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Worl<"íag Through Con

Strategies for Rel.atíonships, Groups, and O rganizatior
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Working Through Conflict .

Urbana-Champaign RANDALL I<. Inc. and Organizations Seventh Edition JOSEPH P. FOLGER Temple University MARSHALL SCOTT POOLE University of Illinois. Routiedge Taylor & Francis Group LONDON AND NEW YORK . Groups. i Workin q Through Conflict Strategies for Relationships. STUTMAN CRA.

cm. Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square. 2001 by Pearson Education. 2001 by Pearson Education. Social conflict. I. Randall K. NY 10017.First published 2013. including photocopying and recording. 2009. Stutman. Conflict (Psychology) 3. 2009. Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue. Al! rights reserved. and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Inc. Inc.6—dc23 2011042277 Please visit the companion website at www. New York. Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced. 2.rout1edge.F65 2013 303. Social interaction. an informa business Copyright © 2013. Stutman. ISBN: 9780205078431 (pbk) Cover Designer: Karen Salzbach Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Folger.-7th ed. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-07843-1 ISBN-10: 0-205-07843-5 1. Poole. Joseph P. mechanical. 5. _i . or other means. Title. or in any information storage or retrieval system. Working through conflict : strategies for relationships. Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks. 4. 2005. Marshall Scott Poole. Interpersonal conflict. HM1121. groups. without permission in writing from the publishers. Abingdon. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic. p. Marshall Scott II. Milton Park. Randall K. Conflict management. and organizations / Joseph P. USA Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group. III. Folger. with permission. now known or hereafter invented. in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text.

To our parents: Ed and Virginia Ed and Helen Bernie and Marge .

5 Summary and Review 70 Sustained by Moves and Countermoves During 2.6 The Role of Attributions in the Parking Lot Integration I5 Scuffle 64 I.3 Property 3: Conflict Interaction Is Influenced Conflict Interaction 74 by and in Turn Affects Relationships 29 EXHIBIT 1.I.4 Property 4: Conflict Interaction Is Influenced 3.2 Emotion and Conflict 46 1.2.I Social Knowledge About Conflict and Conflict Interaction 53 CHAPTER 1 2. 11! : CONTENTS List of Cases xi 1.2 Taking the Middle Path: Moving Toward Integration 19 2.1 Conflict Defined 4 2.3 Emotion in the Parking Lot Scuffle 52 I.n and CASE 2.3.1 Stages of Conflict 75 1.2 Properties of Conflict Interaction 23 I.3 Recognizing Destructive Cycles 21 and Socia¡ Cognition in Conflict 66 1.3 Social Cognition and Conflict 53 2.1.I Property 1: Conflict Is Constituted and 2.4 Judgments About Conflict Outcomes 10 EXHIBIT 2.lA The Women's Hoffine Case 2 The Inner Experience of Conflict 40 CASE I.3 Productive and Destructive Conflict Scuffle 46 Interaction 8 2.3 Summary and Review 37 Preface xiii 1.1 The Parking Lot Scuffle 41 I.3 Trained Incapacitíes and Conflict Interaction 68 1.6 Surnmary and Review 12 2.3 Stage Models of Negotiation 77 vi' .4 Conclusion 38 Introduction 1 CHAPTER 2 CASE I.I.2 Psychodynamic Theory and the Parking Lot I.1 The Columnist's Brown Bag 35 3.1B The Women's Hotline Case 3 CASE 2.I Rummel's Five-Stage Model 76 by the Context in Which It Occurs 34 3.6 Conclusion 72 Interaction 25 1.1 Confrontation Episodes Theory 30 Collusion and Intractable Conflict 44 CASE 2. Emotion.4 Social Knowledge About Conflict and the Parking Lot Scuffle 59 1.1 The Psychodynamic Perspective 41 I.2 Verbal Aggressiveness 48 I.2.3.5 Plan of the Book 12 CASE 2.1.2 Property 2: Patterns of Behavior in Conflicts Tend to Perpetuate Themselves 27 CHAPTER 3 1.I Moving 7hrough Differentíatio.4 The Interaction of Psychodynamics.4 Tacking Against the Wind 22 EXHIBIT 2. I.1 A Model of Effective Conflict CASE Social Cognítive Processes and Conflict 59 Communication and Conflict 14 CASE 2.2 Pondy's Model 77 CASE 1.2 Arenas for Conflict 6 EXHIBIT 2.5 Expectancy Violations and the Parking Lot Management 14 Scuffle 6I I.

5 Unbaianced tntimacy 163 Shifting Styles During Conflict 3.4 The Copywriter's Committee 162 4.2 What Is a Conflict Style? 111 5.5 Pairings of Conflict Styles 123 Power 167 .1 A Procedure for Selecting Conflict 3.3.4 Determining the Styles of Others 122 5.3 Issue Control 158 4. viii i Contents 3.3 Reciprocity and Compensation in the Parking CASE 4.3 The Would-Be Borrower 135 Lot Scuffle 87 EXHIBIT 3.4 Compromísing 119 CASE 5.8 Conclusion 105 5.11 Conclusion 138 CASE 3. 154 CASE 4.2 The Eccentric Professor 145 3.4 Counteracting the Negative Impacts 5.4 Legitimacy 148 CHAPTER 4 Can Conflict Competence Be 4.1.5 Collaborating I20 Agency 164 5.3 The Tit-for-Tat Strategy 88 4.4 Framing Issues in Conflict Interaction 89 4.3 An Expanded View of Conflict Styles 113 5.4.1 The Dilemmas of Strength 161 4.2 Relational Control 156 4.2 The Mystique of Power 147 3.4.2 The Dangers of Weakness 165 4.6 Social Identity and Intergroup CASE 5.7 Selecting Conflict Styles 127 of Conflict 80 EXHIBIT 4.3 Cultural Differences in Values Concerning 4.1 Power and the Emergence of Conflict 139 3.6 Job Resignation ata Social Service 4.2 A Relational View of Power 143 of Social Identity and Intergroup Conflict 102 5.3 The Creativity Development Committee 151 4.2 Interdependence 80 Styles 128 CASE 3.9 Styles and Tactics in Practice 134 CASE 3.4 Insights of Stage Models of Conflict 77 College Roommates 125 Competing 115 5.5 Implications of Endorsement for Power 149 Conflict Styles and Strategic Conflict 5.6 Final Thoughts About Stage Models 4.3.1 Origins of Conflict Styles 109 5.1 Stage Models and the Parking Lot Scuffle 81 4.4 Issue Framing and the Parking Lot Scuffle 90 CHAPTER 5 3.1 Conflict Styles in the Parking Lot 5.1 Social Categorization 144 CASE 5.3 Interaction I48 5.5 The Balance of Power in Conflict 160 4.2.1A A Raid on the Student Activity Fees Conflict 95 Fund 140 CASE 3.2 Avoiding 116 CASE 5.7 Summary and Review 103 5.5.5 Social Context and the Coordination Power: The Architecture of Conflict 139 of Meaning 92 5.10 Summary and Review 136 3.5 Intergroup Conflict Oynamics and the Parking CASE 5.2 Gender Influences 133 Assessed? 85 4.5 Multiple Sequences in Conflict 79 Episodes 124 EXHIBIT 3.2.I Threats and Promises 155 Scuffle 110 5.3 Accommodating 118 CASE 5.3 Reciprocity and Compensation 83 4.1.4 The Use of Power in Conflict Tactics.3 Power and Conflict Interaction 149 Interaction 108 CASE 5.1 Chartíng a Conflict 80 CASE 4.2.2 Interdependence and the Parking Lot Scuffle 83 Styles 131 3.8 Cultural and Gender Influences on Conflict CASE 3.1 Culturallnfluences 131 EXHIBIT 3.5.1B A Raid on the Student Activity Fees Lot Scuffle 101 Fund 141 ExHIBIT 3.5.

4 Addressing Severe Challenges to Conflict Apologize? 195 Integration 243 EXHIBIT 6.2 Breakup at the Bakery 219 5.2.4 The Start -Up 225 CHAPTER 6 7.4.2 Fostering Shared Power in Conflicts I69 EXHIBIT Dispute Systems: Managing Conflicts within Organízations 247 CHAPTER 7 EXHIB!T 8.1 The Dimensions of Face 177 6.6.I Challenging Belief Systems That Escalate 6.3 What Type of a Dispute Resolution System Does an Organization Climate and Conflict Interaction 207 Have? 248 7.2 Refusing to Give on a Position I92 6.2 Navigating Differentiation 230 8. Contents 1 iX 5.3 Cultivating a Collaborative Attitude 238 Climate and Conflict 208 8.9 Summary and Review 205 of Forgiveness 247 6.2 The Outspoken Member 180 CASE 6.3 When Honor Can Kill 202 8.2 Disagreeing Agreeably 198 8.1.4 Conflict Interaction as a Face-Saving 8.3 The Expanding Printing Company 222 5.1 Why do Meteorologists Never 8.3 Working with Climate 218 Conflict I68 CASE 7.3 A Procedure for Managing Conflicts 241 EXHIBIT 8.10 Conclusion 206 8.2 Climate and Predicting What 5.1 Diagnosing the Role of Power in 7.3 A Threat to Flexíbility in Conflict Managing Conflict 229 Interaction 179 8.1 Working with Organizational Dispute Resolution Systems 249 CASE 7.3 Conclusion 228 6.3 Suppressing Conflict Issues I93 Face Loss as It Relates to Face-Saving 178 CHAPTER 8 6.8 Working with Face-Saving Issues 200 Conflict Responses 243 EXHIBIT 6.2.1 Framing Problems or Issues 231 6.6 Summary and Review 250 7.6 Working with Power 168 EXHIBIT 7.2 Diagnosing the Public Expression 6.2.2 Rethinking How Problems are Arena 185 Defined 233 6.4.6 Face-Saving in Other Cultures 194 Through Differentiation and 6.1 Riverdate Halfway House 2II 7.1 The Psychological Evaluation Unit 236 Interaction 190 8.1 The Professor's Decision I80 for Conflict Management 229 CASE 6.1 A Procedure for Moving 6.1 Identifyíng Climates 2I6 5.3 The Controversia) Team Member 181 8.7 Summary and Review 173 Marriages Survíve 221 CASE 7.4 Moving from Differentiation to Integration 239 6.4 The Productivity and Performance Report 204 Forgiveness 245 EXHIBIT 8.8 Conclusion 175 7.1 Review of the Normative Model CASE 6.1 Resisting Unjust Intimidation 190 8.5 Face-Saving Frames in Conflict CASE 8.7 Face-Giving Strategies 194 Integration 241 EXHIBIT 6.6.2 Moving Beyond Deep Transgressions Through CASE 6.4 Working with Climate 223 CASE 7.2 Climate and Conflict Interaction 214 8.7 Conclusion 252 .1.1 More Precisely Defining Climate 212 8.5.2 Summary and Review 226 Face-Saving 176 7.

Differentiation.4.2.4 Party Process Control 267 9.1.2. X 1 Contents CHAPTER 9 9.6 Conclusion 287 CASE 9.1 Organizational Co-Heads 261 EXHIBIT 9.2 Responsiveness to Emerging Interaction 258 9.I Third-Party Mandate 255 It Occurs 278 9.1 Property 1: Conflict Interaction Is Constituted and Sustained by Moves and 9.1 Third Parties.1 Third Parties and Conflict Cycles 266 CASE 9.2 Third-Party Roles and Climate 282 Negotiator 265 EXH!BIT 9. References 288 and Integration 27I Index 310 .4 Property 4: Conflict Interaction Countermoves During Interaction 254 Is Influenced by the Context in Which 9.3 Mediator Pressure and the Intransigent 9.3 Testing Your Own Ability to Intervene 9.3 Property 3: Conflict Interaction Third-Party Intervention 253 Is Influenced by and in Turn Affects Relationships 276 9.2 Transformative Mediation: A Relational Approach to Conflict CASE 9.1 Third Party Roles and Ideologies 278 CASE 9.2 The Family Conflict 262 Intervention 281 CASE 9.2 Property 2: Patterns of Behavior in Conflict Transformatively 282 Tend to Perpetuate Themselves 266 9.5 Neighbor Noise Problems 270 9.4.2 Third Parties and the Overall Shape of Conflict Behavior 270 EXHIBIT 9.5 Summary and Review 285 9.1.

3 Emotion in the Parking Lot Scuffle 52 5.3 Mediator Pressure and the Intransigent 4.1 Riverdale Halfway House 211 Scuffle 81 7.3 Reciprocity and Compensation in the Parking Lot Scuffle 87 8.2 College Roommates 125 9.1 The Psychological Evaluation Unit 236 3.14 The Women's Hotline Case 2 5.1B The Women's Hotline Case 3 5.2 Interdependence and the Parking Lot 7.LIST OF CASES 1.1A A Raid on the Student Activity Fees Fund 140 xi .1 Stage Models and the Parking Lot 7.4 Social Knowledge About Conflict and the Parking Lot Scuffle 59 6.5 Neighbor Noise Problems 270 4.6 Job Resignation at a Social Service Agency 164 2.2 Breakup at the Bakery 219 3.1 The Columnist's Brown Bag 35 5.1 Conflict Styles in the Parking Lot Negotiator 265 Scuffle 110 9.2 The Family Conflict 262 Lot Scuffle 101 9.4 Party Process Control 267 4.1B A Raid on the Student Activity Fees Fund 141 I.2 Psychodynamic Theory and the Parking Lot Scuffle 46 5.4 The Start-Up 225 3.2 The Outspoken Member 180 Scuffle 61 6.3 The Expanding Printing Company 222 Scuffle 83 7.4 The Copywriters' Committee 162 2.1 Organizational Co-Heads 261 3.5 Intergroup Conflict Dynamics and the Parking 9.4 Issue Framing in the Parking Lot Scuffle 90 9.2 The Eccentric Professor 145 1.6 The Role of Attributions in the Parking Lot 6.5 Unbalanced Intimacy 163 2.3 The Would-Be Borrower 135 5.1 The Parking Lot Scuffle 41 5.1 The Professor's Decision 180 2.3 The Controversia) Team Member 181 2.4 The Productivity and Performance Scuffle 64 Report 204 3.3 The Creativity Development Committee 151 2.5 Expectancy Violations and the Parking Lot 6.

We also clarified and expanded certain discussions to make this the most user-friendly edition to date........_ ....^..... with additional case studies. It illustrates how students of conflict can begin thinking and acting in ways that can have profound effects on the dynamics of difficult conflicts.^..^.......... The field of conflict management is supported by a long history of useful research and theory that form a basis for a wide variety of conflict management work..o-.. -....N.......^. . how language and message choices shape conflict...... ^........ . Expanded coverage of face-saving across cultures in Chapter 6. _.... It offers students of conflict a review of the core concepts and theoretiical frameworks that enhance an understanding of human behavior in a wide range of conflict situations..... Although it takes an interdisciplinary view of conflict.. and how patterns of behavior and the structure of human discourse create important dimensions of any unfolding conflict..a.. and responses that occur over time and in different places.......... ........_ ........M..... Here are the highlights of the changes in this seventh edition: Updated citations and inclusion of new literature throughout the volume.. This focus on communication means that readers gaín an appreciation for how mutual influence occurs. contemporary topics...<.... ..r..... _ _.o............wa.... This book highlights the interactive nature of conflict........n.. no matter what form it takes.....e...a. PREFACE ^:._...:3. ..... including new discussions of the relationship between face and honor and the dangers of honor-related violence.M..... In other instances....... and exhibitions to apply theory to practical.^.^.. Sometimes conflict interaction is immediate and face to face...:... XIII ..o. We have revised this seventh edition of Working Through Conflict to reflect the latest literature on conflict and to explore several neglected areas in prior editions....i..^. tables.i..... THE STUDY OF CONFLICT The main objective of the seventh edition of Working Through Conflict is to provide a summary and synthesis of social science research and theory on conflict. NEW TO THIS EDITION Several changes have been made to help strengthen the seventh edition of Working Through Conflict and to incorporate helpful suggestions from those who have read prior editions.....„ _... The research and theory covered in this book reflect the many social sciénce disciplines that have contributed to the study of conflict.... This book demonstrates how conflicts across settings can be understood by seeing them through a range of theo- retical lenses.......^.. Working Through Conflict offers a road map for how theory and research can be used to understand and influence conflict dynamics in everyday life... actions....y. this book emphasizes under- standing conflict as a communication phenomenon... ... ..... In addition.^....a. __...c-...... .........__. .. it is played out in a series of moves. It assumes that conflict is something that people create and shape as they interact with each other.a.

It is our hope that this book will encourage and assist people to confront their conflicts and to work through them creatively rather than suppressing or superficially "resolving" conflicts. marriages. We consider conflicts occurring in a wide range of arenas. The title of this book is an intentional double entendre. This added breadth makes the book suitable as a primary text for courses in conflict and conflict management. from intimate relationships. Working Through Conflict is written for those who want to develop good intu- ition about how to react. DEVELOPING THEORY-BASED INTUITION It is often said that people who are good at their work have excellent intuition. as well as a useful supplement to courses that devote substantial attention to conflict or third-party work. In many instances. groups. as well as a depiction of the characteristics of positive and negative conflict climates. we hope that the book will help people successfully work through difficult conflicts. we retain older references because they point to core work in the field that has served as the foundation for more recent studies. steeped in a history of events. " • A streamlined and revised Chapter 7 on climate and conflict. Conflict is usually complex—it is often multilayered. Working Through Conflict covers a wide range of essential concepts and theories that clarify the practical implications for managing conflicts in relationships. interact. but we believe that stu- dents should also be aware of the field's conceptual roots as represented in classic conflict literature. As a result. • Chapter 8 includes a discussion of the role forgiveness plays in bridging deep and long-standing transgressions in conflict. study. Intuition is often assumed to be innate—it is seen as a gift that some people have. and friendships to group. having good intuition about conflict starts by mastering a broad repei toire of ideas—ideas that create different possible explanations for why conflict interaction moves in destructive or constructive directions. and intervene in conflict situations. Because its major emphasis is on communication patterns people use when attempting to manage conflict. But in most cases effective professional intuition comes from a broad background of knowledge. The concept of climate is applied to intimate relationships in this chapter by drawing on Gottman's research on marital relationships. This chapter includes discussion of leadership and climate. Usually this means that they instinctively make good decisions and employ effective strategíes to create change or accomplish productive objectives. and experience gained over time. • New case studies have been added to Chapters 7 and 9. inter-group. . and negotiation settings. We have updated references to research and theory throughout the book to capture the most current thinking about the topics covered. n Chapter 9 includes more material for students to examine their own ability to intervene as a medíator.Xiv 1 Preface • Discussion of practical ways to support face-saving by learning the skill of "disagreeing agreeably. organizational. and shaped by diverse perspectives and understandings. The book is also built on the assumption that effective work is often promoted by the emergente and productive use of conflict. teams. Current developments are important.

Jean Kebis. We also th. It can also help build a strong intuition in those who deal with cónflict daily in work and professional settings and in those who want to have an impact on conflicts in their personal lives within families. and Wayne Beach for supplying the transcript of interaction in Chapter 6. and Liz Napolitano have greatly assisted with the production of this volume. or conciliators. and Tommy Vines for an evaluation of the manuscript from a managerial perspective. Once again. The excellent editorial and production staff at Pearson including Megan Sweeney. romantic relationships. Preface 1 XV and organizations. Jeanne Zalesky. facilitators. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Montana Rozmus for help with research and background work for the seventh edition. JOSEPH P. FOLGER . we owe our greatest debt to our colleagues at the Center for Conflict Resolution in Madison. Karon Bowers. Wisconsin. <r. It is a primer for those who might want to pursue professional work in the conflict management field as mediators. we turned. Stephanie Chaisson Anne Ricigliano. to Betsy Densmore. Jan Shubert. We are very grateful to Lonnie Weiss for her insight and help with our analyses.ank Syd Bernard. Jim Carrilon. Dennis Smith. Rick Sloan. and Kathy Zoppi for their responses to parts or all of the manuscript. marriages. ombudspersons. Robert Everett. Jay Herman. In additíon. Lisa Sussman. We also thank Linda Klug. and friendships.