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PHSC 1013: Physical Science


• Lecture Notes Chemistry.pdf

Physical Properties
• Changes of State (Phase Diagram)
– Melting Point
– Boiling Point
• Hardness
• Density
• Solubility

Physical Changes:
Boiling Water Melting Sulfur
Bending Metal Dissolving Salt/Sugar in Water
Shredding Wood
Chemical Properties

The ability and tendency to REACT with other

elements to CREATE new substances.

A change in composition and properties.

density, latent heat, specific heat

Chemical Changes:
Iron Rusting Wood Rotting
Burning Sulfur Sodium Exploding in Water
Atoms and Molecules
Are atoms and molecules more like
peanut butter and jelly, OR
more like cheese and cracker snacks?
Atoms and Molecules
• Observations: Finite amounts of starting materials
always create definite amounts of products.

• There are always leftovers, UNLESS very finite

mixing ratios are followed.

• There is a finite “chunk” of matter on the smallest

scales. Matter is not infinitely divisible.
Elements and Compounds
• Elements consist of individual atoms of naturally occurring
matter. (the periodic table of elements)

• A single atom is the smallest division of matter that will

have the same physical and chemical properties.

• A compound is formed from the bonding of individual

atoms into aggregates of atoms or molecules.

• A single molecule is the smallest division of a substance

that will have the same physical and chemical properties as
a bulk amount of the material.

Pure Substance Mixture

Hydrogen Physical
Changes Brass, Tin
Oxygen Tea
Water Pizza, Sugar & Salt

Chemical Homogeneous
Element Changes Heterogeneous
Compound Brass
Hydrogen Pizza
Water Tin
Oxygen Sugar & Salt

Pure Substance Physical Mixture

Fixed Composition Changes Variable Composition
and Properties
and Properties

Element Changes Compound Homogeneous Heterogeneous
Single Types Combinations
Uniform Nonuniform
of Atoms of atoms
Mechanics of Reactions
• A+B AB
• Reagents A and B
• Products AB
• Element A reacts with element B to yield
compound (molecule) AB

• AB + CD AC + BD
• Compound AB reacts with compound CD to yield
compounds AC and BD
Reaction Symbols
• AB + CD AC + BD +

Gas (g), Bubbles

Solid (s), Insoluable Precipitate
(l) or (aq) liquid or aqueous solution
Catalyst (heat)
Light or Energy
• C6H12O6 C + H2O
Catalyst (Sulfuric Acid)
Evidence of Chemical Reactions
• Color Changes
• Creation of Light ( )
• Temperature Changes ( T)
• Formation of Bubbles (gas)
• Formation of an Insoluble Solid (precipitate)
• A Change in Acidity (pH)
Color Change and Precipitate
• Reaction of Potassium Iodide (KI)
with Lead Nitrate (PbNO3)
– Two Clear Solutions form an insoluble precipitate

KI + PbNO3 PbI + KNO3

Creation of Light
• Combustion of Magnesium (Mg) Metal
– Combustion is an addition reaction with oxygen
– All combustion reactions involve oxygen

2 Mg + O2 2 MgO
Temperature Changes
• Reaction of Ammonium Chloride with Water

• Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Water

Endo versus Exo
• Reaction* of Ammonium Chloride with Water
– Endothermic (Reaction removes heat)
NH4Cl + H20 NH4+ + Cl- + H20

• Reaction* of Sodium Hydroxide with Water

– Exothermic (Reaction yields heat)
NaOH + H20 Na+ + OH- + H3O

*Dissolving of ionic solids

Change in Acidity
• Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric
Acid in the Presence of Phenalthalein.

NaOH + HCl NaCl + H20

Reaction Rates
– Rotting Wood
– Rusting Metal

– Decomposition of Water
– Formation of Salt from Sodium and Chlorine

– Combustion of Methane
– Explosives
Reaction Rates
• Parameters Governing Reaction Rates
– Temperature
– Presence of Catalysts
– Concentration of Reactants
– Acidity (pH)
Dr. Robertson
PHSC 1013: Physical Science

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