Mangalore University

Impact of Religious Journals on the Hmar Tribe in Manipur

By. Robert L. Sungte

Department of Mass Communication and Journalism Mangalore University Mangalagangothri- 574 199 2005-2007
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To my Aunt (L) Mrs. Lalchawimawi (1948-2006)

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PREFACE TO THE -EDITION

e

The main purpose of the electronic edition is to make the study findings available free of cost to all those interested in the field of Hmar religious journals. The e-edition also aims to generate more discussion on Hmar vernacular press. Many of the materials, except for the study findings, made available in this study maybe lacking due to time constraint and lack of deeper insight. As a result the work is open to debate and suggestions from readers for more information on the subject. The present work is a reproduction of the copy submitted to Mangalore University by the author for obtaining his Master degree in Mass Communication and Journalism. The work was accepted by the Department of Mass Communication and Journalism on 21st April 2007. No part of the material maybe printed in any book format or reproduced in any form without prior permission from the author.

Robert L. Sungte October 1st, 2007 Bangalore Mail Your Suggestions To: lalmalsawm@gmail.com

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DECLARATION
I hereby declared that this dissertation/research entitled “A Study of the Impact of Religious Journals on the Hmar Tribe in Manipur” was undertaken by me during the year 2006-07 under the guidance of Dr. Waheeda Sultana, Reader, Department of Mass Communication and Journalism, Mangalore University, Karnataka.

I further declared that this dissertation/research topic has not been previously submitted or undertaken by others for any degree from this university or any other.
Sd/ROBERT L. SUNGTE

Certified that this research/study have been carried out under my guidance and supervisor.

Place: Mangalagangothri Date: 21.04.2007 Sd/DR. WAHEEDA SULTANA

Reader Department of Mass Communication& Journalism Mangalore University

Accepted in fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

Master of Communication and Journalism.

Sd/Place: Mangalagangothri Date: 21.04.2007 PROF. G.P. SHIVRAM (CHAIRMAN) Board of Examiners

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Acknowledgement
Asking somebody for their help is not a piece of cake for me and getting help is equally a hard thing. But there are those who come forward with just a mention of a few words on what needs to be done. To this category falls Alfred L.S. Hmar, Editor of Sawrtui Monthly (Manipur). If it were not for his timely assistance the present study could never have been completed. Memories fade but the memory of enormous encouragement: both emotional and financial support given to me by my aunt, (L) Mrs Lalchawimawi is as fresh as ever. It was she who made it possible for me to go to places as far as Mangalore University and thus rightly deserved credit for this work. And to my parents, Mr Laldarmawi and Mrs Lalthienghlim Sungte, I confer a countless ‘thank you’ for being there always. I also owe special thanks to my wife Lilyparmawi for the emotional support and many more. I thank Pu Lura and all the respondents for assisting me with the collection of survey questionnaire. Special thanks to my former roommate Shain Kumar, Department of Statistics, Mangalore University for the tips on how to use the statistical software. My gratitude also goes to all the leaders of various churches and editors of various Hmar journals who provided me words of encouragement and above all, for their help in compilation of a brief historical facts on some of the journals under this study. I also wish to acknowledge the pleasure of being with and within the academic atmosphere created by Dr. G.P Shivram, Chairman, Department of MCJ, Mangalore University, and his colleagues Prof. K.V. Nagaraj, Dr. D.S Poornananda and Mr. M.P Umeshchandra. The academic atmosphere during 2005-07 has enabled me to redefine myself much more. It would not have been right for me to mention in the beginning the person who was always around up to the last word of this study, with lots of advice and patience. I would like to close by acknowledging the fruitful guidance of Dr. Waheeda Sultana, Reader

in MCJ, who was instrumental in initiating and refinement of the study.

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Contents
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION : 7- 23

Chapter 2 REASERACH DESIGN

: 24- 32

Chapter 3 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

: 33- 99

Chapter 4 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

: 100- 106

REFERENCE

: 107

Annexure QUESTIONAIRE

: 108- 113

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CHAPTER- I INTRODUCTION

T

he process of communication is as old as the existence of man. In every society there are certain modes and means of transmitting knowledge and

information. It may be in the form of mere verbal intrapersonal means to a more composite medium as we now called the ‘Press’. Modern society has adopted the 'Press' as a means to communicate not only ideas but also feelings. The press as we know of today has evolved over the years and is now associated with newspapers, magazines, journals, etc. In other words all types of publication are now referred to as the Press.
1.1 The Press in Manipur: An outline

Vernacular Journalism was the name employed by the British for newspapers published in the native Indian languages. The number of journals in the Indian languages began to grow in the early part of the nineteenth century all over the country. Manipur was no exception. It became the first state of Northeast India to have a daily newspaper with the publication of Dainik Manipur Patrika in 1932. This newspaper was brought out by Gokulchandra and was known for its antiBritish sentiments. As a result of its political stand it had to be closed down after 5 years of publication.

Prior to Dainik Manipur Patrika was Meitei Chanu, a journal brought out by social reformist, Hijam Irabot Singh in 1926. This journal is regarded to be the first published journal in Manipur. However, after 5-6 issues it stopped publication due to financial constraint. Other papers like Manipur Matam (1937) edited by Rajkumar Shitaljit Singh, Manipur Paojel (1939), etc., followed suit. They were put under strict observation by the colonial administration and before they could make their presence felt many were closed down.
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As the joyous bells of Independent India rang across the country, Manipur press witnessed renewed zeal. Numerous newspapers and journals came up in celebration of their new found freedom. However, most of them did not last even for a month. Awareness about the power of the press among the people was abysmal which resulted in low readership. This was coupled with the lack of infrastructure and professionally trained journalists. The newspapers from pre-independent period to 1972 (when Manipur attain statehood) would be best classified as ‘come and go press’.

The movement for statehood evoked passion and this passion was taken as an important ingredient by the press to make people read more. By the time (1972) when Manipur was granted a status of a full fledged state there were already six regular newspapers. And this interest in journalism was given a boost when political parties began to take keen interest in the medium. K. Sanatomba in his book, Journalism in Manipur observed that of the newspapers now in circulation in Manipur, “at least 50% are mouthpiece of political group”. As the growth continued Manipur registered 27 dailies and 13 weekly papers circulating in all corners of the state by 1982.

The history of the press in Manipur is not just a history of the Meitei lon (Manipuri language) alone. The 29 tribes which inhabit the hill districts had their own share of contribution. One of the first well known newspapers in the hills was Shan (1991), a Hmar daily newspaper edited by H.A Lalrohlu until his ‘brutal death’ in 1999. There are many others which followed thereafter, but most of these are not registered at the Registrar Newspaper of India. Tracing them has become a Herculean task.

The mid- 90s’ saw the emergence of new and improved press with the publication of an English paper, Imphal Free Press (1996), in the Offset printing system. Others lost no time in following the trend. Prior to this most of the newspapers, both in vernacular and English were only 2 pages printed in poor quality demi-sized paper.

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Today, there is intense competition and pressure among newspapers not only within themselves but from militants and politicians. Journalists are sandwich between militants who want their side of the story to be published “as it is” and the government which wanted them to “comply with the law.” Despite all these the press is growing and this is proved by the growing number of dailies and magazine both in the hill and valley districts. All the tribes have at least one or more newspapers or magazine to feed information to their respective group. As a result, Manipur now has over 55 newspapers, most of which are small in nature yet meeting the need of their target group. Religious and cultural journals constitute a major chunk of the press in Manipur.
1.2 Some of the popular newspapers in Manipur:

English Dailies: The Imphal Free Press, Sangai Express, Manipur Mail, Manipur News, The Freedom Manipur etc. Manipuri Dailies (Meitei): Khollao, Ngaisi, Matam, Janata, Poknapham, Paojel, Matam Yaoel, Prajatrantra, etc. Tribal Dialects/ Language dailies: Lamka Post (Paite), Hmasawna Thar (Hmar), Aja (Tangkhul Naga), Thuthang (Kuki), etc. Journals/ Magazines: Ritu, Wakhal, Sawrtui, Chollha, Lenlai, Athouba, Kanglei Khol, Matamngi Echel, Langtai, Sanathong, Kristien, Thuhriltu, Hettohsah, Thiemjil Meivah, etc.,.
1.3 The Hmar tribe: A Profile

The Hmars belong to the vastly spread Chin-Kuki-Mizo group of people populating three geographically linked contiguous countries viz., India, Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh. Thought geographically dwelling in the same surroundings they are politically divided by state boundaries of present day Mizoram, Manipur, Assam, Tripura and Meghalaya. Linguistically, Hmar dialect also called Hmar, is classified under the Tibeto-Burman of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. Under the provision of the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India, the Hmar tribesmen are
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recognised as “Scheduled Tribe”. Their main occupation is cultivation of rice and various crops under shifting cultivation in the hilly terrain of South West Manipur and adjoining areas in Mizoram.

The social life of the Hmars is marked by a closely knitted community belongingness which put emphasis on community responsibility to help the needy. A sense of co-operation is expected from members to meet these social obligations and responsibilities. In their pre-Christian era the Hmars practised animism. But after their first formal contact with rest of the world in 1910; when a Welsh Christian missionary, Watkin R. Roberts, brought Christianity to the Hmar heartland at Senvon village (also the largest village in Manipur), all spheres of their lives changed forever.

Describing the impact of Christianity on the Hmar tribesmen, President of Bibles for the World, the Reverend Rochunga Pudaite in his book, The Education of The Hmar People, writes that the new religion transformed their lives from “fierce headhunters to heart hunters”. Reverend Pudaite’s assertion is, however, not accepted by noted Hmar litterateur Pu L. Keivom who held that the Hmars were no doubt headhunters but not to the extent of what Rev. Pudaite depicts them. The debate continues even today.

The extent of the impact maybe academically debatable but a simple assertion one can make is that Christianity did have an impact on all spheres of the Hmar way of life— from birth to death — and became a pivot for which the Hmar society revolves around. As Christianity began to spread its wings over the Hmar heartland, education came along with it, with missionaries opening schools for the people. Education was then meant to “serve the Lord and not to get government jobs”. The missionaries believed that by educating a few tribesmen they would be able to make use of their service in the propagation of Christianity among their own people.

The schools that came up in the Hmar areas used Duhlian (Lushai) dialect and its script called Lushai. The Lushai dialect was Latinised by James Herbert Lorraine, a
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Welsh missionary stationed at Aizawl (then Lushai Hills), in 1894. But the desire for using Hmar dialect in the schools arose.

The ‘Father of Hmar Literature’, Dr. Thanglung, in 1921 had prepared Chanchintha Johan (The Gospel of John) — the first printed book in Hmar. Dr. Thanglung who happens to be the first matriculate among the Hmars, as a high school teacher, also prepared the first curriculum book in 1928— Inchuk Phutbu— which was published in 1945 as Buhmasa by the Hmar Literature Society. Since 1946, along with this book, a few newly prepared books were being used in the schools under Hmar areas.

Hmar dialect has grown and today it has been recognised as a language in three states of India viz., Manipur, Mizoram and Assam. It is taught as a Modern Indian Language (MIL) at the school and university level.

1.4: Hmars and their press

The Hmars had their own share or at least some experiments with the press. Christianity had become the driving force for every aspect of their lives and even in the publication field the story was the same. Pamphlets and journals became a common forum for propagating and strengthening the church and its activities. As Churachandpur District of Manipur and adjoining areas served as a meeting point for the tribe it simultaneously became the centre of information as well. This resulted in the press, in this part of Manipur, to serve as a linkage to their brethren living in other states.

The first recorded Hmar newspaper, the Hmasawnna, began its publication in 1941. Prior to this there were some religious publications. Most of them were pamphlets brought out by the Christian missionaries. From then on, there were numerable efforts on the part of the community leaders and entrepreneurs to bring out journals of various kinds.

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The newspapers were crude and by standard had many drawbacks to be called newspapers. They were not regular and the people involved had no basic training in the art of journalism. But then this was the time of “information revolution”. Much could not be expected from a tribal press even when newspapers in big cities like Calcutta were not so refined and well equipped by then. The remarkable feature of the Hmar newspapers during the initial stage was that it was typed writtencyclostyled and some were published within the villages.

The 1990s saw the emergence of a new breed of Hmar journalism. This new interest in journalism was ushered by Pu H. A. Lalrohlu, who brought out a tabloid-size daily newspaper called Shan in 1991. A Diploma holder in Journalism, Pu Lalrohlu turned Shan into a household name not only among the Hmars readers but among other tribes that inhabits in Churachandpur district. However, the glorious years of Shan came to an abrupt end with the “brutal killing” of Pu Lalrohlu in 1999 by one faction of Hmar militants. Shan continued publication for some time but was finally closed down. Despite this event, interest in publication continued and many journals some monthlies, weeklies and dailies were brought out. However, financial constrain remains the biggest check on them. One after another they were forced to put off their publications. It is important to note that these papers receive no governmental support. It was by sheer interest and the spirit of service to the community that they were published. This can be proved by the names of some journals which are mostly canonised to the place of Hmar origin or their cultural history. Some of the magazine and newspapers like Sinlung Weekly, Shan, Rounglevaisuo, Sawrtui, etc are terms which are all closely associated with Hmar history and culture. The Hmasawna Thar is the only running daily newspaper in Hmar dialect now in Manipur. From 2, October 1984 to 1, January 2007 Hmasawna Thar was brought out in a legal-sized format with the help of a “crude typewriter and a cyclostyle”. Its editor Pu Lalmalsawm Sellate candidly remarked and admitted: Though Hmasawna Thar is brought out in the crudest format and sometimes my readers cannot make out the typeface, it continues to serve readers. Pu Sellate having seen his reader’s
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plight and the need to keep up with technology now published his newspaper in an offset press starting from 1st January 2007.

Even though the offset press was introduced in the late 90s’ in the district it remained out of reach for the small tribal press. This clearly shows the difficult situation in which the Hmar press worked, with no signs of government assistance even to this day. Another important general news magazine, Sawrtui Monthly was started in 2003. It became the only monthly magazine of the Hmars to complete six years of continuous publication. Sawrtui Monthly has become a household name among the Hmars scattered all over the country. Started by Tv. Alfred L.S. Hmar, when he was still a college student, Sawrtui Monthly has been hailed as a distinct magazine. After completing his Master Degree (Political Science) from Manipur University in 2006 Tv. Hmar is examining various option of bringing more surprises in the field of Hmar journalism. Recently, several general interest monthlies like Manmasi Digest (2006), Hmathlir (2006), etc, were also brought out to augment the Hmar press.

The Hmars are the most literate among the tribal groups in Manipur at 79.8% (2001 Census). Literacy rate between male and female stood at 84.3% and 75.2% respectively. Their spectacular growth in the field of education within a short span of 97 years is indeed an achievement the tribe can boast about. The increase in reading habits and thirst for information is therefore natural. But with a population of just 42,933 (Manipur only, 2001 Census) the financial viability of bringing out and running a full fledged press is not an easy task for those in the field.

Passion and language issue may have served as a motivating factor for many people to bring out community journals and magazines in the like of Inchuklai Nun (1952, started again in 2006 after on-off publication), Sikhawvar (1952, the first Hmar Magazine now not in print), Hringnun (2005) etc., but they could not survive for long.

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The overall scenario of the newspapers and magazines of the Hmars is that they are by nature socio-cultural and religious. The newspapers and magazines that focused on current affairs and events did not survive for long. Some of these include Sinlung, Churachandpur Times, Ruonglevaisuo, Famfar, Hringnun, etc. However, their religious counterparts continued to fill the gap by bringing out journals at regular intervals with religious touch to every aspect of the Hmar way of life.

1.5: Religious Journals of the Hmars Numerous books and journals have been published since the publication of the first printed book in Hmar –Independent Kohran Hlabu- a hymnal published in 1923. As mentioned earlier, the religious journal served to fill the gap where general newspapers and magazines failed to do. This was possible because of the financial support the church had from various mission like the North East India General Mission (NEIGM) and Indo-Burma Pioneer Mission (IBPM), and later by the respective churches. In the 1960s’ and 70s’ Tlangchar Tuihnar was brought out by the Independent Church under the support of these missions. Things began to take a different turn with division in the Hmar church in 1929. Differences propped up among the church leaders over the functioning of their ministry and this resulted in the division of the Hmars even to this day.

The 1929 church-split brewed in ground for more drastic and dramatic split in 1968 when two factions in the Independent Church of India (ICI) fought a bitter court battle which finally resulted in the formation of the Evangelical Free Church of India (EFCI). This event, later, served as a beginner lesson for others both within the ICI and EFCI to break away from their respective parent churches to form numerous church denominations. The division in the church brings forth lots of social mistrust, but it became a blessing in disguise as far as publication of journals was concerned. Every denomination that had cropped up in the later years brought out their own monthly
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journals to strengthen their base membership. As a result, as many as six journals are in circulation at present with subscription price as low as Rs. 4/- per copy. Tracing the history of these journals can be a separate field of study altogether as many events have unfolded for almost a century.

Some of the religious journals published today by various churches in Manipur– which are covered under this study– are Kristien, Khawnvar, Kohran, Thuhriltu, Dinthar and Thalai Kantu.

Kristien
(Pic. 1, Page 19)

The Independent Church, now rechristened Independent Church of India (ICI), became the first Hmar church to bring out a regular journal called Kristien in 1958.

This was a time of when ICI was the only church that the Hmars had. Pu K.S. Luoia of Sielmat village, a pharmacist by profession had the distinction of being its first editor, though only for a year (1958-59). After Pu Louia, the editorial management was changed at regular intervals with either the head of the church or distinguished pastors becoming editors. Kristien still command a sizeable readership today with ICI having more members than the rest.

Kristien was published at the ICI Press for many years but with the introduction of Offset press in the district in the late 1990s’. It is now published by using the press available in the market like any other journals.

Kristien present editor, the Reverend Zathangsing Zate, was put in-charge of the publication since 2006. The journal is now published at Sielmat and circulated to ICI members and others congregation members in Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Assam and other parts of the country. With an annual subscription rate of Rs. 50 most of the church members are able to subscribe to Kristien.

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Khawnvar
(Pic. 2, Page 20)

The break away faction of the Independent Church of India (ICI) after forming the Evangelical Free Church of India (EFCI) followed the tradition of publication of religious journal; perhaps, even more on intensive scale than Kristien. They named their journal as Khawnvar (The Lantern) and started publication in 1971. Reverend Remlien Pudaite of Sielmat was appointed as the first editor. Until 1980 Khawnvar was published in Manipur at Ch. Sela & Sons Press.

However, with the new EFCI Headquarters coming up in Shillong, Meghalaya, the publication of the journal was shifted from Manipur to Shillong.

The Reverend J. Houplien Neitham, (now President of EFCI) who has been the editor of Khawnvar since 1980 till date (except for an interregnum of 1994-96) had work experienced in the press at Ch. Sela &Sons Press. He brought out many interesting articles and added new items which Kristien had not done before. The unique feature of Khawnvar is its brief, lucid and simple editorials. Today, Khawnvar continue to inspire not only members of the EFCI congregation residing in Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Assam, and rest of the country but is also read by members of other denomination.

Thuhriltu
(Pic. 3, Page 21)

One of the Hmar religious journal which clearly stated its aim to “propagate Christianity to the whole of Northeast India” is Thuhriltu (The Speaker). Published since 1973 by the Evangelical Assembly Church (formerly NEIGM) this journal has witnessed many ups and downs due to financial crunch in the church. Pu. L Kiemlo, a postgraduate, served as its first editor till 1973. EAC and ICI were the only church that had their own press for publishing their journals and other religious books.
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The Thuhriltu is known for its orthodox articles and editorials. It is also one of the few journals that provide question and answer column for readers. With an annual subscription rate of Rs. 40 church members can easily afford to subscribe it. The journal is now printed at the Diamond Offset, Churachandpur since EAC sold their outdated lead press.

The present editor, the Reverend Fimchawnthang, a veteran member of the church and former Executive Director, EAC, stationed at Moulvaiphei village under Churachandpur township has been editing the journal since 1992. Known for his simple lifestyle and powerful oratory skill he has given voice to Thuhriltu. The journal is privately circulated to subscribers in the Northeastern states of the country.

Kohran Kohran (The Church) is a monthly journal brought out by the Reform Presbyterian Church (RPC). It first copy was circulated to church members in 1979 with the belief that it will help “to spread God’s Word”.

Owned by the church the first editions of Kohran (1979-85) were brought out under the editorship of the Reverend Ros Infimate. Changes in the editorial management were made between various church leaders on rotation basis.

The Reverend Saithanglur Joute became a common name with the readers of Kohran when he took charge of editing in 1995 till 2000 and again from 2004 till date. Kohran circulation is confined to Manipur’s Churachandpur district alone at an annual subscribe rate of Rs. 40.

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Dinthar
(Pic. 4, Page 22)

Dinthar is a monthly organ of the Nehemiah Prayer Team (NPT), a nondenominational prayer group under the project looked after by the Independent Church of India. Published since 1986, it has served as “encouraging instrument to members of NPT” over the years.

The journal includes mainly prayer subjects for a given month and activities of NPT members and leaders. Pu. H. Lallien edited Dinthar from its inception till 1988. The present editor, the Reverend Neichawngthang, was put in charge of bringing out the journal since 2006. This 20-odd page journal has a record subscription rate as low as Rs. 25 annually.

Thalai Kantu
(Pic. 5 Page 23)

The only youth focused religious journal was brought out in 1983 by the Independent Church of India. Thalai Kantu (Visitant of Youth) is a quarterly journal priced at Rs. 10 per copy and an annual subscription of Rs. 60.

The issues that were brought out prior to the offset press era were crude typewritten, cyclostyled and pinned together. However, today, it has become the most attractive in terms of content and design.

Bi-lingual (Hmar and English) in nature Thalai Kantu has become quite popular among youth who read religious journals. Its contents are more liberal and speak of day to day life unlike many of the journal that focuses on the life after. Its main purpose of publication was to “coordinate the youth department” of the church.

Upa Fimtanglien served as its first editor. The Reverend Zothanghrim is currently the man in charge of editing the journal. It is circulated privately in all areas where the Hmars reside.

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SOME RELIGIOUS JOURNALS OF THE HMARS

Pic. 1: Kristien
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Pic. 2: Khawnvar

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Pic. 3: Thuhriltu

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Pic. 4: Dinthar

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Pic. 5: Thalai Kantu

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CHAPTER-II
Research Design
Objective and Methodology
2.1: Significance of the Study

Much water has flown down the Tuiruong River, but compilation or research with regards to the Hmar press has not been made so far. It is in the light of this circumstance that the study is the first of its kind.

The study is expected to contribute to the brief understanding of the origin, growth, and development of the Hmar vernacular press in Manipur as well as its impact on the Hmar tribe. It shall serve as filler for the gap that exists in a field of the Hmar press and their religious journals. A need was felt to conduct A study of the Impact of Religious Journals on the Hmar Tribe in Manipur since religion is said to have soaked up all spheres of the Hmar society.

2.2: Objectives of the Study

This study is not to trace the history of the Hmar press but it will dwell upon the dual task of tracing the brief origin, growth and development of the Hmar press and most of all, the objective is to look into the impact the religious journals have had on the readers. It will also try to find out the present condition of the Hmar press.

General objective:

1.

To briefly trace the origin and growth of the Hmar vernacular Press in Manipur.

2.

To examine the characteristics of the Hmar press.
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Specific objective:

1. 2.

To study the religious journals impact on the readers. To study the popularity of religious journals among various section of the tribe.

3. 4.

To study readers attitude towards the contents of religious journals. To study the relationship between religious journals and daily lives of the people.

2.3: Methodology

The study was conducted in Churarachandpur District, Manipur, where the Hmars in Manipur reside. Survey Research technique was used to collect primary data for the study. The study makes use of a set of structured open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires prepared under this scheme. The sample consists of 192 respondents covering both urban and rural areas encompassing men and women of all age group. The questionnaire method was selected for the collection of data from respondents. The questionnaire consists of multiple choice, close ended as well as open ended which is divided into two sections- ‘A’ and ‘B’. Section ‘A’ designed to get a demographic profile of the respondent, consist questions related to sex, age, education, occupation, monthly income and church denomination. Section ‘B’ consists of specific questions related to study objectives, forming independent variables.

An interview of editors of journals/ magazines (closed down and running) was also conducted to find the challenges and problems facing the Hmar press.

Data collected by following the above methodology is then interpreted and thereby the final result analyzed and compiled.

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2.4: Profile of Churachandpur District

Map 1: Manipur State

Map 2: Churachandpur District
Courtesy: mapsofindia.com

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Geographic Profile:

Churachandpur District, a meeting ground of many ethnic tribes lies in the southwestern corner of Manipur. It is the largest district in Manipur with an area of 4570 sq.km. It is a hilly district with a very small percentage of the area being plain. A large portion of the area is under jhum cultivation. There is no primary forest in the district. However, the secondary forest which includes mixed bamboo forest, covers an area of 118,092 hectares. The road network covers an area of 3581 hactares located in and around the district headquarters. The beauty of the landscape is supplemented by the moderate climate throughout the year. The winter extending from November to February is cold, particularly in the hills but days are bright and sunny. The monsoon stretches from June to September with heavy showers almost throughout the period. The spring and summer months are pleasant despite high humidity. However, the low temperatures (ranging from 300-350C) prevents sultriness that is common in eastern India. The climate imparts the people with considerable stamina and hardiness through the lack of rains during non-monsoon months and the consequent decline in water flow in the major rivers during that period make the state a mono-crop economy. Demographic Profile: According to the provisional data of Census 2001, the total population of the district is 2,23,866. Of the total population, the scheduled tribes population stand at 741,141.The literacy rate in the district is quite high, the average percentage being 64.38 (72.6% in male and 56.4% in female). Unlike most parts of the state and the country, the sex ratio is in favour of female: 1034 per 1000 male. With the improvement of the reach of medical facilities, the death rate and the infant mortality rate have gone down considerably.

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Socio-economic Profile: The district is inhabited by several tribes, mainly belonging to the Kuki-Chin-Mizo group. Each tribe has a distinct social order as well as community laws. The system of hereditary chiefship as well as community ownership of village land is prevalent in the district. In case of hereditary chiefship the chief is all-powerful as he controls not only the economy of the village through his ownership of the land but exercises social control over the households in the village. However, village councils are now growing more powerful. An overwhelming majority of the tribal population has converted to Christianity. Christianity has not materially changed the social order but was the critical faith in bringing to an end the head-hunting wars and savagery that characterized early tribal societies. Education rapidly spread through English medium schools. In the last hundred years the society has undergone radical change from the past. The ethnic tribal societies are patriarchal, but the women enjoy equal status in the society unlike their counterparts in other parts of the country. They play a significant role in agriculture and animal husbandry, besides being actively involved in weaving.

2.5: Sample Size

The number of questionnaire actually prepared was 230, of which some were distributed to respondents to fill up themselves and others directly taken by the researcher after input from respondents. Of the 230 questionnaires 192 were collected back.

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Distribution of respondents
1. Gender Male Female Total 2. Age Below 25 years 26- 40 years Above 40 years Total 3. Education Below HSLC Undergraduate Graduate Post-graduate Total 4. Occupation Student Housewives Mission Worker Government Service Private/Business Farmer Others(Teacher, IT) Total 5. Monthly Income Below Rs.5000 Rs. 5001- 10,000 Rs. 10,001 0r more Total 6. Church denomination Assembly of God Evangelical Assembly Church Evangelical Free Church of India Independent Church of India Reform Presbyterian Church Others (Wesleyan Methodist Church, Salvation Army) Total Number 105 87 192 63 79 50 192 33 66 62 31 192 48 17 30 24 33 36 4 192 126 52 14 192 23 44 47 58 10 10 192 Percentage 54.69% 45.31% 100% 32.81% 41.15% 26.04% 100% 17.19% 34.38% 32.29% 16.15% 100% 25.00% 8.85% 15.63% 12.50% 17.19% 18.75% 2.08% 100% 65.63% 27.08% 7.29% 100% 11.98% 22.92% 24.48% 30.21% 5.21% 5.21% 100%

[Note: Below HSLC here means Below High School Leaving Certificate or Below Class X for all Tables]

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2.6: Profile of respondents:
Gender

AGE Above 40 years, 26.04%
Male 55%

Female 45%

Below 25 years, 32.81%

26- 40 years, 41.15%

Gender-wise classification shows that out of the total respondents, 54.69% (105) are male and 45.31% (87) are female.

Age-wise distribution of the sample shows that majority of respondents, i.e. 41.15% (79) belongs to the age group 26- 40 years followed by respondents below 25 years at 32.81% (63) and Above 40 years at 26.04%( 50).

EDUCATION
40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Below HSLC Undergraduate Graduate Post-graduate 17.19% 16.15%

34.38%

32.29%

Among those who respond to the questionnaire the undergraduate and graduate makes up 34.38% (66) and 32.29% (62) respectively. To the lower end Below HSLC and Postgraduate respondents comprised of 17.19% (33) and 16.15% (31) each.

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OCCUPATION
% of respondents 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% 25.00% 15.63% 8.85% 12.50% 17.19% 18.75% 2.08% Private/Busines s Housewives Government Service Mission Worker Others(Teacher , IT) Student Farmer

Occupation

Occupational distribution shows almost equitable representation of the respondents. Students are in majority with 25% (48) followed by Farmers with 18.75% (36). Private/Business makes up 17.19% (33), Mission Workers comprise of 15.63% (30) and those in government service accounts for 12.50 %( 24). Housewives comprise of 8.85 % (17) and those in the Teaching and IT sector make up a mere 2.08 %( 4).
MONTHLY INCOME

Rs. 10,001 0r more, 7.29%

Rs. 500110,000, 27.08%

Below Rs.5000, 65.63%

Respondents were also compartmentalized on the basis of their monthly incomes. A good number, 65.63% (126), belong to Below Rs 5000 group, while 27.08% (52) belong to Rs.5001- Rs. 10,000 group. Only 7.29% (14) are in the Rs. 10,001 or more groups.

The respondents were further classified on the basis of the church to which they belong. Independent Church of India respondents make up 30.21%(58) followed closely by Evangelical Free Church of India with 24.48% (47) and Evangelical Assembly Church members with 22.92% (44). The rest of the questionnaires were from Assembly of God (11.98%), Reform Presbyterian Church (5.21%), and Others (5.21%) which includes the Salvation Army and Wesleyan Methodist Church.

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2.7: Data Analysis Method:

The analysis of the data is done by using percentage analysis. The percentages were worked out to represent the proportion of the respondents to the sample considered in the study. The data is then reduced to respective percentage in the case of each independent variable.

2.8: Advantages:

The advantages of using survey research technique method are: 1. Considered and well-framed set of question can be asked through questionnaires. 2. The respondent might feel free to answer the question since the response is kept confidential. 3. If the sampling is correct, the survey results generally come reasonably accurate. 4. Answers to the survey method questionnaire can be presented in numerical form and subject to various kinds of analysis. 5. Once information about the social characteristics of respondents is available, it can be used to predict the behaviour of the general public.

2.9: Limitations of the study

During the course of the study the researcher encountered the common limitations viz., constraints of time, distance, resource and others. The simple random sampling technique was followed since this method of selection gives significantly correct results with minimum restraints. Though much care and effort has been put into the study during and after the collection of the data, personal bias of the respondents cannot be completely ruled out.

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CHAPTER III

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
his chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of the data that were gathered from Hmar respondent who read religious journal for “A study

of Impact of Religious Journals on the Hmar Tribe in Manipur”.

T

The results of this survey research are based on percentage analysis of data or from the responses given by the respondents during the month of December 2006 and January 2007.

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Time spent on reading religious journals
Table 3.1
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Below HSLC 2. Undergraduate EDUCATION 3. Graduate 4. Post-graduate Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total Less than30 minutes 71 67.62% 54 62.07% 125 65.10% 47 74.60% 54 68.35% 24 48.00% 125 65.10% 27 81.82% 47 71.21% 34 54.84% 17 54.84% 125 65.10% 37 77.08% 9 52.94% 9 30.00% 13 54.17% 24 72.73% 30 83.33% 3 75.00% 125 65.10% 8 34.78% 33 75.00% 29 61.70% 40 68.97% 7 70.00% 8 80.00% 125 65.10% 30-60 minutes 21 20.00% 29 33.33% 50 26.04% 12 19.05% 20 25.32% 18 36.00% 50 26.04% 4 12.12% 16 24.24% 21 33.87% 9 29.03% 50 26.04% 8 16.67% 7 41.18% 11 36.67% 11 45.83% 7 21.21% 5 13.89% 1 25.00% 50 26.04% 14 60.87% 6 13.64% 15 31.91% 11 18.97% 3 30.00% 1 10.00% 50 26.04% 1-2 hours 13 12.38% 4 4.60% 17 8.85% 4 6.35% 5 6.33% 8 16.00% 17 8.85% 2 6.06% 3 4.55% 7 11.29% 5 16.13% 17 8.85% 3 6.25% 1 5.88% 10 33.33% 0 0% 2 6.06% 1 2.78% 0 0% 17 8.85% 1 4.35% 5 11.36% 3 6.38% 7 12.07% 0 0% 1 10.00% 17 8.85% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 33 100.00% 66 100.00% 62 100.00% 31 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

[Note: For all table, Below HSLC means below High School Leaving Certificate or Below Class X ]

CHURCH DENOMINATION

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Time spent on reading religious journals
1-2 hours, 8.85% 30-60 minutes, 26.04%

Less than 30 minutes, 65.10%

Fig. 3.1

Table 3.1 and Fig 3.1 shows that majority of the people (65.10%) read religious journals for less than 30 minutes a day in contrast to 8.85% who read for 1-2 hours. On the other hand a good number of people (26.04%) devoted 30-60 minutes daily. Hence, it can be inferred that majority of the people spent very little time reading religious journals.

Gender classification shows that majority of the respondent 65.10% (both male and female) devoted less than 30 minutes daily where as 26.04% of the respondents found 30-60 minutes for reading religious journals. On the other hand there are only few (8.85%) who read for 1-2 hours daily.

The Table 3.1 also show that, 67.62% of male and 62.07% of female respondents read religious journals for less than 30 minutes a day. Females scored better (33.33%) than their male counterpart (20%) when it comes to spending 30-60 minutes a day. Under the 1-2 hour category, male respondents appear to do most of the long reading with 12.38% as against their female counterpart who stood at a mere 4.60%. It can be inferred from this that men spent more time reading religious journals.

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In the age group comparison, the youth i.e., below 25 years, spend minimum time reading religious journal with 74.60% saying they read for less than 30 minutes per day followed by respondents in the age group of 25-40 years (63.35%) and by those above 40 years (48%). The Table clearly shows that the elders spent more time reading religious journals. Education-wise classification denotes that a vast majority of the group below HSLC (Class X) spend minimum time reading religious journals. There is an overwhelming 81.28% who read less than 30 minutes a day. This gradually improves to a low level among Post Graduates (54.84%) who says they read for less than 30 minutes. The respondent who spent 1-2 hours is highest among the Post Graduates with 16.13% as compared to 6.06% to those belonging to Below HSLC group. It can thus be noted from the Table that time spent on reading religious journal is directly proportional to the educational background of the respondents. Reading habit increases as educational level increased.

Occupational classification depicts that mission workers spend maximum hours with 33.33% as compared to zero per cent of among government employees and those in the teaching and IT sector. An overwhelming majority, (83.33%) of the respondents who read religious journals for less than 30 minutes are the farmers. Only 13.89% of them read for 30-60 minutes and a mere 2.78% read it for 1-2 hours a day.

Denominational classification reveals that maximum hours (1-2hours) is spent by respondents of the Independent Church of India (12.07%) followed by Evangelical Assembly Church respondents (11.36%). On the other hand there are no respondents among Reform Presbyterian Church who read for 1-2 hours. The Table also shows that majority (80%) of the total respondent who read for less than 30 minutes belong to Others (Salvation Army, Methodists, and Pentecostals). The most moderate readers (60.87%), who spent 30- 60 minutes, are from the Assembly of God Church.

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Periodicity of reading religious journals
Table 3.2
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Below HSLC/ Below Class X 2. Undergraduate 3. Graduate 4. Post-graduate Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total Regularly 38 36.19% 29 33.33% 67 34.90% 12 19.05% 29 36.71% 26 52.00% 67 34.90% 4 12.12% 21 31.82% 27 43.55% 15 48.39% 67 34.90% 9 18.75% 6 35.29% 25 83.33% 11 45.83% 12 36.36% 4 11.11% 0 0% 67 34.90% 9 39.13% 16 36.36% 16 34.04% 17 29.31% 6 60.00% 3 30.00% 67 34.90% Occasionally 52 49.52% 48 55.17% 100 52.08% 42 66.67% 38 48.10% 20 40.00% 100 52.08% 23 69.70% 36 54.55% 31 50.00% 10 32.26% 100 52.08% 29 60.42% 10 58.82% 5 16.67% 12 50.00% 14 42.42% 27 75.00% 3 75.00% 100 52.08% 10 43.48% 22 50.00% 25 53.19% 34 58.62% 4 40.00% 5 50.00% 100 52.08% Rarely 15 14.29% 10 11.49% 25 13.02% 9 14.29% 12 15.19% 4 8.00% 25 13.02% 6 18.18% 9 13.64% 4 6.45% 6 19.35% 25 13.02% 10 20.83% 1 5.88% 0 0% 1 4.17% 7 21.21% 5 13.89% 1 25.00% 25 13.02% 4 17.39% 6 13.64% 6 12.77% 7 12.07% 0 0% 2 20.00% 25 13.02% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 33 100.00% 66 100.00% 62 100.00% 31 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

CHURCH DENOMINATION

EDUCATION

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Periodicity of reading religious journals Rarely, 13.02% Regularly, 34.90%

Occasionally 52.08%

Fig. 3.2

Table 3.2 shows that a vast majority of the total respondents are occasional readers. Gender-wise classification shows that male and female go hand in hand with regards to regularity, occasional and rarely. Men have slight edge in the regular section with 36.19% while female stood at 33.33%. Females tend to be occasional readers (55.17%) than their male counterpart (49.52%)

Age-wise categorization shows that those Above 40 years are more regular (52%) than those below 25 years (19.05%). Below 25 years leads the occasional reader section with 66.67% followed by 26-40 years with 48.10%. The Table 3.2 showed that the reading habit of the respondents began to increase with age.

Occupational classification shows that Mission Workers are the most regular reader (83.33%) as against the lowest among teachers and IT people (0%). However, they share the top slot with farmers in the occasional readership group (75% each).

In denomination-wise, Reform Presbyterian Church respondents are the most regular readers (60%) while Independent Church of India (ICI) members stood lowest (29.31%). All the respondents irrespective of the churches to which they belong are occasional readers. ICI has the maximum occasional readers (58.62%) followed closely by other church members.

Table 3.2 and Fig 3.2 shows that majority of the Hmars read religious journals occasionally. However, there are also a good number of those who read it regularly.
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Subscription of Religious journals
Table 3.3
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Below Rs.5000 MONTHLYINCOME 2. Rs. 5001- 10,000 3. Rs. 10,001 0r more Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church CHURCH DENOMINATION 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total Yes 85 80.95% 70 80.46% 155 80.73% 40 63.49% 67 84.81% 48 96.00% 155 80.73% 29 60.42% 15 88.24% 27 90.00% 24 100.00% 30 90.91% 27 75.00% 3 75.00% 155 80.73% 93 73.81% 48 92.31% 14 100.00% 155 80.73% 20 86.96% 32 72.73% 38 80.85% 47 81.03% 10 100.00% 8 80.00% 155 80.73% No 20 19.05% 17 19.54% 37 19.27% 23 36.51% 12 15.19% 2 4.00% 37 19.27% 19 39.58% 2 11.76% 3 10.00% 0 0% 3 9.09% 9 25.00% 1 25.00% 37 19.27% 33 26.19% 4 7.69% 0 0% 37 19.27% 3 13.04% 12 27.27% 9 19.15% 11 18.97% 0 0% 2 20.00% 37 19.27% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 126 100.00% 52 100.00% 14 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

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Subscribe to religious journal

No, 19.27%

Yes, 80.73%

Fig.3.3

Table 3.3 and Fig 3.3 depicts a large majority of the respondents (80.73%) subscribe to religious journals as compared to only 19.27% who do not subscribe. Gender-wise classification shows that gender is not a criterion for subscription of religious journals as there were identical number of male (80.95%) and female (80.46%) who subscribe to these journals. Age-wise grouping shows a huge per cent (96%) of the respondent from above 40 years subscribe to religious journals. Those Below 25 years are least to subscribe. Despite the difference in age it is clear that majority of the respondents in all age group subscribe religious journals. Occupational classification shows that there are good numbers of subscribers from all profession. The highest subscribers are the government employees (100%) followed by private/business (90.91%), mission workers (90%), housewives (88.24%) etc. Students tops the list in the non-subscription section (39.58%) followed by farmers (25%) and those in the teaching and IT field (25%). The monthly income distribution table shows that that subscription of religious journal is directly proportional to the monthly income of the respondents. Subscription rate increased as income increases from Below Rs. 5000 (73.81%) to Rs.5001-10, 000 (92.31%) and finally to Rs. 10,001 or more (100%) The denomination classification on subscription revels that the subscription average (83.59%) in all churches is relatively high. This shows that most members of a church are subscribers of one or more religious journals.

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Do not subscribed but read religious journals
Table 3.4
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below Rs.5000 MONTHLY INCOME 2. Rs. 5001- 10,000 3. Rs. 10,001 or more Total Library 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% Relatives and Friends 17 85.00% 13 76.47% 30 81.08% 26 78.79% 4 100.00% 0 0% 30 81.08% Neighbours 3 15.00% 4 23.53% 7 18.92% 7 21.21% 0 0% 0 0% 7 18.92% Total 20 100.00% 17 100.00% 37 100.00% 33 100.00% 4 100.00% 0 0% 37 100.00%

Percentage is calculated to the number of respondents who do not subscribe, n=37

Fig. 3.4

Table 3.4 shows that among those who do not subscribe 85% of male and 76.47% of female read religious journals from relatives and friends. When it comes to borrowing of journals, females (23.53%) are followed by males (15%). Income classification denotes that of the total respondents in the income group of Rs. 50001-10,000, 100% read religious journals from their relatives and friends. From those below Rs. 5000, 78.79% read from their relatives and friends and 21.21% of them borrowed it from their neighbours. Table 3.4 and Fig 3.4 shows that no respondents have read religious journals from a library but majority (81.08%) read it from relatives and friends. Relatives here do not include father, mother or uncles and aunties, brothers or sisters living in the same house.
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Religious journals read by respondents
Table 3.5
Category Dinthar Khawnvar Kohran Kristien Thalai Kantu Thuhriltu Total Number 78 118 53 130 78 93 550 % 40.63% 61.46% 27.60% 67.71% 40.63% 48.44% 286.47%

Readership of various Hmar religious journals Thuhriltu, 48.44% Dinthar, 40.63%

Thalai Kantu, 40.63%

Journals

• Percentages are calculated to the number of respondents, N=192 • Percentages are overlapping due to multiple choices

Khawnvar, 61.46%

Kristien, 67.71%

Kohran, 27.60%

Fig. 3.5

Table 3.5 and Fig 3.5 shows that majority of the respondents (67.71%) have read Kristien. The second most read journal appears to be Khawnvar (61.46%). Other journals have moderate readers.

Kohran is the least read journal with only 27.6% of readership among the respondents.

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Reason for subscription of religious journals
Table 3.6
Category Number

% 15 23 48 102 65 6 259 9.67% 14.83% 30.96% 65.80% 41.93% 3.87% 167.06%

Church leaders' pressure Everyone buys one Its price is low To know more about God Information on Church activity Personal Need and belief
Total

*Percentage is calculated to the Number of respondents who subscribe religious journals , N=155 * Percentage is overlapping due to multiple choices

REASON FOR SUBSCRIPTION

Reason for subscription of religious journals
70.00% 60.00% Percentage 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Information on Church activity Everyone buys one To know more about God Its price is low Personal Need and belief Church leaders' pressure 9.67% 14.83% 3.87% 30.96% 41.93% 65.80%

Reason

Fig. 3.6

Table 3.6 and Fig 3.6 clearly shows that among those who subscribe religious journals majority (65.80%) subscribe it because they want to know more about God. 41.93% says they subscribe journals to know more about church activities. The table also shows that price of religious journal is a determining factor for subscription. This is reflected as at least 30.96% of the respondents subscribe these journals because of their low price. The 9.67% of the readers put the blame on church leaders’ pressure. Though this is small it is a notable development. And then 14.83% of respondents simply subscribe since every member of a church buys one. Most journals and magazine are subscribed to fulfill one's personal need and wants but this is just the opposite in this case as only 3.87% of the total respondents who subscribe do it to fulfill their personal need and belief!

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Enjoyed reading religious journals
Table 3.7
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Yes 89 84.76% 75 86.21% 164 85.42% 53 84.13% 69 87.34% 42 84.00% 164 85.42% 40 83.33% 15 88.24% 29 96.67% 22 91.67% 26 78.79% 29 80.56% 3 75.00% 164 85.42% 22 95.65% 34 77.27% 40 85.11% 50 86.21% 9 90.00% 9 90.00% No 16 15.24% 12 13.79% 28 14.58% 10 15.87% 10 12.66% 8 16.00% 28 14.58% 8 16.67% 2 11.76% 1 3.33% 2 8.33% 7 21.21% 7 19.44% 1 25.00% 28 14.58% 1 4.35% 10 22.73% 7 14.89% 8 13.79% 1 10.00% 1 10.00% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00%

CHURCH DENOMINATION

Total

164 85.42%

28 14.58%

192 100.00%

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Enjoy reading religious journals 85.42%

14.58%

Yes

No

Fig. 3.7

Table 3.7 and Fig 3.7 clearly reveal that a large majority (85.42%) of the respondents enjoy reading religious journal. Only 14.58% says they do not enjoy reading them.

Gender-wise classification shows that an equitable male (84.76%) and female (86.21%) respondents enjoys reading religious journals, though slightly higher among female.

From Table 3.7 it can be safely inferred that irrespective of the gender, age, occupation and church denomination, majority of the respondents found reading religious journals enjoyable.

The table also shows that interest in religious journals is at its peak even when examined from various demographics profile.

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Why reading religious journal is enjoyable?
Table 3.8
Number WHY READING RELIGIOUS JOURNAL IS ENJOYABLE %

It is interesting It is informative To know more about God
Total

37 126 72
235

22.56% 76.82% 43.90%
143.28%

* Percentage is calculated to the total Number of respondents who enjoy reading religious journals,,N= 164 * Percentage is overlapping due to multiple choice responses.

Reason on why reading religious is enjoyable
100.00% Percentage 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% It is interesting It is informative Reason To know more about God 22.56% 76.82% 43.90%

Fig.3.8

Table 3.8 shows that a huge percentage of (76.82%) the respondents enjoyed reading religious journals because of its informative character.

Table 3.6 figures which found that majority of the respondents (65.80%) subscribe religious journal to know more about God is re-enforced even here with sound figure (43.90%) of the respondent who says they enjoy reading these journals because they get to know more about God.

It can, therefore, be inferred from Table 3.8 and Fig 3.8 that religion is an integral part of the Hmar society and religious journals is one means of getting closer to God.

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Reading preference
Table 3.9
Field Reports of Church Editorial Pictures and photos World News/ Current Affairs Category Nothing in particular Question Answer column Sermons Total

1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church CHURCH DENOMINATION 3. Evangelical Free Church of India

38 36.19% 38 43.68% 76 39.58% 18 28.57% 36 45.57% 22 44.00% 76 39.58% 13 27.08% 11 64.71% 21 70.00% 8 33.33% 8 24.24% 15 41.67% 0 0% 76 39.58% 7 30.43% 16 36.36% 16 34.04%

3 2.86% 3 3.45% 6 3.13% 3 4.76% 0 0% 3 6.00% 6 3.13% 1 2.08% 0 0% 0 0% 1 4.17% 2 6.06% 2 5.56% 0 0% 6 3.13% 0 0% 0 0% 3 6.38% 3 5.17% 0 0% 0 0% 6 3.13%

12 11.43% 3 3.45% 15 7.81% 4 6.35% 6 7.59% 5 10.00% 15 7.81% 1 2.08% 0 0% 4 13.33% 7 29.17% 3 9.09% 0 0% 0 0% 15 7.81% 1 4.35% 3 6.82% 6 12.77% 3 5.17% 0 0% 2 20.00% 15 7.81%

12 11.43% 3 3.45% 15 7.81% 6 9.52% 5 6.33% 4 8.00% 15 7.81% 3 6.25% 2 11.76% 1 3.33% 1 4.17% 1 3.03% 6 16.67% 1 25.00% 15 7.81% 1 4.35% 3 6.82% 3 6.38% 5 8.62% 2 20.00% 1 10.00% 15 7.81%

34 32.38% 35 40.23% 69 35.94% 26 41.27% 28 35.44% 15 30.00% 69 35.94% 25 52.08% 3 17.65% 4 13.33% 7 29.17% 16 48.48% 11 30.56% 3 75.00% 69 35.94% 14 60.87% 18 40.91% 12 25.53% 17 29.31% 5 50.00% 3 30.00% 69 35.94%

5 4.76% 4 4.60% 9 4.69% 4 6.35% 4 5.06% 1 2.00% 9 4.69% 3 6.25% 1 5.88% 0 0% 0 0% 3 9.09% 2 5.56% 0 0% 9 4.69% 0 0% 3 6.82% 6 12.77 % 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 9 4.69%

1 0.95% 1 1.15% 2 1.04% 2 3.17% 0 0% 0 0% 2 1.04% 2 4.17% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 2 1.04% 0 0% 1 2.27% 1 2.13% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 2 1.04%

105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total

30 51.72% 3 30.00% 4 40.00% 76 39.58%

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Reading preference
45.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% % of respondents 39.58% 35.94%

3.13% Messages/ Sermons Pictures/ Photos

7.81%

7.81%

4.69% World News/ Current Affairs Field reports of Church activities

1.04% Nothing in particular

Editorial

Question and Answers column Preferences

Fig. 3.9

Table 3.9 and Fig 3.9 clearly re-enforced that respondents subscribe to religious journals to know more about God. In Table 3.9 majority of the respondents i.e. 39.58%, prefer reading sermons and message content. World News/ Current Affairs is another major attraction among readers (35.94%).This is followed by those respondents who prefer to read editorial (7.81%) and Question-Answer Columns (7.81%) followed by 4.68% who prefer field reports of church activities. Only 1.04% of the respondents are attracted by pictures and photos. This maybe due to the low quality photos of these journals. Gender-wise classification shows that Editorial and World News are preferred by female with 43.68% and 40.23% respectively as against male with 36.19% and 32.38%. Age-wise classification shows that the age group 45.57% of respondents in between 26-40 years and 44% in the age group of Above 40 years preferred Sermons and Message.

Occupation classification shows that Sermons is popular among mission workers (70%) and housewives (64.71%) as compared to Private/Business individuals (24.24%).
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Role of religious journals in promotion of peace
Table 3.10
Could have done more Partially successful Makes no impact Very Effective

Category

Total

1. Male 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Below HSLC 2. Undergraduate EDUCATION 3. Graduate 4. Post-graduate Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church CHURCH DENOMINATION 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total

21 20.00% 21 24.14% 42 21.88% 14 22.22% 18 22.78% 10 20.00% 42 21.88% 5 15.15% 16 24.24% 12 19.35% 9 29.03% 42 21.88% 5 21.74% 6 13.64% 12 25.53% 13 22.41% 2 20.00% 4 40.00% 42 21.88%

20 19.05% 22 25.29% 42 21.88% 16 25.40% 17 21.52% 9 18.00% 42 21.88% 18 54.55% 16 24.24% 3 4.84% 5 16.13% 42 21.88% 4 17.39% 7 15.91% 13 27.66% 15 25.86% 2 20.00% 1 10.00% 42 21.88%

33 31.43% 22 25.29% 55 28.65% 17 26.98% 26 32.91% 12 24.00% 55 28.65% 4 12.12% 20 30.30% 22 35.48% 9 29.03% 55 28.65% 5 21.74% 14 31.82% 15 31.91% 15 25.86% 3 30.00% 3 30.00% 55 28.65%

31 29.52% 22 25.29% 53 27.60% 16 25.40% 18 22.78% 19 38.00% 53 27.60% 6 18.18% 14 21.21% 25 40.32% 8 25.81% 53 27.60% 9 39.13% 17 38.64% 7 14.89% 15 25.86% 3 30.00% 2 20.00% 53 27.60%

105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 33 100.00% 66 100.00% 62 100.00% 31 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

GENDER

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Role of religious journals in promotion of peace
Could have done more 27.60% Very effective 21.88%

Partially successful 28.65%
Fig. 3.10

Makes no impact at all 21.88%

Table 3.10 and Fig 3.10 clearly show that respondents are somewhat equally divided on the issue of the role played by religious journals in promotion of peace in the society. Most of the respondents (28.65%) believe religious journals are partially successful while 27.60% are of the view that religious journals could have done much more in promotion of peace. Fig 3.10 shows an equal number of respondents (21.88% each), which thinks religious journals are very effective, and the other groups that think otherwise. It can be inferred from the data that majority of respondents (78.13%) are of the opinion that religious journal have to make more efforts towards fostering peace in the society as against only a few respondents (21.88%) who think religious journals had been very effective. Education-wise classification shows that graduates expect religious journal could do more (40.32%) as compared to that below HSLC/ Class X (18.18%). Thus it can be inferred that higher the education level better is their perspective towards the role of religious journals in the promotion of peace. Denomination-wise grouping shows that there only few respondents from Evangelical Assembly Church who believe that religious journals are very effective. The maximum respondents who believe in the effectiveness of religious journals are the smaller churches clubbed together under Other category (40%). It can be inferred from this that respondents from smaller churches had more faith in the ability of religious journals to promote peace in the Hmar society.

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What readers do after reading religious journal?
Table 3.11
Category Number %

1. Try to practice what is written 2. Feel relieved 3. Do nothing 4. Discuss with family, friends and relatives 5. Pray for strength
Total

69 69 49 12 2
201

35.94% 35.94% 25.52% 6.25% 1.04%
104.69%

* Percentage is calculated to the total number of respondents, N=192 * Percentage is overlapping due to multiple answers

40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00%

35.94%

35.94%

25.52%

6.25% 1.04% Try to practice what is written Feel relieved Do nothing Discuss with Pray for strength family, friends and relatives

Fig. 3.11

Table 3.11 and Fig 3.11 clearly shows that an equal number of respondents, 35.94% each, try to practice what they have read and at the same time feel relieved. A good number of them (25.52%) do nothing. Discussion with families stood at 6.25 per cent.

A striking feature is that only 1.04 per cent of the respondents pray after reading religious journals.

It can be inferred, from the figures available, that majority of the respondents try to practice what they have read. Many also feel relieved after reading. It appears that most of the respondents stress more on trying to practice rather than pray.

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Church Attendance and Religious Journals
Table 3.12
Category Will attend Will not attend Depends on mood and belief 3 2.86% 4 4.60% 7 3.65% 2 3.17% 5 6.33% 0 0% 7 3.65% 2 4.17% 0 0% 0 0% 1 4.17% 3 9.09% 1 2.78% 0 0% 7 3.65% 0 0% 1 2.27% 5 10.64% 1 1.72% 0 0% 0 0% 7 3.65% Can’t say Total

1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total

65 61.90% 53 60.92% 118 61.46% 40 63.49% 48 60.76% 30 60.00% 118 61.46% 30 62.50% 16 94.12% 21 70.00% 10 41.67% 14 42.42% 25 69.44% 2 50.00% 118 61.46% 17 73.91% 23 52.27% 24 51.06% 40 68.97% 8 80.00% 6 60.00% 118 61.46%

31 29.52% 23 26.44% 54 28.13% 20 31.75% 19 24.05% 15 30.00% 54 28.13% 15 31.25% 1 5.88% 7 23.33% 9 37.50% 10 30.30% 10 27.78% 2 50.00% 54 28.13% 5 21.74% 14 31.82% 17 36.17% 14 24.14% 2 20.00% 2 20.00% 54 28.13%

6 5.71% 7 8.05% 13 6.77% 1 1.59% 7 8.86% 5 10.00% 13 6.77% 1 2.08% 0 0% 2 6.67% 4 16.67% 6 18.18% 0 0% 0 0% 13 6.77% 1 4.35% 6 13.64% 1 2.13% 3 5.17% 0 0% 2 20.00% 13 6.77%

105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

CHURCH DENOMINATION

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Church Attendance and religious journals
Depends on mood and faith of a person, 3.65% Will not attend, 28.13% Can't say, 6.77%

Will attend, 61.45%

Fig. 3.12

Table 3.12 and Fig 3.12 clearly shows that majority of the respondent i.e. 61.46% are willing to attend church if writing in religious journals suggest that they should attend church in order to be a good Christian. Only a small percentage (26.44%) says they will not attend. Age-wise classification shows that among those who will attend church, majority belong to below 25 years (63.49%), followed closely by 26-40 years (60.76%) and above 40 years (60%). Age, therefore, is not a good criterion to determine whether a particular age group can be easily persuaded to attend church service. Occupational-wise categorization clearly shows that among those willing to attend church service, housewives lead the race with 94.12%, way above the average 61.46%; followed by mission workers with 70%. Government employee are least expected to attend church service with only 41.67% willing to attend a church service if told to do so by journals. Among those respondents who say they will not attend church service, Others (Teachers, IT,) make up 50%, followed by government employees (37.50%). Denominational classification shows that Reform Presbyterian Church (RPC) respondents are obedient lot with 80% of the respondents willing to attend if asked to do so. RPC is followed by the Assembly of God respondent (73.71%). Members of the Evangelical Free Church of India are least likely to attend with 51.06% ruling out to follow instruction from journals. It can, therefore, be inferred that RPC members tops the list on obeying directives received from the journals whereas the EFCI members are less likely to follow.
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Authenticity of religious journals
Table 3.13
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Below HSLC 2. Undergraduate EDUCATION 3. Graduate 4. Post-graduate Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church CHURCH DENOMINATION 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total Yes 18 17.14% 15 17.24% 33 17.19% 6 9.52% 18 22.78% 9 18.00% 33 17.19% 8 24.24% 14 21.21% 7 11.29% 4 12.90% 33 17.19% 17.19% 4.17% 7 41.18% 8 26.67% 1 4.17% 5 15.15% 10 27.78% 0 0% 33 17.19% 6 26.09% 7 15.91% 4 8.51% 9 15.52% 6 60.00% 1 10.00% 33 17.19% No 55 52.38% 37 42.53% 92 47.92% 39 61.90% 31 39.24% 22 44.00% 92 47.92% 18 54.55% 27 40.91% 32 51.61% 15 48.39% 92 47.92% 47.92% 66.67% 3 17.65% 10 33.33% 15 62.50% 13 39.39% 16 44.44% 3 75.00% 92 47.92% 12 52.17% 24 54.55% 21 44.68% 30 51.72% 1 10.00% 4 40.00% 92 47.92% Can’t Say 32 30.48% 35 40.23% 67 34.90% 18 28.57% 30 37.97% 19 38.00% 67 34.90% 7 21.21% 25 37.88% 23 37.10% 12 38.71% 67 34.90% 34.90% 29.17% 7 41.18% 12 40.00% 8 33.33% 15 45.45% 10 27.78% 1 25.00% 67 34.90% 5 21.74% 13 29.55% 22 46.81% 19 32.76% 3 30.00% 5 50.00% 67 34.90% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 33 100.00% 66 100.00% 62 100.00% 31 100.00% 192 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

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Authenticity of religious journals

Yes 17% Can't say 35%

No 48%

Fig. 3.13

Table 3.13 and Fig 3.13 shows majority of the respondents, (42.92%) do not believe in everything that is between the two covers of religious journals. Only a small percentage (17.19%) says they do believe. A good number of the respondents (40.24%) remain undecided.

Gender-wise classification shows that when it comes to believing in the contents male (17.14%) and female (17.24%) are just fractions apart. And when it comes to not believing it completely the male respondent are more (52.38%) than their female counterpart (42.53%). Thus, one can infer that female tends to believe in what is written in religious journals than the male respondents.

In the age-wise category, among those who believe in the content matter the age group of 26-40 years are ahead with 22.78%, followed by above 40(18%) and by

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those below 25 years (9.52%). From the table, one can safely deduce that elder respondents are more easily convinced.

Education-wise classification shows that majority of the respondents (54.55%) who are below 25 years say they do not believe in all the contents of religious journals as compared to 24.24% who says they do believe.

The educational table clearly shows that most of the respondent in the various educational groups do not believe in everything that is fed into the journals. Beside this, there are a good number of respondents who can't decide, with the highest respondents among Post Graduates.

In the occupational classification huge respondent percentage i.e., 75%, who does not believe in all the contents of religious journals, is observed among those in the teaching and IT field. On the other opposite are the mission workers (33.33%) who believe in everything written in the journals.

It is however notable that majority of mission workers (40%) cannot decide on the matter.

In the denomination classification there is more reasonable approach among various respondents with exception of a vast majority (60%) respondents of Reform Presbyterian Church who opt to believe everything written in the journals. On the other side are the 54.55% of respondents from Evangelical Assembly Church who do not believe in everything.

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Youth and religious journals
Table 3.14

Category

Interested

Not Interested

Read but do not follow 30 28.57% 34 39.08% 64 33.33% 18 28.57% 26 32.91% 20 40.00% 64 33.33%

Can’t say

Total

1. Male 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years

44 41.90% 28 32.18% 72 37.50% 27 42.86%

29 27.62% 22 25.29% 51 26.56% 17 26.98% 25 31.65% 9 18.00% 51 26.56%

2 1.90% 3 3.45% 5 2.60% 1 1.59% 1 1.27% 3 6.00% 5 2.60%

105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00%

GENDER

2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total

27 34.18% 18 36.00% 72 37.50%

* Percentages are calculated to the horizontal total

Youths and religious journals
Can't say 3% Read but do not follow 33% Not at all interested in reading Religious journals 27%

Interested in reading Religious journals 37%

Fig. 3.14

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Table 3.14 and Fig3.14 shows that of the total respondents, 37% says youth are interested in reading religious journals. A good percentage (33%) of them also thinks that youth read religious journals but they do not practice. And 27% of the respondents feel that youth are not at all interested in reading religious journals.

Gender-wise classification shows that majority (41.90%) male respondents thinks youth are interested in reading whereas as it is 32.18% among female respondents. A majority of female respondents (39.08%) think that the youth read but do not follow as compared to male respondents (28.57%).

From Fig 3.14 it can be inferred that a majority, a total of 70%, agreed that youth read religious journals as against only 27% who thinks that youth are not interested. This clearly indicates that majority of the youth must be reading religious journal.

Age-wise classification shows that 41.90% male and 32.18% female respondents agreed that youth are interested in reading religious journals. The same trend is reflected among those respondents who say youth are not interested.

Age-wise grouping of total respondents among those who think that youth are interested in reading religious journal shows that below 25 years lead with 42.86% followed by those above 40 years with 46% and by those in 26-40 years. And 31.65% of the respondent in the age group of 26-40 years opined that youth are not interested when compared to only 18% among those in the age group of above 40 years.

It can be inferred from this that majority of those who believe that youth are interested in reading religious journals belong to the younger section of the respondents.

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Attitude toward Articles written by Pastors and Church Elders
Table 3.15
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church CHURCH DENOMINATION 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others More authentic 45 42.86% 37 42.53% 82 42.71% 24 38.10% 36 45.57% 22 44.00% 82 42.71% 17 35.42% 14 82.35% 13 43.33% 11 45.83% 11 33.33% 16 44.44% 0 0% 82 42.71% 9 39.13% 16 36.36% 18 38.30% 29 50.00% 6 60.00% 4 40.00% 82 42.71% Like any other 41 39.05% 36 41.38% 77 40.10% 24 38.10% 30 37.97% 23 46.00% 77 40.10% 18 37.50% 2 11.76% 15 50.00% 13 54.17% 12 36.36% 14 38.89% 3 75.00% 77 40.10% 9 39.13% 19 43.18% 20 42.55% 21 36.21% 4 40.00% 4 40.00% 77 40.10% Boring and traditional 16 15.24% 13 14.94% 29 15.10% 14 22.22% 13 16.46% 2 4.00% 29 15.10% 13 27.08% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 10 30.30% 5 13.89% 1 25.00% 29 15.10% 4 17.39% 8 18.18% 8 17.02% 8 13.79% 0 0% 1 10.00% 29 15.10% Can’t say 3 2.86% 1 1.15% 4 2.08% 1 1.59% 0 0% 3 6.00% 4 2.08% 0 0% 1 5.88% 2 6.67% 0 0% 0 0% 1 2.78% 0 0% 4 2.08% 1 4.35% 1 2.27% 1 2.13% 0 0% 0 0% 1 10.00 % 4 2.08% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

Total

* Percentages are calculated to the horizontal total

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Attitude tow ard Articles w ritten by Pastors and church elders Can't say Boring and 2.08% traditional 15.10% More authentic 42.71%

Like any other articles 40.10%
Fig. 3.15

Table 3.15 and Fig 3.15 reveals that respondents are divided between those who viewed articles written by pastors and church elders as more authentic (42.71%) and those respondents who opine that they are like any other articles (40.10%) The remaining 17.18% is further divided among respondents who look at these articles as boring and traditional (15.10%) and those who can't decide (2.08%). Gender-wise classification shows that of the male respondents, 42.86% think articles written by pastors and church elders are more authentic whereas only 15.24% of them think it is boring and traditional. Female respondents also showed similarity with 42.53% saying it is more authentic followed by 41.38% who thinks it is like any other articles and finally only 14.94% who thinks it is boring and traditional. Age-wise classification indicates that a good percentage i.e. 45.57%, of respondents who believe that articles written by pastors and elders belong to the age group of 26-40 years as compared to 38.10% in the group below 25 years.

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It is also noticeable that among those who opined that articles are boring and traditional, the maximum are found in the age group of below 25 years, which is 22.22% as compared to only 4% among those in Above 40.

It can be inferred that the younger age group feels that some of the articles are boring and tradition whereas the aged show more faith in it.

Occupational classification clearly indicates that among those who say that articles by pastors and articles are more authentic housewives lead the rest with 82.35%. On the other end are the Private and Business respondents with only 33.33%. This shows that housewives are looking for more articles from those who are in the profession itself.

Denominational classification shows that respondents of Reform Presbyterian Church have more faith in those articles written by pastors and church elders (60%) followed by Independent Church of India (50%), Others (40%), Assembly of God (39.13%) and others. Evangelical Assembly Church has maximum members (18.18%) who think that articles written by pastors are boring and traditional.

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Recalling capacity of content matter
Table 3.16
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church CHURCH DENOMINATION 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total Yes 47 44.76% 38 43.68% 85 44.27% 27 42.86% 37 46.84% 21 42.00% 85 44.27% 20 41.67% 14 82.35% 14 46.67% 13 54.17% 10 30.30% 13 36.11% 1 25.00% 85 44.27% 8 34.78% 20 45.45% 24 51.06% 28 48.28% 1 10.00% 4 40.00% 85 44.27% No 58 55.24% 49 56.32% 107 55.73% 36 57.14% 42 53.16% 29 58.00% 107 55.73% 28 58.33% 3 17.65% 16 53.33% 11 45.83% 23 69.70% 23 63.89% 3 75.00% 107 55.73% 15 65.22% 24 54.55% 23 48.94% 30 51.72% 9 90.00% 6 60.00% 107 55.73% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

* Percentages are calculated to the horizontal total

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Recalling capacity of content matter

No 56%

Yes 44%

Fig.3.16

Table 3.16 and Fig 3.16 shows that majority of the respondents (56%) can recall the last article they have read. On the other hand equally a good number of the respondents (44%) could not remember the name of the article they last read.

Gender-wise classification depicts that male respondent has better recalling power (44.76%) than females (43.68%)

In the age-wise distribution 26-40 years group has the highest recalling capability (46.84%) followed by those below 25 years and above 40 years (42% each). Recalling capacity reach its peak among those Above 40 years (58%)

Occupational classification established that housewives are at their best at 82.35%. Teachers and those in IT sector least cared to remember with only 25% of the respondents who could remember what they read last.

Denominational-wise comparison shows that the best memory are among respondents of Evangelical Free Church of India (51.06%), followed closely by Independent Church of India (48.28%). Reform Presbyterian Church respondents are more likely to forget the name of the last article they have read with as many as 90% of the respondent who could not recall them.

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Influence of religious journal
Table 3.17
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total Elderly 83 79.05% 66 75.86% 149 77.60% 52 82.54% 61 77.22% 36 72.00% 149 77.60% Youth 22 20.95% 20 22.99% 42 21.88% 10 15.87% 18 22.78% 14 28.00% 42 21.88% Children 0 0% 1 1.15% 1 0.52% 1 1.59% 0 0% 0 0% 1 0.52% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00%

* Percentages are calculated to the horizontal total

Youths, 21.88%

Children, 0.52%

Elderly , 77.60%

Fig.3.17

Table 3.17 and Fig. 3.17 registered that a sound majority of the respondents (77.60%) are of the opinion that religious journals have more influence on the elderly. Though smaller in percentage, yet noticeable is that there are 21.88% who suppose that the youth are more influenced.

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Another striking revelation is that only 0.52% of the respondents conclude that religious journals influence children most. This data can therefore be the basis that religious journals did not have much influence over children. Or, it could be inferred that religious journals are of any interest to children.

Gender-wise classification shows that a huge majority of male (79.05%) respondents think that elders are more influenced by religious journals. Only 20.95% of them say that youth are influenced and not single respondent think children are affected in any manner. Even majority of female (75.86%) respondents feel the same way though with 1.15% respondents who think children are somehow influenced.

The age-wise figure shows that 82.54% of respondents from Below 25 years believe that elders were more influenced. They are seconded by 26-40 years (77.22%) and finally by those Above 40 years (72%).

Thus, it appears that the younger generation tends to believe that religious journals have more influence in the lives of the elderly. It can also be articulated that as one continue to grow older religious journal tend to play increasing role in one's life. One may also arrived to conclude that religious journals do not attract much attention of the youth and especially children as and when compared to the degree of its influence over the elderly.

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Power of religious journals in conversion
Table 3.18
Category Converting power Strengthen earlier belief None of these Total

1. Male

13 11.40%

87 76.32% 59 64.13% 146 70.87% 45 67.16% 61 72.62% 40 72.73% 146 70.87% 29 59.18% 11 61.11% 23 60.53% 23 92.00% 27 79.41% 32 84.21% 1 25.00% 146 70.87%

14 12.28% 18 19.57% 32 15.53% 11 16.42% 13 15.48% 8 14.55% 32 15.53% 13 26.53% 2 11.11% 6 15.79% 1 4.00% 6 17.65% 2 5.26% 2 50.00% 32 15.53%

114 100.00% 92 100.00% 206 100.00% 67 100.00% 84 100.00% 55 100.00% 206 100.00% 49 100.00% 18 100.00% 38 100.00% 25 100.00% 34 100.00% 38 100.00% 4 100.00% 206 100.00%

2. Female GENDER

15 16.30%

Total

28 13.59%

1. Below 25 years

11 16.42%

2. 26- 40 years AGE

10 11.90%

3. Above 40 years

7 12.73%

Total

28 13.59%

1. Student

7 14.29% 5 27.78%

2. Housewives

3. Mission Worker

9 23.68%

OCCUPATION

4. Government Service

1 4.00%

5. Private/Business

1 2.94%

6. Farmer

4 10.53%

7. Others(Teacher, IT)

1 25.00%

Total

28 13.59%

* Percentages are calculated to the horizontal total

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Power of religious journal in conversion

None of these, 16.67%

Converting power, 14.58%

Strengthenin g earlier beliefs, 76.04%

Fig. 3.18

Table 3.18 indicates that majority of the respondents (76.04%) believed that religious journals are instrumental in strengthening earlier beliefs whereas 14.58% of the respondents opined that it has converting/conversion power. A good number of them (16.67%) however believe that religious journals neither have any converting role nor strengthen earlier beliefs of the readers.

Gender-wise classification indicated that 76.32% of male respondents believed that religious journal can strengthen their earlier belief. Only 11.40% says it can convert people. Female respondents also shows similar traits with their male counterpart as a majority of them (67.13%) thought that religious journals can strengthen previous belief as against only 16.30% of them who consider it as something that has conversion power. However, the overall comparison between male and female shows that while male respondents (76.32%) believed in the power of religious journals in strengthening earlier belief their female counterpart put more faith on its conversion ability (16.30%).

Occupational grouping shows an exceptionally high percentage (92%) of government employees who believe in the strengthening role of religious journals whereas housewives leads (27.78%) among those believer in the converting power of religious journal.
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Whether religious journal writers distort Biblical facts
Table 3.19
Category Number % 28.64% 67.19% 4.17% 100%

Yes No Can't say
Total

55 129 8
192

Whether religious journal writers distort Biblical facts
Can't say 4.17% Yes 28.65%

No 67.19%

Fig 3.19

Table 3.19 and Fig 3.19 clearly show that majority of the respondents (67.19%) do not believe that writers distort or use biblical verses to suite their personal belief. However, a good section among the respondents (28.64%) who held that writers of religious journals interpret or distort certain verses to suit their beliefs or to cover up their own misdeeds. Only a small section (4.17%) says they cannot decide.

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Whether religious journals contribute to denominational clash and exclusiveness
Table 3.20
Category 1. Male GENDER 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Below HSLC 2. Undergraduate EDUCATION 3. Graduate 4. Post-graduate Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total Yes 39 37.14% 32 36.78% 71 36.98% 27 42.86% 29 36.71% 15 30.00% 71 36.98% 10 30.30% 29 43.94% 20 32.26% 12 38.71% 71 36.98% 17 35.42% 1 5.88% 4 13.33% 15 62.50% 18 54.55% 13 36.11% 3 75.00% 71 36.98% 8 34.78% 18 40.91% 15 31.91% 23 39.66% 4 40.00% 3 30.00% 71 36.98% No 66 62.86% 55 63.22% 121 63.02% 36 57.14% 50 63.29% 35 70.00% 121 63.02% 23 69.70% 37 56.06% 42 67.74% 19 61.29% 121 63.02% 31 64.58% 16 94.12% 26 86.67% 9 37.50% 15 45.45% 23 63.89% 1 25.00% 121 63.02% 15 65.22% 26 59.09% 32 68.09% 35 60.34% 6 60.00% 7 70.00% 121 63.02% Total 105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 33 100.00% 66 100.00% 62 100.00% 31 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

CHURCH DENOMINATION

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Whether Religious journals contribute to denominational clash and exclusiveness

36.98% ( 71)

Yes
63.02% (121)
Fig 3.20

No

Table 3.20 and Fig 3.20 shows that majority of the respondents (63.02%) do not think that religious journals promote denominational clashes or exclusiveness. On the other hand 36.98% of the respondents felt that religious journals contribute to inter-denominational clash and exclusiveness.

Gender-wise arrangement denotes that both sex have almost equal percentage of respondents who believed and disagreed that religious journals promote clash between church denominations.

The age-wise categorization shows that below 25 years are more assertive with 42.86% of the respondent stating that religious journal creates interdenominational clashes. As the age of the respondents increase from 26-40 years (36.71%) to above 40 years (30%) per cent of respondents decreases. It can be inferred from this that youth (below 25 years) are more critical of religious journals when compared to the elderly.

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Educational classification indicated that irrespective of the qualification most of the respondents do not agree that religious journals promote rivalry between churches.

However, when it comes to those who believed that religious journal creates problem Undergraduates leads the rest with 43.94% respondents. Below HSLC are at the bottom with 30.3%. The educational figure shows that education level of the respondents is not an important criterion for respondents to be able to judge whether religious journals created clashes between churches.

The occupational table shows that an overwhelming percentage (94.12%) of housewives do not believe religious journals give rise to clash between churches. Housewives are closely trailed by Mission Workers (86.67%). students (64.58%), farmers (63.89%), private/business (45.45%) and finally government employee (37.50). This series indicates that housewives are most supportive of the religious journals when it comes to their role in maintain cordial relation with other churches. On the other end are the government employees who are more open to scrutinizing the ill effects religious journals have on the relationship between various churches.

Denominational representation demonstrates that the highest percentages (70%) of respondents who do not believe that religious journals induce inter-denomination clashes or exclusiveness are from the Reform Presbyterian Church. It can be inferred from the Table 3.20, that irrespective of church denomination majority of the respondent feel that religious journals creates no clashes or exclusiveness among churches.

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How religious journals create denominational exclusiveness and clash
Table 3.21
Category A.Every journal speaks only what is good in their church B.Divides the Hmar people Total Number 65 11 76 % 91.54 15.49 107.03

* Percentage is calculated to the number of respondents who opined that religious journals create Inter-denomination clashes, N=71 * Percentage is overlapping due to multiple answers

How religious journals creates denominational clash and exclusiveness
15.49%

91.54%
Every journal speaks only what is good in their church Divides the Hmar people

Fig 3.21

Table 3.21 and Fig 3.21 clearly shows that among those respondents who think that religious journals create clashes or exclusiveness majority of the respondents (91.54%) opined that every journal speak of only what is good in their church besides ignoring news of other churches. A small section of the respondents (15.49%) contented that religious journals generate inter-denomination

exclusiveness and clash of ideas by stressing on the differences that had existed before.

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Perception on what reading religious journal can do
Table 3.22
Category
1. Male 2. Female
GENDER

Go to heaven
4 3.05% 3 2.86%

Increased divine knowledge
36 27.48% 36 34.29%

Lead a good life
68 51.91% 47 44.76%

Better informe d
21 16.03% 17 16.19%

Can’t say
2 1.53% 2 1.90%

Total
131 100.00% 105 100.00 % 236 100.00 % 41 100.00 % 75 100.00 % 79 100.00 % 41 100.00 % 236 100.00 % 52 100.00 % 21 100.00 % 47 100.00 % 30 100.00 % 36 100.00 % 46 100.00 % 4 100.00 % 236 100.00 %

Total

7 2.97%
3 7.32% 0 0% 3 3.80% 1 2.44%

72 30.51%
8 19.51% 24 32.00% 27 34.18% 13 31.71%

115 48.73%
27 65.85% 38 50.67% 34 43.04% 16 39.02%

38 16.10%
3 7.32% 12 16.00% 12 15.19% 11 26.83%

4 1.69%
0 0% 1 1.33% 3 3.80% 0 0%

1. Below HSLC

2. Undergraduate
EDUCATION

3. Graduate

4. Post-graduate

Total

7 2.97%
1 1.92% 0 0% 4 8.51% 0 0% 0 0% 2 4.35% 0 0%

72 30.51%
17 32.69% 10 47.62% 13 27.66% 10 33.33% 11 30.56% 10 21.74% 1 25.00%

115 48.73%
20 38.46% 7 33.33% 27 57.45% 17 56.67% 14 38.89% 29 63.04% 1 25.00%

38 16.10%
11 21.15% 4 19.05% 3 6.38% 3 10.00% 11 30.56% 5 10.87% 1 25.00%

4 1.69%
3 5.77% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 25.00%

1. Student

2. Housewives

3. Mission Worker

OCCUPATION

4. Government Service

5. Private/Business

6. Farmer

7. Others(Teacher, IT)

Total

7 2.97%

72 30.51%

115 48.73%

38 16.10%

4 1.69%

* Percentage is overlapping due to multiple choice answers.

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Perceptions on what reading religious journal can do Can't say, 2.09% To go to heaven, 3.66%

Better Informed, 19.90%

Increase your divine knowledge, 37.70%

Lead a good life, 60.21%

Fig.3.22

Table 3.22 and Fig 3.22 depicts that majority of the respondents (60.21%) believe they will be able to lead a good life if they read religious journals. A good number (37.70%) of respondents believe that it will help them increase their divine knowledge. Another 19.9% says they will be better informed. A small section (3.66%) believes they will go to heaven if they read religious journal.

The gender-wise classification shows that 34.29% of female respondents believe that reading religious journals will enrich their divine knowledge as compared to 27.48% of male respondents in the same category.

However, it is the male folk who rules the roost (51.91%) when it comes to believing that reading religious will make them lead a better life as against only 44.76% of female respondents. Despite this difference, majority of male (51.91%) and female (44.76%) falls under the purview that they will lead a good life if they keep reading religious journals. A majority of male respondents (51.91%) believe that it will bring them good life as compared to only 3.05% who think they will go to heaven.

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Educational classification reveals that majority i.e. 65.85%, of the respondents who said that they will lead a good life if they read religious journal are those in below HSLC grouping as compared to only 39.02% of postgraduates believing in the same. This series shows that those with lower educational qualification are more likely to believe that religious journals can help them lead a good life.

It is also observed in the Table that religious journals are more of an information tool among the highly educated. The gradual increase in number of respondent who feels they will be better informed is seen among respondents from those below HSLC (7.32%) to post-graduates (26.83%).

Among those who believed that reading religious journals can get them passport to heaven, below HSLC are the highest with 7.32%, followed by 3.8% graduates and 2.44% postgraduates.

Occupational classification shows that among those who believe that reading religious journals can enable them to lead a good life; farmers are the highest (63.04%). Others (Teacher and IT) occupy the lowest score with only 25% of the total respondents. The table also shows that it is the housewives (47.62%) who seek more divine knowledge by reading religious journals.

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Need for religious journals
Table 3.23
Category Yes, it is must Not necessary Can’t say Total

1. Male 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years
AGE

78 74.29% 73 83.91% 151 78.65% 47 74.60% 62 78.48% 42 84.00% 151 78.65% 37 77.08% 16 94.12% 30 100.00% 21 87.50% 21 63.64% 23 63.89% 3 75.00% 151 78.65% 19 82.61% 35 79.55% 34 72.34% 46 79.31% 8 80.00% 9 90.00% 151 78.65%

3 2.86% 3 3.45% 6 3.13% 4 6.35% 0 0% 2 4.00% 6 3.13% 2 4.17% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 3.03% 2 5.56% 1 25.00% 6 3.13% 0 0% 2 4.55% 2 4.26% 1 1.72% 0 0% 1 10.00% 6 3.13%

24 22.86% 11 12.64% 35 18.23% 12 19.05% 17 21.52% 6 12.00% 35 18.23% 9 18.75% 1 5.88% 0 0% 3 12.50% 11 33.33% 11 30.56% 0 0% 35 18.23% 4 17.39% 7 15.91% 11 23.40% 11 18.97% 2 20.00% 0 0% 35 18.23%

105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

GENDER OCCUPATION CHURCH DENOMINATION

3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total

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Need of religious journals Can't say, 18.23% Not necessary, 3.13%

Yes it is must, 78.65%

Fig. 3.23

Table 3.23 and Fig 3.23 clearly shows that majority of the respondents (83.91%) irrespective of sex, age, occupation, monthly income, and church denomination felt that religious journal is a necessity and its publication must continue. Only a handful of the respondents (3.45%) contented that religious journals are not necessary. A good number of respondents (12.64%), more than those who say no to religious journal, cannot decide on the issue.

Gender-wise classification shows that majority of female respondents (83.91%) are in favour of publication of religious journals. Only a small percentage (3.45%) says otherwise. A large number of male respondents (74.27%) also agreed that publication of religious journals is must. Only 2.86% says it is not necessary.

The overall comparison between male and female shows that there are more female than male; who wanted continuation of publication of religious journals.

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Age-wise categorization shows that as many as 84% of respondents in the age group of Above 40 years wanted continuation of religious journals. They are followed by 26-40 years group with 78.48% and finally by those below 25 years with 74.6%. It can be concluded that elders are much keener to see the continuation of publication of journals than rest of the age group.

Occupational data points out that 100% of respondents belonging to Mission workers felt it is must to publish religious journals.

While the majority of the respondents i.e. 75 per cent, wanted publication of religious journals those in the teaching and IT sector felt the least need with as many as 25 per cent of them saying publication of religious journal as not necessary.

The denomination classification shows that irrespective of the churches to which respondents belonged, majority of them wanted to continue the publication of religious journals. The need is felt most strongly among Others groups (which includes Salvation Army, Pentecostals, Baptists, Methodist) with an overwhelming 90% of the respondents saying they that religious journal must be brought out. [Note: These smaller churches did not have their own regular journal at the time of the study]

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Whether religious journal impose restriction on the society
Table 3.24
Category Undue restriction on society Reasonable restriction on society No restriction at all Total

1. Male 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years
AGE

10 9.52% 10 11.49% 20 10.42% 8 12.70% 8 10.13% 4 8.00% 20 10.42% 4 8.33% 0 0% 0 0% 3 12.50% 7 21.21% 5 13.89% 1 25.00% 20 10.42% 2 8.70% 5 11.36% 4 8.51% 5 8.62% 3 30.00% 1 10.00% 20 10.42%

57 54.29% 38 43.68% 95 49.48% 37 58.73% 39 49.37% 19 38.00% 95 49.48% 25 52.08% 10 58.82% 17 56.67% 14 58.33% 12 36.36% 14 38.89% 3 75.00% 95 49.48% 15 65.22% 18 40.91% 25 53.19% 28 48.28% 5 50.00% 4 40.00% 95 49.48%

38 36.19% 39 44.83% 77 40.10% 18 28.57% 32 40.51% 27 54.00% 77 40.10% 19 39.58% 7 41.18% 13 43.33% 7 29.17% 14 42.42% 17 47.22% 0 0% 77 40.10% 6 26.09% 21 47.73% 18 38.30% 25 43.10% 2 20.00% 5 50.00% 77 40.10%

105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

GENDER

3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker

OCCUPATION

4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church

CHURCH DENOMINATION

3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total

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Whether religious journal impose restriction on the society
Undue restrictions on society , 10.42%

No restriction at all, 40.10%

Reasonable restriction on society, 49.48%
Fig. 3.24

Table 3.24 and Fig 3.24 exhibit that majority of the respondents (49.48%) are of the view that religious journals placed reasonable restriction on the society. An equally huge percentage of respondents (40.10%) felt otherwise. On the other hand 10.42% of the total respondents considered religious journals as a tool that put undue restriction on the Hmar society.

Gender-wise compartmentalization indicates that a large majority of male respondent (54.29%) said that religious journals placed reasonable restriction on their society as against 9.52% of them who are of the opinion that religious journals placed undue restriction upon the Hmar society. On the other hand there are a sizeable, 36.19%, male respondents who think that religious journals placed no restriction at all.

Overall, there are more female (11.49%) than male (9.52%) who opined that religious journal placed undue restriction on the society.

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In the age-wise category, 58.73% of the total respondents who observed that religious journals placed reasonable restriction on the society belonged to Below 25 years. The percentage of respondents gradually decreases down to 38% in the Above 40 year’s age group. On the other side majority (54%) of the respondents who said that religious journals placed no restriction are those who are Above 40 years. This trickles down to 40.51% among 26-40 years and finally to 28.57% among those Below 25 years.

It can be safely infer from Table 3.24 that as years of the respondents increases, lesser is the both the number of respondents who will say that religious journals placed undue restriction as well as reasonable restriction on the society. On the other hand, as years of the respondents increases there will be more number of respondents who will begin to think that religious journals place no restriction on the society.

Occupational-wise categorization reveals that a good number of respondents in the Teaching and IT sector (25%) believed that religious journals place undue restriction on the society. However, not a single respondent are there among Mission Workers and Housewives who think religious journal imposed undue restriction. From the occupation figures it can be stated that irrespective of their profession most of the respondents felt that religious journals placed reasonable restrictions.

Denominational classification shows that a majority (30%) of the total respondents who said that religious journals place undue restriction on society are those belonging to the Reform Presbyterian Church as compared to relatively less percentage (8.51%) of respondents from the Evangelical Free Church of India. A good per cent (65.22%) of respondents of the Evangelical Assembly Church said that religious journals impose reasonable restriction on the society.

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Whether Hmar tribe’s conversion to Christianity was through religious journals
Table 3.25
Category Yes No Partially strengthen the process Can’t say Total

1. Male 2. Female
Total

1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years
AGE

3. Above 40 years

Total
1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker
OCCUPATION

4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT)

Total

23 21.90% 12 13.79% 35 18.23% 5 7.94% 12 15.19% 18 36.00% 35 18.23% 3 6.25% 0 0% 14 46.67% 6 25.00% 6 18.18% 6 16.67% 0 0% 35 18.23%

26 24.76% 26 29.89% 52 27.08% 13 20.63% 32 40.51% 7 14.00% 52 27.08% 8 16.67% 8 47.06% 4 13.33% 5 20.83% 14 42.42% 13 36.11% 0 0% 52 27.08%

27 25.71% 19 21.84% 46 23.96% 24 38.10% 17 21.52% 5 10.00% 46 23.96% 21 43.75% 4 23.53% 5 16.67% 4 16.67% 4 12.12% 6 16.67% 2 50.00% 46 23.96%

29 27.62% 30 34.48% 59 30.73% 21 33.33% 18 22.78% 20 40.00% 59 30.73% 16 33.33% 5 29.41% 7 23.33% 9 37.50% 9 27.27% 11 30.56% 2 50.00% 59 30.73%

105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00%

GENDER

Religious journals role in conversion
Yes, 18.23% Can't say, 30.73%

No, 27.08%

Partially it did strengthen the process, 23.96%

Fig 3.25

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Table 3.25 and Fig 3.25 shows that a majority of respondents i.e., 30.73%, can't say whether religious journals were responsible for the Hmar tribe’s complete conversion to Christianity. 23.96% of the respondents opined that religious journals partially helped in strengthening the process of conversion. Only 18.23% of the total respondents believed that religious journals were responsible for the conversion process while 27.08% said that they do not think it was the religious journals that convert the Hmars to Christianity.

Gender-wise classification shows that more male respondent (21.9%) held religious journals responsible for the tribe conversion to Christianity than against their female counterpart (13.79%).

The age compartmentalization indicate that those above 40 years has the maximum number of respondents (36%) who agree to role played by religious journals in the process of conversion. Those belonging to Below 25 years (7.94%) are least likely to believe in the same.

In the occupational classification it appears that majority of the respondents (46.67%) think that religious journals were responsible for Hmar tribe’s conversion to Christianity are the Mission Workers. On the other side, Table 3.25 shows that a vast majority (47.06%) of the respondents who do not think that religious journals were responsible for their tribe conversion to Christianity were the housewives.

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Quality of contents
Table 3.26
Category Good enough 30 28.57% 27 31.03% 57 29.69% 19 30.16% 22 27.85% 16 32.00% 57 29.69% 8 16.67% 6 35.29% 9 30.00% 3 12.50% 8 24.24% 22 61.11% 1 25.00% 57 29.69% 44 34.92% 11 21.15% 2 14.29% 57 29.69% 3 13.04% 9 20.45% 20 42.55% 20 34.48% 2 20.00% 3 30.00% 57 29.69% Lacks in quality 12 11.43% 15 17.24% 27 14.06% 9 14.29% 12 15.19% 6 12.00% 27 14.06% 8 16.67% 5 29.41% 1 3.33% 3 12.50% 9 27.27% 1 2.78% 0 0% 27 14.06% 15 11.90% 9 17.31% 3 21.43% 27 14.06% 6 26.09% 8 18.18% 4 8.51% 6 10.34% 2 20.00% 1 10.00% 27 14.06% Needs improvement 63 60.00% 45 51.72% 108 56.25% 35 55.56% 45 56.96% 28 56.00% 108 56.25% 32 66.67% 6 35.29% 20 66.67% 18 75.00% 16 48.48% 13 36.11% 3 75.00% 108 56.25% 67 53.17% 32 61.54% 9 64.29% 108 56.25% 14 60.87% 27 61.36% 23 48.94% 32 55.17% 6 60.00% 6 60.00% 108 56.25% Total

1. Male 2. Female Total 1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years AGE 3. Above 40 years Total 1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker OCCUPATION 4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT) Total 1. Below Rs.5000 MONTHLYINCOME 2. Rs. 5001- 10,000 3. Rs. 10,001 0r more Total 1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others Total

105 100.00% 87 100.00% 192 100.00% 63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00% 192 100.00% 48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00% 192 100.00% 126 100.00% 52 100.00% 14 100.00% 192 100.00% 23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10 100.00% 192 100.00%

CHURCH DENOMINATION

GENDER

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Quality of contents
Good enough , 29.69%

Needs improvement, 56.25% Lacks in quality, 14.06%

Fig 3.26

Table 3.26 and Fig 3.26 clearly outlined the respondent views on the quality of contents of the religious journals. A large majority of respondents (56.25%) felt that the contents need improvement. Only 29.69% of the respondents are happy to agree that the contents are good enough. Another 14.06% considers religious journals poor in content.

In gender-wise assortment, a good majority of both male (60%) and female (51.72%) felt the need for improvement in content quality as compared to only 28.57% and 31.03% of both male and female who think the journals are good enough.

Age-wise classification shows that the need for improvement is reflected by a majority of the respondents in all the age groups starting it with 26-40 years (56.96%), Above 40 years (56%) and Below 25 years (55.56%).

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Occupational stratification shows that Government employees and Others (Teacher, IT) shared equal interest (75%) in their desire to see improvements in the contents of the journals.

However, farmers are more contented with the quality of the contents with a sounding majority of the respondents (61.11%) who feels that contents of religious journals are good enough.

Monthly income classification points out that Below Rs 5000 income group (34.92% of the respondent) are more satisfied with the contents of the journals. On the other hand a huge majority of respondents (64%) in the Rs. 10,001 or more category feels that content of religious journals must improve.

The occupational Table clearly shows that expectation of the respondents grow with increase in income level.

Denomination-wise grouping depicts a uniformity of percentage of respondents belonging to different churches who wants to see improvements in the quality of the content matters. The respondents that expect improvements most are those from the Evangelical Assembly Church (61.36%).

In the overall analysis Evangelical Free Church of India respondents are the most satisfied with the content of the journals they have read with 42.55% of the total respondents saying that content of religious are good enough. At the other opposite end are 13.04% of the total respondents belonging to Assembly of God who wants more improvement.

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Whether members of one church read another church’s journal
Table 3.27
Category Yes No Total

1. Male
GENDER

78 74.29% 69 79.31%
147 76.56%

27 25.71% 18 20.69%
45 23.44%

105 100.00% 87 100.00%
192 100.00%

2. Female
Total

1. Below 25 years 2. 26- 40 years
AGE

45 71.43% 60 75.95% 42 84.00%
147 76.56%

18 28.57% 19 24.05% 8 16.00%
45 23.44%

63 100.00% 79 100.00% 50 100.00%
192 100.00%

3. Above 40 years
Total

1. Student 2. Housewives 3. Mission Worker
OCCUPATION

34 70.83% 13 76.47% 29 96.67% 24 100.00% 23 69.70% 23 63.89% 1 25.00%
147 76.56%

14 29.17% 4 23.53% 1 3.33% 0 0% 10 30.30% 13 36.11% 3 75.00%
45 23.44%

48 100.00% 17 100.00% 30 100.00% 24 100.00% 33 100.00% 36 100.00% 4 100.00%
192 100.00%

4. Government Service 5. Private/Business 6. Farmer 7. Others(Teacher, IT)
Total

1. Below Rs.5000
MONTHLYINCOME

90 71.43% 44 84.62% 13 92.86%
147 76.56%

36 28.57% 8 15.38% 1 7.14%
45 23.44%

126 100.00% 52 100.00% 14 100.00%
192 100.00%

2. Rs. 5001- 10,000 3. Rs. 10,001 0r more
Total

1. Assembly of God 2. Evangelical Assembly Church 3. Evangelical Free Church of India 4. Independent Church of India 5. Reform Presbyterian Church 6. Others
Total

23 100.00% 36 81.82% 34 72.34% 38 65.52% 6 60.00% 10
100.00% 147 76.56%

0 0% 8 18.18% 13 27.66% 20 34.48% 4 40.00% 0
0% 45 23.44%

23 100.00% 44 100.00% 47 100.00% 58 100.00% 10 100.00% 10
100.00% 192 100.00%

CHURCH DENOMINATION

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Whether members of other church read religious journals of other churches

No, 23.44% (45)

Yes , 76.56% (147)

Fig. 3.27

Table 3.27 and Fig 3.27 show that a large majority of the total respondents i.e. 76.56% read religious journals belonging to other Hmar churches than their own. On the other hand 23.44% of the respondents do not read religious journals brought out by other churches.

Gender-wise classification shows that majority of the male (74.29%) read journals of other churches whereas 25.71% do not read. Among the female a huge majority (79.31%) read journals of other churches than their own as compared to only 20.69% who do not read. In the general comparison between male and female respondents female (79.31%) read more than their male counterpart (74.29%).

Age-wise classification denotes that 84% of the total respondents who read other churches journal are in the age group of Above 40 years. The age group table shows that as the respondents gets older they tend to read more of other church journals besides reading their own.

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The occupational classification shows that government employees (100%) read most of other church journals. On the other opposite are the Teachers and IT employees (25%). Irrespective of their occupation a huge majority of respondents read other church journals except among Teachers and IT employees.

Income-wise categorization shows that the readership of other religious journal increases gradually from those Below Rs. 5000 (71.43%), Rs. 5001-10,000 (84.62%) and finally to 92.86% in the Above 40 age group. Thus, it can be generalized that readership of other religious journals is also directly proportional to the income level of the respondents.

The denomination classification shows that both the respondents of Assembly of God and Others (Salvation Army, Methodists, and Pentecostals) attained 100% readership of reading other church journals. On the other hand 40% of the respondents of Reform Presbyterian Church do not read journals of other churches followed by 34% respondents of Independent Church of India and Evangelical Free Church of India with 27.66%.

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Journals read by other members of the church
Table 3.28
Category Dinthar JOURNALS Khawnvar Kohran Kristien Thalai Kantu Thuhriltu Total Number 52 76 45 72 43 57 345 % 35.37% 51.70% 30.61% 48.97% 29.25% 38.77% 234.67%

* Percentage is calculated to the total number of respondents who read journals of other church, N= 143 * Percentage is overlapping due to multiple choice answers.

Readership of journal other than their own church's.
60.00% 50.00% Percentage 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Dinthar Khawnvar Kohran Kristien Thalai Kantu Thuhriltu 35.37% 30.61% 51.70% 48.97% 38.77% 29.25%

Name of Journals

Fig. 3.28

Table 3.28 and Fig. 3.28 indicated that among those journals read by members of other churches Khawnvar is the most read (51.7%) followed closely by Kristien (48.97%), Thuhriltu (38.77%) and others. Thalai Kantu is the least read by other denomination members with only 29.25% of the total respondents having declared that they have read it.

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CHAPTER- IV
SUGGESTIONS) (CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS)

even after death. The belief in ‘communication processes’ after death led man to adopt what we now called religion. Many wars and battles were fought as religion became close and dear to kings and queens, the rich and poor alike. All great ancient civilizations, the world over, had devoted much of their energy, time and wealth to prepare themselves for life after death. As a result they employed whatever tools and resources available at their disposal. It ancient times men make use of bows, arrows and swords to expand the divine dominion. Today, modern technology such as the press, television, radio and others has taken their place to ‘spread the good news’. Not a single religion is immune from this practice. Religion has become so important and so powerful one cannot even think of openly speaking against it.

T

he history of man is the history of human communication. Communication process is believed to have taken place not only from birth to death but

The modern man is even more aggressive in his quest for communion with the divine being. So the new tools he adopted, viz., the press here, has been used to bridge different people on one hand and the people to god on the other side. The modern press has made it possible for religious institution to bring out periodicals containing texts propagating their faith besides current news and reports of their activities.

Religious journals disseminate religious teachings, beliefs and information about developments within a particular faith or religious institution. Religious texts have great impact not only in the life of an individual but the whole world. Its powerful influence has been proved with the publication of the first printed book, the Gutenberg Bible in 1452. Just as the Holy Bible, religious journals not only inform people but formulate their beliefs in the long run.
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Findings on the study of the

Impact of Religious Journals on the Hmar Tribe in Manipur
Time spent on reading religious journals

A majority of the Hmar tribe read religious journals but most of them spent very little time on a day to day basis. Only a few (8.85%) read for 1-2 hours daily. The notion that Hmar men are not religious is proved wrong as the study shows that men spent more time reading religious journals than their female counterpart. It appears that elders spent more time than young readers but as education level increases they begin to take more interest in reading religious texts.

The study shows that Mission workers by virtue of their profession spent the maximum time. However, farmers have little time to spare with 88.33 per cent of them saying they read it for less than 30 minutes a day. Teachers and those in the IT sector performed even worst than the farmers when it comes to spending more time. None of them could spare 1-2 hours a day. This shows that profession of the individual is a great determining factor for reading religious journals.

Periodicity of reading religious journals

The study denotes that majority of the readers of religious journals are occasional readers with both male and female going almost hand in hand. Females tend to be more occasional reader (55.17%) than their male counterpart (49.52%). However, there are also a good number (34.9%) who read regularly. It is also seen that the reading habit of the respondents began to increase with age. This shows that youth are not regular reader of religious journals.
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The study shows that irrespective of age, sex, occupation and church denomination most of the Hmars read religious journal occasionally. However, there are also a good number of them who read it regularly. The overall readership behaviour among members of different denomination reveals that most of them are occasional readers of religious journals.

The study shows that Mission workers by virtue of their profession are the most regular readers whereas teachers and IT people are the most irregular readers. We can deduce from this that people who are in secular profession are not as enthusiastic about reading religious journals as when compared to Mission workers.

Subscription of religious journals

The study indicates that majority of the respondents (80.73%) subscribe to religious journal as compared to only 19.27% who do not subscribe. Age-wise study shows a huge percentage (96%) of the respondent from above 40 years subscribes to religious journals. Those Below 25 years are least to subscribe with 63.49%. Despite the difference in age and profession, it is clear that majority of the respondents subscribe religious journals.

Reading religious journals comes with a price. Though most of the journals are priced as low as Rs. 4 to Rs. 10 per copy; the subscription data reveals that subscription of religious journal is directly proportional to the monthly income of the respondents. Subscription rate increase as income increase from Below Rs. 5000 (73.81%) to Rs.5001-10, 000 (92.31%) and finally to Rs. 10,001 or more (100%). The higher the income level, higher is the chance for them to have access to religious journals. It is clearly seen that among those who do not subscribe majority of them read it from their friends and relatives. Females have more tendencies to borrow from their

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neighbours. Surprisingly none of them have read or even borrowed from libraries. This maybe due to lack of or no proper libraries in the district. The subscription level among all the church denomination is pretty high (83.59%). This shows that most church member subscribes to one or more religious journals.

Religious journals read by respondents

A majority of the respondents have read most of the religious journals. But the most widely read journal appears to be Kristien followed by Khawnvar. Kohran is the least read journal among the respondents. Most journals and magazine are subscribed to fulfill one's physical need and wants but this is just the opposite in the case of religious journals. The respondents’ desire to have holy relationship with God is clearly visible as majority, (65.80%) among those who subscribe religious journals, read it because they wanted to know more about God. At the same time there are a small number (9.67%) who put the blame on church leaders’ pressure. Though this is a small number, it is a notable development. It indicates how somebody in the church organization is trying to ‘bring more souls’ into their organization.

Enjoyed reading religious journals

The study clearly reveals that a large majority (85.42%) of the respondents both male and female enjoys reading religious journal. Only 14.58% says they do not enjoy reading. It can be safely inferred from this that irrespective of the gender, age, occupation and church denomination majority of the Hmars enjoyed reading religious journals. It is also found that majority of them enjoyed reading religious journals because of their over all informative character about the various facets of religion.

The study also shows that religion is an integral part of the Hmar society and religious journals is one means of getting closer to God. This is reflected clearly as
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majority of the readers prefer reading sermons and message content. This is followed by a good number of them who want news of the world.

Other aspects like editorials, reports on church activities, pictures etc, do not create much enthusiasm among them. It can be safely concluded that when reading religious journals it is the contents of ideas that counts rather than anything else. Otherwise, this maybe due to the low quality of presentation of other items which fail to attract attention of the readers.

Reading preference

It is also seen that sermons are popular with mission workers (70%) and housewives (64.71%) as compared to Private/Business (24.24%).

Youth are interested in world news and current affairs. Sermon is read most by the elder section of the society. The study also exhibits that sermons is read most by the Mission workers followed housewives. Private/ business individuals and students seem to take more interest in the current affairs section.

Role of religious journals in promotion of peace

The respondents are somewhat equally divided on the issue of the role played by religious journals in promotion of peace in the society. Approximately 28.65% believed that religious journals are partially successful, 27.60% says religious journals could have done much more, 21 per cent thinks it is very effective while an equal number opined it had no impact at all as far as promotion of peace is concerned.

It is readable from this observation that the Hmars are equally divided on what religious journals had done in promoting peace within their society. .

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How readers feel or do after reading religious journals

The study brought to light that majority of the respondents tries to practice what they have read. The statistics derived tells us that most of the respondents stress more on trying to practice rather than pray. There are also a good number of them (25.52%) who do not do anything when they have finished reading religious journals. A small number of them (6.25%) discussed what they have read with friends, families and relatives.

Religious journals and Church attendance

As a clear sign of considerable impact religious journals had on the society, it is seen that, majority of the respondent i.e. 61.46%, are willing to attend church if writing in religious journals suggest that they should attend church to be a good Christian. Younger sections of the society are most likely to follow directions in this regard. As far as the occupation is concerned, Housewives are the most obedient readers with 94.12 per cent, which is way above the average 61.46 per cent. Government employees are, however, unlikely to follow the direction. Members of Reform Presbyterian Church are obedient lot with 80% of the respondents willing to attend church if asked to do so. Members of the Evangelical Free Church of India are least likely to attend with half of them saying they need not attend.

On authenticity of religious journals

It is also seen from the study that majority of the respondents, (42.92%) do not believe in everything that is inside the two covers of religious journals. Only a small percentage (17.19%) says they do believe. A good number of the respondents (40.24%) were undecided. Thus, there is clear division of opinion on the authenticity of the contents of religious journals.

Female tends to believe in what is written in religious journals than the male respondents which is also witnessed among the elders. As far as occupation is concern, the teachers and IT people (75%) says they do not believe in all the
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contents of religious journals. On the opposite end are the mission workers (33.33%) who believe in everything written in the journals. It is, however, notable that majority of mission workers (40%) cannot decide on the matter. This clearly shows that the authenticity of religious contents could not be ascertained by the readers. As a result they agree or disagree with the contents according to their personal likes and dislikes. For example: If a pastor whom a housewife dislikes personally writes an article which is exceptionally authentic she is likely to rubbish the article as not true and bias.
Youth and religious journals

Though majority of the youth read religious journals only 37 per cent of the total respondents feel that youth are really interested in reading religious journals. A good per cent (33%) of them also think that youth read religious journals but they do not practice what they read. And 27 per cent of the respondents feel that youth are not at all interested in reading religious journals. It is found that majority of those who believe that youth are interested in reading religious journals belong to the younger section of the respondents.

Attitude towards articles written by pastors and church elders

A clear-cut division is seen between those who think articles written by pastors and church elders as more authentic (42.71%) and those respondents who opined that they are like any other articles (40.10%).

It is also observed that male respondents tend to have greater faith in articles written by pastors and church elders. Youth on the other hand feel that articles by pastors and church elders are boring and traditional. The study also shows that housewives are looking for more articles from those who are in the profession itself as they have more faith in the articles written by pastors and church elders.

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Readers recalling capacity of content matters

The study shows that majority of the respondents (56%) can recall the last article they have read. On the other hand, equally a good number of the respondents (44%) could not remember the name of the article they last read.

Male respondents have better memory in recalling the name of the last religious content they have read. It reaches its peak among those above 40 years (58%). This shows that elders seem to think or ponder over, more of what they have read.

The study also established that housewives have the best memory with as many as 82.35% of them remembering the title of the articles they have last read. Teachers and those in IT sector least cared to remember with only 25% who can recall the names of the materials they have read.

Yet, on the overall analysis, respondents with the best memory are found among members of the Evangelical Free Church of India (51.06%), followed closely by Independent Church of India (48.28%). Reform Presbyterian Church respondents are more likely to forget the name of the last article they have read with as many as 90% of the respondent who could not recall them.

Degree of influence of religious journals

It is registered that religious journals have more influence on the elderly. Though smaller in percentage, yet noticeable is that there are 21.88% who supposed that the youth are more influenced.

Another striking revelation is that only 0.52% of the respondent concludes that religious journals influence children the most. Irrespective of gender, age, occupation and denomination to which a person belongs they all agreed that it is the elderly group who have been most affected by religious journals.

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Power of religious journals in conversion process

It is noticed that three-fourth of the respondents considered religious journals as something that can strengthen earlier beliefs of the people more than converting them to Christianity.

Whether religious writers distort Biblical facts

Interestingly, readers’ faith in religious writers is re-affirmed; but with new challenge for them as well. Though majority of readers (67.19%) of religious journals do not believe that writers distort or use biblical verses to suit their personal beliefs, a good section has emerged among the respondents (28.64%) who held that writers in religious journals interpret or distort certain verses to suit their beliefs and cover up their misdeeds. This shows that more people are beginning to ascertain their own beliefs and views which is definitely a matter of concern for religious writers in particular and religious leaders in general.

Whether religious journals contribute to Inter-denominational clash or exclusivity

Another accolade for the church is that a large majority of the respondents (63.02%) do not think that religious journals promote denominational clash or exclusiveness. On the other hand 36.98% of the respondents felt that religious journals contribute to inter-denominational clash and exclusiveness.

Both sexes have almost equal percentage of respondents who believed that religious journals promote clash between church denominations and those who think otherwise. Youth (below 25 years) are more critical of religious journals when compared to the elders. This is a clear reflection of the on-going debate over the question whether a united single church for the Hmars will solve their socioreligious problems.

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It is also seen that the housewives (94.12%) are fully supportive of the journals. They do not believe religious journals give rise to clash between churches. Housewives are closely trailed by Mission Workers (86.67%). students (64.58%), farmers (63.89%), private/business (45.45%) and finally government employee (37.50). On the other end are the government employees who are more open to scrutinising the ill effects of religious journals vis-à-vis between various churches.

The study also exonerates the current confusion created in the Hmar society over the role of the churches. Since majority of the respondents from all churches disagree with the theory that religious journals promote clashes one can safely conclude that the church is not wholly responsible for the present socio-religious rivalry.

One can also conclude that uniting all churches is not a solution to the problem. Statistics in the study shows that the Hmars are not fully prepared to come under one umbrella as far as religion is concerned.

Perception on what religious journals can do

The study also depicts that majority of the respondents (60.21%) believe that by reading religious journal they will be able to lead a good life. A good number (37.70%) of them believes that reading religious journals will help them increase their divine knowledge. Another 19.9% assumed that they will be better informed. A small section (3.66%) believes they can go to heaven if they read religious journal.

It is also ascertained that irrespective of sex, age, occupation and church denomination most of them had absolute faith on the role religious journals can play in their lives. It is also interesting to find that there are some 3.66 per cent who believed they can go to heaven if they read religious journals. The statistics in the study has shows that most of these belong to below Class X or those having no access to education. It can be said that education is directly related to a person’s divine perception.
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The study shows that farmers have maximum faith in religious journals as far as leading a good life. Housewives would seek divine knowledge from it while private workers or business believes they will be more informed. Thus, religious journals have to serve not only the spiritually thirsty being but others as well.

Is religious journal necessary?

Majority of the respondents irrespective of sex, age, occupation, monthly income, and church denomination felt that religious journal is a necessity and as such its publication must continue. Only a handful (3.45%) contends that religious journals are not necessary. A good number of respondents (12.64%), more than those who say no to religious journal, cannot decide on the issue. It is also seen that elders are much keener to get religious journals published. Statistics here shows that as many as 84% of respondents in the age group of above 40 years wanted continuation of religious journals. They are followed by 26-40 years group with 78.48% and finally by those below 25 years with 74.6%. A distinguishing trait witnessed among Mission workers was that they

overwhelmingly wanted continuation of religious journals.

Interestingly, it is discovered that the need for religious journals was felt most by respondents (90%) belonging to smaller churches who do not have their own publication or journals. The smaller churches include the Salvation Army, Pentecostals and Methodists.

Whether religious journals imposed restrictions on the society

While majority of the respondents (49.48%) thinks that religious journals placed reasonable restriction on society an equally huge percentage of respondents (40.10%) felt that religious journals place no restriction on the society. On the other hand 10.42% of the total respondents consider that religious journals imposed undue restriction on the Hmar society.
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The study also revealed that there are more female than male who think that religious journal place undue restriction on the society. This development maybe the result of some writings that have appeared in some of the journals suggesting guidelines of what is ‘good sense’ on dress and other ‘anti-women’ issues. It can be safely inferred from the study that as the age of the respondents increases, lesser the number of respondents who would say that religious journals place undue restriction and it placed reasonable restriction on their society. On the other hand, as age of the respondents increase there will be more number of respondents who will begin to think that religious journals place no restriction on the society.

Whether the Hmar tribe conversion to Christianity was through religious journals

The study indicates that the Hmars conversion to religion was not due to the propagation through religious journals. Though, majority of them cannot decide on the issue, a good number of them believe that religious journals helped in strengthening the foundation of their belief. Few who believe that it was responsible for conversion were from the male population belonging to the elder section of the society.

It is also seen that majority of Mission workers themselves did not believe that the Hmar tribe’s conversion was due to religious journals but it has helped them in strengthening their ministry.

Quality of contents

The study also clearly outlines that majority of the respondents are of the view that the contents of religious journals needs to be improved. Even among those who feel that contents are satisfactory, a need for more improvement is felt. Considering the price at which they are sold most must have reasoned it out the economic constraints of bringing out journals. However, the need for improvement is clearly
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reflected in all age groups especially among government employees and others (Teacher, IT). Expectation of the respondents grows with increase in income level. Farmers are most satisfied with the quality of the contents with a sounding majority of the respondents (61.11%) who says content of religious journals are good enough.

Whether members of one church read journals of another church

Perhaps the most interesting finding of the study is that an overwhelming majority (76.56%) of the respondents read journals of other churches besides reading their own. At a time when an atmosphere of intense competition or rivalry is projected this result clearly shows that the people are more liberal than they appear to be as opined by some analysts. Irrespective of sex, age, education, and denomination it is observed that cent per cent of government employees read religious journals of other church. The denominational study of the readers shows that both the respondents of Assembly of God and Others (Salvation Army, Methodists, and Pentecostals) achieved cent per cent readership in reading other church journals. On the other hand 40% of the respondents from Reform Presbyterian Church do not read journals of other churches followed by 34% respondents of Independent Church of India and Evangelical Free Church of India with 27.66%.

It can be concluded that irrespective of the Church to which they belong the majority of the Hmar tribe are likely to read journals of other church as they have little inhibitions. This development may have been due to similar doctrines that most churches followed.

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The most widely read religious journals

The study has shown that, Kristien is the most widely read religious journals in the overall readership category. However, it is found that among those who read journals of other churches, Khawnvar is the most read (51.7%) followed by Kristien (48.97%), Thuhriltu (38.77%) and others. Thalai Kantu is the least read by other denomination with only 29.25% of the total respondents having declared that they have read it.

An Overview
The overall generalisation of the data derived from the study shows that religious journals are here to stay in the Hmar society. It has molded and re-molded their outlook towards their socio-religious and other aspect of their life. With majority of them having read and spending considerable time on reading religious journals it is expected that religious journals over a period of time will focus their attention to other issues which maybe more secular in outlook.

The scope for religious journals is promising as all section of the society is reading them for several purposes. Whether this challenge can be fulfilled by religious journals is a big question time can only answer.

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Suggestions
The respondents of the questionnaires have given some valuable suggestions which are mentioned as follows:
1. Religious journals should have more pictures and photos. 2. They should strive to promote ecumenical views. 3. There is need for one common journal for all Hmar churches. This will bring

cooperation and better understanding of other churches.
4. A special section for youth and children should be incorporated in the journals.

Most of the youth and children have nothing to read in these journals. Efforts should be made to attract readers especially the youth and children.
5. Since most farmers lived in villages and with no other newspapers around,

religious journals should have more news of the world and other current affairs.
6. Every journal should have regular features for women. There should be more of

women writers.
7. There should be more sermons. 8. Editorials should be short and simple but powerful. 9. Add regular features like Bible quiz, puzzles, crosswords, etc. 10. Reconstitute the Evangelical Editors Association. 11. There should be features and articles designed for the farming community. 12. Physical health is as important as spiritual health. It would be beneficial if

religious journals carry medical/ health tips and news.

Along with these suggestions other propositions which the researcher feels important are mentioned as follows:
1. Make religious journals more secular by featuring items from all aspects of life. In this way religious journals will become closer- much more- to the people than they were before. 2. Writing style of religious content needs to be changed. Instead of telling stories writers must try to relate the practical side of their writing. There is no proper reporting style. A need for consistency is needed in this regard.
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3. Regular team or separate department should be formed by the churches that bring out journals. The present system under which the head of the churches or important officials within the high level taking charge is not desirable. They are overburdened with many other works and as a result full concentrated efforts could not be given to bring out the best journals they may have in mind. Religious write-ups need careful and humane touch and on many occasion this is lacking due to heavy work load of those who are responsible for bringing out these journals. 4. Need for professionals. The common feature of all Hmar journals is that they are looked after by people who have no professional training. This does not mean that they have failed, but they have faltered too much between trail and error. 5. There is need to include stories of other churches. There are only few which follow this. This can help the people understand each other in the long run as it will inform them of what is happening in other churches. It may also encourage healthy competition. Religion is an important aspect of life on earth. History has shown us that it directs the human behaviour. It connects man with the divine. It converts inhumane to humane. It is therefore, essential that the tools that are employed for transmitting the message of religion need to be handled with care and caution. It is, therefore, right to say that religious journals needs more professional and dedicated touch even more than the general newspapers or magazine as they affect the most sensitive part of man- the heart and the soul.

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References:
1. Frey R, Lawrence; Botan, Carl H; Friedman, Paul G. and Kreps, Gary L: Investigating Communication- An Introduction to Research Methods ( Prentice Hall, New Jersey,1991) 2. Krishnamurthy, Nadig: Indian Journalism (University of Mysore, Mysore, 1966) 3. Partharasarathy, Rangaswami: Journalism in India- From The Earliest Times to the Present Day (Sterling Publishers, Fourth Revised ,New Delhi, 1997) 4. Hirsch, Paul M; Miller, Peter V.& Kline, F. Gerald: Strategies for Communication Research (Sage Publications, London, 1977) 5. Gangte, Gin: Press in Manipur: An Overview, www.e-pao.net 6. Sinate, Rev Lalthankhum: Kohran Hring (The Partnership Publications, Shillong,2001) 7. Independent Church of India Diamond Jubilee Souvenir: Pathien Thuoina Mak (ICI Press, Sielmat,1985) 8. Independent Church of India Youth Silver Jubilee Souvenir: Souvenir (ICI Central Kristien Thalai Pawl, Churachandpur 2006) 9. B. Chonzik, Paul.: “ Ethnic Divergence- Mizo or Hmar”, Hmar Arasi- Hmar Students’ Association Souvenir 2005 ( Hmar Students’ Association, Shilong, 2005) 10. Joute, Joseph: “Impact of Christianity upon the Hmars- With special reference to cultural modernization”, Churachandpur, 2005) 11. Pudaite, Rochunga. The Education of The Hmar People (IBPM, Sielmat, 1963) 12. Independent Church of India (Manipur South Christian Diamond Jubilee Souvenir): The Amazing Guidance of God ( ICI Publications: Churachandpur, 1985) 13. Keivom, L: Hmar Hla Suina (L&R Printing Press, Churachandpur, 1980) 14. Manmasi Year Book 2005, (Ed.) Timothy Z. Zote (The Manmasi Year Book Pvt. Ldt., Churachandpur, 2005) 15. Chatterjee, Suhas (Dr.). Mizoram Encyclopaedia, Vol. 2 (Jaico Publishing House, Bombay,1990) 16. Dena, Lal: Hmar Folk Tales (Scholar Publishing House, Imphal, 1995) 17. Grierson, G.A.: Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. III, Part 3 (Calcutta, 1904) Reprinted in 1967 by Motila Banarsidass 18. Census 2001, Government of India. 19. Songate, Hranglien: Hmar Chanchin : Hmar History (Mao Press, Pherzawl, 1956) 20. Panchani, C.S : Manipur-Religion, Culture and Society ( Konark Publishers Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, 1987) 21. Dr. Thanglung and Sela, H.L : Revised Edition, Rengkai, 1998) Buhmasa (Hmar Primer), (EAC Press, Fifteen Sikpuiruoi Souvenir 2005 (Sikpui Ruoi Committte,

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Annexure
(QUESTIONAIRE) QUESTIONA

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DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION AND JORNALISM MANGALORE UNIVERSITY Dear Friend, As a part of my Post Graduate Degree in Mass Communication and Journalism from Mangalore University, I am undertaking a dissertation/research project titled: A Study of
the Impact of Religious Journals on the Hmar Tribe in Manipur.

I request your kind cooperation to give your free and frank opinion and suggestions to the questions that I have prepared. I assure you that the valuable information you give is only for research purpose and your personal information will be strictly kept confidential. Thank you, Yours sincerely,
Robert L. Sungte Dept of Mass Communication& Journalism Mangalore University Mangalore, KARNATAKA

PART-A 1. Sex: Male 2. Age: Below 25 years 26- 40 years Above 40 years 3. Education: Below HSLC 4. Occupation: Student Housewives Mission Worker Government Service Private/ Business Any Other (Specify)........................................................................................ Undergraduate Graduate Post Graduate Female

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5. Monthly Income: Below Rs. 5000 5001- 10000 10001 or more 6. Church Denomination: Assembly of God Evangelical Assembly Church Evangelical Free Church of India Independent Church of India Any other.............................................................................................................. PART- B 1. How much time do you devote to reading journals everyday? Less than 30 minutes 30- 60 minutes 1-2 hours 3 hours or more 2. How often do you read religious journals? Regularly Occasionally Rarely 3. Do you subscribe/ buy religious journals? Yes No

4. If NO, do you borrow from(only for those who do not subscribe)… Library Relatives and friends Neighbours Any other (Specify)............................................................................................ 5. Write the names of Hmar religious journals you have read a)................................................................. b).................................................................. c).................................................................. d).................................................................. e) Any other..................................................................................................................... 6. Why do you buy/ subscribe religious journals? (Only for subscribers) Church leaders’ pressure Everyone buys one Its price is low To know more about god Any other.........................................................................................................................

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7. Do you enjoy reading religious journals? No Yes

8. You enjoy reading religious journals because… (Only for those whose response is YES) It is interesting It is Informative To know more about God Any other ( Specify) ......................................................................................................

9. What appeals you most in these (Hmar religious) journals? Messages/ Sermons Pictures/ Photos Editorial Question and Answers column News of Christians around the World Any other........................................................................................................................... 10. How do you rate the effectiveness of Religious journals in promoting peace within the Community? Very effective Makes no impact at all Partially successful Could have done more 11. After reading religious journal what do you do? Try to practice what is written Feel relieved Do nothing Any Others (Specify)..................................................................................................... 12. If a journal suggest that you attend a church service to be good Christian you: Will attend Will not attend Any other (Specify)............................................................................... 13. Do you believe everything that is written in these religious journals? Yes No Can’t say 14. Do you think today’s youth are: Interested in reading Religious journals Not at all interested in reading Religious journals Read but do not follow Any other (Specify).........................................................................................................

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15. Do you think articles written by pastors and elders are: More authentic Like any other articles Boring and traditional Any other (Specify)......................................................................................................... 16. Can you re-call any article that you have read in any religious journal? Yes No

17. Who in your opinion is more influenced by religious journals? Elderly Youth Children

18. Do you think these religious journals have the following : Converting power Strengthening earlier beliefs None of the above 19. Do you think religious journals are distorting Biblical facts to suit the writers own point of view? Yes No

20. Do you think religious journals create inter denomination clash or exclusiveness within the tribe? Yes No

21. Do you think that by reading religious journal you will: To go to heaven Increase your divine knowledge Lead a good life Any other( Specify) ................................................................................................................. 22. Should religious journals be published? Yes it is must Not necessary Can’t say 23. Do you feel that religious journals impose: Undue restrictions on society Reasonable restriction on society No restriction at all

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24. Do you think the Hmar tribe’s conversion to Christianity was due to propagation through religious journals? Yes No Partially it did strengthen the process Can’t say 25. What do you think of the Hmar religious journals in terms of content? Good enough Lacks in quality Needs improvement

26. Do you read journals of other denomination other than your own church? Yes No

27. Name the journals of those you have read. (Only for those who have read religious journals of other churches) a) b) c) d) ......................................................................................... ......................................................................................... ......................................................................................... ..........................................................................................

28. Please give your suggestions or opinion about Hmar religious journals. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

THANK YOU

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