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STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE: Fire Protection and Fire Life Safety Design Requirements

SOP REFERENCE NUMBER


RM-Fire-002
SOP DATE: 10/AUG/2009
EFFECTIVE DATE: 01/OCTOBER/2015
REVISED DATE: 21/OCTOBER/2015, Rev. 9.7

DEPARTMENTS IMPACTED: Architecture & Construction, Development, Engineering


APPLICABLE DIVISIONS: Global
APPLICABLE PROPERTY TYPE: All

APPLICABLE OWNERSHIP: All


APPLICABLE BRAND(S): All

SOP AUTHOR: Michael J. Rzeznik, Global Safety & Security


SOP CONTRIBUTORS/EDITORIAL TEAM: Bob Libby, Coffman Engineers, Inc.
Byron Briese, Coffman Engineers, Inc.
SOP APPROVER:
Paul Frederick, Global Safety & Security
David Marshall, Legal
Theresa Taylor, Legal

1. General

1.1. Goals:
This document provides owners and designers of Starwood properties with minimum fire protection and fire life
safety requirements intended to comprise a comprehensive program to protect our guests, employees,
responding firefighting personnel, and assets in the event of a fire or similar emergency. Nothing in this
document is intended to prevent, restrict, or relieve property owners or designers from implementing more
restrictive requirements intended to provide additional levels of fire protection and life safety, where appropriate.
Additional fire and life safety measures should be evaluated, on a performance basis, particularly for unique
properties, and properties with limited emergency response access and resources.

1.2. Scope:
These Fire Protection and Fire Life Safety Design requirements apply to all Starwood brands globally, including
owned, managed, joint ventures, and franchised properties. The requirements apply to all new build hotels,
existing hotel facilities undergoing brand conversions, change of ownership, or renewal of franchise or
management agreements, acquisitions, additions, and properties undergoing major renovations that may
include one or more of the following; fire protection system replacements, egress system modifications, and
change of use for areas of 1,000 square feet (93 square meters) or greater.

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RM-Fire-002

These requirements are subject to review and may change for reasons such as code advancements,
technology advancements or for other reasons at the sole discretion of Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide,
Inc.

Conflict with Local Code & Exemptions

In some instances these requirements may exceed local jurisdictional requirements. Conforming to a less
stringent code requirement will not be a reason for an exemption from Starwoods Requirements. Where the
requirements of local jurisdictions and these requirements are in conflict, the more stringent requirements shall
apply.

Requests for exemptions may result in Starwood Safety and Security requiring a third party engineering
consultant of its choice to visit the location and undertake an engineering review of the requested alternative
design approach. If an exemption is granted based on the engineering review, additional mitigating measures
may be required. All costs associated with this assessment will be borne by the owner and/or developer. These
costs are in addition to those associated with the submittal process.

All exemptions/variances, including those that require approval by local authorities having jurisdiction shall be
identified, developed and submitted for approval to Starwood Safety and Security as early as practicable in the
design process, but no later than the design development phase, for new builds, additions, and renovations. All
exemptions (waivers/alternate compliance) are temporary and can be revoked at any time at the sole discretion
of Starwood Safety and Security.

1.3. Definitions
1.3.1. Accessible Rooms; For US properties, accessible rooms should meet the requirements of the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA). Outside of the United States (US) an accessible room would equate to a Handicapped
Accessible Room using appropriate regional and local standards.
1.3.2. Atrium: An opening connecting more than two stories.
1.3.3. Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ): The local individual, persons, or organization responsible for enforcing the
codes and standards and for providing approvals
1.3.4. Back of House (BOH): Includes areas not generally used by the public, including, but not limited to kitchens,
storerooms, maintenance areas, offices, laundry, and employee break rooms.
1.3.5. Emergency Lighting: Lighting that activates within 10 seconds, is sufficient to provide an average one foot-
candle (10.8 lux) at the floor, and maintains that intensity for at least 1.5 hours.
1.3.6. Panic Hardware: A door latching assembly that releases the latch bolt upon application of force in the direction
of egress travel.
1.3.7. Smoke Alarm: A single or multiple station device for the sensing of smoke which sounds an alarm within the
sleeping or dwelling unit in order to notify the person(s) within the unit, and annunciates at an annunciator panel
located at a constantly attended location staffed by hotel personnel.
1.3.8. Smoke Detector: A device for sensing the products of combustion that receives its power and control from a fire
alarm control panel and when activated, initiates a building fire alarm.
1.3.9. Smoke proof Enclosure: An exit stairway designed to limit products of combustion into the enclosure.

.
1.4. Variances
1.4.1. All departures from applicable codes and standards identified in this document shall be specifically noted in a
narrative prepared for and communicated to Starwood Safety and Security, with written documentation of local
authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) approval for such variances.

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1.4.1.1. All communications and written documentation shall be in the English language. If original
documentation is not in English, a certified translation accompanying the original document shall be
submitted.

1.4.1.2. All departures from Starwood Fire Protection and Life Safety Requirements shall similarly be
documented and submitted for approval to Starwood Safety and Security using the Starwood Fire & Life
Safety Alternative Design Request Form (Appendix 2).

1.4.1.3. Any subsequent changes shall require resubmittal and approval by Starwood Safety and Security.

1.5. US Codes, Standards and References


Properties located within the US shall be subject to the technical provisions of the following technical codes and
standards, in addition to applicable local state, county, and city requirements.

1.5.1. International Building and Fire Codes (ICC) www.ICCSafe.org

1.5.2. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) www.NFPA.org

NFPA 10 Standard for Portable Fire Extinguishers


NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems
NFPA 14 Standard for the Installation of Standpipes and Hose Systems
NFPA 17A Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 20 Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection
NFPA 24 Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances
NFPA 70 National Electrical Code
NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code
NFPA 75 Standard for the Protection of Information Technology Equipment
NFPA 96 Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations
NFPA 101 Life Safety Code
NFPA 110 Standard for Emergency and Standby Power Systems
NFPA 111 Standard on Stored Electrical Energy Emergency and Standby Power Systems
NFPA 720 Standard for the Installation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detection and Warning Equipment
NFPA 750 Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems

1.5.3. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) www.UL.com

All fire protection equipment and assemblies shall be labeled/listed by Underwriters Laboratories Inc. as
published in the UL Fire Protection Equipment Directory. Building construction materials and fire resistive
designs shall be in accordance with UL Fire Resistance Directory and UL Building Materials Directory, or
equivalent.

An acceptable alternative to the Underwriters Laboratories labeling/listing includes approval by Factory Mutual
(FM) www.fmglobal.com

1.6. International Standards and References


1.6.1. Non-US properties shall comply with the codes and standards enumerated in Section 1.5. Prevailing local
requirements may be used as long as performance and reliability consistent with this Standard are maintained.
Technical equivalence shall be determined by Starwood Safety and Security.

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1.6.2. Examples of acceptable codes and standards include (but are not limited to)

1.6.2.1. Eurocodes

1.6.2.2. EN Standards

1.6.2.3. British Standards

1.6.2.4. China National Standards

1.6.2.5. Japan National Codes

1.6.2.6. Korean National Codes

1.7. Performance Based Life Safety Design


1.7.1. Where allowed by local AHJs, performance based life safety design may be utilized as an alternate to nationally
recognized prescriptive codes and standards.

1.7.2. An internationally recognized performance standard guideline must be utilized, such as the methodology
prescribed by the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE).

1.7.3. All performance based design approaches must be specifically approved by Starwood Safety & Security.

1.8. Documentation Requirements (plan sets, calculations, equipment data)


1.8.1. All properties shall maintain the following documentation regarding installed fire protection features:
As-built drawings of all fire protection systems.
Sequence of operation for fire alarm and mechanical smoke control systems.
Up-to-date inspection, testing and maintenance records.
Fire protection and life safety narrative, including attachments of applicable exemptions and variances to
local and Starwood Requirements, if applicable.
A copy of the design documents as approved and stamped by the AHJ.

2. Fire Suppression

2.1. Automatic Suppression: Automatic fire suppression shall be installed in all areas of all buildings with the
following exceptions:

2.1.1. Buildings where the highest occupied floor level is not more than 82 feet (25 m) above the lowest level of fire
department vehicle access, where allowed by local codes and standards, and as specifically approved by
Starwood Safety and Security.

2.1.2. Small out buildings less than 100 square feet (9.3 m2) and other out buildings that are not critical to business
operations.

2.1.3. Adjacent tenant spaces in mixed use developments separated by two - hour fire resistive construction, as
approved in writing by the AHJ and authorized by Starwood Safety and Security. Not applicable to parking
structures.

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2.1.4. Parking structures for passenger vehicles that (1) are not located under the hotel, (2) are at least 50% open to
the exterior, and (3) are either separated from the hotel by 2-hour fire resistance rated construction, by a
minimum of 30 feet (9 m), by a sprinkler system designed for exterior exposure protection per NFPA 13 or an
alternative design approved by Starwood Safety & Security, and the local AHJ, if required.

2.1.5. Clothes closets, linen closets, and pantries less than 24 square feet (2.2 m2) and constructed of noncombustible
materials.

2.1.6. Guestroom bathrooms that do not exceed 55 square feet (5.1 m2) with non-combustible construction and limited
combustible contents.

2.2. Water Supply Requirements: Water supply tests shall be conducted to determine the available water
supply to the property.

2.2.1. A reliable water supply providing a minimum of 30 minutes of demand is required.

2.2.2. The hydraulic calculations for minimum design pressure shall be based on recent water supply test data with a
10% safety factor, but need not be greater than 10 pounds per square inch(psi) (0.69 bar).

2.3. Automatic Sprinklers


2.3.1. Wet pipe automatic sprinklers shall be provided in all areas, including combustible void spaces. Areas subject
to freezing shall incorporate dry pipe systems or listed dry sprinklers, where appropriate. Antifreeze and heat
tracing are not permitted, but may remain in place in existing buildings where installed in accordance with all
requirements of NFPA 13.

2.3.2. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be hydraulically designed by qualified licensed fire protection professionals.

2.3.3. All new systems and renovations shall utilize quick response sprinklers (sprinklers with a listed response time
index (RTI) of 50 (ft. sec) 1/2 (35 (m sec) 1/2 or lower) in all light hazard areas included in the affected area.

2.3.4. Guestroom sprinklers in new builds and renovations shall be concealed, institutional type or otherwise designed
to resist tampering or misuse.

2.3.5. Melt-away or drop-out ceiling tiles are not permitted.

2.3.6. Locate sprinklers so they are coordinated with interior design to minimize coverage obstructions.

2.3.7. Sprinklers should be suited for the environment.

2.3.8. Wax coated or corrosion resistant sprinklers must be used in pools, spas, saunas, pool equipment rooms and
other corrosive environments.

2.3.9. For sprinklers located in unconditioned spaces in high humidity or salt air environments, nickel-plated or
corrosion resistant sprinklers must be utilized.

2.3.10.Sprinklers shall be located at the top and bottom and at alternate floors in linen chutes. Where lined linen
chutes are provided in compliance with NFPA 82 and permitted by the AHJ, sprinklers may be omitted.

2.3.11.Sprinklers shall be located at 10 foot (3 m) intervals in kitchen exhaust ducts greater than 75 feet (23 m).

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2.3.12.Inspector test connections shall be located in back of house areas, accessible from the floor, and clearly
identified. Inspector test connections located on stair landings where the drains are extended to the exterior are
acceptable. Inspectors test connection drains shall be extended to the exterior within 18 inches (450 mm) of the
ground to prevent staining of the building exterior, exterior pavement, or damage landscaping.

2.3.13.All sprinkler and standpipe control and isolation valves are to have tamper switches that provide a supervisory
signal at the fire alarm control panel. Primary sprinkler and standpipe control valves serving as the main
connection to the systems from the water supply shall additionally be located in a secure, locked location, or
otherwise also be chained in the open position.

2.3.14.Sprinkler piping shall be ferrous or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), and in compliance with the standards
included in the Table below:

Material Dimensions Standard


Ferrous Piping (Welded and Seamless)
Specification for Black and ASTM A 795
Hot-Dipped Zinc-Coated
(Galvanized) Welded and Seamless
Steel Pipe for Fire Protection Use

Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black ANSI/ASTM A 53


and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated,
Welded and Seamless

Wrought Steel Pipe ANSI/ASME B36.10M

Specification for ASTM A 135


Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

Stainless Steel
Specification for Stainless Steel Tubing ASTM A 632
CPVC

Nonmetallic Piping Specification for ASTM B 43


Special Listed Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) Pipe

2.3.15. CPVC piping, if used, shall be installed in a protective enclosure, and according to manufacturers instructions.

2.4. Special Fire Extinguishing Systems

2.4.1. Water Mist: As approved by the AHJ and Starwood Safety and Security, water mist systems complying with
NFPA 750 may be utilized in lieu of automatic sprinklers.

2.4.2. Kitchen Hood and Duct Systems:

2.4.2.1. Fire suppression systems with both manual and automatic activation mechanisms shall be provided for
all indoor cooking operations, where grease-laden vapors are produced.

2.4.2.1.1. New and replacement systems shall be listed or approved wet chemical fire extinguishing
systems, such as those produced by Ansul, Amerex, and Kidde. Dual agent systems, such as

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RM-Fire-002

Ansuls Piranha system, are also permitted when installed per their listing and manufacturers
recommendations.

2.4.2.1.2. Systems shall provide protection for cooking appliances and associated exhaust hood and
plenum.

2.4.2.2. Kitchen exhaust systems shall be constructed of approved non-combustible material that will not leak or
degrade from heat.

2.4.2.2.1. Kitchen hoods and that portion of a primary collection means designed for collecting cooking
vapors and residues shall be constructed of and be supported by steel not less than 0.048 inches
(1.21 mm) (No. 18 Manufacturers Standard Gauge (MSG)) in thickness, stainless steel not less
than 0.036 inches (0.91 mm) (No. 20 MSG) in thickness, or other approved material of equivalent
strength and fire and corrosion resistance.

2.4.2.2.2. All seams, joints, and penetrations of the hood enclosure that direct and capture grease-laden
vapors and exhaust gases shall have a liquid-tight continuous external weld to the hoods lower
outermost perimeter.

2.4.2.2.3. Seams, joints, and penetrations of the hood shall be permitted to be internally welded, provided
that the weld is formed smooth or ground smooth, so as to not trap grease, and is cleanable.

2.4.2.2.4. Internal hood joints, seams, filter support frames, and appurtenances attached inside the hood
shall be sealed or otherwise made grease-tight.

2.4.2.2.5. Penetrations shall be required to be sealed by devices that are listed for such use and whose
presence does not detract from the hoods or ducts structural integrity.

2.4.2.2.6. Listed exhaust hoods with or without exhaust dampers shall be constructed of materials required
by the listing.

2.4.2.2.7. Listed exhaust hoods with or without exhaust dampers shall be permitted to be assembled in
accordance with the listing requirements.

2.4.2.3 Access panels shall be provided to facilitate cleaning of all portions of the system.

2.4.2.4 Kitchen exhaust systems that run through adjoining spaces shall be contained within two hour fire rated
construction, or be provided with equivalent protection.

2.4.2.5 Provide permanent floor markings, caster guides, or other positioning equipment to ensure movable
kitchen cooking equipment is returned to the appropriate extinguishing system design position following
cleaning and maintenance activities.

2.4.3 Data Centers

2.4.3.1 Data centers shall be provided with wet pipe automatic sprinklers unless otherwise prohibited by the local
authority having jurisdiction.

2.4.3.2 If a qualified fire protection engineer deems sprinklers inappropriate for an area, a hazard analysis must
be performed and alternate protection identified and justified. The hazard analysis must be prepared and

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submitted to Starwood Safety and Security, and the local authority having jurisdiction, if appropriate, for
approval no later than the design development phase of design.

2.5 Portable Fire Extinguishers

2.5.1 Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with all local requirements.

2.5.2 Extinguishers located in public areas shall be in recessed readily accessible cabinets, as allowed by the AHJ.

2.6 Standpipes

2.6.1 Standpipes for Fire Department use shall be provided in all buildings greater than two stories, and in
accordance with local AHJ requirements.

2.6.2 Occupant use hose shall not be installed, unless specifically required by the AHJ.

2.7 Fire Pumps

2.7.1 Fire pumps and controllers shall be located above the 100 year flood elevation, and above expected storm
surge levels.

2.7.2 Fire pumps shall be monitored by the main fire alarm control panel.

3. Automatic Detection and Alarm

3.1. Smoke and Fire Detection


3.1.1. All occupied buildings and all buildings essential to the operation of the facility shall be provided with means
to detect products of combustion, initiate evacuation and notify hotel occupants of an incident.

3.1.2. New and retrofit fire detection and alarm signaling systems shall be point addressable, intelligent type
systems with a discrete address for all initiating devices.

3.1.3. Fire alarm control panels shall incorporate the following features:

3.1.3.1. Expansion capabilities to readily incorporate 10% additional initiation, control and notification
circuits and devices.

3.1.3.2. Alarm verification for system type smoke detectors, only as permitted by the AHJ.

3.1.3.3. Report to a Central Station, or to a constantly attended location with trained personnel.

3.1.3.4. Positive alarm sequence operation shall be permitted where allowed by the local authority
having jurisdiction, but the alarm investigation phase for trained personnel shall not exceed a total of
three (3) minutes.

3.1.4. Smoke detection shall be provided in the following locations:

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3.1.4.1. Guestrooms: Provide photoelectric type smoke detectors in each guest sleeping room, and
potential sleeping rooms, such as a room with a sleeper sofa or room for a roll-away bed.
These smoke detectors shall initiate audible (and visible, when applicable) notification in the
guest room, including all associated sleeping rooms, annunciate at the system annunciator
panel, but not activate the building evacuation alarms, unless required by local codes.

3.1.4.2. Enclosed guest room corridors.

3.1.4.3. Elevator lobbies and elevator machine rooms.

3.1.4.4. Computer/PBX, mechanical and electrical rooms.

3.1.4.5. Unoccupied storage rooms.

3.1.4.6. Downstream of filters in Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) units over 2000 cubic
feet per minute (56 cubic meters per minute). Detector shall not initiate building notification
appliances, but shall shut down associated fan unit and be annunciated as a supervisory
condition. Duct detectors are not required where full smoke detection is provided, and
associated fan shut down is achieved.

3.1.4.7. In all rooms and spaces for guest occupied unsprinklered buildings.

3.1.4.8. As otherwise required by applicable codes and standards.

3.1.5. Manual fire alarm stations shall be provided at the front desk, or otherwise readily observable and within 25
feet travel distance of the front desk, and at the location as identified in 3.1.3.3. Other locations shall be
provided to meet local code, as required by the AHJ.

3.1.6. Remote alarm indicators shall be provided for any detection devices not readily accessible or observable.
Remote alarm indicators shall be located in a readily observable location for responding fire-fighting
personnel and testing and maintenance staff.

3.1.7. Fire alarm control panels utilized for smoke control operation or as releasing panels for suppression systems
must be listed and/or approved for that use.

3.1.8. For system interfaces, see System Interfaces Section 3.6.

3.2. Notification

3.2.1. Provide voice annunciation in all Starwood properties.

3.2.1.1. The following areas do not require voice annunciation, unless otherwise required by local
codes and standards;

3.2.1.1.1. Separate one story buildings without sleeping quarters and without assembly spaces
(occupant load less than 50 persons).

3.2.1.1.2. Sprinklered buildings where occupied floors of Starwood branded properties are no more
than 82 feet (25 m) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, and
guestrooms are provided with low frequency (520 Hz) sounders.

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3.2.2. Provide audible alarm notification appliances (speakers for voice annunciation systems) in each guest room
and potential sleeping rooms, such as a room with a sleeper sofa or room for a roll-away bed, within the
guest room, guest suite, or apartment, to achieve 75 dB sound level at the pillow.

3.2.2.1. Where the guest room or space is a suite with multiple sleeping rooms, an audible alarm
notification appliance shall be provided in each sleeping room, designed so that all
notifications in a suite are tied together.

3.2.2.2. Activation of general building or floor notification appliances shall activate all required
notification appliances in guest rooms.

3.2.2.3. New builds and replacement systems shall utilize low frequency (520 Hz) sounders in
sleeping rooms. Where voice annunciation is required by 3.2.1, a low frequency signal is
required prior to voice instructions.

3.2.3. For public areas, provide audible appliances capable at least 15dB above ambient levels.

3.2.4. Voice instructions shall be intelligible and in the local language and English at a minimum.

3.2.5. Provide hearing impaired notification features in accordance with local accessible room requirements.

3.3. Elevator Recall/Shunt Trip

3.3.1. Unless expressly prohibited by local codes and standards, the fire alarm system shall initiate elevator recall
to the floor of primary egress. An alternate floor shall be designated if the floor of egress elevator lobby
smoke detector is activated. Refer to Appendix 1. Fire Alarm Sequence of Operations Matrix.

3.3.2. Heat detectors shall be provided in sprinklered elevator machine rooms to shunt trip power to elevators, prior
to sprinkler activation. Heat detectors shall be mounted within two feet of the machine room sprinklers, and
be of a lower temperature rating.

3.4. Carbon Monoxide Detection: Install carbon monoxide (CO) detectors with sounder bases that are
monitored by the building fire alarm system control panel in all areas containing fuel burning appliances,
including, but not limited to, gas fire places, gas stoves, and wood-burning fireplaces. Listed combination
devices are permitted.

3.5. Emergency/Mass Communication: Consideration shall be given to providing additional emergency


messaging capabilities for areas with severe weather threats, natural disaster threats or security threats.

3.6. System Interfaces


3.6.1. The fire alarm sequence of operations matrix shall be submitted as part of the fire alarm system design
documents.

3.6.2. All suppression systems, including kitchen hood systems and special extinguishing systems shall be
monitored by the fire alarm control panel.

3.6.3. Fire pumps and emergency generators shall be monitored by the fire alarm control panel.

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3.6.4. The following auxiliary functions shall be initiated automatically when the associated equipment is provided.
Refer to Appendix 1 for specific sequencing.

3.6.4.1. Turn off gas or power to cooking systems when kitchen hood fire extinguishing systems are activated.

3.6.4.2. Unlock doors in required means of egress paths that are locked using electric locks for security
purposes.

3.6.4.3. Release fire doors that are magnetically held in the open position.

3.6.4.4. Initiate required smoke management systems, such as atria exhaust and stair pressurization systems.

3.6.4.5. Shut down associated HVAC units.

3.6.4.6. Initiate elevator recall and shutdown per Appendix 1.

3.6.4.7. Initiate shut down of music systems that may interfere with fire alarm notification.

4. Means of Egress

4.1. General Requirements: A minimum of two paths of egress shall be provided from every level, and from
any room with an occupant load of 50 or more persons.

4.1.1. In sprinklered buildings four or less stories, one exit is permissible provided all of the following are met:

4.1.1.1. There are four or less rooms or suites per level

4.1.1.2. Stairs are enclosed in minimum one hour fire rated construction, with minimum one hour opening
protection, or open to the atmosphere.

4.1.1.3. Travel distance from the guest room door to the exit does not exceed 50 feet (15 m).

4.1.1.4. Guest rooms are separated vertically and horizontally by a minimum of one hour fire rated construction.

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4.2. Occupant Load: Occupant load shall be calculated based on the following table:

Use Square feet per person Square meters per person

Assembly standing room (pre-function 5 0.47


areas)

Assembly concentrated (chairs only) 7 0.65

Assembly less concentrated (tables and 15 1.4


chairs)

Fitness Center 50 4.6

Hotel guest room areas 200 18.6

Kitchens 100 9.3

Mechanical/Storage 300 27.9

Pools 50 4.6

Pool decks 30 2.8

Shops/retail 30 2.8

4.3. Exit Width: Minimum exit widths shall be provided as follows:


4.3.1. Stairs 44 inches (1120 mm)

4.3.1.1. Existing stairs serving less than 50 persons 36 inches (915 mm)

4.3.2. Level travel and doors - 32 inches (810 mm)

4.3.2.1. Doors in existing buildings and those areas not required to be accessible by the mobility impaired - 28
inches (610 mm)

4.4. Exit Capacity: Exit capacity shall be determined as follows:

4.4.1. Stairs 0.3 inches (7.6 mm) per person

4.4.2. Level travel and doors - 0.2 inches (5 mm) per person

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RM-Fire-002

4.5. Exit Arrangements


4.5.1. Exits shall be remote as possible, but located no less than the diagonal distance of the room or floor served
for non-sprinklered buildings, and 1/3 the diagonal distance of the room or floor served for sprinklered buildings.

4.5.2. Travel distances shall not exceed the following:

Sprinklered Non-sprinklered

Within a guestroom or suite to the corridor 125 feet (38 m) 75 feet (23 m)

From a guestroom corridor door to an exit 150 feet (45 m) 100 feet(30 m)

Total travel distance to an exit 250 feet (75 m) 200 feet (60 m)

Maximum dead end corridor 50 feet (15 m) 35 feet (10 m)

Common Path of Travel 50 feet (15 m) 35 feet (10 m)

4.6. Handrails and Guards


4.6.1. Handrails shall be provided on both sides of required egress stairs 44 inches (1.2 m) or wider.

4.6.2. Handrails shall be between 34 inches (0.8 m) and 38 inches (1 m) above tread surface.

4.6.3. Guards shall be provided when walking surface is more than 30 inches (0.75 m) above grade. This requirement
is not applicable along the edge of loading docks and stages.

4.6.4. Guards shall be not less than 42 inches (1.1 m) high.

4.6.5. Guards (except in enclosed exit stairs) must have rails or a pattern designed to minimize the ability to climb and
be designed such that a 4 inch (100 mm) sphere cannot pass through.

4.7. Special Locking Arrangements

4.7.1. Egress doors must be operable without the use of any special device or knowledge.

4.7.2. Egress hardware that does not require more than a single, simple action to operate (often referred to as panic
hardware in the US) shall be required for any door with a latch serving 100 or more persons.

4.7.3. Electrically controlled access doors must open upon activation of the fire alarm system, loss of normal power
and via a manual override.

4.8. Exit Signage


4.8.1. Exits and exit access shall be provided with visible exit signage.

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RM-Fire-002

4.8.2. Exit signs shall be lit internally or externally at all times.

4.8.3. Emergency power shall be provided for a minimum of 90 minutes.

4.9. Emergency Lighting

4.9.1. The average lighting at the floor under emergency lighting conditions shall be 1 foot candle (10.8 lux), unless
higher levels are required by applicable codes.

4.9.2. Emergency lighting shall be provided at a minimum in all public spaces, including the following areas:

Exit paths, including exit signs not internally illuminated.


Administrative offices
Computer/Security Equipment Room
Employee Locker & Break Rooms
Engineering & Maintenance Offices
Fitness Center
Front Desk
Kitchens
Laundry
Mechanical, Electrical, and Elevator Machine Rooms
Meeting Rooms, Ballrooms, Exhibit Halls
Pool
Public Rest Rooms
Telephone Equipment Rooms

4.9.3. In addition to emergency lighting supplied by the building emergency power supply, battery operated emergency
lighting units shall be provided in the following areas:

Front Desk
Emergency Power Supply/Generator Room
Main Electrical Switchgear Room
Computer/Security Equipment Room
Restaurants at cash registers

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RM-Fire-002

5. Smoke Control Requirements and Methods

5.1. Smoke Proof Enclosures

5.1.1. Smoke proof enclosures shall be provided for required exit stairs in buildings where the highest occupied floor
level is greater than 82 feet (25 m) above fire fighter vehicle access. Smoke proof enclosures may utilize
mechanical ventilation, natural ventilation, or enclosure pressurization methods.

5.2. Atriums

5.2.1. Where exiting is provided through atria, a smoke exhaust system shall be provided.

5.2.1.1. Mechanical exhaust shall be provided.

5.2.1.2. Fans shall be sized to provide a minimum of 10 air changes per hour, or

5.2.1.3. Fans shall be sized utilizing a rational analysis provided by a registered design professional to maintain a
smoke layer no less than 6 feet (1.8 m) above the egress path. An independent review of the rational
analysis shall be provided for approval by Starwood Safety & Security.

6. Emergency Power

6.1. Requirements

6.1.1. Emergency power systems shall supply the emergency lighting and other systems as identified in this section
and by applicable codes and standards to maintain minimum operations during a power outage.

6.1.2. Emergency power systems shall be adequate to operate at full load for a minimum of 12 hours. However, in
areas where commercial power is not reliable, or in areas that have a history of catastrophic events, a fuel load
of 24 hours should be considered.

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STARWOOD HOTELS & RESORTS WORLDWIDE OPERATING PROCEDURE (cont.) Page 16 of 19
RM-Fire-002

6.1.3. Emergency power is required for all buildings as indicated in the table below.

Condition Emergency Power Required


A Occupied Floor greater than 75 feet (23 m) Yes
above lowest level of fire fighter access.
B Located in a 250 year earthquake zone per Yes
FM Global maps, within 75 miles (121 km)
of coastal areas, and/or flood zone.
C Electric fire pump Yes
D Located in an area with a history of floods, Yes
power interruptions, or subject to other
naturally occurring hazards
E Has assembly spaces greater than 500 Yes
persons located above or below the level
of exit discharge
F Located in a mixed-use building Yes
G Has active variances approved by the local Possibly (as determined by Starwood Safety &
AHJ and/or Starwood Safety & Security Security)
H Small, unoccupied out-buildings No
I Individual bungalows. No.

6.1.4. Emergency power supply equipment, e.g., generators, central battery systems, uninterrupted power supplies,
shall be located above the 100 year flood elevation, and above expected storm surge levels.

6.1.5. Emergency power shall provide power for the following systems:
Emergency lighting
Telephone system
Computer system
One elevator that serves all floors
Fire alarm system
Building security system including cameras
Electric fire pump, if provided
Water and sewer pumps
Walk-in freezers and walk-in refrigerators
Kitchen hood exhaust systems
Electric outlets at points of sale and all front desk work station outlets for peripherals and key-
encoding equipment
Stair pressurization systems
Smoke control systems

6.1.6. Emergency power supply equipment, e.g., generators, central battery systems, uninterrupted power supplies,
shall be monitored by the main fire alarm control panel.

6.1.7. Load transfer to emergency power shall occur automatically upon loss of normal power. Load transfer shall be
no more than 10 seconds for emergency lighting, and no more than 60 seconds for all other required
emergency circuits.

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STARWOOD HOTELS & RESORTS WORLDWIDE OPERATING PROCEDURE (cont.) Page 17 of 19
RM-Fire-002

7. Other Life Safety Equipment, Systems & Considerations1 2

7.1. Fire Rated Construction: Fire resistive construction shall be in accordance with nationally recognized
codes and standards. At a minimum, the following shall be provided:

Building elements Sprinklered Unsprinklered

Floors, columns, beams and load bearing walls in buildings Non combustible One hour
less than 4 stories

Floors, columns, beams and load bearing walls in buildings 1 hour 2 hours
4 or more stories

Shafts connecting less than 4 stories 1 hour 2 hours

Shafts connecting 4 or more stories 2 hours 2 hours

Trash rooms 1 hour 2 hours

Between guestrooms 1 hour 1 hour required in


existing construction.

2 hours required in new


construction

Guestroom corridors 1 hour 1 hour

( hour rating for


sprinklered buildings
when permitted by local
codes and standards.)

Boiler rooms No rating required in 1 hour required in


existing building existing buildings

1 hour required in new 2 hours required in new


construction. construction.

Laundry facilities No rating required in 1 hour in existing


existing buildings. buildings

1 hour in new 2 hours in new

1 Where the local codes and standards do not recognize the fire resistance ratings indicated in this section, the fire resistance

rating shall be per local code requirements at the discretion of Starwood Safety & Security.
2 In other than new buildings, approximate fire resistance ratings as established by approved third party fire and life safety

consultants may be accepted by Starwood Safety & Security for the purpose of evaluating fire resistance.

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STARWOOD HOTELS & RESORTS WORLDWIDE OPERATING PROCEDURE (cont.) Page 18 of 19
RM-Fire-002

construction construction

No rating required for 1 hour permitted for


guest laundry facilities guest laundry facilities
less than 100 ft2 (9.3 m2) less than 100 ft2 (9.3
located outside of guest m2) located outside of
room or suite in new guest room or suite in
construction. new construction.

Employee Locker Rooms No rating required. 1 hour

Gift or retail shops > 100 ft2 *(9.3 m2) No rating required. 1 hour

Maintenance Shops 1 hour 2 hours

Storage Rooms (no rating is required for storage rooms not No rating required. 1 hour
exceeding 24 ft2 (2.2 m2) and directly accessible from the
guest room).

7.2. Opening Protectives in Fire Rated Assemblies: Opening protectives in fire rated assemblies must
be self-closing or automatic closing upon a signal from the fire alarm system. Their construction shall be in
accordance with nationally recognized codes and standards. At a minimum, the following shall be provided:

Sprinklered Non sprinklered

One hour walls3 30 minutes 45 minutes

1 hour wall 30 minutes 90 minutes

Two hour walls 60 minute 90 minute

Three hour wall 180 minutes 180 minutes

Guestroom doors 20 minute 45 minute

Shafts less than 4 stories 45 minutes 60 minutes

Shafts 4 or more stories 60 minute 90 minutes

3 Where local codes expressly permit a reduction of one hour walls to 30 minute walls in sprinklered buildings, 20 minute doors

shall be permitted.

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STARWOOD HOTELS & RESORTS WORLDWIDE OPERATING PROCEDURE (cont.) Page 19 of 19
RM-Fire-002

7.3. Interior Finishes


7.3.1. Interior finishes shall be non-combustible, with low smoke production and low flame spread rating.

7.4. Building Separations/Mixed Use Requirements


7.4.1. Mixed use buildings must have two hour fire resistive construction separating hotel occupancies from other
occupancies, or unbranded tenants. This may be reduced to one hour where all areas are protected by
automatic sprinklers.

7.4.2. Non-hazardous accessory areas, such as office and retail do not need separation if comprising less than 10% of
the total floor area. Such accessory areas must be provided with sprinkler protection in sprinklered buildings.

7.5. Temporary Structures


7.5.1. The Property Management shall determine if special permits are required by the local jurisdiction.

7.5.2. The following minimum requirements apply.

7.5.2.1. Smoking shall be prohibited in tents.

7.5.2.2. Liquefied petroleum (LP) gas containers shall be located a minimum of 5 feet (1.5 m) away.

7.5.2.3. Battery operated emergency lights are required in tents or temporary buildings when used for 50 or more
occupants.

7.5.2.4. Cooking within tents is prohibited. Food warming with Sterno type heating is permitted.

7.5.2.5. Stakes and tent pegs near egress routes shall be covered and clearly identified.

7.5.2.6. A minimum of 10 feet (3 m) shall separate stakes lines of adjacent tents.

7.5.2.7. Tents shall be erected a minimum of 20 feet (6.1 m) from buildings.

7.5.3. Hay, straw, wood shavings or other similar combustible materials are prohibited in the vicinity of tents.

7.6. Hazardous Materials/Flammable Liquids Storage

7.6.1 Hazardous materials and flammable liquids shall not be stored within the footprint of the hotel guest quarters,
unless separated by a minimum of two hour fire resistive separation or stored within a listed flammable liquid
storage cabinet.

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Compliance with this SOP is subject to local laws, codes and regulations that supersede this SOP.