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Basic Concepts  A description of the earth, or a

A. History portion of the earth, including its
A narrative (written, visual, oral or a structure,
combination of all three) about past features, products, political divisions
events that has and the people by whom it is inhabited.
meaning to a certain group of people in II. Philippines
a given time and place. A. Basic Facts
 The Pearl of the Orient Seas
Feminists criticize the term as gender  Most ethnically diverse country in
bias. They favor “her story.” The fact of Asia
 One of the two predominantly
the matter is that the winners( normally Christian countries in Asia
males) write history. In short, what we  An ARCHIPELAGO located in SOUTH
are reading today is their version of the EAST ASIA
events.  Situated along the “PACIFIC RING OF
 Made up of approximately 7,107
Women are often seen as the invisible
players of histo  3 main island groups:
B. Kasaysayan LUZON (Regions I to V, NCR and CAR)
story with meaning) MINDANAO (Regions IX to XIII and
Without both (story and meaning) then ARMM)
there is NO true history.  Capital: MANILA
C. Importance of History  Largest City: Quezon City
1. If we find meaning in history, then it (population); Davao City (area)
will gain the power to change our lives;  National Language: FILIPINO
2. Making people see their past, gives  Currency: Philippine Peso
them a sense of being Filipinos;  Staple Food: Rice
3. History gives us a way of looking at  National Anthem: LUPANG HINIRANG
the world and dealing with it and its  Motto: “Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao,
problems. Maka-Kalikasan, Maka-Bansa”
D. Culture B. Geographical Trivia
 The system of shared beliefs, values, 1. The Philippines has the world’s
customs, behaviors and artifacts that longest discontinuous coastline.
the members of society use to cope 2. Manila Bay is the Finest Bay in Asia.
with their world and with one another, 3. San Juanico Strait is the World’s
and that are Narrowest Strait.
transmitted from generation to 4. The Philippine Deep is believed to be
generation through learning. the deepest area in the world.
 A way of life which involves 5. Banaue Rice Terraces is one of the
everything. Eight Wonders of the Modern World.
 It includes all the social practices 6. Mount Mayon has a Nearly Perfect
that bond a group of people together Cone Shape similar to Mt. Fuji of Japan.
and 7. Mt. Apo is the highest mountain in
distinguish them from others. the Philippines.
 Could never remain static, it is 8. Cagayan River is the longest river of
constantly changing. the Philippines.
E. Geography 9. Laguna de Bay is the largest lake.
 Literally means, “Earth’s 10. Taal Volcano could be considered
description” as the World’s smallest volcano.
 The science, which treats of the C. The Name “Philippines”
world and its inhabitants. 1. MA-YI (The Land of Gold)
2. MANIOLAS (Claudius Ptolemy)
3. ARCHIPELAGO OF ST. LAZARUS • BUWIS (tributes) were paid to the
(Ferdinand Magellan) Chieftain in the form of crops.
4. LAS PHELIPINAS (Ruy Lopez de • According to the texts of the Chinese
Villalobos) Merchants who traded in the
5. FILIPINAS (Spanish Era) Philippines, Pre-
6. PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (American Era) Colonial Filipinos were HONEST. They
7. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES (1946) pay their debts even if a year had
D. Origin of the Philippines already passed.
1. PANGAEA (Land Bridges) B. Inter-Baranganic Relations
2. Bottom of the Sea • Consisted in carrying on commerce
3. Volcanic Eruptions between barangays and in agreements
III. Basic Facts: Filipinos concerning
 They are unique in the world for they friendship and alliance.
have four intermingled cultures – Latin, • Treaty of Friendship and Alliance was
European, American and Asian. concluded by SANDUGUAN, making the
 But basically, they are still Malays. contracting parties “blood-brothers”
 aka Pinoy or Pinay • Causes of Wars:
 The Philippines is the world’s twelfth 1. A man from one barangays went to
most populous country, with a another and was murdered without any
population of 86,241,697 as of 2005 obvious
 Character traits of Filipinos: cause;
1. Hospitable 2. Kidnapping the wives of men
2. Close Family Ties belonging to another barangays;
3. Respect for Elders 3. Maltreatment of men of one
4. Fatalistic: “Bahala Na” barangays by men of another
5. Tardy: “Filipino Time” barangays.
6. Indolent • Resolution of the conflict was brought
7. Curious: “Uzi” about by force.
8. Debt of Gratitude: “Utang na Loob” C. Laws
IV. Pre-Colonial Philippines • Either Customary or Written.
A. Government: BARANGAY • Customary laws were handed down
• Came from the word BALANGAY, ORALLY from generation to generation
meaning a boatload of people. and
• The unit of government consisting of constituted the bulk of the laws of the
30 to 100 families barangays.
• Each barangay was independent from • Written laws were those that the
one another, thus there was NO central chieftain and the elders promulgated
government. from time to time
• Ruled by a Chieftain (Datu, Lakan, as necessity arose.
Sultan, etc.) whose primary duty was to • Ex. CODE OF KALANTIYAW
rule and − 1433: Datu Kalantiyaw, third chief of
govern his subjects and to promote Panay, probably a descendant of Datu
their welfare and interests. They were Sumakwel.
advised by the − He issued orders for the guidance of
ELDERS. his people.
• The chief exercised all the functions • Many of the written laws were
of government – executive, legislative destroyed by the early Spanish
and judicial, missionaries and many
sometimes even religious. more destroyed by the elements.
• The subjects served their chieftain • The laws, customary and written,
during wars and voyages and helped dealt with various subjects such as
him in tilling and inheritance, divorce,
sowing of the land and in the partnership, crime and punishment,
construction of his house. property rights, family relations,
adoption and loans.
• How a Law was made: − Wielded tremendous influence in the
1. Elders of the Community were called barangay
by the Chief and tell them what was in − Enjoyed rights that were not usually
his enjoyed by the other members of
mind. society
2. The elders either approve or 2. Freemen (Timawa)
disapprove the plan. − Includes the dependents who had
3. If approved, the chief then made the earned their freedom
necessary regulations or rules. 3. Dependents (Alipin)
4. The elders immediately approve of − Acquired his low status by:
such rules. o Inheritance;
5. The UMALOHOKAN, will be o By captivity in war;
summoned and ordered to go around o By failing to pay his debts;
the barangay o By purchase; or
to announce the promulgation of the o By committing a crime for which he
new rules and regulations. was duly sentenced
6. The umalohokan called the attention − Gradations among dependents:
of the subjects by ringing the bell that o Full dependent – the son or daughter
he of dependent parents
had with him. o Half-dependent – the son or daughter
7. The people gathered around him and of parents, one of whom was full
heard from him the provisions of the dependent and the other a freeman
new o Quarter-dependent – the son or
law. daughter of parents, one of whom was
8. The law is effective immediately. a
Anybody violating the law was promptly half dependent and the other a
arrested and brought before the freeman.
chieftain to be judged according to the
− Types of Dependents:
merits of the
a) Aliping Namamahay
 Had his own family and house
D. Judicial Process: TRIAL-BY-
 Served his master during planting
and harcest seasons
E. Status of Pre-Colonial Women
 Rowed for the master
 Enjoyed a unique position in society
 Helped in the construction of the
 Customary laws gave them the right
master’s house
to be equal to men
 Served the visitors of the master
1. They could own and inherit property
b) Aliping Sagigilid
2. Engage in trade and industry
 Had no property of his own
3. Succeed to the chieftainship of a
 Lived with his master
barangay in the absence of a male heir
 Could not marry without the
 Had the exclusive right to give
master’s consent
names to their children
V. Pre-Colonial Communities
 As a sign of deep respect, the men,
A. Igorot
accompanying women, walked behind
 People of the Mountains (Cordilleras)
 Headhunters
Social Classes
 Miners
 Lines drawn between classes were
 Cañao
not hard; any member of the social
 Cabunian; Ancestral Worship
classes could go
 Mummification
up or down the social ladder depending
B. Pintados
upon the attendant circumstances.
 Tattooed warriors (Batuk)
1. Nobles (Maharlika)
 Panay
− Consists of the chiefs and their  Decorative Dentistry: Sangka and
families Pusad
 Skull Moulding
C. Buranuns  He was killed by a Filipino Chief, Raja
 Sulu Lapu-Lapu
 Islam  The Magellan Expedition established
−1380: Mudum the following:
−1390: Raja Baginda 1. Europeans learned the existence of
−1450: Abu Bakr ~ Paramisuli the Philippines;
−Serif Kabungsuan 2. It proved that the Earth is round;
 Traders 3. It established the vastness of the
Pacific Ocean;
−Orang Dampuans (Men from Champa)
4. It proved that the East Indies could
−Banjarmasins (Men from Banjar)
be reached by crossing the pacific;
−Chinese (Sung/Ming) 5. It showed that the Americas were
Wedding Ceremony
really separated from Asia.
−Betrothal D. Ruy Lopez de Villalobos
−Dowry  The second explorer who went to the
−Wedding Festival Philippines
VI. The Coming of the Spaniards  Butuan
A. 15th Century: Renaissance Period  His greatest contribution was the
 the period of Exploration naming of the country, LAS PHELIPINAS
 Gospel, Gold and Glory in honor of
 Portugal vs. Spain King Philip II
 Spice Race E. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
B. Treaty of Tordesillas  The most successful of all the three
 This agreement was the Church’s conquerors
solution to the endless competition  He accomplished an almost bloodless
between the 2 conquest in the Philippines
Christian nations.  He became the First Governor-
 The Kings of Portugal and Spain, with General of the Philippines
Pope Alexander VI’s blessing, signed an F. Reduccion Bajo El Son dela
agreement that divides the world Campana
between the two countries  Resettlement Under the Sound of the
 All countries lying to the east belongs Bell
to the King of Portugal (Africa, India and  A “civilizing” device to make the
Brazil) Filipinos ultimate “little brown
 All countries to the west belonged to Spaniards”
the King of Spain (‘New World”)  All new Christian converts were
C. Ferdinand Magellan required to construct their houses
 He REDISCOVERED the Philippines around the Church and
 He was a Portuguese who the unbaptized were invited to do the
approached the Spanish King, Charles V same.
because his plan to VII. Spanish Institutions
sail west was rejected by the King of A. Political System
Portugal. KING of SPAIN
 He was given a fleet of 5 ships: SAN MINISTRY OF COLONIES
ANTONIO (abandoned the mission), (Consejo de las Indias)
 The ships Trinidad, Concepcion and CABEZA DE BARANGAY
Victoria reached the Philippines in  King of Spain – the supreme ruler
March 16, 1521. and law maker of all Spanish
But only Victoria was able to go back to possessions
 Met a few Chiefs such as Raja
 Ministry of Colonies – governs all
Spanish possessions; oversees the
Humabon and Raja Sula
colonies of the
Spanish empire.  Visita (Specific and General)
 Gobernador-General – the and Residencia - Judicial Review;
spokesman and representative of the checks the abuses of government
King in the Philippines. officials
 Functions of the Gobernador- B. Amalgamation of the Church and
General: State
1. The Commander-in-Chief of the Army C. Economic System
and Navy; 1. buwis (tribute) ~ cedula personal
2. The President of the Real Audiencia (1885)
(Supreme Court);  Tax Exemptions:
3. The Vice-Real Patron; o Descendants of the Filipino chiefly
4. The source of Civil Power. class who participated during
 Alcalde Mayor – heads the the pacification campaigns of early
PACIFIED provinces conquistadores
o Laborers in the arsenal/ artillery yard
 Corregidores – heads the of Cavite
UNPACIFIED provinces o Mediquillos (Filipinos with medical
 Functions of the Alcalde Mayor experience but no title)
and Corregidores: o Vaccinators
1. Judge; o College and University students of
2. Inspector of Encomiendas; Sto. Tomas, San Jose, San
3. Chief of Police; Juan de Letran and San Carlos of Cebu
4. Tribute Collector; 2. bandala
5. Vice-Regal Patron; 3. polo y servicio personal
6. Captain-General of the Province  polista: male; 16-60 y/o; 60 days (15
 Gobernadorcillo - the highest days: 1885)
position that a Filipino could attain  falla
- also referred to as the Little Governor 4. encomienda (royal and private)
 Qualifications to be a  encomendero
Gobernadorcillo: 5. Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade
1. Any Filipino or Chinese Mestizo; D. Social Transformation
2. at least 25 years old; 1. Language
3. Literate in Oral or Written Spanish; 2. Compadrazgo (ritual co-parenthood)
4. Had been a Cabeza de Barangay for E. Educational Transformation
4 years. 1. “Spare the Rod, Spoil the Child”
 Duties of the Gobernadorcillo: 2. compulsory education
1. Preparation of the Padron (tribute F. Filipinos Not Totally Hispanized
list); VIII. From Indio to Filipino: The Rise
2. Recruitment and Distribution of Men of Filipino Nationalism
for draft labor, communal public work A. Categories of Revolts
and 1. Personal Motives:
the quinto; a. Political led by former Datus
3. Postal Clerk; b. Religious led by Babaylans
4. Judge in civil suits involving P44.00 2. Resistance to oppressive Spanish-
or less. introduced economic as well as
 Cabeza de Barangay – heads the religious
barrio government institutions
 Responsibilities of the Cabeza 3. Mindanao Resisitance
de Barangay: a. Moro Wars (1718-1762; 1850-1878)
1. Tax and Distributions Collector for B. Failure of Revolts
the gobernadorcillo; 1. Insular Makeup of the Philippines
2. Responsible for the peace and order  No Sense of National Unity
in his own barrio;  Communication Gap (No Lingua
3. Recruited Polistas for communal Franca)
public works. 2. Inferior Weapons/ Lack of Weapons
C. Filipino Nationalism:  The Political Analyst of the Filipino
Accelerators Colony in Spain
1. The Philippines in World Commerce  Founded the Diariong Tagalog
2. Rise of Class Media  Dec. 1889, he took over the
3. European Liberalism and Carlos editorship of the Sol and became the
Maria de la Torre moving spirit
4. Racial Discrimination behind the Reform Movement
5. Regular-Secular Conflicts ~ Cavite  Dr. Jose Rizal
Mutiny  National Hero
IX. The Reform Movement  Wrote his first poem at age 8
a. Filipino Middle Class  Wrote two great novels: Noli and Fili
 Rose to a position of power in the  Died as a martyr in Bagumbayan
Filipino Community E. La Solidaridad
 Spanish authorities looked down  The Official Organ of the Reform
upon them Movement
 The “natives”, on the other hand,  The paper was dedicated to:
looked at them with suspicion  Expose the conditions in the
 They were looking for a place in the Philippines;
sun  Defend the Filipinos against
B. Assimilation accomplished in a malicious and slanderous attacks of the
peaceful manner hired writers
C. Nature of the Reform Movement of the friars; and
 The reformists (propagandists)  Publish studies about the Philippines
believed in the power of words and not and the Filipinos
of the  In writing for the Sol, the Reformists
sword to achieve their purpose used pen names for obvious reasons:
 There was NO clamor for 1. JOSE RIZAL: Dimas Alang; Laong
independence; the reformists believed Laan
that the 2. MARIANO PONCE: Tikbalang; Naning;
Filipinos would be better off if they Kalipulako
were to become Spanish Citizens. 3. ANTONIO LUNA: Taga-ilog
 As Spanish Citizens: 4. MH del PILAR: Plaridel
1. Representation in the Spanish 5. JOSE MA. PANGANIBAN: Jomapa
Cortes: Filipinos could propose and  Accomplishments of the Sol:
participate  It represented the ideals of the
in the approval of laws beneficial to the Filipino Reformist Group;
country.  It exposed the evils in the Philippine
2. Immunity from abuses Society;
3. Freedom from paying unreasonable  It belied the claim that Filipinos had
taxes. no civilization before the coming of
D. The Great Reformists Spaniards.
 Only a few of the sons of the F. Hispano-Filipino Association
wealthy Filipinos that went to Spain  Composed of Filipinos and Spaniards
joined the who favored the granting of reforms in
Propaganda Movement the
 They were those who were colony.
concerned of their country  To make the propaganda work
 Graciano Lopez-Jaena effective, the society was divided into 3
 The GREAT ORATOR sections:
 Wrote FRAY BOTOD which deals with  The POLITICAL Section under M.H.
the ignorance, abuses and immorality del Pilar
of a  The LITERARY Section under Mariano
friar named Botod Ponce
 Founded the La Solidaridad (Sol)  The SPORTS Section under Tomas
 Marcelo Hilario del Pilar Arejola
 They believed that the reforms −the conservatives which pledged to
needed in the Philippines were: continue supporting the La
 The compulsory teaching of Spanish Solidaridad
in all schools; −It lasted only for a few months for its
 The suppression of inhuman members, though patriotic, were
punishment in all jails and tribunals of passive and too conservative to make
justice; the society an effective medium of
 The establishment of a civil registrar the Propaganda.
and the register of deeds;  Katipunan
 The abolition of unfair taxes; −A secret society of radicals led by
 The establishment of secondary Bonifacio
schools in the archipelago; −Organized on the very day Rizal was
 Reforms in UST in order to raise it to deported to Dapitan.
the rank of the universities in Spain; H. Causes of the Failure of the
 The establishment of agricultural Reform Movement
banks;  Spain was too pre-occupied with its
 The initiation of reforms in the public own internal problems to give a
administration; and thought to
 The construction of good roads and the Colonial Problem.
G. La Liga Filipina
 The Friars were too powerful even
in Spain. The Sol was counteracted by
 A civic society founded by Rizal
 Aims:
influential and powerful newspaper of
 To unite the whole archipelago into
the friars, the LA POLITICA DE
one compact, vigorous and
 The movement has no sufficient
 Mutual protection in every want and
means to carry out their aims;
 The propagandists were divided
 Defense against all violence and
against themselves by petty jealousies.
Although the Reform Movement was a
 Encouragement of instruction,
failure in the achievement of its goals,
agriculture and commerce;
it was still a success for
 Study and application of reforms.
its failure led to the founding of the
 At first the Liga was quite active.
Revolutionary Katipunan with separatist
Bonifacio in particular exerted great
efforts to
organize chapters in various districts of
 A few months later, however, the
Supreme Council of the Liga dissolved
 The reformist leaders found out that
most of the councils were no longer
to send funds to the Madrid
 This was because they had become
convinced that peaceful agitation for
reforms was futile.
 The Liga membership split into two
 Cuerpo de Compromisarios:

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