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# Gokaraju Rangaraju Institute of Engineering & Technology

## (Autonomous Institute under JNTU Hyderabad)

First Year Mathematics - I
Problem Sheet 3 (Matrices) Unit 2

## 1. Find the singular value decompositions of the following matrices

2 2 0 1 1 5 2 0
1 1 1 1 1
(i) . (ii) 2 5 0. (JNTU-11).
(iii) 1 1. (iv) . (v) 2
6 2.
6 2 1 1 1
0 0 3 1 1 0 2 7
2. Define: (i) Spectral matrix, (ii) Quadratic form, (iii) Canonical form. [JNTU]

3. Find the nature of the quadratic form and reduce it to canonical form. Find rank, index and signature
(a) 10x2 + 2y2 + 5z2 4xy = 10xz + 6yz. [JNTU 06] [Index = 2]
(b) 4 x y 8 z 8 yz 4 zx 4 xy. [JNTU-09S]
2 2 2

(c) x 2 4 xy 6 xz y 2 2 yz 4 z 2 . [JNTU-08]
(d) 3x12 2 x 22 x 32 4 x1 x 2 12 x 2 x 3 8 x1 x 3 . [Indefinite, rank = 3, index = 2, signature = 1 ]

4. Reduce the quadratic form to sum of squares form (canonical form) and find the corresponding linear
transformation. Also find the index and signature.
(a) 6 x12 3 x 22 3 x 32 4 x1 x 2 2 x 2 x 3 4 x1 x 3 . [JNTU-09, 11]
(b) 4x2 + 3y2 + z2 xy 6yz + 4xz. [JNTU08] [4y12 y22 + y32]
(c) 2 x 2 5 y 2 3z 2 4 xy. [JNTU11]

5. By Lagranges reduction, transform the following quadratic forms into their canonical forms
(a) x12 2 x 22 7 x 32 4 x1 x 2 8 x1 x 3 . [JNTU09S] [(x1 2x2 + 4x3)2 2(x2 4x3)2 + 9x32]
(b) 2 x12 7 x 22 5 x 32 8 x1 x 2 10 x 2 x 3 4 x1 x 3 . [2( x1 2x2 x3)2 ( x2 + x3)2 + 4x32]
(c) x12 + 6x22 + 18x32 + 4x1x2 + 8x1x3 4x2x3. [Index = 2; Signature =1]

6. Find the transformation which reduces the given quadratic form into sum of squares form and find the
reduced form.
(a) 4 x 2 3 y 2 z 2 8 xy 6 yz 4 zx. [JNTU-08]
(b) 10 x 2 2 y 2 5 z 2 6 yz 10 zx 4 xy. [JNTU-08S]

## 7. Reduce the given quadratic form to canonical form

(a) x12 3 x 22 3 x 32 2 x 2 x 3 . [JNTU09S]
(b) 8x2 + 7y2 + 3z2 12xy 8yz + 4zx. [3y22 + 15y32]
2 2 2
(c) x + y + 2z 2xy + 4zx + 4yz. [JNTU10]
(d) 3x 2 2 y 2 3z 2 2 xy 2 yz. [JNTU10]
(e) 3x2 + 5y2 + 3z2 2yz + 2zx 2xy. [JNTU06, 08] [2 x 2 3 y 2 6 z 2 ]
(f) 3x 2 3 y 2 5z 2 2 xy 6 yz 6 xz. [JNTU11]
8. By the use of an orthogonal transformation, reduce the quadratic forms into their canonical forms
and find their nature, index and signature.
(a) 3 x 2 2 y 2 z 2 12 yz 8 zx 4 xy. [JNTU-08S]
(b) 8 x 2 7 y 2 3z 2 12 xy 8 yz 4 zx. [JNTU-08S]
(c) x12 2 x 22 2 x 32 2 x1 x 2 2 x 2 x 3 2 x1 x 3 . [JNTU-09]

## (d) 5 x 2 26 y 2 10 z 2 4 yz 14 zx 6 xy. [JNTU-09]

(e) 2x2 + 2y2 + 2z2 2xy 2yz 2zx. [JNTU06, 07, 08, 10S] [3 y22 +3 y32]
9. Find the orthogonal transformation which transforms the quadratic form x12 + 3x22 + 2x32 2x2x3 to
canonical form. [JNTU 06, 07] [2y12 + 3y22 + 6y32]