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24/09/2015 PresentationSkills

PresentationSkills

AboutthisTopic:PresentationSkills

TopicMentor

NickMorgan

NickMorganisacommunicationsexpertwhohasworkedasaspeechwriter,apublicrelations
director,andacommunicationsprofessor.ThroughhiscompanyPublicWords,hecoaches
executivesandrunsseminarsonarangeofcommunicationissues.HehasbeeneditorofHarvard
ManagementCommunicationLetter,haswrittenhundredsofarticles,andistheauthorofWorkingthe
Room:HowtoMotivatePeopletoActionThroughAudienceCenteredSpeaking(HBSPress).

TopicSourceNotes

Learn

LinKroeger.TheCompleteIdiot'sGuidetoSuccessfulBusinessPresentations.NewYork:Alpha
Books,1997.

GeorgeL.Morrisey,ThomasSechrest,andWendyB.Warman.LoudandClear:HowtoPrepareand
DeliverEffectiveBusinessandTechnicalPresentations.Reading,MA:AddisonWesleyPublishing
Company,1997.

Steps

GeorgeL.Morrisey,ThomasSechrest,andWendyB.Warman.LoudandClear:HowtoPrepareand
DeliverEffectiveBusinessandTechnicalPresentations.Reading,MA:AddisonWesleyPublishing
Company,1997.

HarvardBusinessSchoolPublishing.BusinessCommunication.Boston:HarvardBusinessSchool
Press,2003.

WhatWouldYouDo?

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Whatwouldyoudo?

Barbarawatchedthevideotapeofherspeechandshookherheadinfrustration.Howcouldher
presentationhavebeensodull?Shehadstudiedheraudience,researchedhersubject,and
workedforhourstodevelopatalkthatwasclearandconcise.Asshewaswatchingthe
videotape,shenoticedsometroublespots:Herheadwasburiedinhernotes,theaudience
seemedlost,andshecameoffaswell,notparticularlycharismatic.Shewonderedhowshe
couldinjectherownwittyandoutgoingpersonalityintoapresentationsoshecouldbetter
engageheraudience.

Whatwouldyoudo?

Inhindsight,Barbararealizedthatitwasnotenoughtohavestrongcontent.Sheneededto
giveanawardwinningperformancetocapturetheaudience'sattention.Forstarters,shecould
havemademoreeyecontactwiththeaudience,usedaconversationaltone,andreferredto
hernotesonlywhensheneededto.Next,shecouldhavepreparedafewvisualstoillustrate
thekeypointsofhertalk.Visualswouldhavehelpedtheaudiencestayfocused.Finally,she
couldhaveincorporatedrelevantstoriesorexamplesthatsupportedhermaterial,yetdidn't
distractfromheroverallmessage.

Inthistopic,you'lllearnhowtoprepare,practice,andpresentinformationtoachievetheresults
youwant.

Haveyoueverfeltdisappointedaftergivingacarefullyplannedpresentation?Whatwentwrong?
Whatcouldyouhavedonetoimprovetheaudience'sresponse?

TopicObjectives

Thistopiccontainsrelevantinformationonhowto:

Prepareaneffectivepresentationcustomizedforyouraudienceandsetting
Deliveraneffectivepresentationthatproducesaction
Addressquestionsandkeeppeoplefocusedduringyourpresentation

Thepurposeofpresentations

Presentationsareapowerfulwaytocommunicateyourmessagetoagroup.Theyareanopportunity
togatheryouraudiencetogethertoengageinatwowaydialogue.Managersusepresentationsto:

Persuadetheaudiencetotakeaparticularcourseofaction
Conveysomethingyouwanttheaudiencetoknow

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Tailorinformationtomeettheneedsofaparticularaudience
Provideaforumfordiscussionofcontroversialorchallengingideas
Findouthowpeoplearereactingtoasituationoranidea
Gaincommitmentandalignment
Engagepeopleingeneratingsolutionstoproblems

Differenttypesofpresentations

Weruletheworldbyourwords.
NapoleonBonaparte

Therearemanydifferenttypesofpresentationsthatmeetspecificneeds.Thesearesomeexamples:

Sales:Outlinesthebenefits,features,andreasonstobuyaproductorservice
Persuasion:Providesthereasonsorsupporttopursueaparticularideaorpath
Statusreport:Detailstheprogressofaproject,ataskforce,orproductsales
Productdemonstration:Showshowsomethingworks
Businessplanorstrategy:Sketchesoutwhatanorganizationplanstodonext,orarticulates
thecompany'sgoals

Sharingdetailedinformationisnotagooduseofapresentation.Audienceswillnotrememberdetail.
Youcanuseapresentationtoinformanaudienceaboutamajorchangeorinitiative,butusewritten
formsofcommunicationforthedetail.Thus,yourpurposedrivesthetypeofpresentationyouchoose.

KeyIdea:Defineyourobjective

KeyIdea

Theobjectiveofyourpresentationistheoutcomethatyouwantdiscussion,buyin,feedback,
persuasion,orasale.Itdrivesthedevelopmentofyourpresentation.Beginbyaskingyourself
thesequestions:"Whatisthepurposeofthispresentation?"and"WhatdoIwantmyaudience
todoasaresult?"

Morespecifically:

DoIwanttoinform,persuade,orsell?
DoIwanttheaudiencetounderstand,learn,ortakeaction?Notethedifferencebetween
presentingabudgetsoyouraudienceunderstandsitandpresentingabudgetsoyour
audiencevotesonit.
DoIwantcommitmentfromtheaudience?

Includeexamplesanddetailsthathelpyouachieveyourobjective.Omitanythingextraneous,
distracting,orinterfering.

Yourobjectivealsohelpsyoudeterminethefollowing:

Whethertogivethepresentationatall
Whethertogiveittothisparticularaudienceundertheseparticularcircumstances
Whattosayandhowtosayit
Whatthefollowupneedstobe
Possibleobjections

Yourobjectivedriveshowyoudevelopyourpresentation.Whataretheessentialquestionsyou
shouldaskyourself?Howcanyoumakesureyouareheadedintherightdirection?

KeyIdea:Knowyouraudience
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KeyIdea:Knowyouraudience

KeyIdea

Apresentationisaninteractivedialoguebetweenyouandyouraudience.Thebetteryou
understandyourlisteners,themoreyoucancustomizeyourpresentation.Makesurethatyou
cananswerthesequestions:

Isthesubjectcontroversial,familiar,orneworacombinationtothisaudience?
Whoaretheyandwhatistheirrelationshiptoyourtopic?
Howwellinformedaretheyaboutthesubject?Whatdotheyneedtoknowaboutit?
Whatdotheyexpectfromtheevent?Fromyourpresentation?
Aretheyaccustomedtoacertaintypeofpresentation?
Whatdotheyknowaboutyou?Whatmoredotheyneedtoknow?Howdotheyfeel
aboutyou?
Whyaretheypresent?Aretheytherebychoiceorbyrequirement?
Aretheylikelytobeenthusiastic?Polite?Apathetic?Hostile?
Arethereanyotherobstacles,history,orexpectationsthatyouneedtotakeinto
account?

Maximizetheimpactofyourpresentationbylearningmoreaboutyouraudience.Makesureyouhave
answerstothesevitalquestions.

Understandyourpresentation'scontext

Youarenotpresentinginavacuum.Thecontextofyourpresentationplaysamajorroleinhowitwill
bereceived.Youneedtobeawareofthefollowingissues:

Isthesituationformalorinformal?
Whenyoupresent,willtheaudiencehavejustfinishedeating,drinking,working,ordoing
somethingactive?Willtheybetiredoralert?Whenwasthelastbreak?
Whowillspeakbeforeyou?Whocomesafteryou?Howmightthisaffectaudiencereaction?
Areyouthefirstorlastspeakeroftheprogram?Theday?Themorningorafternoon?
Areyouexpectedtotakequestionsorleavecopiesofyourpresentation?
Howmuchtimedoyouhaveforthepresentation?Canyourmessagebedeliveredinthattime?
Willthephysicalsettingofthepresentationrequireyoutoadaptyourtalk?
Whatcontroldoyouhaveoverthephysicalenvironment?

Stagesofpreparation

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Manyofushaveexperiencedtheparalysisofknowingwhatwewanttoaccomplish,buthaving
troubleputtingdowntheactualwordsandideas.Usually,theeasiestwaytoproceedistodividethe
workintostages.

Stage1:Defineyourkeymessage.Whatdoyouwantpeopletorememberandwhataction
youwantthemtotake?Thismessageflowsdirectlyfromyourobjective.Youcanhavea
numberofsupportingarguments,ideas,andfacts,butonlyonekeymessage.
Stage2:Next,identifytheargumentsthatsupportyourmessage.Avoidexcessivedetailbutbe
suretotalkaboutmorethanjustthefacts.Itisimportanttoidentifyandaddresstheemotional
underpinningsofyourmessage.Whyshouldtheaudiencecareaboutit?
Stage3:Finally,identifywhenitisimportanttogetaudienceparticipation,reactions,
agreement,orbuyin.

Reviewandrefineyourideas

Everythingbecomesalittledifferentassoonasitisspokenoutloud.
HermannHesse

Afteryouhavegeneratedyourinitialsetofideasoncontent,youarereadytoreviewandrefinethem.
Considerthefollowing:

Isthekeymessageyouhaveselectedreallythemostcritical?Doesitsupporttheobjectivesof
thepresentation?
Aretheargumentsyouhavemarshaledunderstandabletoalllevelsofyouraudience?
Willyourcontentconvincetheaudiencetoagreewithyou?
Arelogicalconnectionsexplicit?
Whatargumentsneedtobedeveloped?
Whatcontraryargumentsdoyouneedtoneutralize?

Then,askyourselfwhatelseyoucandoorsaythatmayhelptopersuadeyouraudience.Effective
persuadersuseargumentsthatcombinelogicandemotiontoconvincetheiraudience.Your
persuasivenessislargelyaproductofyourenthusiasm,credibility,andpersonalbeliefinthesubject.

Remember:Includeonlythosedetailsthatwillpersuade.Ifyouarenotsureabouttheimpactofa
point,leaveitout.

LeadershipInsight:5plus1slidestrategy

TodayIthinkwehavealove/haterelationshipwithPowerPoint.Welovetouseitwhenweare
presentingwehateitwhenwehavetoviewit,especiallyifit'smisused.Whenyouthinkabout
it,ithasbeenaroundforlike15years.You'dthinkwe'dhavegottenbetteratusingit.It
remindsmeofastorybackintheearly'90s.IwasworkingforacompanycalledArmorAll
Products,nowpartofTheCloroxCompany.IhadjustreceivedmyfirsteditionofPowerPoint
anddecidedtouseitinarecommendationpresentationIhadtomaketoourexecutive
committee.

TheCIOgavemeanewlaptopthathadprobablyawhopping60megabytesofmemory,huge
forthattime,veryexpensiveforthattime.Anyway,Iworkedmytailoffforthispresentation.I
probablyputtogether40slides.IfeltIhadbuiltaverystrongcaseandbythetime,attheend,
whereIgottomyrecommendationthatnoonecouldarguewithit.

Iremembergettingthereearlytotheconferenceroom,soIcouldgeteverythingsetup,testit,
andmakesureitworked.OurCEOcameandhesatathisusualchair,acoupleofother
companyexecutivesjoinedhim,andIlaunchedintothepresentation.

Imadeittoaboutmysecondslidewhenhesaid,"Canweturntheslidesoff?Brad,I'msure
youhaveapointthatyouwanttomake,arecommendationyouwanttogetto."AndIwasjust
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kindofgoing"Uhhhhh"caughtthereinthemoment.Iendedupjumpingtoliterallythelast
threeslidesbecausethat'swheretherecommendationwas.

Wetalkedaboutthosealittlebit.Heaskedafewquestions,soIjumpedbackearlierinthe
deckforafewslidesthathelpedmeanswertothatandwegotthroughit.Youknow,luckilyhe
waspatientwithmeandwehadaproductiveenoughmeeting.

ButI'veseenthesamethinghappensomanytimeswithsomanypeoplewheretheirmeeting
goesoffkilterbecausetheyhavetoomanyslides,theydon'tgettotheirpointsoonenough.So
whatIrecommendistakingwhatIcalla"5plus1"slidestrategy.Here'showyoudoit.

Thefirsttwoslidesarereallythemostimportant.Onthefirstslideyouwanttobeveryclear
abouttheneedoropportunitythatthispresentationaddressesandyouneedtodoitinavery
listenercentricway.You'vegottomakethemcare.

Thesecondslideiswhereyoupositionyourrecommendation,makeitclearwhattheactionis
youneedfromtheexecutive,andwhatresultsthatwillgenerate.Andguesswhat?Collectively,
thosetwoslides,ifyou'renotinterrupted,shouldbeatahighenoughlevelthatyoucouldtalk
throughitinabouttwominutes.

Nowitmaytakelongertheymayinterruptyouortheymayhavequestions,andthat'snota
badthing.Itmeansyourslidesgenerateddiscussion.

Let'stalkaboutthenextthreeslides:Theseslidesshouldrepresentthekeyassertionsand
supportingfactsthatsupportyourrecommendation.Youmighthavealotofkeyassertionsto
make,butyouneedtopickyourtopthreemorethanthat,you'regoingto,again,losethat
audienceinthemeeting.Theyarejustgoingtotuneoutonyou.

Andthenfinallythereisthat"plus1"slide.What'sthat?It'sbasicallyanexecutivesummary
makesagreatconclusionslide.Oryouknowsometimesyouneverevengettoyourfirstslide.
TheCEOsays,"Hey,canwemakethisfast?I'vegotabouttwominutes."Youmightjustlead
withthatslide.Thatmaybetheonlyslideyouuse.

NowItalkedabouta40slidedeck.Doesthismeanyoudon'thavetocreateallthose
additionalslides?Wellunfortunately,youprobablydo,youmayneedbackup.Youmayneedto
createthoseslides,butit'sunlikelythatyou'lluseallofthem.

Whatyou'llprobablyuseisoneortwoofthemthatyouwilluseifthatexecutiveasksa
question,drillsdownonsomething,andthatwillgivecredibilitytoyouroverallconceptwhen
youarepreparedtogothere.

Soagain."5plus1."AndnotonlywillyouloveyourPowerPoint,butthere'sachanceyour
executiveaudiencemightloveittoo.

WhenitcomestoPowerPointpresentations,thenumberofslidesmatters.

BradHolst
PrincipalandExecutiveDirector,SolutionsDesign,Mandel
Communications

BradHolstisaPrincipalandtheExecutiveDirectorofSolutionsDesignfor
MandelCommunications,aglobalcompanythatbuildsindividualandgroup
communicationskillsintowinningcompetitiveadvantagesforbusiness
organizations.

Bradandhisteamhavedesignedanddeliveredstrategicandtactical
communicationtrainingandcoachingsolutionsforMandel'scorporateclients
intheFortune1,000sizerangeinawidevarietyofindustries.

Heistheleadcreatoroftheproprietarymodelsandprocessesnowfoundin
Mandel'spowerfulsuiteofcommunicationcontentplanninganddeliverytools
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andtechniques,includingtheMandelBlueprintandtheMandelStory
Board.

Bradisamasterfulteacher,coach,andconsultant,withararelevelof
businessacumenbasedonhisformerleadershiproleswiththreemarket
leadingcompanies:TheWaltDisneyCompany,TheCloroxCompany,and
ArmorAllProducts.Website:www.mandel.com.

Startstrong

Onceyouhavetherawmaterialforyourpresentation,youneedtoorganizeit.Awellorganized
presentationwillmaketheaudience'slisteningjobaseasyaspossible,boostingthelikelihoodthat
youwillaccomplishyourobjective.

Duringtheopening,usea"hook"acomment,question,relevantstory,statement,orexampleto
getyouraudience'sinterestandattention.

Youalsousetheopeningtodothefollowing:

Definethepurposeofthepresentation.
Establishyourcredibility.Askyourself"Whichofmycredentialswillimpressthisparticular
audience?"andemphasizethose.Or,ifappropriate,haveanotherpersonwithauthorityor
credibilityintroduceyourpresentation.
Describetheimportanceofthetopicfortheaudience:What'sinitforthem?
Previewverybrieflythemainpointstobecovered.

Activity:Hookyouraudience

Agoodopeningcancaptivateyouraudiencefromtheverybeginning.

You'redeliveringaspeechaboutinnovationtoacrosssectionofmanagersfromyour
organization.Whichofthefollowingopeninglineswouldbestcaptureyourlisteners'attention
atthestartofyourpresentation?

WhatdoPostitnotesandSillyPuttyhaveincommon?They'reinnovationsmanagers
originallysawascolossalfailures.
Correctchoice.Thesespecific,interesting,andwellknownexamplesaswellasthe
surprisingfactrevealedaboutthemwillimmediatelycaptureyouraudience'sinterest.

Today,we'regoingtotalkaboutcreativityandinnovationinorganizationsofallkinds.
Notthebestchoice.Thisopeninglineistoobroadtohookyouraudience'sattention.

Anycompanythathopestodowellinthisageofincreasingcompetitionneedstobe
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abletoinnovate.
Notthebestchoice.Thoughthisopeninglinehintsatthesubjectofyourspeech,it
usesdrylanguageandthereforewon'tcaptureyourlisteners'attention.

Problemstatement

Thesecondpartofyourpresentationistheneedorproblemstatement.Hereyoushould:

Makeitcleartotheaudiencewhyitshouldcareaboutyourmessage
Developaclearneedorproblemthatyouandtheaudiencewillsolvetogether
Incorporaterelevantarguments,examples,andavarietyofsupportingmaterialtosustain
interestwithoutdistractingfromthepoint
Involvetheaudiencebyaskingfortheirsuggestionsandaddressingtheirneedsandissues
Testacceptancebyaskingforfeedback,ifappropriate

Solution

Thethirdpartofyourpresentation,thesolution,makesitcleartotheaudiencehowyouthinkthe
problemshouldbesolvedortheneedsatisfied.Hereyouwill:

Helptheaudiencevisualizethebenefitsofthesolution
Involvetheaudienceindevelopingapathforward
Phraseyoursolutionintermsoftheaudience'sneeds
Makesuretheurgencyofyoursolutionmatchestheneed

KeyIdea:Calltoaction

KeyIdea

Towrapup,youneedastrongcalltoaction.Hereyouwillwantto:

Reiteratethepresentation'skeymessage
Integrateyouropeningpointsintoyourclosingcomments
Recommendaction
Suggestagreement
Obtaincommitmentorbuyin
Provideclosure

Oneofthemostpowerfulwaystoendyourpresentationiswithacalltoaction.Learnhowtostructure
aclosingthatissolidandpersuasive.

Duration

Howlongshouldapresentationbe?Often,youhavetofityourpresentationintoatimetable
developedbyothers.

Forexample,youmaybegranted30minutestodeliverasalespresentationtoabuyer.In
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otherinstances,youareincontrolofthetiming,andyoucandeterminetheoptimallengthfor
yourpresentation.

Thefollowingguidelinesarehelpfulinbothsituations:

Makethepresentationaslongasitneedstobetoconveyyourkeymessageclearlyand
completely.
Makeitonlylongenoughtobeclearandcompletewithintheallocatedtime.
Itisbettertomakefewerpointsandmakethemwell.Five,plusorminustwo,isthelimitof
mostadultsforrecallingimportantmessages.
Ifyoudonothavetimetomakeapointclearoracceptabletoyouraudience,saveitforanother
presentation.
Endingearlyisbetterthannotcompletingthetalkorrushingthroughthetalkattheend.
Planonwhattodeleteifyourtimeiscutshort.
Allowtimeattheendforquestionsasabasiccourtesy.

Thepowerofvisuals

Everyonehasapreferredlearningstyle,butmostpeoplerespondbettertovisualsthantothespoken
wordalone.Considerthefollowingresearchfindings:

Peoplegain75%ofwhattheyknowvisually,13%throughhearing,and12%throughsmell.
Apictureisthreetimesmoreeffectiveinconveyinginformationthanwordsalone.
Wordsandpicturestogetheraresixtimesmoreeffectivethanwordsalone.

Usevisualaidstohelpyouraudience:

Maintainattention
Rememberfacts
Understandideas,relationships,orphysicallayouts
Recognizethatyouaremovingontoanewtopic

LeadershipInsight:Tapthepowerofvisuals

Iwasataweddingrecently,andthefatherofthebridegaveagreattoast.Hestartedoutfirst
talkingaboutsomeofthevaluesthattheyhadtriedtoinstillintheirdaughterasshewas
growingup.Butthenhereallybroughtithomebytellingagreatstory,aspecificexample.

Thevalueshetalkedaboutwerethateverydaywasagift.Butthenwhenhewastellingthe
story,heswitchedtotalkingaboutatimewhenhewasn'ttreatingeverydayasagift.Hewas
anexecutive,hewastravelingalot,andatthetimehewastravelingalotbyhelicopter.

He'scominghomefromthisgruelingbusinesstripinthistinyhelicopter,crowdedfullwithother
executives.He'snotthinkingabouthowthedayisagift.He'ssortoffeelingsorryhimself.And
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thenthepilotofthehelicoptersays,"Wow,everyone,lookoutthewindow,lookdownatthe
tarmac.Thereisquiteasightdownthere.Someoneonthishelicopterisaveryluckyman."

Andhelookedoutandhesawhiswifeandhisdaughterwaitingforthemonthetarmac.His
daughterwassoexcitedtoseehim,she'sjumpingupanddownandshe'swearingherfull
ballerinarecitalcostume,thistinypurpletutucoveredwithrhinestonesandtheseteenylittle
balletshoes,andshe'sdancing.Sortofthat'swhenitreallycamebacktohim,youknow,every
dayisagift,eventhebadones.

Andsohe'stellingthisstoryattheweddingandatthispointeveryoneiskindofmistingup.
Andthenhereachesintohisbagandwhipsoutthetutu.Andit'stiny.Andofcoursehe's
lookingatthebeautifulbridesittingthereandhe'smakingthecontrast.Tinybig.Andhe
thenpullsouttheballetslippersandhandsthemtothegroom.Andatthatpointeveryonesort
oflosesit.

ThereasonIthoughtthatwassuchaneffectivetoast,andactuallyagreatpresentation,was
thatfirsthestartedtalkingwithaspecificconcreteexample,thestorythatillustratedtheirfamily
values,andhedidallofthiswithoutusinganynotes.Whichwassortofamazing,andreallyby
speakingfromthehearthemadereallyauthenticconnectionwiththeaudience.

Butthereallyamazingthingwasthevisualaid,ofcourse.AndIthinkapowerfulvisualaid,
somethingwaybeyondjustaboringPowerPointpresentation,isreallywhatmakesthatstrong
emotionalconnectionfortheaudience.

Agreatpresentationmustconnectemotionallywithitsaudience.

SarahGreen
AssistantEditor,HarvardBusinessReviewGroup

SarahGreenisanAssistantEditoratHarvardBusinessReview.Inadditionto
writingandeditingmaterialforHBR.organdtheprintmagazine,shemanages
theHarvardBusinessIdeaCast,whichisthetoprankedmanagementpodcast
oniTunes.

Separately,shewritesaweeklycolumnfortheBostonMetronewspaperher
bylinehasalsoappearedintheBostonGlobeandtheBostonPhoenix.

SheformerlyworkedasaresearcherforPulitzerPrizewinningcolumnistEllen
Goodman.SarahreceivedherBachelorofArtsinEnglishliteraturefromBrown
University.

Chooseyourmedia

Youhavemanychoicesforyourvisuals,includingoverheads,computerbasedslides,flipcharts,and
handouts.Whenselectingfromamongthesemedia,youneedtoconsiderflexibility,cost,and
appropriatenessforyourpresentation.

ProsandConsofTypesofMedia

Media Pros Cons

Computer Easyto Donot


based create, always
slides update, project
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slides update, project
transport clearly
Technology
canbreak
down,soyou
needtohave
abackupset
ofoverhead
slides

Handouts Usefulfor Canbecome


informal, the
short audience's
presentations focalpoint,
Providea distracting
placefor themfrom
notetaking listeningto
anda you
takeawayfor Canbe
later disruptiveif
reference distributed
Cancontain duringthe
supplemental presentation.
background
information

Flipcharts Flexible Noteffective


Easyto forlarge
create groups
Encourage Difficultto
interaction transport

Overheads Flexible Canbe


Easyto awkward
create puttingup
Canallow andswitching
lightinthe between
roomfor overheads
continued Old
eyecontact technology
Goodfor
bothformal
andinformal
situations

Sixqualitiesofeffectivevisuals

Notallvisualsenhanceapresentation.Tobeeffective,visualsshould:

Besimple
Usegraphics,icons,andsymbolstoreinforceorcommunicateaconcept
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Usekeywords,notfullsentences
Containonlyoneconceptperslideorpage
Containonlythreetosixideasoneachflipchartsheet
Usecolorwherepossible,butnotexcessively

Activity:Createaneffectivevisual

Mostpeoplerespondbettertovisualsthantothespokenwordalone.Aneffectivevisualaidcanbe
thekeytoyourpresentation'ssuccess.Seeifyouknowthecharacteristicsofaneffectivevisual.

Aneffectivevisualaidcanbethekeytoyourpresentation'ssuccess.Seeifyouknowthe
characteristicsofaneffectivevisual.

Youaretryingtoconvinceinvestorstobuildanewtheaterinacostly,yetideal,location.Now
youneedtoprepareaneffectivevisualtosupportyourpresentation.

Selecttexttocreateyourvisual.

Thetheatershouldbeintheheartofdowntown,asthelocationwilldriveticketsales.
Communitytheaterscreatecentersforyouthactivities.Adowntownlocationis
accessiblebybus.

Notthebestchoice.Thischoiceusescompletesentencesratherthankeywords,and
expressesmultiplekeyideas.

Locationdrivesticketsales
Correctchoice.It'smosteffectivetolimityourslidetoonekeyideausingkeywords.

Locationisimportant
Seatingfor2,000
Promotesyouthactivities

Notthebestchoice.Thischoicecontainsmorethanonekeyidea.

Selectagraphicforyourvisual.

Asimplebargraphshowingthecorrelationbetweentheaterlocationandticketsales.
Correctchoice.Thisgraphicclearlyconveysinformationsupportingyourkeyidea.

Acomplexlinegraphshowingticketsalesstatisticsforseveraldifferenttheaters,in
differentlocationsplusapictureofatheater
Notthebestchoice.Thisphotodoesnotcommunicateyourkeyideainacompelling
way.

Twocharts,onecomplexandonesimple,plusatheaterphotograph
Notthebestchoice.Thiscomplex,multiimagegraphicisdifficulttoreadandmaybe
distracting.

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Selectacolorpaletteforyourvisual.

Fourbright,neon,contrastingcolors
Notthebestchoice.Thisoptionusestoomanycolorsandmaymakeyourvisual
distractingordifficulttoread.

Blackandwhiteonly
Notthebestchoice.Thisvisualcouldbenefitfromtheuseofcolortocreatevisual
interestandhighlightkeypoints.

Twoshadesofthesamecolor,onelightandonedark.
Correctchoice.Thisvisualcontainsapleasingbalanceofcolor.Theappropriateuse
ofcolorcreatesvisualinterestandhighlightskeypoints.

KeyIdea:Rehearseuntilprepared

KeyIdea

Whenwouldyouliketolearnabouttheholes,thedullspots,andexcessivedetailsinyour
presentation?Beforeorafterit'sbeendelivered?Rehearsetofindandrepairtheseproblems
beforehand.Tomakethemostofyourrehearsal:

Rehearsewiththeequipmentandvisualsyouwillactuallyuseattheevent.
Rehearsetheentirepresentationeachtimeyoupractice.
Rehearseoutloudand,ifpossible,infrontofafriendorcolleague.Otherwise,practice
withatapeorvideorecorder.
Rehearseuntilthepresentationdoesnotsoundmemorized.
Concentrateonthesubjectandyourdesiretocommunicate,notonyournotes.

Rehearsingisthekeytodeliveringasuccessfulpresentation.

Preparementallyandphysically

Deliveringaneffectivepresentationrequiresmentalandphysicalpreparation.Forexample:

Visualizeyourselfgivingasuccessfulpresentation.Repeatpositivestatementstoyourself,
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suchas"Iamrelaxedandready."
Usebreathingtechniquesandtensionrelievingexercisestoreducestress.
Askyourself,"What'stheworstthatcanhappen?"andthenbepreparedforthatpossibility.
Acceptnervousnessasnaturalanddonottrytocounteractitwithfood,caffeine,drugs,or
alcoholpriortothepresentation.

Overcomeyourfearofpresenting

Evenprofessionalspeakersgetnervous.Thekeytosuccessfulpresentingishowyouhandlethefear.
Considerthefollowingtacticstohelpyouovercomeyourfears:

Rehearseyourpresentationandknowitwell.
Gettoknowaudiencemembersindividually,bytelephonebeforethepresentation,orinperson
astheycomeintotheroom.
Anticipatethequestionsandobjectionsthataremostlikelytoarise.
Preparephysicallyandmentally.

Manageyourdelivery

Onceyou'reactuallyintheroomwithyouraudienceyou'vepreparedyourmessages,your
materials,andyourselfyoucanfocusondeliveringthemostengagingpresentationpossible.You
willachieveyourbestperformanceifyouspeakeffectively,projectapositiveimage,andkeepyour
audienceengaged.

Thefollowingaresomebasicsuggestionsforeffectivespeakingpractice:

Makeyourpresentationconversational.
Donottalkfromascript.Talkfromyournotesonlyifyouhaveto.
Avoidtheuseofjargonortermsthatmaybeunfamiliartotheaudience.
Faceyouraudienceandmakeeyecontact.Avoidstandingbehindapodium,ifyoucanhelpit.
Walkaroundyouraudienceorusemovementwhenyouwantcontrol,moreinvolvement,orto
becomeoneofthegroup.

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Watchtheaudiencefornonverbalcluesabouttheirresponse.
Gestureinarelaxed,naturalwayanddonotjinglekeysorcoinsinyourpockets.
Breathe.Ithelpsyourelaxandreducesfillerlanguagesuchas"um"and"er."

LeadershipInsight:Bodylanguage

Welearnedourcommunicationskillsinthecave,butunfortunatelynow,we'reinthemodern
era.Manyofthosethingsthatwe'veevolvedtobeabletodoverywell,don'tworksowell
anymore.Wehaveabout10millionneuronsthatworryaboutourunconsciousstateofmindfor
everyoneneuronthat'seffectivelyfiringawayaboutourconsciousstateofmind.Andwhatthat
unconscioussetofneuronsdoesisworryaboutourpositioninspace,ourpersonalsafety.It
tracksmovementaroundus.Itkeepstrackofallthethingsthatweneedtodotostayaliveand
besafe.

Unfortunately,thoseneuronsdidn'tevolvetobeabletospeakinpublicwithanycomfortor
ease.AndIsawawonderfulexampleofthisafewyearsback,IsawRichardBranson
speakingattheRadioCityMusicHall.Now,Richard'snotaverycomfortablepublicspeaker.
Sowhathedoesis,hetriestominimizetheamountoftimethathe'sactuallyspeaking.He
showedavideoofVirginGalactic,andthenhearrangedtohaveaQ&AwithalocalTVanchor.

Thetwoofthemsatdownintwoeasychairs,andRichardkindofcroucheddown,because
he'sahumble,unassumingguy,andheputhiselbowsonhiskneeslikethis,andhisheadin
hishands.TheTVanchorfeltthathehadtodothesamethingthiswascompletely
unconscious,buttheTVanchorwastryingtomakeRichardBransontheheroofthemoment,
hewasthealphamale.AndsotheTVanchorcroucheddownalso.

Well,RichardBransonrespondedbycrouchingalittlelower,andtheTVanchordidthesame.
Prettysoon,thetwoofthemwerecroucheddownsolowthattheguywhowasshootingthe
thing,theevent,hadtojumpdownoffthestageandshootthemupwardsfromdownbelow.

Well,thisgotmoreandmoreawkward,andtheaudiencecouldfeelthatsomethingwasgoing
on.Butagain,becauseofallthoseunconsciousneurons,theydidn'tthinkconsciously.They
couldn'tfigureoutconsciouslywhatthematterwasuntiltheTVanchorstoodup.Therewas
thishugegroanofrelief,andhesaid,"Let'stakesomequestionsfromtheaudience."

Whatwefindiswhenyougetintothesesituationsofpublicspeakingandyou'renervousabout
it,youtendtodostrangethings.LikeRichardBranson,youcrouchdown,perhaps,oryouget
somethingthatwecall"happyfeet."Whichis,you'vegotallthatextraadrenalin,allthatextra
energy,andwhathappensisyourfeetstartwanderingalloverthestageandyourbodyfollows
alongafteryourfeet.

WhatIsuggestisyouhavetogetconsciousofyourunconsciousbehavior.Thatdoestake
somework,itdoestakesomepractice,butitcanbedone.Onceyoumasterthatunconscious
behavior,thenyoucanbeaneffectivecommunicatorandeffectivepublicspeaker.

Nervousfeelingsaboutpresentingcanshowupinourunconsciousbehavior.

NickMorgan
President,PublicWords,Inc.

NickMorganisacommunicationandpublicspeakingtheoristandcoach.
Throughhiscommunicationsconsultingcompany,PublicWords,hecoaches
executivesandrunsseminarsonarangeofcommunicationissues.

Heisapublishedauthorwhosetitlesinclude"TrustMe:FourStepsto
AuthenticityandCharisma,""WorkingtheRoom:HowtoMovePeopleto
ActionThroughAudienceCenteredSpeaking,"and"GiveYourSpeech,
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ChangetheWorld:HowtoMoveYourAudiencetoAction."

NickbeganwritingspeechesforVirginiaGovernorCharlesS.Robb,andfrom
1998until2003heservedaseditoroftheHarvardManagement
CommunicationsLetter.

HeisaformerFellowattheCenterforPublicLeadershipatHarvard
University'sKennedySchoolofGovernment.Afterearninghisdoctoratein
literatureandrhetoric,NickspentanumberofyearsteachingShakespeare
andPublicSpeakingattheUniversityofVirginiaandPrincetonUniversity.

Useyourvoice

Touseyourvoicetoitsbestadvantage,considerthefollowing:

Keepthetoneofyourvoicenaturalandconversational.
Speakloudlyenoughforeveryonetohearifyoudonothaveamicrophone.Checkthe
acousticswhenyourehearse.
Useamicrophoneforalargegrouporalargespace,andpracticebeforehandtofinda
comfortablespeakingvolume.
Avoidrapidfireordrawnoutspeech.Practicewithataperecorderoracolleaguetoget
feedback.
Beexpressive.Don'tspeakinamonotone.Raiseandloweryourvoicetomakeyourpoint.
Enunciateandpronouncewordsclearly.

Projectapositiveimage

Yourconfidenceinandcommitmenttoyourmessagearereflectedbyyourdemeanorandbody
language.Tooptimizeyoureffectiveness,makesuretodothefollowing:

Projectconfidencethroughyourdressandpresence.
Makesureyourfacialexpressionsconveyinterestintheaudience.Ifyouaretoonervousto
lookattheentireaudience,focusonindividualsinstead.
Makeandmaintaineyecontactwithaudiencemembers.

Keeptheaudienceengaged

Makesureyouhavefinishedspeakingbeforeyouraudiencehasfinishedlistening.

DorothySarnoff

Mostspeakersconfrontoneorseveraldifficultaudiencemembers:thetunedout,theoverloaded,or
peoplesobusythattheyareforeverthinkingaboutotherpressingissues.Peopleinthesegroupswill
notlikelyhearwhatyouhavetosayunlessyoutakemeasurestograbtheirattention,andholdontoit.

Tokeepyouraudience'sinterestlevelhigh:

Changewhatyou'redoing(e.g.,makeasuddenpauseorchangeyourvocaltone)
Askforashowofhands
Addhumor
Provideanalogiesandvividexamples
Introducepersonalstories
Employcompellingstatisticsandexperttestimony
Usevisuals,suchasillustrations,charts,andgraphs,togoodeffect
Askaquestion

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Questionstakenfromtheaudiencecanbothengagethelistenersandprovideyouwithopportunities
tofurnishgreaterdetailinareasthatmattertoyouraudience.However,itisimportantthatyoubewell
preparedforthequestionsyouwillreceive.

Activity:Evaluateapresentation

Watchingsomeoneelsepresentcangiveyouavividappreciationofwhichbehaviorsareeffective
andwhichareineffective.

(speakinginaconversationaltone,usingengagingvoiceinflection)

Goodafternoonandthankyouforcoming.MynameisMarianneChiuandIhavebeenthe
headrecruiterforTreatyElmFinancialforfiveyears.Iamheretodaytotalkwithyouaboutour
recruitingprocesssothat,asnewmanagers,youwillbeabletohirepeopleforyourteamsas
needed.

Beforewegetstarted,um,howmanyofyouneedtoaddapersontoyourteamrightaway?

Itlookslikeaboutathird.

Howmanyofyouknowofaroleonyourteamthatwillopenupinthenextsixweeks?

Abouttenofyou.

Uh,well,ifyoudon'thaveaneedyettrustme,youwill.

Ok,um,thefirststepintherecruitingprocessistoidentifywhichBI'sarerequiredofthe
interviewcandidatetodothejobyouarehiringfor.

Ifyouaren'tsurewhichBI'sgowitheachrole,oryoudon'tknowwhataBIis,justcheckthe
TreatyElmrecruitingsectiononline.

Next,logontothecompanyintranetandenterthereq.intothesystem.Makesuretoinclude
yourTKMnumbersoweknowwhoyouare.Thereq.willthenbeforwardedtoarecruiterand
yourmanagerforapproval.Atthispoint,youmightwanttoemailtheapprovingmanager
yourselftoletthemknowtolookoutfortherequestthatiscomingtheirway.

Whichofthefollowingisaneffectivebehaviorwhengivingapresentation?

Relyingonascript
Notthebestchoice.Referencingascriptcontinuallyduringapresentationbreaksthe
connectionbetweenthespeakerandtheaudience.

Usingjargon
Notthebestchoice.Jargoncanexcludecertainmembersoftheaudiencefrom
understandingapresentationandshouldbeavoidedwheneverpossible.

Usingpersonalstories
Correctchoice.Personalstoriesmaketheabstractconceptsinapresentationmore
vividfortheaudienceandengagetheirattention.

Whichofthefollowingisnotaneffectivebehaviorwhengivingapresentation?

Usingmovement
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Notthebestchoice.Thisisaneffectivebehavior.Movingwhilemakingapresentation
canhelpengagetheaudienceandkeepthepresenterfrommakingsmaller,distracting,
fidgetymovements.

Varyingbetweenrapidfireanddrawnoutspeech
Correctchoice.Althoughvaryingspeechrhythmsisaneffectivepresentation
behavior,thepresentershouldavoidtheextremesofrapidfireordrawnoutspeech.

Askingquestions
Notthebestchoice.Thisisaneffectivebehavior.Askingquestionsoftheaudience
allowsthepresentertoengagethempersonallyandestablishtherelevanceofthe
presentation.

Anticipatequestions

Somepeoplefeelthatiftherearenoquestions,thepresentationisasuccess.However,ifyour
listenersareengagedandareworkingwithyou,theymostlikelywillhavequestionsforyou.
Anticipatequestionsbyfocusingonyourlisteners'concernsandhowyourpresentationmightstrike
them.Rehearseyourtalkwithsomeoneelseandaskforhisorherquestions.

Whenshouldyouanswerquestions?

Manyspeakerstakequestionsattheendoftheirpresentation.Thisallowsthemtocompleteatalk
withinaspecifiedtimeandbesuretheaudiencehasthewholepicture.Ifyouchoosethisapproach:

Makethetransitiontoyourquestionandanswer(Q&A)sessionclear.
MaintaincontroloftheQ&Asessionbyrepeatingthequestionandgivingtheanswertothe
wholegroup,notonlytothequestioner.

Somespeakersalsotakequestionsduringthepresentation,thinkingthatitkeepspeopleengaged
andgivesyouimmediatelyfeedbackabouthowwelltheyunderstandyourmessage.Usethis
approachwithcautionsinceitmaycauseyoutolosecontrolofyourtalk.

Finally,otherspeakerstakequestionsatspecificpointsduringthepresentation.Suchtimesmight
includewhenyouwantpeople'sreactionsorwhenyouwanttheirideas.However,ifyouchoosethis
approach,besuretoidentifythesepointsaheadoftimeandflagtheminyourpresentationsoyoudo
notforgettostopforquestions.

KeyIdea:Howshouldyouhandlequestions?
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KeyIdea

Manytimes,thesuccessofyourentirepresentationwillbejudgedonhowwellyouhandlethe
questionandanswersession.Keepinmindthefollowingtips:

Beforeyourpresentation,anticipatepossiblequestionsandargumentsthatmightarise.
Determinehowyouwillrespond.
Whenquestionsareaskedduringyourpresentation,don'tdenyorglossoverthem.
Whenyouknowtheanswer,keepitclearandbrief.
Ifyoudon'tknowtheanswertoaquestion,directthepersontoanothersource,offerto
gettheanswer,oraskifsomeoneintheaudiencecananswerthequestion.
Trytokeepthetonepositiveandhelpful.Avoidappearingdefensive.
Alwaysrepeatthequestion.Itshowstheaudiencethatyouunderstandthequestion,it
givesyouamomenttothinkofananswer,anditassurestheaudiencecanhearthe
questionsinceyouarefacingthem.
Ifquestionsarebeginningtodisrupttheflowofyourpresentation,recordthemona
whiteboardorflipchartandaddressthemattheendofthemeeting.
Whenyouarereadytoendupthequestionandanswersession,settheaudience's
expectationsbysaying,"I'lltaketwomorequestions,andthenwe'llwrapupourtime
together."
Trytotakequestionsfrompeopleseatedinallsectionsoftheaudience.Avoidletting
onepersondominatethequestionandanswersession.

Manytimes,thesuccessofyourentirepresentationwillbejudgedonhowwellyouhandlethe
questionandanswersession.

Assignpresenters

Often,youwouldlikeotherpeopletocontributetoyourpresentation.Youmaybepresentingthe
resultsofagroupeffort,oryoumayfeelthattheirpresenceandexperiencewillhelpyouachieveyour
objective.

Youshouldallocatespeakerseitherbytheirareasofexpertisewiththetopicorbytheirpresentation
strengthsandweaknesses.

Forexample,peoplewithstrongpresentationskillsarethebestcandidatesforopeningand
closingthetalk,wherepersuasivenesscountsmost.Theycanalsobemosteffectiveduring
difficulttimeslotssuchasbeforeandafterlunchandattheendoftheday.

Ifpossible,arrangeforagrouprehearsalpriortothepresentationsothateachpersonisawareof
whatothersarepresenting.

Structuretheflow
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Structuretheflow

Atypicalgrouppresentationflowsasfollows:

Thefirstspeakerintroducestheotherspeakersbrieflyandintroducesthetopic.
Eachsubsequentspeakerprovidesatransitiontothenextonewithasentence:"NowJunewill
cover..."
Thelastspeakersummarizesthewholepresentation.
Afacilitatorhandlesalltransitions.

Youshouldalsoplaninadvancehowthegroupwillhandlequestions.Eachspeakershouldbe
preparedtoanswerquestionsinaparticularareaandtofollowupifanotherspeakerneedshelp.If
possible,avoidhavingeveryspeakercommentoneveryquestion.

Coordinatevisuals

Visualscanposelogisticalchallengesforagrouppresentation.Extraplanningcanensurethatyour
visualsenhanceyourmessageratherthandistractyouraudience.Tomakethemostseamless
presentationpossible:

Havesomeoneotherthanthespeakerhandlethevisualsduringthepresentation,unlessthe
speakerpreferstodoso.
Practicetoachievesynchronizationifsomeoneelseishandlingthevisuals.
Makesurethatallslidesoroverheadsfollowthesameformat.
Ifspeakersareusingdifferentmedia,coordinatehowyouwillmakethetransitionsmoothly.

Beforethepresentation

Evaluatingyourpresentationisanimportantpartofunderstandingitsimpact.Beforethepresentation,
practiceyourpresentationontestaudiencesandgettheirfeedback.Assemblepeoplewhoaresimilar
toyouraudienceprofile.

Forexample,ifyouarepresentingtoexpertsonthetopic,askanexpert.Testasmany
featuresofyourpresentationasyoucan:thevisuals,logic,etc.

Duringthepresentation

Duringthepresentation,lookforcuesthatwillhelpyougaugeaudiencereaction.Bodylanguagecan
indicateinterestorboredom:Arelistenersnoddingtheirheadsinagreementorsittingwiththeirarms
crossed?Thequestionstheyaskcanhelpyouidentifyareasofyourpresentationthatneed
clarification.

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Ifpossible,haveanotherpersonintheaudiencetakenotesonaudiencereactionforyou.Youcan
makenotesonthoseissuesimmediatelyafterthepresentationwhileitisstillfreshinyourmind.In
manysituationsitisappropriatetodirectlyasktheaudiencehowit'sgoing.Forexample,"Doesthis
makesensesofar?"

Afterthepresentation

Therearealwaysthreespeechesforeveryoneyouactuallygave.Theoneyou
practiced,theoneyougave,andtheoneyouwishyougave.
DaleCarnegie

Afterthepresentation,assessitsoveralleffectiveness.Askforfeedbackfromcredibleparticipants.
Notewhatwentwellandwhatneedstobeimproved.Askyourself:

Wasyourobjectiveachieved?Didyoumakethesale?Persuadetheaudiencetoadoptyour
recommendation?
Didtheaudienceseemengagedandattentive?
Ifyou'regoingtogivethepresentationagain,whatchangescanyoumaketoimproveit?
Whatgenerallessonsdidyoulearnaboutpresenting?

Creatinganddeliveringapresentationisaprocessthat,likeanyotherprocess,canbeimproved.
Onceyouidentifytherootcausesofbelowstandardperformance,youcanaddressthemdirectly.

LeadershipInsight:Theinvisibleaudience

Intougheconomictimes,itseemslikethefirstthingsmostcompaniesdoistheycuttheirtravel
budgets.Infact,ourclientsprettymuchjustcutthemoffcompletely:allnonessentialbusiness
travelwentaway.

Butwhatdidhappenistheystartedtalkingtousaboutwhatcanyoudovirtually,whatcanyou
dooverWebex,whatcanyoudooveralivemeeting?Becausethat'showtheywantedtohave
trainingthathadtraditionallybeendonefacetoface,likepresentationskillsorexecutive
engagementskillstheywerelookingtodothisvirtuallynow.

SoIputtogetheravirtualpresentationdesignedtoshowcaseourcapabilitiesinthatareaandit
wasdesignedtobecopresentedbymyselfandmyCEO,aguynamedEdMusselwhite.

Thefirsttimewepresentedit,weputsomuchworkintoit.Youknow,youstumbleoveryour
wordsalittlebit,peoplearen'tmaybeasinteractiveasyouwouldlikethemtobe,andsuddenly
thislittlevoicestartedgoinginmyheadlike"thisisn'tgoingasplanned,thisisn'tgoingwell"
anditwasunnerving.

IrememberfeelingalevelofnervousnessandanxietythatIhadn'tfeltinyears,butIstayedthe
course,stuckwithit.Edseemedtobedoingfine,andwegottotheendofthepresentation.
Andwhatwasinterestingiswhenwehadourinternaldebrief,thefirstthingEdsharedwithme
was,"Boythatwasreallytough.Iwasstruggling.Ididn'tthinkthatwentwellatallandinfact
I'mreallykindofconcernedabouttheoverallresultsofthat."AndIwasfeelingthesameway.

Wellhere'sthekicker.Wegotevaluationsback,theywereoffthechartssaiditwasoneof
thebestvirtualprogramspeoplehadeverseen.Andthenwegeneratedatremendousamount
ofbusinessdiscussionsfollowingupfromthat.Soitwasverysuccessful.

ThisiswhatI'velearnedaboutvirtualpresentations.Becauseyoucan'tseetheaudience,your
imaginationfillsthingsin,anditresultsinsomethingIcall"virtualdisparity."That'sthe
differencebetweenhowyouthinkyouaredoingandhowtheaudienceperceivesyouasdoing.
That'susuallynotinyourfavor.

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Nowhowdidwegetthroughthat?Whatallowedustonotderailwhenwewereexperiencing
thosenerves?Wellthere'sreallythreethings.First,youdohavetoknowyouraudiencereally
well.Youhavetohavedoneyourhomework,understandtheirbusiness,understandthe
businessissues,reallybeclearwhyitisthey'reevenwantingtohearfromyou.

Secondthingisyouhavetoknowyourmaterial.Youreallyhavetothoughtfullyputthe
presentationtogether,everyslidevirtuallyistrulyamomentoftruth.Andit'snotjusttheslides,
eachslideshouldhaveyourspeakernotesliterallyoutlinedonit.Howdoyouwanttocover
that,whatareyourtransitions,whatareyouranimations,whatareyougoingtosayduring
thosethings.Lotofplanninghastogointoit.

Andthenfinally,thethirdthing,thereisnosubstituteforpractice.Youknowyou'vegottotalk
thisallthewaythroughtwo,three,maybeevenfourtimes,ifyoucanrecordyourselfandplayit
backandlookatit,evenbetter.

Andwhatthatwilldo,whenthatlittlevoiceinyourheadsays,"Oohthisisn'tgoingasplanned"
oritsays"MaybeIdon'tthinkthisisgoingsowell,"you'llhavethatmusclememoryofthat
content,you'llhavethatfallbackpreparationthatwillbringyoutothatconclusion.

AndIwilltellyou,ninetimesoutoften,theaudienceperceptionofhowthingswentisgoingto
bemuchbetterthanhowyouthoughtitwent.

Whenyoudeliveravirtualpresentation,youcan'trelyoncuesfromthecrowd,sopracticeand
preparationaremoreimportantthanever.

BradHolst
PrincipalandExecutiveDirector,SolutionsDesign,Mandel
Communications

BradHolstisaPrincipalandtheExecutiveDirectorofSolutionsDesignfor
MandelCommunications,aglobalcompanythatbuildsindividualandgroup
communicationskillsintowinningcompetitiveadvantagesforbusiness
organizations.

Bradandhisteamhavedesignedanddeliveredstrategicandtactical
communicationtrainingandcoachingsolutionsforMandel'scorporateclients
intheFortune1,000sizerangeinawidevarietyofindustries.

Heistheleadcreatoroftheproprietarymodelsandprocessesnowfoundin
Mandel'spowerfulsuiteofcommunicationcontentplanninganddeliverytools
andtechniques,includingtheMandelBlueprintandtheMandelStory
Board.

Bradisamasterfulteacher,coach,andconsultant,withararelevelof
businessacumenbasedonhisformerleadershiproleswiththreemarket
leadingcompanies:TheWaltDisneyCompany,TheCloroxCompany,and
ArmorAllProducts.Website:www.mandel.com.

Overview

Thissectionprovidesinteractiveexercisessoyoucanpracticewhatyou'velearned.Theseexercises
areselfchecksonlyyouranswerswillnotbeusedtoevaluateyourperformanceinthetopic.

Scenario

Assumetheroleofamanagerinafictionalsituationandexploredifferentoutcomesbasedonyour
choices(510minutes).

CheckYourKnowledge
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Assessyourunderstandingofkeypointsbycompletinga10questionquiz(10minutes).

Scenario:Part1

Part1

Everyyear,Oscarandhisproductmanagementgroupintroducenewproductsatanational
conferenceforBestPet,Inc.,amanufacturerofpetproducts.Topreparethecompany's150
membersalesforcetopromotenewproductstoretailcustomers,theproductlinemanagers
outlinenewproductfeaturesandbenefits.

ThisyearOscarandhisgroupwillannounceanexcitingnewproduct:theTrailHounda
"doggiebackpack"fordogstocarrytheirfoodandwaterduringhikeswiththeirowners.The
TrailHoundhasaninnovativenewcompartmentsystem.Oscarwillneedtoexplainthisfeature
clearly,sothesalesrepscandemonstrateittocustomers.

Oscarisscheduledtodeliverhispresentationjustafterlunch.Intheweeksbeforethe
conference,hebeginspreparingvisualsthathehopeswilldeepenthesalesreps'
understandingofthenewproductandinspirethemtosellit.

WhichkindofvisualwouldbethemostcompellingforOscartouse?

Aonepagehandoutthatliststhetop10reasonswhytheTrailHound
backpackisbetterthananycompetingdoggiebackpackthathewill
handoutduringhispresentation.

Notthebestchoice.

Ifyouusehandouts,avoiddistributingthemduringthepresentation.
Distributingreadingmaterialsduringyourpresentationonlydetracts
fromit.Also,textonlyvisualsaren'tthemostcompelling.SinceOscaris
givinghispresentationrightafterlunch,hecanexpecthisaudience's
energytobeatitslowest.(Peopletendtogetsleepyaftereating,and
thesalesrepswillalreadyhaveattendedseveralotherproduct
presentationsthatmorning.)Oscarwillneedtomakehisvisualsas
attentiongettingaspossible.

Aflipchartthatdepictstwoorthreeeasytoseestepdiagrams
demonstratinghowtheTrailHound'scompartmentfeatureworks.

Notthebestchoice.

Thoughdiagramsandpicturesarevaluableinavisual,aflipchartisnot
effectiveforlargegroups.Oscar'saudienceconsistsof150people,and
thosesittinginthebackoftheconferenceroomprobablywouldn'tbe
abletoseetheinformationonthechart.Also,flipchartsarenotoriously
difficulttotransport.

AcomputerbasedslidewithanimagecontrastingTrailHound'snew
compartmentsystemwithitstopcompetitor's,andincludingabulleted
listofseveraladvantagesoftheTrailHoundsystem.

Correctchoice.

Tobemosteffective,slidesshouldcontainjustoneconcept.Also,a
combinationofwordsandpicturesissixtimesmoreeffectivethanwords
alone.Thisvisualwilllikelyproveveryeffective,becauseitcontainsa
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singleconcept(howtheTrailHound'scompartmentfeaturecomparesto
thecompetition'scorrespondingfeature),andamixofwordsand
pictures.

Scenario:Part2

Part2

Oscardecidestocreateacomputerbasedpresentationcomposedofwordandpictureslides.
HealsoelectstoprovideaudiencememberswithhandoutsdetailingtheTrailHound's
importantspecificationsastheyentertheconferenceroom.

Next,herehearseshistalk.Bynature,Oscarisanervouspresenter,sohebrushesupon
variouspublicspeakingskills.Forexample,usingataperecorder,hepracticeskeepinghis
voicenaturalandconversational,aswellasfindingacomfortablespeakingvolume.

Asafinalstepintherehearsalprocess,Oscarvisualizeshowhewillhandlequestionsfromhis
audience.Thenheremembersthathehasn'tyetdecidedwhentotakequestions.

WhenshouldOscartakequestionsduringhispresentation?

Toensurethathisaudienceremainsengaged,Oscarshouldtake
questionsduringthepresentationwheneveranaudiencememberraises
ahand.

Notthebestchoice.

Althoughthisapproachmaykeeppeopleengagedandprovidefeedback
onhowwellthesalesrepsunderstandhismessage,Oscaralsorisks
losingcontrolofhispresentation.Becausehefindspublicspeaking
stressful,heshouldavoiddoinganythingthatmightdistracthisfocusor
causehimtolosetrackofwhereheisinhistalk.

Tomakesureheprovidesthe"bigpicture"first,Oscarshouldaskthat
peopleholdquestionsuntiltheendofthepresentation,afterhehas
completedhistalk.

Notthebestchoice.

AlthoughthisapproachwouldallowOscartocompletehistalkandmake
surethesalesrepshavethefullpicture,itwouldn'tenablehimtogather
feedbackabouthowwelltherepsunderstandhismessageandmake
anynecessaryadjustmentsinhistalk.Thiscouldbeaproblem,given
thatthemainpurposeofOscar'spresentationistomakesurethesales
repsunderstandthenewproductclearlyenoughtosellit.

Tocontinuallygaugehisaudience'sreactionstohismessage,Oscar
shouldtakequestionsatspecific,designatedpointsduringthe
presentation.

Correctchoice.

ThisapproachletsOscarperiodicallygaugeaudiencemembers'
reactionsandheartheirideas,givinghimasenseofhowwellthesales
repsunderstandhismessage.Yetbecauseitismorestructured,this
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approachdoesn'traisetheriskthatOscarwilllosecontrolofhistalk.In
choosingthisapproach,Oscarshouldselectspecificpointsinhis
presentationandflagtheminhisnotessothatherememberstostopfor
questions.

Scenario:Part3

Part3

Oscardecidesthathewilltakequestionsatspecificpointsthroughouthispresentation.The
dayofthepresentationarrives.Thesalesrepspickuptheirhandoutsandfileintothe
auditorium.

WhenOscarpausesatoneofthedesignatedtimesinhistalk,manysalesrepsaskquestions.
Sincetheaudienceislarge,Oscarrepeatsandrephraseseachquestion,andthenprovidesthe
answerfortheentiregroup.

Oscarwrapsuphispresentationwithasummaryofthenewproduct'sspecificationsand
benefits.Thenhepacksuphismaterialsandheadsbacktohishotelroom.There,hereviews
hispresentationandwonderswhetheritwasasuccessoverall.Heaskshimselfhowhemight
assesspossibleweakspotsinhispresentationskills.

WhichofthefollowingmightindicateaweakspotinOscar'spresentation
skills?

ManymembersofOscar'saudienceaskedalotofquestionsoverthe
courseofthepresentation.

Notthebestchoice.

Thoughsomepeoplefeelthattheabsenceofquestionssignalsa
successfultalk,questionsactuallyindicatethatlistenersareengaging
withyouandwiththematerialyou'representing.Thefactthatthereps
askedalotofquestionswouldnotsuggestanineffectivetalk.However,
Oscarshouldstillmakesurethathe'sansweredquestionsclearly,
perhapsbyperiodicallyaskinghisaudience,"Isthereanythingthat
doesn'tmakesensesofar?"

OscarremembersconcludinghistalkwithasummaryoftheTrail
Hound'skeybenefits.

Correctchoice.

ThefactthatOscarendedhistalkwithasummaryindicatesaweakspot
inhispresentationskills.Instead,heshouldhavewrappedthingsup
withastrongcalltoaction.Acalltoactiondoesincludeareiterationof
yourpresentation'skeymessage,butitalsocontainsrecommendations
forwhataudiencemembersshoulddowiththeinformationyou'vejust
shared.

Forexample,Oscarcouldhaveurgedhisaudiencetoemphasize
particularaspectsoftheTrailHound'scompartmentfeatureto
customers.Or,hecouldhaveobtainedtheirbuyinbyannouncinga
prizeforthesalesrepthatsellsthemostunits.

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Duringthepresentation,thesalesrepsignoredthehandoutstheyhad
receiveduponenteringtheauditorium.

Notthebestchoice.

Thefactthatthesalesrepsignoredtheirhandoutsdoesnotindicatea
weakspotinOscar'sskills.Handoutscanactuallydistractlistenersif
theybecometheaudience'sfocalpoint.Thus,ifthesalesrepsignored
thehandouts,theylikelywerefullyengagedduringthetalk.

Scenario:Conclusion

Conclusion

Afterweighingvariousfactors,Oscardecidesthathispresentationwassuccessfulinmany
respects,althoughhemakesamentalnotetowrapupnextyear'stalkwithastrongcallto
action.

Effectivepresentationskillsareessentialtoanymanager.Skilledpresenterscarefullyplanthe
visualsandotherelementsoftheirtalks,aswellasrehearsetheirpresentationsaheadoftime.
Theyalsostructuretheirtalkinwaysthatenablethemtobestachievetheirobjectivefor
example,decidingwhenwouldbethebesttimetotakequestions.Finally,toidentifyareasthat
mightneedimprovement,theyalwaysevaluatetheirpresentations.

Deliveringacompellingpresentationrequirescarefulpreparation.Butasuccessful
presentationiswellworththeextraeffort.

Activity:CheckYourKnowledge:Question1

Whichofthefollowingisnotarecommendedstrategytohelpprepareyourselfmentallyandphysically
tomakeapresentation?

Visualizeyourselfgivingasuccessfulpresentationandrepeattoyourselfpositivestatements,
suchas,"Iamrelaxedandready."

Notthebestchoice.

Visualizingasuccessfulpresentationactuallyisarecommendedstrategyforpreparingyourself
mentallyandphysicallytomakeapresentation.Thestrategythatisnotrecommendedis
ignoringnervousnessorcounteractingitwithdrugsoralcohol(whichwon'tlikelyhelpyou
deliveryourpresentationeffectively).Instead,youshouldacceptnervousnessasnatural.

Identifytheworstthatcanhappenandthenprepareforthatpossibility

Notthebestchoice.

Identifyingandpreparingforpossibleproblemsactuallyisarecommendedstrategyfor
preparingyourselfmentallyandphysicallytomakeapresentation.Thestrategythatisnot
recommendedisignoringnervousnessorcounteractingitwithdrugsoralcohol(whichwon't
likelyhelpyoudeliveryourpresentationeffectively).Instead,youshouldacceptnervousnessas
natural.

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Ignorefeelingsofseverenervousnessorconsidercounteractingthemthroughmusclerelaxants
oraglassofwinewhichevermeansworksbestforyou.

Correctchoice.

Youshouldacceptnervousnessasnatural.Ignoringitortryingtocounteractitbyconsuming
drugs,caffeine,oralcoholbeforeyourpresentationwon'tlikelyhelpyoudeliveryour
presentationeffectively.However,visualizingasuccessfulpresentationandidentifyingand
preparingforpossibleproblemsarebothstrategiesthatcanhelpyoupreparementally.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question2

Thetypeofpresentationyouchoosedependson_______________.

Yourpurpose

Correctchoice.

Yourpurposedrivesthetypeofpresentationyouchoose.Examplesofpresentationtypes
includesales,persuasion,statusreport,productdemonstration,andbusinessplanorstrategy.
Afterselectingtheappropriatepresentationtype,youshouldthenconsiderotherfactorsaswell
includingsizeofyouraudienceandformalityofthesetting.

Theformalityofthesetting

Notthebestchoice.

Thoughit'simportanttoeventuallyconsidertheformalityofthesettingindesigningyour
presentation,youshouldfirstselectthetypeofpresentationbasedonyourpurpose.Examples
ofpresentationtypesincludesales,persuasion,statusreport,productdemonstration,and
businessplanorstrategy.Afterselectingtheappropriatepresentationtype,youshouldthen
considerotherfactorsaswellincludingsizeofyouraudienceandformalityofthesetting.

Thesizeofyouraudience

Notthebestchoice.

Thoughit'simportanttoeventuallyconsiderthesizeofyouraudienceindesigningyour
presentation,youshouldfirstselectthetypeofpresentationbasedonyourpurpose.Examples
ofpresentationtypesincludesales,persuasion,statusreport,productdemonstration,and
businessplanorstrategy.Afterselectingtheappropriatepresentationtype,youshouldthen
considerotherfactorsaswellincludingsizeofyouraudienceandformalityofthesetting.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question3

Indecidingwhattosayduringyourpresentation,what'sanimportant"don't"tokeepinmind?

Don'tneutralizecontraryargumentscomingfromyouraudience

Notthebestchoice.

Actually,youshouldneutralizecontraryargumentscomingfromyouraudienceinorderto
persuadelistenerstoacceptyourmessage.Thecorrectchoiceis"Don'ttalkjustaboutfacts."
Whileit'simportanttoprovidefactstosupportyourideas,youalsoneedtoidentifythe
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emotionalunderpinningsofyourmessagebyexplainingwhyyouraudienceshouldcareabout
whatyouhavetosay.Moreover,toomanyfactscanoverloadyouraudience.

Don'ttalkjustaboutfacts

Correctchoice.

Whileit'simportanttoprovidefactstosupportyourideas,youalsoneedtoidentifythe
emotionalunderpinningsofyourmessagebyexplainingwhyyouraudienceshouldcareabout
whatyouhavetosay.Moreover,toomanyfactscanoverloadyouraudience.

Don'tdescribetheactionyouwantyouraudiencetotake

Notthebestchoice.

Actually,youshouldexplaintheactionsyouwantyouraudiencetotake,sothatyouachieve
theintendedoutcomeofyourpresentation.Thecorrectchoiceis"Don'ttalkjustaboutfacts."
Whileit'simportanttoprovidefactstosupportyourideas,youalsoneedtoidentifythe
emotionalunderpinningsofyourmessagebyexplainingwhyyouraudienceshouldcareabout
whatyouhavetosay.Moreover,toomanyfactscanoverloadyouraudience.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question4

Mostexpertsagreethatitisimportanttolimitthenumberofmessagesandmainideascoveredina
singlepresentation.Whatisthisgenerallyagreeduponnumber?

Two

Notthebestchoice.

Insteadoftwo,youshouldtrytolimitthenumberofyourmessagesandmainideastoabout
five.That'sbecausefive(plusorminustwo)seemstobethenumberofmessagesthatmost
adultscanremember.

Five

Correctchoice.

Youshouldtrytolimitthenumberofyourmessagesandmainideastoaboutfive.That's
becausefive(plusorminustwo)seemstobethenumberofmessagesthatmostadultscan
remember.

Nine

Notthebestchoice.

Insteadofnine,youshouldtrytolimitthenumberofyourmessagesandmainideastoabout
five.That'sbecausefive(plusorminustwo)seemstobethenumberofmessagesthatmost
adultscanremember.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question5

Duringtheopeningofyourpresentation,youdescribetheimportanceofthetopictoyouraudience,
establishyourcredibility,andpreviewthemainpointsyouwillcover.Whatelsedoyouneedtodo
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duringtheopening?

Includeclearstatementsofthemainpoints

Notthebestchoice.

Youincludeclearstatementsofyourmainpointsduringthebodyofyourpresentation,notthe
opening.Theadditionalstepyouneedtotakeduringtheopeningistodefinethepurposeofthe
presentation.Ideally,yourpurposeshouldbethefirstthingyoutellyouraudience.

Definethepurposeofthepresentation

Correctchoice.

Inadditiontodescribingtheimportanceofyourtopictoyouraudience,establishingyour
credibility,andpreviewingyourmainpoints,youalsowanttodefinethepurposeofyour
presentation.Ideally,yourpurposeshouldbethefirstthingyoutellyouraudience.

Identifyaclearproblemthatyouandyouraudiencewillsolvetogether

Notthebestchoice.

Youidentifyaclearproblemthatyouandyouraudiencewillsolvetogetherduringthesecond
partofyourpresentationtheneedorproblemstatementnottheopening.Theadditional
stepyouneedtotakeduringtheopeningistodefinethepurposeofthepresentation.Ideally,
yourpurposeshouldbethefirstthingyoutellyouraudience.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question6

Duringthebodyofapresentation,whatisaneffectivewaytoinvolvetheaudience?

Askyouraudienceforsuggestionsandquestions

Correctchoice.

Askinglistenersfortheirsuggestionsandquestionsandthenrespondingmakesyour
presentationtrulyinteractive.Whenyouaskforsuggestionsorquestionsisuptoyou.Inan
informalsetting,youmightencourageaudiencememberstoaskquestionsormake
suggestionsatanytime.Inamoreformalsetting,youmayexplainduringyouropeningwhen
you'lltakequestionsandsuggestions.Eitherway,audiencememberswilllistenmore
attentivelywhentheyknowthatyou'regoingtoconsidertheirinput.

Offervisualaids,suchasaslideshow,tosupportyourmainmessages

Notthebestchoice.

Whilevisualaidsmayhelpaudiencememberscomprehendyourmessage,theydonotactively
involvetheaudience.Fortrueaudienceinvolvement,youneedtoinvitelistenerstomake
suggestionsandaskquestions.Whenyouaskforsuggestionsorquestionsisuptoyou.Inan
informalsetting,youmightencourageaudiencememberstoaskquestionsormake
suggestionsatanytime.Inamoreformalsetting,youmayexplainduringyouropeningwhen
you'lltakequestionsandsuggestions.Eitherway,audiencememberswilllistenmore
attentivelywhentheyknowthatyou'regoingtoconsidertheirinput.

Passoutsheetsofpaperonwhichaudiencememberscantakenotesreflectingonthecontent
ofyourpresentation

Notthebestchoice.

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Whiletakingnotesmayhelpaudiencemembersreflectonandcomprehendyourmessage,it
doesn'tactivelyinvolvetheaudience.Fortrueaudienceinvolvement,youneedtoinvite
listenerstomakesuggestionsandaskquestions.Whenyouaskforsuggestionsorquestionsis
uptoyou.Inaninformalsetting,youmightencourageaudiencememberstoaskquestionsor
makesuggestionsatanytime.Inamoreformalsetting,youmayexplainduringyouropening
whenyou'lltakequestionsandsuggestions.Eitherway,audiencememberswilllistenmore
attentivelywhentheyknowthatyou'regoingtoconsidertheirinput.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question7

Howlongshouldapresentationbe?

Notmorethanonehour

Notthebestchoice.

Somepresentationsmayrequiremorethanonehourtocommunicateyourmessageeffectively.
Thus,yourpresentationshouldbeaslongasitneedstobetoconveyatleastonemessage
clearlyandcompletely.

However,it'simportanttotellyouraudienceupfronthowlongyourpresentationwilltakeand
thensticktotheallocatedtimesolistenerswon'tbecomerestlessortired.

Ingeneral,twohours

Notthebestchoice.

Somepresentationsmayrequiremorethantwohourstocommunicateyourmessage
effectively.Thus,yourpresentationshouldbeaslongasitneedstobetoconveyatleastone
messageclearlyandcompletely.

However,it'simportanttotellyouraudienceupfronthowlongyourpresentationwilltakeand
thensticktotheallocatedtimesolistenerswon'tbecomerestlessortired.

Aslongasitneedstobetoconveyatleastonemessageclearlyandcompletely

Correctchoice.

Apresentationshouldbeaslongasitneedstobetoconveyatleastonemessageclearlyand
completely.However,it'simportanttotellyouraudienceupfronthowlongyourpresentationwill
takeandthensticktotheallocatedtimesolistenerswon'tbecomerestlessortired.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question8

Whenisanappropriatetimetodistributehandoutsduringapresentation?

Whilemakingyourneedorproblemstatement

Notthebestchoice.

Youshouldusuallyavoidhandingoutmaterialswhiledeliveringanypartofyourpresentation,
includingtheneedorproblemstatement,becausedoingsocandetractfromwhatyouare
sayingatthetime.Forthebestresults,distributehandoutseitherbeforethepresentation,
givingpeopleenoughtimetoabsorbthecontentbeforeyoustartspeaking,orafterthe
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presentation,soyouraudiencehasasummaryofyourkeypointstoreview.

Duringthecalltoaction

Notthebestchoice.

Youshouldusuallyavoidhandingoutmaterialswhiledeliveringanypartofyourpresentation,
includingthecalltoaction,becausedoingsocandetractfromwhatyouaresayingatthetime.
Forthebestresults,distributehandoutseitherbeforethepresentation,givingpeopleenough
timetoabsorbthecontentbeforeyoustartspeaking,orafterthepresentation,soyour
audiencehasasummaryofyourkeypointstoreview.

Beforeorafterthepresentation

Correctchoice.

Forthebestresults,distributehandoutseitherbeforethepresentation,givingpeopleenough
timetoabsorbthecontentbeforeyoustartspeaking,orafterthepresentation,soyour
audiencehasasummaryofyourkeypointstoreview.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question9

Whataspectsofyourpresentationmostaffecthowpersuasiveyouare?

Experttestimony,statistics,visualaids,andaudienceinvolvement

Notthebestchoice.

Experttestimony,statistics,visualaids,andaudienceinvolvementcanmakeyourpresentation
moreinteresting,butyourpersuasivenessislargelyaproductofyourenthusiasm,credibility,
andpersonalbeliefinthesubject.Whenyoubelieveinwhatyou'resayingandletyour
enthusiasmshowyou'remorelikelytopersuadeyouraudiencetoacceptyourmessage.

Personalstories,examples,humor,andanalogies

Notthebestchoice.

Personalstories,examples,humor,andanalogiescanmakeyourpresentationmore
interesting,butyourpersuasivenessislargelyaproductofyourenthusiasm,credibility,and
personalbeliefinthesubject.Whenyoubelieveinwhatyou'resayingandletyour
enthusiasmshowyou'remorelikelytopersuadeyouraudiencetoacceptyourmessage.

Yourenthusiasm,credibility,andpersonalbeliefinthesubject

Correctchoice.

Yourpersuasivenessislargelyaproductofyourenthusiasm,credibility,andpersonalbeliefin
thesubject.Whenyoubelieveinwhatyou'resayingandletyourenthusiasmshowyou're
morelikelytopersuadeyouraudiencetoacceptyourmessage.

CheckYourKnowledge:Question10

What'saneffectivewaytohandleaquestionfromanaudiencememberforwhichyoudon'thavethe
answer?
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Gettheindividual'sname,writethequestiondown,andaskthemtotalkwithyouattheendof
thepresentation.Don'tstatethatyoudon'tknowtheanswer.

Notthebestchoice.

Ifyoudon'tknowtheanswertoaquestion,don'tdenyorglossoverthefactbyavoiding
admittingthatyoudon'thavetheanswer.Instead,directthepersontoanothersourceoroffer
tofindtheanswerafterthepresentation.

First,indicatethatthequestionisagoodone.Admitthatyoudon'tknowtheanswer,thenmove
ontothenextquestion.

Notthebestchoice.

Ifyoudon'tknowtheanswertoaquestion,don'tleavetheaudiencememberhangingby
admittingthatyoudon'thavetheanswerandthenmovingontothenextquestion.Instead,
directthepersontoanothersourceoroffertofindtheanswerafterthepresentation.

Directthepersontoasourceoroffertofindtheanswerafterthepresentation.

Correctchoice.

Ifyoudon'tknowtheanswertoaquestion,it'sbestnottodenyorglossoverthefact.Instead,
directthepersontoanothersourceoroffertofindtheanswerafterthepresentation.

CheckYourKnowledge:Results

Yourscore:
Stepsforsettingupapresentation

1. Defineyourobjectives.
Whatoutcomedoyouwant?Whatdoyouwantyouraudiencetodoasaresultofyour
presentation?Yourobjectivedetermineswhatyousayandhowyousayit.
Examineyourpurpose.Doyouwanttoinform,persuade,orsell?Doyouwantthe
audiencetounderstand,learn,ortakeaction?Whendoyouwantyouraudiencetotake
actionandhow?
Beexplicitindefiningyourobjectives.Themoreexplicityouare,themorelikelyyouare
todesignapresentationthatsupportsthem.Forexample:"Iwanttheaudienceto
requestthattheirdirectreportsparticipateinthepilotsystemrolloutinQ1."
2. Gettoknowyouraudience.
Determineyouraudience'slevelofknowledge,interestandpositioning,andabilitytoact
onwhatyoupresentpriortothepresentation.
Makesureyouknowwhatisinitforthem.Keepingyourpresentationaudiencefocused
iscritical.
Ifyouarenotfamiliarwiththegroup,asktheliaisonforthemeetingtogiveyousome
background.Ifpossible,trytocontactatleastonepersonwhofitstheaudienceprofile.
3. Selectastrategythatmatchesyourobjective.
Forexample,makingasalewillrequireapersuasivebentthatmightincludefeaturesand
benefitsandcompetitivedatacomparisons.
Includewhateverinformationhelpsyouachieveyourobjective.Omitanything
extraneous,distracting,orinterfering.
4. Matchyourpresentationtoyouraudience.
Forexample,apresentationtoatechnicalgroupofdecisionmakersisgoingtocontain
morequantitativedetailthanapresentationtoagroupoflesstechnicaljuniormanagers.

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Incaseswherethereisamixedaudience,trytoaddressthedifferentperspectives
explicitlytokeepeveryoneinterested.Forexample,"Thiswillaffecttheproduct
managerslikethis...andtheengineerslikethis..."
Incaseswheretheaudienceislikelytobehostile,beginbyemphasizingconcernsyou
haveincommon.Turnthenegativeintoapositive,ifpossible.
Toenergizeanapathetic,tired,orhungryaudience,openwithastartlingstatementora
vividillustration.

Stepsforcreatingapresentation

1. Brainstormideas.
2. Identifyyourmessageandsupportingfacts.
3. Selectthenumberofpointsthatwillmakethecasetoyouraudiencewithinthegiven
time.
Itisbettertomakefewerpointsandmakethemwell.
Ifyoudonothavetimetomakeapointclearoracceptabletoyouraudience,saveitfor
anotherpresentation.
Ifyouarenotsurehowlongyourtalkmayrun,prepareextrasupportingmaterialsuchas
statistics,analogies,orexamplesthatcanbeomittedifyouarerunningoutoftime.
4. Organizeyourpoints.
Tokeepyouraudienceontrack,makethelogicofyourpresentationclearatalltimes.
Placeyourstrongestpointfirstorlast.Donotburyyourbestideas.
Intheopening,statewhereyouareheadedandwhatyouwanttoproveordemonstrate.
Inthebody,supportyourmainpointswithexamples,visuals,andanecdotes.
Atappropriateintervals,notewhatyouhavealreadycoveredandwhereyouareaboutto
go.
Toclose,presentyourconclusionsandgivetheaudienceacalltoaction.
5. Preparealistofpossiblequestionsandobjections,anddecidehowyouwilladdress
themiftheyarise.
6. Prepareyourvisualsandsupportmaterials.Thesematerialscanhelpyouraudienceto:
Rememberfacts.
Understandideas,relationships,orphysicallayouts.
Recognizethatyouaremovingontoanewtopic.

Stepsforpracticingandevaluating

1. Rehearse.
Rehearsewiththeequipmentandvisualsyouwillactuallyuseattheevent.
Rehearsetheentirepresentationeachtimeyoupractice,includinghowyouaregoingto
standandmove,andhowyouaregoingtousethevisuals.
Rehearseoutlouduntilthepresentationdoesnotsoundmemorized.
Concentrateonthesubjectormessageandyourdesiretocommunicate,notonyour
notes.
Ifthepresentationisahighprofileonetoalargegroup,youcanvideotapeyourpractice
sessiontoevaluateitmoreclosely.
2. Gatherfeedbackpriortoyourpresentation.
Practiceyourpresentationontestaudiencesandgettheirfeedback.Assemblepeople
whoaresimilartoyouraudienceprofile.Forexample,ifyouarepresentingtoexpertson
thetopic,getanexpert.
Testasmanyfeaturesofyourpresentationasyoucan:thevisuals,logic,etc.
Whatkindofimpactdoyoumakeonthisgroup?
3. Evaluatetheprogressofyourpresentationwhileitisinprocess.
Lookforaudiencecuessuchasinterestorboredom.
Ifpossible,haveanotherpersonintheaudiencetakenotesonaudiencereactionforyou.
Makenotesonthoseissuesimmediatelyafterthepresentationwhileit'sstillfreshinyour
mind.
Notequestionsasked.Theymaypointtoareasofyourpresentationthatneed

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clarification.
Asktheaudiencehowit'sgoing,ifappropriate.
4. Evaluateyourpresentationafteryouhavefinished.
Assesstheoveralleffectivenessofyourpresentation.Wasyourobjectiveachieved?Did
theaudienceseemengagedandattentive?Notewhatwentwellandwhatneedstobe
improved.
Askforfeedbackfromcredibleparticipants.
Ifyouaregoingtomakethepresentationagain,whatchangeswouldyoumaketo
improveit?
Whatgenerallessonshaveyoulearnedaboutmakingpresentations?
5. Reflectonwhatyouhavelearnedanduseyournewknowledgetoimproveyournext
presentation.

Tipsforsettingupapresentation

Identifythepresentationobjectiveitwilldriveeverythingelseyoudo.
Learnasmuchasyoucanaboutyourlisteners,theirbiases,andtheirexpectations.
Addressyourtopicfromtheaudience'sperspective.
Tailoryourpresentationtoaccommodatethecontextthephysicalenvironment,timeofday,
andsignificantongoingeventsthatmayaffectyourlisteners.

Tipsfororganizingapresentation

Makethelogicofyourpresentationclearatalltimes.
Placeyourstrongestpointfirstorlast.Donotburyyourbestideas.
Stateintheopeningwhereyouareheadedandwhatyouwanttoproveordemonstrate.
Atappropriateintervals,notewhatyouhavealreadycoveredandwhereyouareabouttogo.
Summarizeyourmainpointsandpresentyourconclusionsintheclose.

Tipsforcreatingvisuals

Useasingleideawithnomorethansixlinesperslide.
Beselectivewithyourwords.
Usepictureswherepossible.
Don'tuseverticallettering.
Useamaximumoftwosizesoftypeperpage.
Usebullets,notnumbers,fornonsequentialitems.
Useuppercaseandlowercaseletters.Onlyusealluppercasefortitlesoracronyms.

Tipsforpresentingeffectively

Donottalkfromascript.Talkfromnotes.
Faceyouraudienceandmakeeyecontact.
Walkaroundyouraudiencewhenyouwantcontrol,moreinvolvement,ortobecomeoneofthe
group.
Donotjinglekeysorcoinsinyourpockets.
Usegesturesinarelaxedandnormalway.
Useyourvoiceeffectively.
Keepyourfocusonyourmessageandyouraudience.

Preliminaryplanningworksheet

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Audiencecharacteristicsworksheet

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Presentationcontextworksheet

Presentationoutlineworksheet
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Logisticsworksheet

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Objectionsworksheet

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WhyDevelopOthers?

Attheendoftheday,youbetonpeople,notstrategies.
LarryBossidy
FormerCEO,AlliedSignal

Intodaysglobalbusinessenvironment,marketsandregulationschangequickly.Competitors
constantlyinnovate.Technologicalchangesarethenorm.

Inordertooutmaneuverthecompetitionandmeetthedemandsofthemoment,organizations
mustbeagile.Theymustexecuteflawlessly.Andtheymusttransformthemselves
continuously.

Areyourleadersready?

Dr.NoelM.Tichy
Professor
UniversityofMichiganRossSchoolofBusiness

WehavenowenteredanerawhereIdontcarewhatindustryyourein,youneedleaderswho
canmakedecisions,makejudgmentcallsateverysinglelevel.Allthewaydowntothe
interfacewiththecustomer.

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IfyougotoacompanylikeGoogleoranyofthehightechcompanies,alotoftheinnovation
thatAmazondoesishappeningrightatthefrontline.Goahead,tryit,putitoutthere,we'll
learnfromit.Thatcannothappeniftheseniorleadershipdoesn'thaveacommitmenttoboth
developtheleadershipcapability,butdevelopthebusinessthroughengagingpeopleatall
levelsoftheorganization.

Becomingateachingorganization

Iliketotellparentsthattheycannotdelegatetheirresponsibilitytodeveloptheirchildren.AndI
thinkitisthesameinanorganization.Dayinanddayoutthepersonthathasthebiggest
impactonpeopleintheorganizationisthenextlevelaboveandtheassociatesaroundand
below.AndsotobuildalearningorganizationIsayisnotenough.Learningcouldbe,you
knowwearelearningcooking,wearelearningthisorthat,butteachingorganizations,whenI
learnedsomething,Ihavearesponsibilitytoteachmycolleagues.

Soeverybodytakesresponsibilityforgeneratingnewknowledgeanditisnotenoughtobea
learner,youthenhavetotranslateitintoteaching.

TheVirtuousTeachingCycle
Theroleofaleaderistoensurethatthepeoplewhoworkforthemandaroundthemarebetter
everyday.There'sonlyonewaytomakepeoplebetter.It'stoteachthem,learnfromthem,
createwhatIcall"virtuousteachingcycles,notcommandandcontrol.

Avirtuousteachingcycleisteachlearn,teachlearn.Andtheleaderhasaresponsibilityfor
reducingthehierarchy,forhavingapointofviewtostartthediscussion,butthentobe
responsibletoheareveryone'svoice,geteveryoneinvolvedinadisciplinedway.Itisnotafree
forall.Butitistheleader'sresponsibilitytocreatethatvirtuousteachingcycle.

AwonderfulexampleofvirtuousteachingcycleistheprogramthatRogerEnricoranatPepsi,
whereeveryoneofthe10vicepresidentscomeswithabusinessproject.

RogerEnricogetssmarterasresultoffivedayswith10vicepresidents,becausehe'slearning
fromthem.Heneedstolowerthehierarchy.Heneedstobeopentolearning.Andinturn,the
peopleparticipatingneedtobeenergizedandempoweredtocomeupandengageinproblem
solving.

AnotherexampleisatBestBuy,whereeverymorninginthestoresyouwouldbring20
associatesorsotogetherandtheywouldreviewtheprofitandlossstatementfromtheday
before,whatwelearnedfromthedifferentcustomersegmentsinourstores,whatwecandoto
improveourperformancethisday.Andtheydothateverysingleday.Thestoremanagerwas
learningmostlyfromtheassociatesonthefloor.

Thatwasavirtuousteachingcyclewereeverybodyisteachingeverybody,everybodyis
learningandtheresulthasbeenanincredibleresultatBestBuy.

Thegrowthanddevelopmentofpeopleisthehighestcallingofleadership.
HarveyS.Firestone
Founder,FirestoneTireandRubberCo

Thereareclearadvantagestoleaderleddevelopment.

Butformanyleaders,takingonteaching,coaching,andotherdevelopmentresponsibilitiescan
seemdaunting.Youmightavoidtakingontheserolesduetolackoftime,resources,oryour
ownlackofcomfortwiththisrole.

Thefollowingtipsandresourcescanhelpyouimpartvaluablelearningtoyourteameveryday.

Todevelopothers
StartwithaTeachablePointofView

ThefirstrequirementofbeingabletodevelopotherleadersistohavewhatIcallateachable
pointofview.Ioftengivetheexampleof,ifIranatenniscampandyoujustcametodayoneof
thetenniscamp,IbetterhaveateachablepointofviewonhowIteachtennis.Soyouare
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standingtherelookingatmeandithasgotfourelements.One,theideas,wellhowdoIteach
thebackhand,theforehand,theserve,rulesoftennis.ThenifIamagoodtenniscoach,Ihave
asetofvalues.WhataretherightbehaviorsIwant,howdoIwantyoutodress,howdoIwant
youtobehaveonthetenniscourt.

Butifthat'sallIhave,whatdoIdo?Showyouapowerpointpresentationandthenexpectyou
tohit500backhands,500serves,runaroundforeighthours.Ihavetohaveateachablepoint
ofviewonemotionalenergy.HowdoImotivateyoutobuyintotheideasandvalues?

OnoneendofthespectrumitcouldbeIthreatenyouwithcorporalpunishment,theotherIcan
giveyoustockoptions,Icanmakeyoufeelgoodaboutyourself,Icanhelpyoudevelopasa
humanbeing,whatmotivatesyou.

Andthenfinally,howdoImakethetoughjudgmentcalls,theyes/no,decisionsasthetennis
coach,theballisin,theballisout.Idon'thireconsultantsandsetupacommittee,itisyes/no.
Andthesamewithrunningabusiness,whataretheproducts,services,distributionchannels,
customersegmentsthataregoingtogrowtoplinegrowthandprofitabilityoftheorganization.

WhatarethevaluesthatIwanteveryoneintheorganizationtohave,howdoIemotionally
energizethousandsofpeople,andthenhowdoImaketheyes/no,judgmentsonpeopleand
onbusinessissues.Sothefundamentalbuildingblockofbeingabletodevelopotherleadersis
tohavethatteachablepointofviewjustlikethetenniscoach.

Todevelopothers
Leadwithquestions

Questionsarehugelyimportantbecauseyouwanttocreatedialogueandagain,whatIcalla
virtuousteachingcyclewheretheteacherlearnsfromthestudentsandviceversa.Which
meanseverybodyoughttobefreetoaskwhateverisontheirmind,whateveritwilltaketoget
clarityandunderstanding,butitisnottheleaderjustcominginandfreeformaskingquestions.I
believetheleaderhasaresponsibilityforframingthediscussion,forhavingasbesttheycana
teachablepointofview,theymayneedhelpfromtheirpeopleinflushingitout,buttheyneedto
setthestagebutthenithastobeaveryinteractive,whatIcallvirtuousteachingcycle
environment,teachlearn,teachlearn,teachlearn.

Todevelopothers
Makeitpartofyourroutine

AgoodexampletomeofanoutstandingleaderdevelopingotherleadersisMyrtlePotterwho
atthetimeIamcommentingwasChiefOperatingOfficerofGenentechrunningthecommercial
sideofthebusiness.Andshewouldtaketimeattheendofeverysinglemeetinganddosome
coachingofthewholeteamonhowwecouldperformasateambetter,andthenshewould
oftentakeindividualsandsay,couldwespend10minutesoveracupofcoffee,Iwanttogive
yousomefeedbackandcoachingonthatreportthatyoujustpresentedonorhowyouare
handlingaparticularlydifficulthumanresourceissue,butitwaspartofherregularroutine.And
Ithinkthechallengeforallofusasleadersistomakethatawayoflifeanditisbuiltintothe
fabricofhowweleadanditisnotaoneoffevent,threetimesayear.Itishappeningalmost
everyday.

Todevelopothers
Makeitapriority

Oneofthebiggestchallengesingettingpeoplekindofonthispathistoovercomesomeof
theirownresistance,eitherfearorthewayIviewtheworldIdon'thavetimeforthis,everybody
canmaketime.RogerEnricoisCEOofPepsi.Hedidn'thavetimetogooffforaweekatatime
andruntrainingsessions.Hehadtoreadjusthiscalendar.Soitrequiresyoutolookinthe
mirrorandsay,isthisimportant.Ifitisimportant,ofcourseIcanmakethetime.ThenIhaveto
getovermyownanxietyonhowwellIcandoit,butitisacommitmenttogetonthepaththat
says:thisishowIamgoingtodrivemyownperformanceandtheperformanceofmy
colleagues.

Todevelopothers
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Learntoteach

Ithinkthebiggestmistakeistoassumeyouaregoingtobegoodatitrightoffthebat.Itislike
learninganythingelse.Firsttimeyougooutandtryandplaytennis,goodluck.Butyougotto
staywithitandyougottoengageyourpeopleinhelpingmakeyoubetterandthembetter.And
soitisajourneyyouneedtogeton,notIamgoingtodoitperfectlywhenIstartout.

Ifyouwanttobeagreatleaderwhoisagreatteacher,it'sverysimple.Youhavegottodive
intothedeependofthepool.Butyou'vegottodiveintothepoolwithpreparation.Idon'twant
youdrowning.Iwantyousucceeding.Itisextraordinarilyrewardingformosthumanbeingsto
teachothers.Ithinkonceyoucanturnthatswitchon,itisselfperpetuating.Yougetalotof
reinforcement,yourteamisbetter.Youperformbetterbecauseyourperformancegoesupand
itbecomesthisvirtuousteachingcycle.

Youropportunitytodevelopothers

Weveheardwhydevelopingotherscandrivegreaterbusinessresults,andhowtomakethe
mostofyourleaderleddevelopmentefforts.ThematerialsprovidedinDevelopOthersenable
youtocreatepersonalizedlearningexperiencesforYOURteamwithintheflowoftheirdaily
activities.Usetheguidesandprojectstoengageyourteamquickly.Andtoexplorehowkey
conceptsapplytotheminthecontextoftheirprioritiesandgoals.

Thevalueofteachingistheperformanceoftheorganizationistotallydependentonmaking
yourpeoplesmarterandmorealignedeverydayastheworldchanges.Inthe21stcenturywe
arenotgoingtogetbywithcommandandcontrol.Wearegoingtohavetogetbywith
knowledgecreation.Thewayyoucreateknowledgeinanorganizationisyoucreatethese
virtuousteachingcycleswhereyouareteachingandlearningsimultaneously,respondingto
customerdemandsandchanges,respondingtochangesintheglobalenvironment.Mybottom
lineisifyou'renotteaching,you'renotleading.

Aleadersmostimportantroleinanyorganizationismakinggoodjudgmentswellinformed,wise
decisionsaboutpeople,strategyandcrisesthatproducethedesiredoutcomes.Whenaleader
showsconsistentlygoodjudgment,littleelsematters.Whenheorsheshowspoorjudgmentnothing
elsematters.Inadditiontomakingtheirowngoodjudgmentcalls,goodleadersdevelopgood
judgmentamongtheirteammembers.

Dr.NoelM.Tichy
Professor,UniversityofMichiganRossSchoolofBusiness

Dr.NoelM.TichyisProfessorofManagementandOrganizations,andDirectoroftheGlobalBusiness
PartnershipattheUniversityofMichiganRossSchoolofBusiness.TheGlobalBusinessPartnership
linkscompaniesandstudentsaroundtheworldtodevelopandengagebusinessleadersto
incorporateglobalcitizenshipactivities,bothenvironmentalprojectsandhumancapitaldevelopment,
forthoseatthebottomofthepyramid.Previously,NoelwasheadofGeneralElectricsLeadership
CenteratCrotonville,whereheledthetransformationtoactionlearningatGE.Between1985and
1987,hewasManagerofManagementEducationforGEwherehedirecteditsworldwide
developmenteffortsatCrotonville.Hecurrentlyconsultswidelyinboththeprivateandpublicsectors.
HeisaseniorpartnerinActionLearningAssociates.Noelisauthorofnumerousbooksandarticles,
including:

FormoreinformationaboutNoelTichy,visithttp://www.noeltichy.com.

ShareanIdea

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Leadersareinauniquepositiontorecognizetheideasandtoolsthataremostrelevantandusefulfor
theirteams.Ifyouonlyhaveafewminutes,considersharinganideaortoolfromthistopicwithyour
teamorpeersthatisrelevantandtimelytotheirsituation.

Forexample,considersendingoneofthethreerecommendedideasortoolsbelowtoyourteamwith
yourcommentsorquestionsonhowtheideaortoolcanbeofvaluetoyourorganization.Bysimply
sharingtheitem,youcaneasilyengageothersinimportantconversationsandactivitiesrelevantto
yourgoalsandpriorities.
Stepsforsettingupapresentation
Tipsfororganizingapresentation
Presentationoutlineworksheet
Toshareanidea,tip,step,ortoolwithyourcommentsviaemail,selecttheEMAILlinkintheupper
rightcornerofthepagethatcontainstheidea,tip,step,ortoolthatyouwishtoshare.

Discussion1:Layingthefoundationforapresentation

Presentationsareapowerfulwaytocommunicateyourmessagetoagroup.Dependingonyour
purpose,apresentationcanprovideaforumfordiscussionofchallengingideas,helpgain
commitmentandalignmenttoacourseofaction,orengagepeopleingeneratingsolutionsto
problems.Butunlessyoutakethetimetodefineyourpresentationsobjective,knowyouraudience,
andfullyunderstandthecontextinwhichyouarepresenting,yourpresentationmaynothavethe
positiveimpactyouintended.

Youandyourteamcanmakesubstantialcontributionstoyourunitordepartmentwhenyouskillfully
laythefoundationforasuccessfulpresentation.Usetheseresourcestoleadadiscussionwithyour
teamabout:(1)definingyourpresentationsobjective(2)knowingyouraudienceand(3)
understandingyourpresentationscontext.
Downloadresources:
DiscussionInvitation:LayingtheFoundationforaPresentation
DiscussionGuide:LayingtheFoundationforaPresentation
DiscussionSlides:LayingtheFoundationforaPresentation(optional)
TipsforPreparingforandLeadingtheDiscussion
Thediscussionyouhavewithyourteamwillhelpindividualteammembersunderstandandapply
techniquesthatcreatethefoundationforasuccessfulpresentation.

Workingthroughthediscussionguidecantakeupto45minutes.Ifyoupreferashorter15or30
minutesession,youmaywanttofocusonlyonthoseconceptsandactivitiesmostrelevanttoyour
situation.

Discussion2:Organizingyourpresentation

Onceyouhaveestablishedthefoundationforyourpresentation,youneedtocreateaclearand
organizedoutline.Awellorganizedpresentationmakestheaudience'slisteningjobaseasyas
possible,boostingthelikelihoodthatyourpresentationwillproducetheresultsyouintended.

Youandyourteamcanmakesubstantialcontributionstoyourunitordepartmentbyimprovingyour
capacitytoorganizeaneffectivepresentation.Usetheseresourcestoleadadiscussionwithyour
teamabouthowtodevelopthreekeysectionsofapresentation:theopening,theproblemstatement,
andthesolution.
Downloadresources:
DiscussionInvitation:OrganizingyourPresentation
DiscussionGuide:OrganizingyourPresentation
DiscussionSlides:OrganizingyourPresentation(optional)
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TipsforPreparingforandLeadingtheDiscussion
Thediscussionyouhavewithyourteamwillhelpindividualteammemberstounderstandandapply
techniquesfororganizinganeffectivepresentation.

Workingthroughthediscussionguidecantakeupto45minutes.Ifyoupreferashorter15or30
minutesession,youmaywanttofocusonlyonthoseconceptsandactivitiesmostrelevanttoyour
situation.

StartaGroupProject

Justlikeanychangeeffort,successfullyincorporatingnewskillsandbehaviorsintoonesdaily
activitiesandhabitstakestimeandeffort.Afterreviewingordiscussingtheconceptsinthistopic,your
directreportswillstillneedyoursupporttofullyapplynewconceptsandskills.Theywillneedto
overcomeavarietyofbarriersincludingalackoftime,lackofconfidence,andafearofmaking
mistakes.Theywillalsoneedopportunitiestohonetheirskillsandbreakoldhabits.Tohelpensure
theirsuccess,youcanprovidesafeopportunitiesforindividualsandyourteamasawholetopractice
andexperimentwithnewskillsandbehaviorsonthejob.

Forexample,toencouragetheadoptionofnewnorms,youcanprovideyourteammemberswith
coaching,feedback,andadditionaltimetocompletetasksthatrequiretheuseofnewskills.
Managementapproachessuchasthesewillencourageteammemberstoexperimentwithnewskills
untiltheybecomeproficient.

Grouplearningprojectsprovideanothervaluabletechniqueforacceleratingteammembers
developmentofnewbehaviors.Agrouplearningprojectisanonthejobactivityaimedatproviding
teammemberswithdirectexperienceimplementingtheirnewknowledgeandskills.Througha
learningproject,teammembersdiscoverhownewconceptsworkinthecontextoftheirsituation,
whilesimultaneouslyhavingadirectandtangibleimpactontheorganization.

Thedocumentsbelowprovidesteps,tips,andatemplateforinitiatingagrouplearningprojectwith
yourteam,alongwithtwoprojectrecommendationsforthistopic.
Downloadresources:
TipsforInitiatingandSupportingaLearningProject
LearningProjectPlanTemplate
LearningProject:EvaluatingaPresentation
LearningProject:WorkingasaTeamtoPrepareaPresentation

HowtoBecomeanAuthenticSpeaker

NickMorgan."HowtoBecomeanAuthenticSpeaker."HarvardBusinessReview,November2008.

Downloadfile

Summary
Likethebestlaidschemesofmiceandmen,thebestrehearsedspeechesgooftastray.Noamount
ofpreparationcancounteranaudience'sperceptionthatthespeakeriscalculatingorinsincere.Why
dosomanymanagershavetroublecommunicatingauthenticitytotheirlisteners?Morgan,a
communicationscoachformorethantwodecades,offersadviceforovercomingthisdifficulty.Recent
brainresearchshowsthatnatural,unstudiedgestureswhatMorgancallsthe"second
conversation"expressemotionsorimpulsesasplitsecondbeforeourthoughtprocesseshave
turnedthemintowords.Sothetimingofpracticedgestureswillalwaysbesubtlyoffjustenoughto
bepickedupbylisteners'unconsciousabilitytoreadbodylanguage.Ifyoucan'tpracticethe
unspokenpartofyourdelivery,whatcanyoudo?Tapintofourbasicimpulsesunderlyingyourspeech
tobeopentotheaudience,toconnectwithit,tobepassionate,andto"listen"tohowtheaudience

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isrespondingandthenrehearseyourpresentationwitheachinmind.

TheFourTruthsoftheStoryteller

PeterGuber."FourTruthsoftheStoryteller."HarvardBusinessReview,December2007.

Downloadfile

Summary
Awelltoldstory'spowertocaptivateandinspirepeoplehasbeenrecognizedforthousandsofyears.
PeterGuberisinthebusinessofcreatingcompellingstories:Hehasheadedseveralentertainment
companiesincludingSonyPictures,PolyGram,andColumbiaPicturesandproduced"RainMan,"
"Batman,"and"TheColorPurple,"amongmanyothermovies.Inthisarticle,heoffersamethodfor
effectivelyexercisingthatpower.Forastorytoenraptureitslisteners,saysGuber,itmustbetrueto
theteller,embodyinghisorherdeepestvaluesandconveyingthemwithcandortruetotheaudience,
deliveringonthepromisethatitwillbeworthpeople'stimebyacknowledginglisteners'needsand
involvingtheminthenarrativetruetothemoment,appropriatelymatchingthecontextwhetherit's
anaddressto2,000customersorachatwithacolleagueoverdrinksyetflexibleenoughtoallowfor
improvisationandtruetothemission,conveyingtheteller'spassionfortheworthyendeavorthatthe
storyillustratesandenlistingsupportforit.

v11.0.2.072720112011HarvardBusinessSchoolPublishing.Allrightsreserved.

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