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Leandro V.
Pablo S. Antonio Juan F. Nakpil
Jose Maria V.
Ildefonso P. Santos
Lamberto V. Avellana Ishmael Bernal
Manuel Conde Ronald Alan K. Poe
de Leon
Eddie S. Romero
Fernando Amorsolo Benedicto Cabrera
R. Ocampo
Carlos Cesar
Abdulmari Asia Imao
Botong Francisco Legaspi
Guillermo E. Tolentino Arturo Luz Federico Aguilar Alcuaz
J. Elizalde
Napoleon V. Abueva Francisco Coching
Victorio C. Edades Ang Kiukok Jose T. Joya
Vicente Manansala
Edith L. Tiempo Bienvenido Lumbera
N.V.M. Gonzalez Virgilio S. Almario Cirilo F. Bautista
Nick Joaquin Amado V. Hernandez Lazaro Francisco
F. Sionil Jose Carlos P. Romulo Jose Garcia Villa
Alejandro Roces Rolando S. Tinio Levi Celerio
Ramon Valera
Salvador F. Bernal
Francisca Reyes Aquino Ramon Obusan Alice Reyes
Leonor Orosa Goquingco Lucrecia Reyes-Urtula
Carlos Qirino
Antonino Buenaventura Jose Maceda Lucrecia R. Kasilag
Ernani J. Cuenco Lucio San Pedro Antonio J. Molina
Francisco Feliciano Levi Celerio Ramon P. Santos
Jovita Fuentes Felipe Padilla de Leon Andrea Veneracion
Honorata Atang dela
Daisy Avellana Rolando S. Tinio Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero
Honorata Atang dela Rama Salvador F. Bernal Severino Montano
Lamberto V. Avellana

Example of quantitative consumer research: survey

Quantitative social research typically uses surveys and questionnaires to obtain information that will
help to understand the needs of individuals about certain topics. Surveys are used to collect quantitative
information about items in a population. Surveys of human populations and institutions are common in
social science and marketing research. A survey may focus on opinions or be based on information facts
depending on its purpose.

When the questions are administered by a researcher, the survey is called a structured interview and
when the questions are administered by the respondent, the survey is referred to as a questionnaire.


Questionnaires are frequently used in research and social research in general. They are a valuable
method of collecting a wide range of information from a large number of respondents.

Types of questions that can be included in a questionnaire

Contingency questions Closed ended questions

Matrix questions Open ended questions
Scaled questions

As mentioned before, there are observational and experimental techniques. A questionnaire can be
used in both techniques. It is a good method for experimentation, since the information included in the
questions can be modified to check how respondents react to these modifications.
Earthquake Hazards
The type of hazard depends on the strength of seismic activity, along with such factors as local
topographic and built features, subsurface geology and groundwater. A large earthquake will always be
followed by a sequence of aftershocks.

Ground shaking: Ground shaking is both a hazard created by earthquakes and the trigger for other
hazards such as liquefaction and landslides. Ground shaking describes the vibration of the ground during
an earthquake. Most earthquake damage results from the shaking caused by seismic waves passing
beneath buildings, roads, and other structures. For example, ground shaking may cause a stores exterior
building walls to crumble, injuring people, blocking sidewalks and streets and bringing down utility lines.

Landslides: Earthquakes can trigger landslides, especially in areas with water-saturated soils, a common
characteristic of Cascadia. Landslides may result in falling rocks and debris that collide with people,
buildings and vehicles. They also can block roads and disrupt utility lines.

Liquefaction: Liquefaction describes the way in which soil liquefies during ground shaking. Liquefaction
can undermine the foundations and supports of buildings, bridges, pipelines, and roads, causing them to
sink into the ground, collapse or dissolve. Learn more about liquifacation.

Tsunami: Inland earthquakes, such as the 2001 Nisqually earthquake, will not result in tsunamis because
they do not uplift the seafloor. However, an offshore subduction zone earthquake or an earthquake
generated somewhere else around the Pacific Ocean will generate a tsunami, which is actually a series of
waves. In some cases, waves may be up to 33 feet (10 meters) high, flooding everything in their path.
Tsunamis can injure or kill many people and cause significant damage to buildings and other structures.
People can escape tsunamis by moving to higher ground or far inland after ground shaking stops.

Ground Rupture
Ground rupture is another important effect of earthquakes which occurs when the earthquake
movement along a fault actually breaks the Earth's surface. While active ground rupture is
comparatively rare, there have been cases of it in California -- for example, during the 1906 earthquake,
fences near Pt. Reyes were offset by as much as 7 meters. And in the Owens Valley earthquake in 1872,
a fault scarp as much as 8 meters high broke the ground near Lone Pine. Rupture causes problems for
humans by, well, rupturing things; pipelines, tunnels, aqueducts, railway lines, roads, and airport
runways which cross an area of active rupture can easily be destroyed or severely damaged.

Subsidence and Lateral Spreading

Subsidence, or lowering of the ground surface, often occurs during earthquakes.
This may be due to downward vertical displacement on one side of a fault, and can sometimes affect a
huge area of land. Coastal areas can become permanently flooded as a result.
Subsidence can also occur as ground shaking causes loose sediments to settle and to lose their load
bearing strength or to slump down sloping ground).
Lateral spreading occurs where sloping ground starts to move downhill, causing cracks to open up, that
are often seen along hill crests and river banks.
Ang Rehiyon 10 ay binubuo ng anim na lalawigan, at kabilang dito ang sumusunod:

Misamis Occidental
Misamis Oriental
Lanao del Norte
Lungsod Iligan