HOUSE-TREE-PERSON TEST Definition The House-Tree-Person projective technique developed by John Buck was

originally an outgrowth of the Good enough scale utilized to assess intellectual functioning. Buck felt artistic creativity represented a stream of personality characteristics that flowed onto graphic art. He believed that through drawings, subjects objectified unconscious difficulties by sketching the inner image of primary process. Since it was assumed that the content and quality of the House-Tree-Person was not attributable to the stimulus itself, he believed it had to be rooted in the individual's basic personality. Since the House-Tree-Person Test was an out cropping of an intelligence test, Buck developed a quantitative scoring system to appraise gross classification levels of intelligence along with at qualitative interpretive analysis to appraise global personality characteristics. Scoring The Post-Drawing Interrogation form consists of 60 questions varying from direct and concrete to indirect and abstract. Once the Post-Drawing Interrogation form has been administered and the interview has been completed, the examiner records items of detail, proportion, and perspective in the Scoring Folder. After completing the scoring tables, the examiner derives an IQ figure for the percentage of raw G, a net weighted score, a weighted "good" score, and a weighted "flaw" sore, which then comprise the items for the profile configuration. Reliability and Validity The manual contains no information on validity and reliability. Norms The standardization sample included 140 adults. No attempt was made to randomly select a stratified sample of subjects from the general population. Twenty adults were selected for each of seven intellectual levels (imbecile, moron, borderline, dull average, average, above average, and superior).

Suggested Uses This instrument is recommended for projective assessment in research and clinical settings.

Purpose • To measure aspects of a person's personality through interpretation of drawings and responses to questions

Sometimes used as part of an assessment of brain damage or overall neurological functioning.

and updated in 1969 Tests requiring human figure drawing were already being utilized as projective personality tests Buck believed that drawings of houses and trees could also provide relevant information about the functioning of an individual's personality. respectively. "About how old is that tree?" and "Is the tree alive?" Concerning the person. For example. a pencil. a tree. and a person. • The test takes an average of 150 minutes to complete. it may take less time with normally functioning adults and much more time with neurologically impaired individuals. Examiners can also create their own questions or ask unscripted follow-up questions. "Is that person happy?" and "How does that person feel?" • During the second phase of the test. choosing either a crayon. test takers are asked to use a crayon to draw pictures. • One variation of test administration involves asking the individual to draw two separate persons. Upon completion of the drawings. There are a total of 60 questions that examiners can ask. Another variation is to have test takers put all the drawing on one page. with reference to the house. Some examiners give only one of the two phases.History • developed by JOHN BUCK in 1948. questions include. test takers are asked to draw the same pictures with a pencil. The questions that follow this phase are similar to the ones in the first phase. It is also often used with individuals suspected of having brain damage or other neurological impairment. Anyone administering the HTP must be properly trained. Description • The HTP can be given to anyone over the age of three. . scoring and interpreting the HTP is difficult. Because it requires test takers to draw pictures. • During the first phase of the test. "Is it a happy house?" and "What is the house made of?" Regarding the tree. or some other writing instrument. it is often used with children and adolescents. • • Precautions! • • Because it is mostly subjective. of a house. test takers are asked questions about the drawings. questions include. Each drawing is done on a separate piece of paper and the test taker is asked to draw as accurately as possible. the test creator wrote questions such as. one of each sex.

and the doors and windows might represent the individual's relation to the outside world. is related to the qualitative scoring scheme in which the test administrator subjectively analyzes the drawings and the responses to questions in a way that assesses the test taker's personality. it has been shown to be effective when looking at the brain damage present in schizophrenic patients. the branches might indicate the test taker's relation to the outside world and the trunk might indicate inner strength.Results • The HTP is scored in both an objective quantitative manner and a subjective qualitative manner. More specifically. however. tree. there is some evidence that the HTP can differentiate people with specific types of brain damage. A tree that has a slender trunk but has large expansive branches might indicate a need for satisfaction. For example. & opposite sex person. A drawing of a person that has a lot of detail in the face might indicate a need to present oneself in an acceptable social light. • Other methods of interpretation focus on the function of various parts in each of the drawings. the walls might represent the test taker's degree of ego strength. Patient asked to draw a good house (as good as possible). erase anything you need to. Background • • • • HTP: Draw a house. there is little support for its reliability and validity. In the tree drawing. person. Research has shown this assessment of intelligence correlates highly with other intelligence tests such as the Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS). However. Then the pencil is taken away & you can use crayons in anyway to shade in or draw. The quantitative scoring scheme involves analyzing the details of drawings to arrive at a general assessment of intelligence. . a very small house might indicate rejection of one's home life. the roof might represent one's intellectual side. using a scoring method devised by the test creators. Inner view of himself/herself the environment the things considered important Administration • • • Pencil & white paper. In the house drawing. • The primary use of the HTP. take as much time as needed. • As with other subjectively scored personality tests.

Culture-free technique – do not need elaborate command of language to get information. low SES. limited intellectual ability. or those who are shy and withdrawn. Also good for patients with limited education. These patients need something external to stimulate their mental processes. . or who are mute. Hammer (1955) looked at the drawings of normals versus sex offenders. Disadvantages • Verbal patients are less responsive to graphic techniques than to other projectives. those who speak English. like the TAT or Rorschach. Why is the HTP ambiguous? What do the drawings tell us? The inclusion or exclusion of the various details of the HTP is left wholly to the patient. such as the schizoid patient. Their personality expression is held back by their motoric handicap. Advantages • • requires little time and is simple to administer. • Patients with a paucity of inner life. Evaluation of the HTP • • Nonverbal technique = greater applicability to children. provide a barren personality profile.Projectives • • • • • • The Theory behind Projective techniques. culturally deprived backgrounds. • Psychomotor difficulties such as physical handicaps or tremulousness (geriatric patients) impede the analysis. What does the drawing of a house tell us?  Associations concerning home-life  Intrafamilial relationships  Attitude toward their home situation (children)  Relationships to parents and siblings  Married adults • The Tree & the person  Paul Schilder (1935): the tree & the person touch the core of the personality = body image and selfconcept.

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