course to follow up and discuss further any questions you have. Additional copies of this manual are available from Actix support or from your instructor

More Advanced Training
Actix offers a range of training courses designed to improve the understanding, proficiency and productivity of engineers using Actix Analyzer for network optimization and performance in the fast paced world of wireless communications. For more information, or to book any of these courses, please contact your instructor or Actix sales manager.

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Appendix A – GSM Event Definitions
Event Call Completed Definition For GSM log files that contain air interface messaging, a Call Completed event is triggered if the following criteria occur: ? ? Call Dropped Outgoing Call Setup OK or Incoming Call Setup OK Followed by RR: Channel Release with Cause=Normal

For GSM log files that contain air interface messaging, a Call Dropped event is triggered if the following criteria occur: ? ? Outgoing Call Setup OK or Incoming Call Setup OK Not followed by RR: Channel Release with Cause = Normal

?
Handover OK

Followed by a transition to idle mode

Contains geographically referenced occurrences of all successful handoff events. For LCC GSM, it defines a successful handover and is obtained from the RR Handover Complete message. For Grayson GSM and compatible log files, a HandoffOK event is triggered if the following occurs: ? ? ? Requirement: CC: Handover Command Not Followed By: A transition to idle mode Followed By: CC: Handover Complete

Handover Fail

Contains geographically referenced occurrences for all handoff failures. For Grayson and compatible GSM log files, a handoff failure event is triggered if the following sequence of messages occurs: ? ? ? First Requirement: CC: Handover Command Not Followed By: A transition to idle mode Followed By: CC: Handover Failure

Location Update OK Location Update Fail Assignment OK

Contains geographically referenced points where a location update occurred successfully. Contains geographically referenced points where a location update failed.

Contains geographically referenced points where a traffic channel/slot was assigned. Contains geographically referenced points where a traffic channel/slot assignment failed.

Assignment Fail

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Event Incoming Call OK

Definition An incoming call initiation event is triggered if the following sequence of messages occurs: ? ? DL CC: Setup UL CC: Alerting

Incoming Call Setup Fail

An incoming call setup failure is triggered if the following sequence of messages occurs: ? ? ? CC: Setup Followed by CC: Call Confirmed Followed by a transition back to idle mode

Outgoing Call OK

A successful mobile origination is triggered if the following requirements are met: ? ? UL CC: Setup DL CC: Alerting

Outgoing Call Setup Fail

An outgoing initiation failure is triggered if the following sequence of messages occurs: ? ? ? CC: Setup Not followed by CC: Call Confirmed Followed by a transition back to idle mode

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Appendix B – GPRS Optimization Parameters
As GPRS network become more prevalent, GSM performance engineers will become responsible for ensuring the integrity of these data networks. Although GPRS networks share radio resources with GSM network, the analysis and optimization procedures for these two types of networks are not the same. GPRS network drive tests must be designed to capture the aspect of the network of interest. When analyzing GPRS drive test data, the parameters of interest are different than when analyzing GSM drive test data. This document provides some suggestions for the design of GPRS drive test scenarios, and describes areas of interest when analyzing this data with Actix A-Solutions.

GPRS Test Design
Different tests may be designed for testing different aspects of GPRS network performance:

Throughput analysis
• • The purpose of this test is to determine the GPRS data rate over the air interface and for the end user application. FTP uploads and downloads provide the maximum channel usage over a continuous time period, providing a good picture of maximum throughput attainable. FTP test files should be large enough to provide a good test case, but small enough to avoid being affected by uncontrollable variables. Ideal file sizes are 300 kb for download testing and 100 kb per upload testing. Zipped files are ideal, as they contain compressed data that will not be subject to very much extra compression during transmission. The FTP server ideally should be located within the GPRS network on the Gi interface. Locating the server within the GPRS network eliminates internet-related variables for testing purposes. Stationary testing is preferable over mobile testing to reduce the effect of cell updates on throughput. Ideally, the test should be conducted in an area of strong radio coverage.

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Latency and signaling analysis
• The purpose of this test is to verify the GPRS message sequences, and the time between key GPRS events. This type of test might be used to verify the operation of new network equipment. Ping is a good application for this type of analysis based on its relatively simple command structure and concrete timing expectations. Typical ping delay over GPRS is 750 ms. An IP sniffer such as Ethereal may be used to view communication between the client computer and the server at the IP level (as opposed to communication between the mobile and the server seen from the GPRS handset).

Analysis of the effects of the RF environment on the GPRS network
• • • The purpose of this test is to determine how well the GPRS data network operates in the existing GSM radio environment. Stationary testing in areas of high potential usage is recommended to analyze GPRS behavior with typical RF conditions. Mobile testing on highways or commuter transit routes is recommended for testing the effects of cell updates and mobility on the GPRS network. In a GPRS network, cell updates are initiated by the mobile which breaks the connection with the abandoned cell before reselecting a new cell. A cell update typically results in 3-5 seconds of down time before communication with the new cell is established.

GPRS Data Analysis
Once GPRS data has been collected, various parameters can be used to analyze the performance of the network. Each parameter described here can be viewed using the Actix Analyzer platform, provided the parameter has been collected by the collection equipment. • Throughput – GPRS logfiles contain throughput values collected within the GPRS network and at the application level. RLC Throughput and Application Throughput are the most commonly used for analysis of GPRS networks. o RLC Throughput (Radio Link Control) provides data rate for the logical link between the mobile and the PCU and can be found in the GSM → GPRS Data → Vendor Specific group. RLC throughput provides the best indication of data transfer over the air interface.
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o

LLC Throughput (Logical Link Control) provides the data rate between the mobile and the SGSN and can be found in the GSM → GPRS Data → Vendor Specific group. TCP Throughput provides the data rate on the logical link maintaining flow and congestion control between the two communicating computers. TCP throughput can be found in the Data Testing → Protocol Measurements group. Application Throughput most closely approximates the end user experience and can be found in the Data Testing → Application Measurements group. Target application throughput for GPRS is 11-13 kbps per timeslot for Coding Scheme 2 (CS 2).

o

o

Figure 76 - Uplink RLC and Application Throughput

Timeslot Usage – The more timeslots allocated to a GPRS data session, the higher the resulting throughput. Timeslots may be allocated based on data rate requested and network congestion. Check timeslot usage with the parameters in the GSM → GPRS Data → GPRS RMAC → Dedicated Radio Link group. Coding Scheme Usage – GPRS relies on four different coding schemes to provide an appropriate balance between error correction and maximum data rate. CS 1 provides substantial error correction, resulting in a lower maximum data rate. CS 4 provides virtually no error correction and the highest maximum data rate, but should only be used in areas where RF conditions are excellent to avoid losing packets. CS usage information can be found in the GSM → GPRS Data → GPRS RMAC → Dedicated Radio Link group.

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GPRS Radio Conditions – The best indicators of GPRS radio conditions are RLC_DL_BLER and RLC_UL_Retransmissions, both of which can be found in the GSM → GPRS Data → Vendor Specific group. RLC_DL_BLER indicates the percentage of corrupt blocks received that cannot be decoded by the mobile. RLC_UL_Retransmissions indicates unacknowledged blocks sent by the mobile that must be resent. High RCL_DL_BLER or RLC_UL_Retransmission values typically result in lower throughput.

Diminished throughput and high BLER

Figure 77 - RLC DL Throughput and BLER

Cell Updates – In GPRS networks, cell updates are controlled by the handset rather than by the network. The handset measures and updates the serving cell based on local radio conditions. Because the connection with the abandoned cell is broken before the connection is resumed with the target cell, there is a 3-5 second break in data transfer during a cell update. Use the ServCI parameter in the GSM → Serving Cell Parameters group to determine whether multiple cell updates are affecting GPRS throughput. TFI and TBF – Timeslots are shared between GPRS users. Each GPRS user is granted a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI), Temporary Block Flow (TBF) on the uplink and on the downlink. Each data transmission in a timeslot includes a TFI indicating to which mobile the data corresponds. During a constant stream of data (i.e. FTP download), the mobile will keep the same TFI. During sporadic transmit or receive activity, the mobile will constantly release and be allocated new TFIs. During sporadic activity, TFIs will be assigned in consecutive numerical order if no other users are on the cell. TFI numbers will jump if there
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are multiple users on the cell. GPRS performance will suffer the more users share the same resources.

Bursty TFI during bursty download activity

Figure 78 - File Download Throughput and TFI

GPRS Signaling – All GPRS signaling can be accessed via the Analyzer message browser or Protocol Stack Browser. Knowledge of protocol signaling can help to identify and pinpoint network-based problems. Protocol analyzer traces on the Gb link may be used to see whether a problem is more widespread than just the test mobile. o RLC-based Protocols provide communication between the mobile and the PCU. The RLC layer ensures that the mobile has sufficient resources to communicate on the radio link. RLC messages and procedures include Channel Request, Immediate Assignment, Acks & Nacks, and presence messaging. LLC-based Protocols provide communication between the mobile and the SGSN. LLC procedures include mobile attach messaging, PDP context activation, and acknowledgement of the mobile on the network.

o

TCP Behavior – TCP is in place to maintain a problem-free connection between two computers via a system of sequence numbers and acknowledgements. The sequence numbers and acknowledgements can be examined in an IP sniffer file such as Ethereal. TCP behavior analysis is a good place to start if RF conditions and RLC throughput
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looks good, but application throughput is poor. Some potential TCP problems are: o Missing Packets - TCP behavior causes the receiver to acknowledge packets with the number of the next expected packet. If the receiver misses a packet it will acknowledge the number of the missing packet, even as other packets are sent and received, until the missing packet is finally received. Receive Buffer Size Window – The receive buffer size window, or RWIN setting, defines how many packets can be sent out by the sender without receiving an acknowledgement from the receiver. If the RWIN setting is too small, the sender may hold data and reduce throughput while waiting for earlier packets to be acknowledged.

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Appendix C – StateForms Attributes
There are six types of objects that can be placed on a StateForms sheet. In addition, the sheet itself has attributes which can be set. Below is a list of the attributes associated with the sheet and with the Label, Attribute Value, and Array Attribute Value objects.

Sheet Attributes
To access the sheet properties, click on any part of the sheet that is not occupied by an object.
Attribute Sheet Width Sheet Height Auto Scale Background Grid Size Snap to Grid Function Set the width of the StateForms sheet. Set the height of the StateForms sheet. When set to ‘True’ the size of the objects on the sheet will scale up or down to fill the sheet as the sheet window size is changed. Set the background color of the sheet. Set the spacing for the design mode grid of dots. Set to ‘True’ to automatically align the top left corner of the object with the design grid.

Label Attributes
Attribute Caption Back Color Back Color Override Border Line Border Sunken Text Color Font Auto Size Font Height Font Use Default Font Name Font Italic Font Bold Left Top Width Height Extent Right Extent Bottom Function The text that will be displayed in the label. Background color of the label. Set to ‘True’ to activate the background color you have selected. Adds a border around the label. Makes the label appear depressed. Select a text color. Set to ‘True’ to have the font size change to fill the label area or set to ‘False’ to set the font size yourself. Select a font size. Set to ‘True’ to keep the font plain, set to ‘False’ to Activate Bold and Italic settings. Select a font face. Make the text italicized. Make the text bold. Distance from the left edge of the label to the left edge of the form. Distance from the top of the label to the top of the form. Width of the label. Height of the label. Set to ‘True’ to make the contents of the label scale as the form size is changed in View Mode. Set to ‘True’ to make the contents of the label scale as the form size is changed in View Mode. Analyzer Training Course • 122

Introduction to SVS for GSM 1.3 • Edition B

Attribute Value
Attribute Specify Min+Max Bar Range Min Bar Range Max Bar Color Use Value Color Function Set to ‘True’ to specify the minimum and maximum values when the attribute value object is used as an attribute value bar Set the minimum value for the attribute value bar Set the maximum value for the attribute value bar Set the color that will fill the attribute bar as the parameter value changes None – used when you want to displayed the attribute value as text without a color behind it. Text – used to display the parameter value as text rather than a level bar. Background – used to fill in the entire attribute value bar in with the bar color. Value Bar – Use this setting to fill the attribute value bar in with the bar color to indicate the level of the parameter value. Set to ‘True’ to display the parameter value as text Set to ‘True’ to display the text showing the minimum value of the attribute level bar Set to ‘True’ to display the text showing the maximum value of the attribute level bar Set to ‘True’ to display the divisions you would like to divide the attribute level bar into Set to ‘True’ to display the subdivisions you would like to divide the attribute level bar into Set the size of the divisions into which you would like to divide the attribute level bar. Set the size of the subdivisions into which you would like to divide the attribute level bar. Use the Analyzer tree of parameters to select the attribute whose value you would like to display. For parameters that are arrays, enter the index of the array element whose value you would like to display. Holds the last valid value of the parameter until a new valid value is collected. To display an expression instead of a straight parameter value, type the expression here as it would appear in the Binned Query expression builder. Select the format group for the expression you are using Normal – No Default – Append Units – Use to display the units that correspond to the expression when a format group for the expression has been set. Convert Units – Set the number of decimal places in the result of the expression. ---Set to ‘True’ to highlights changes in the parameter value from the preceding data point to the current data point by changing the color used to display the parameter value. Set the color used to indicate a change in the parameter’s value. ---Set to ‘True’ to color the level bars using the color scheme established in the map legend. ---Background color of the attribute value. Set to ‘True’ to activate the background color you have selected. Adds a border around the attribute value. Analyzer Training Course • 123

Show Value Text Show Min Text Show Max Text Show Minor Ticks Show Major Ticks Minor Tick Spacing Major Tick Spacing Attribute Attr. Array Index Attr. Value Hold Expression Expr Format Group Expr. Fmt. Mode

Expr. Decimals Display Validity Text Change Flag Text Change Color Color Legend Color by Format Group Color Value Expr. Back Color Back Color Override Border Line

Introduction to SVS for GSM 1.3 • Edition B

Attribute Border Sunken Text Color Font Auto Size Font Height Font Use Default Font Name Font Italic Font Bold Left Top Width Height Extent Bottom Extent Right

Function Makes the attribute value appear depressed. Select a text color. Set to ‘True’ to have the font size change to fill the array value area or set to ‘False’ to set the font size yourself. Select a font size. Set to ‘True’ to keep the font plain, set to ‘False’ to Activate Bold and Italic settings. Select a font face. Make the text italicized. Make the text bold. Distance from the left edge of the attribute value to the left edge of the form. Distance from the top of the attribute value to the top of the form. Width of the attribute value. Height of the attribute value. Set to ‘True’ to make the contents of the attribute value scale as the form size is changed in View Mode. Set to ‘True’ to make the contents of the attribute value scale as the form size is changed in View Mode.

Array Attribute Value
Attribute Array Columns Array Rows Array Base Offset Specify Min+Max Bar Range Min Bar Range Max Bar Color Use Value Color Function Number of columns in the array attribute value matrix. Number of rows in the array attribute value matrix. To begin displaying parameter values starting at a location in the array other than its beginning, specify the index of the first array element you would like to display. Set to ‘True’ to specify the minimum and maximum values when the attribute value object is used as an attribute value bar. Set the minimum value for the attribute value bar. Set the maximum value for the attribute value bar. Set the color that will fill the attribute bar as the parameter value changes. None – used when you want to displayed the attribute value as text without a color behind it. Text – used to display the parameter value as text rather than a level bar. Background – used to fill in the entire attribute value bar in with the bar color. Value Bar – Use this setting to fill the attribute value bar in with the bar color to indicate the level of the parameter value. Set to ‘True’ to display the parameter value as text. Set to ‘True’ to display the text showing the minimum value of the attribute level bar. Set to ‘True’ to display the text showing the maximum value of the attribute level bar. Set to ‘True’ to display the divisions you would like to divide the attribute level bar into. Set to ‘True’ to display the subdivisions you would like to use for the attribute level bar. Set the size of the divisions into which you would like to use for the attribute level bar. Set the size of the subdivisions into which you would like to use for the attribute level bar. Use the Analyzer tree of parameters to select the attribute whose value you would like to display. Analyzer Training Course • 124

Show Value Text Show Min Text Show Max Text Show Minor Ticks Show Major Ticks Minor Tick Spacing Major Tick Spacing Attribute

Introduction to SVS for GSM 1.3 • Edition B

Attribute Attr. Value Hold Expression Expr. Format Group Expr. Frmt. Mode Expr. Mode

Function Holds the last valid value of the parameter until a new valid value is collected. If you would like to display the value of an expression instead of a simple parameter, enter the expression here as it would appear in the expression builder. If you are using an expression, select the format group for the expression to be displayed.. Select the format group for the expression you are using. Normal – No Default – Append Units – Use to display the units that correspond to the expression when a format group for the expression has been set. Convert Units – Set the number of decimal places in the result of the expression. ---Set to ‘True’ to highlights changes in the parameter value from the preceding data point to the current data point by changing the color used to display the parameter value. Set the color used to indicate a change in the parameter’s value. ---Set to ‘True’ to color the level bars using the color scheme established in the map legend. ---Background color of the array attribute value. Set to ‘True’ to activate the background color you have selected. Adds a border around the array attribute value. Makes the array attribute value appear depressed. Select a text color. Set to ‘True’ to have the font size change to fill the array attribute value area or set to ‘False’ to set the font size yourself. Select a font size. Set to ‘True’ to keep the font plain, set to ‘False’ to Activate Bold and Italic settings. Select a font face. Make the text italicized. Make the text bold. Distance from the left edge of the array attribute value to the left edge of the form. Distance from the top of the array attribute value to the top of the form. Width of the array attribute value. Height of the array attribute value. Set to ‘True’ to make the contents of the array attribute value scale as the form size is changed in View Mode. Set to ‘True’ to make the contents of the array attribute value scale as the form size is changed in View Mode.

Expr. Decimal Display Validity Text Change Flag Text Change Color Color Legend Color by Format Group Color Value Expr. Back Color Back Color Override Border Line Border Sunken Text Color Font Auto Size Font Height Font Use Default Font Name Font Italic Font Bold Left Top Width Height Extent Bottom Extent Right

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