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The 6th ISUZU WORLD TECHNICAL COMPETITION


I-1 Grand Prix

Written competition exam sheet

Explanations (English)

Summary of Written Competition


There are 25 questions in 60 minutes.
All answers should be written on the answer sheet written in your native language.
Write down your name and seat number (A or B) on the written competition exam sheet
and the answer sheet.

Each question has four answer choices. Choose the answer that you think is most

correct and write a or next to that number on the answer sheet.

During the written competition, verbal communication between contestants, and

between contestants and the team coach, is prohibited.

When a contestant wishes to make communication with the team coach or any

question, the contestant shall raise his/ her right hand.

Start the competition after the announcement for starting the competition is given by

the judge.

An announcement will be given 5 minutes before the end of competition.

When the judge announces the end of the exam, put everything down on the table, and

turn the exam sheet over.


Q-1. Choose the appropriate description related to the piston and piston pin.
1. The diameter of the upper portion of the piston is larger than the bottom portion (skirt).
2. The piston pin is made from special steel and is applied with a surface hardening treatment.
3. A strut type piston has the strut cast to the skirt.
4. The piston pin is fixed by a snap-ring and cannot freely rotate.

Correct answer: 2
Explanation:
1. The upper portion of the piston has a smaller diameter because expansion due to heat is larger in the
upper portion of the piston.
2. The piston pin is made from special steel and is applied with a surface hardening treatment such as
carburising.
3. The strut type piston has an iron plate strut cast in the piston pin boss areas to limit thermal expansion
in these areas.
4. Snap rings are attached on both sides so that the piston pins cannot come out.

Q-2. Choose the inappropriate description related to the piston rings of a four-stroke cycle engine.
1. A plain piston ring is used as the compression ring.
2. An undercut piston ring is used as the compression ring.
3. A barrel faced piston ring is used as the oil ring.
4. A combination type (with spacer-expander) is used as the oil ring.

Correct answer: 3
Explanation:
1. A plain piston ring has the simplest geometry used as a compression ring for being more air tight and
providing superior thermal conductivity.
2. An undercut piston ring is used as a compression ring for effectively scraping down oil while preventing
oil consumption through the piston ring.
3. A barrel faced piston ring with a cylindrical sliding surface is used as a compression ring for superior
initial break-in.
4. An expander is attached inside the oil ring to prevent oil consumption through the piston ring by
increasing the pressure applied to the cylinder walls.

Q-3. Choose the inappropriate description related to the exhaust gas of a diesel engine.
1. PM (particle matter) is a composite that has a principle component of black smoke.
2. A three-way catalyst is used to reduce PM.
3. The primary harmful chemical in blow-by gas is HC (carbon hydride).
4. When the temperature of the combustion gas is high, N (nitrogen) reacts with O (oxygen) and
generates NOX (nitrogen oxide).
Correct answer: 2
Explanation: The methods to reduce PM are to reduce the sulphur in the diesel fuel, improve combustion, or
an after-treatment device.

Q-4. Choose the appropriate combination for (a) and (b) in the following sentence related to diesel knocks.
Generally, diesel knocks occur easily when injection timing is (a) or when the compression pressure is
(b).
(a) (b)
1. too early high
2. too early low
3. too late high
4. too late low

Correct answer: 2
Explanation: Generally, diesel knocks occur easily when the combustion is too early or when the
compressive pressure is low.

Q-5. Choose the appropriate combination of (a) and (b) in the following sentence related to the fuel
temperature sensor of an electronically controlled fuel injection pump.
Since engine output varies with the relative density of fuel, the control unit uses the signal from the
fuel temperature sensor for adjusting the amount of fuel injection. This is because when the
temperature of the fuel is high, its relative density is (a), and therefore the amount of fuel injection
should be proportionally (b).
(a) (b)
1. low increased
2. low decreased
3. high increased
4. high decreased

Correct answer: 1
Explanation: Since engine output varies with the relative density of fuel, the control unit uses the signal from
the fuel temperature sensor for adjusting the amount of fuel injection. This is because when the temperature
of the fuel is high, its relative density is low, and therefore the amount of fuel injection should be
proportionally increased.

Q-6. Choose the appropriate description related to full flow pressure circulation type lubrication system.
1. The oil in the oil pan is fed to each lubrication area by being filtered through the oil filter element,
and then taken into the oil pump.
2. The oil pressure switch generally informs the driver whether the oil pressure from the oil strainer
to the oil pump had reached the specified value.
3. The filter paper geometry of the oil filter element is pleated to increase the filtering area.
4. The bypass valve of the oil filter opens when the pressure on the outlet side of the element
becomes below the specified value.

Correct answer: 3
Explanation:
1. All of the oil in the oil pan is fed by pressure produced by the oil pump to the oil filter element and then
to each lubrication area.
2. The oil pressure switch is usually attached to the oil gallery to detect the oil pressure to each
lubrication area after the oil filter and onward.
4. If the difference in pressure exceeds the specified value at the inlet and outlet when the oil filter
element is clogged, the bypass valve opens and the oil is fed directly to the lubrication areas through
the bypass valve without passing through the element.

Q-7. Choose the appropriate description related to the radiator cap indicated in the illustration below.
1. A is the pressure valve.
2. B is the vacuum valve. B A
3. A opens if the pressure in the cooling system is higher than
the specified value.
4. A opens if there is negative pressure in the cooling system.

Correct answer: 4
Explanation: A is the vacuum valve and B is the pressure valve. The pressure valve and the vacuum valve
are both closed when the pressure is in the specified range in the cooling system and it remains
airtight. The pressure valve opens when the pressure is stronger than the valve spring due to higher
cooling water temperatures to adjust the pressure in the cooling system. The vacuum valve opens
when there is negative pressure in the cooling system due to cold cooling water to intake cooling
water from the sub tank.

Q-8. Choose the appropriate description related to the thermostat.


1. The thermostat of cooling system stops circulation of the coolant inside the water jacket during
warm-up, and slows down the warming-up of the engine.
2. The thermostat functions to open and close the water passage to the radiator according to the
temperature of the coolant.
3. A wax-pellet type thermostat is structured so that its valve opens using the wax inside the pellet
that shrinks due to the increase of coolant temperature.
4. When the wax inside the pellet of a wax-pellet type thermostat leaks, the valve remains open.

Correct answer: 2
Explanation:
1. The thermostat of cooling system closes the valve when cold, and thus, since the coolant does not flow
to the radiator and circulates inside the water jacket in the engine, engine warm-up is quickened.
2. When the coolant temperature is low, the thermostats valve closes and when the coolant temperature
rises, the thermostats valve opens to change the flow of the coolant in order to maintain the coolant
temperature at a constant level.
3. When the coolant temperature rises, the wax-pellet type thermostat opens the valve by the volume
increase effect of the wax inside the pellet due to thermal expansion.
4. When the wax inside the pellet of a wax-pellet type thermostat leaks, the valve does not open.

Q-9. Choose the appropriate description relating to turbo charger.


1. A full floating bearing rotates at a circumferential speed two times faster than the shaft.
2. Due to the turbine wheel being turned by exhaust gas, the compressor wheel opposite on the same
shaft rotates and supplies compressed air into the cylinder.
3. The intercooler improves the charging efficiency by cooling the intake air before it is compressed
in the turbo charger, thereby increasing the air density.
4. The waste gate valve opens and the portion of the exhaust gas bypasses the inlet system if the
supercharging pressure exceeds the specified value.

Correct answer: 2
Explanation:
1. The full floating bearing between the housing and shaft that floats in oil improves durability because the
vibrations during high speed rotation caused by the smallest unbalance in the shaft are absorbed and
the cylindrical speed of the bearing becomes approximately half.
3. The intercooler improves the charging efficiency by cooling the intake air after it is compressed in the
turbo charger, thereby increasing the air density.
4. The rotation of the turbine and compressor wheel decreases because the waste gate valve opens and a
portion of the exhaust gas bypasses the turbine wheel and is discharged if the supercharging pressure
exceeds the specified value.

Q-10. Choose the inappropriate description as a way to use measuring tools.


1. A straight edge is used to measure the flatness of a cylinder head.
2. A cylinder gauge is used to measure the inner diameter of a cylinder.
3. A dial gauge is used to measure the outer diameter of a piston.
4. A plastic gauge is used to measure the oil clearance between the pin of the crankshaft and the
connecting rod bearing.
Correct answer: 3
Explanation: A micrometer is used to measure the outer diameter of a piston.

Q-11. Choose the appropriate description for the closing force of the main contact when the starter switch
is ON for the magnetic switch of a starter motor.
1. Magnetic force of the pull-in coil and holding coil
2. Magnetic force of only the holding coil
3. Magnetic force of the armature coil
4. Magnetic force of the field coil

Correct answer: 1
Explanation: If the starter switch is ON, the current from the battery flows through the pull-in coil to the
field coil and armature coil simultaneously with the holding coil. The main contact of the plunger is pulled to
the closing direction by the combined magnetic force of the pull-in coil and holding coil.

Q-12. Choose the appropriate combination of (a), (b), and (c) in the following sentence related to the
alternator indicated in the illustration.
When an engine starts, voltage is produced in (a), the rotation speed of the alternator increases, and
an excitation current flows in (b). At this time, the charge indicator goes out because there is no
electric potential for both ends of D1 due to the L terminal voltage and output voltage from (c).
Alternator Charge indicator

Key
switch

Battery

IC voltage regulator

(a) (b) (c)


1. Stator coil Rotor coil B terminal
2. Rotor coil Stator coil B terminal
3. Stator coil Rotor coil R terminal
4. Rotor coil Stator coil R terminal
Correct answer: 1
Explanation: When an engine starts, voltage is produced in stator coil, the rotation speed of the alternator
increases, and an excitation current flows in rotor coil. At this time, the charge indicator goes out because
there is no electric potential for both ends of D1 due to the L terminal voltage and output voltage from the
B terminal.

Q-13. Choose the inappropriate cause of a faulty disengagement of the clutch.


1. Fluctuating clutch disk
2. Wear of the clutch facing
3. Irregular height of the diaphragm spring
4. Air mixed in the clutch fluid

Correct answer: 2
Explanation: Wear of the clutch facing causes the clutch to slip.

Q-14. Choose the inappropriate description for the cause of gearshift difficulty while driving a manual
transmission vehicle.
1. Excessive play of the clutch pedal
2. Wear or damage of synchroniser parts
3. Improper adjustment related to the gear control cable
4. Wear of the clutch spline

Correct answer: 4
Explanation: Wear of the clutch spline causes abnormal noise.

Q-15. Choose the appropriate description for the drive wheel speed when driving under the following
conditions using the final gear indicated in the illustration. The numbers in the illustration show the
number of teeth for each gear.
Engine speed: 2400 RPM
Transmission: 3rd gear
3rd gear ratio of the transmission: 1.8
1. 100 RPM
2. 200 RPM
3. 300 RPM
4. 540 RPM

Correct answer: 3
Explanation: Drive wheel speed = Engine speed / Transmission gear ratio * final reduction ratio
= 2400 RPM / 1.8 * (40 / 9)
= 2400 RPM / 8
= 300 RPM
Q-16. Choose the appropriate description related to the characteristics of a full floating type rear axle.
1. Used widely in passenger vehicles.
2. Can only support a lighter weight compared to a half floating type rear axle.
3. The axle shaft can be removed without removing the wheels.
4. The axle shaft supports the load while transferring power to the wheels.

Correct answer: 3
Explanation:
1. Full floating type rear axles are widely used in trucks.
2. Full floating type rear axles can support a large amount of weight because of its structure.
3. The rear axle only transmits power and can be removed regardless of the wheels.
4. A half floating type rear axle supports the load while transferring power to the wheels.

Q-17. Choose the inappropriate description related to a ball & nut type steering gear mechanism.
1. The ball nut moves in the axis direction on the worm shaft.
2. A steel ball is used for the contact surface between the worm shaft and ball nut.
3. The sector gear is engaged directly to the worm shaft.
4. A steel ball revolves in the notch of the ball nut through the ball tube.

Correct answer: 3
Explanation: The sector gear rotates via the worm shaft to the ball nut.

Q-18. Choose the appropriate description for the cause of dragging in the drum brake
1. Decreased elasticity in the piston cup of the wheel cylinder
2. Weakening of the shoe return spring
3. Wear of the brake lining
4. Wear of the wheel cylinder

Correct answer: 2
Explanation: Weakening of the shoe return spring causes dragging.

Q-19. Choose the appropriate description for the pushing force of the push rod to the piston of the master
cylinder when the hydraulic brake pedal indicated in the illustration is pressed 70 N in the direction of the
arrow. However, the force of the spring of the return spring should not be put into consideration.
1. 210 N Fulcrum
2. 350 N
3. 420 N
4. 2100 N

Correct answer: 2
Explanation: Calculation of lever ratio Pb/Pa=a/b
Pb / 70 N = 30 cm / 6 cm
Pb = 30 cm / 6 cm * 70 N
Pb = 350 N

Q-20. Choose the appropriate description related to LSPV (load sensing proportioning valve) of hydraulic
brakes.
1. Controls the hydraulics of the front brake system.
2. Controls the hydraulics of the rear brake system.
3. Controls the front and rear brake system simultaneously.
4. Controls the front brake system at high speeds and the rear brake system at low speeds.

Correct answer: 2
Explanation: LSPV controls the braking force of the rear brakes based on the cargo weight.

Q-21. Choose the appropriate description for the operation of the ABS circuit indicated in the illustration.

Master
cylinder

Pump
Hold solenoid valve
Hydraulic unit
Control
unit

Release solenoid valve

Reservoir Hydraulic circuit


Signal

Wheel cylinder Wheel speed sensor


Hold solenoid valve Release solenoid valve State of hydraulic pressure
1. Energized Energized Pressure isolation
2. Energized De-energized Pressure isolation
3. Energized Energized Pressure reduction
4. Energized De-energized Pressure reduction
Correct answer: 3
Explanation: The hydraulic pressure applied to the wheel cylinder flows to the reservoir by energizing both
the hold solenoid valve and release solenoid valve and by returning pressure drawn form the pump
to the master cylinder.

Q-22. 2 light bulbs of 24V-24W are connected to a 24 V battery in the circuit indicated in the illustration.
Choose the appropriate description related to the power of this circuit and the value indicated by the
current meter.
Power Circuit
1. 24W 1A
2. 24W 2A
3. 48W 1A
4. 48W 2A

Correct answer: 4
Explanation: Power (W) = Voltage (V) Current A, therefore, A = W / V = 24 / 24 = 1
Because the 2 light bulbs are connected in parallel, Resultant current = 1A + 1A = 2A
24 (V) 2(A) = 48W

Q-23. Choose the appropriate description related to the voltage value input into the control unit when the
temperature sensor has the characteristics indicated in Illustration (1) and the temperature measured
using the circuit in Illustration (2) is 80. However, assume there is no resistance in the wires.

Illustration (1) Illustration (2)


Control unit

Voltage
Signal
Temperature
terminal
constant
sensor circuit (5V)

Resistance Ground Micro


terminal computer

Temperature
1. Approximately 0.83 V
2. Approximately 1.76 V
3. Approximately 4.16 V
4. Approximately 2.00 V

Correct answer: 1
Explanation: Calculation of voltage divider circuit Vout = R2 / (R1 + R2) Vin
Vout = 0.3 k / (1.5 k + 0.3 k) 5 V
= 0.3 k / 1.8 k 5 V
= 0.8333.... V

Q-24. On a vehicle that does not illuminate a check engine light (DTC is not stored) but takes time to start
when the engine is cold, the glow relay is forced to be driven by performing an actuator test using a scan
tool. Choose the appropriate description for the presumed cause based on the measured voltage result
chart of each terminal indicated in the illustration.
Glow relay
2 3

1
Engine control module
Ignition switch

Battery (24V)

Measurement areas Terminal 1and ground Terminal 2 and ground Terminal 3 and ground
Voltage 24V 24V 24V
1. Defective engine control module
2. Defective glow relay on the side of the coil
3. Defective glow relay on the side of the switch
4. Defective glow plug

Correct answer: 4
Explanation: The circuit up until the glow plug and the engine control module are normal and therefore, a
disconnected wire of the glow plug is assumed.

Q-25. Choose the appropriate description for the VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) indicated below.
JAANLR85E87100001
1. A vehicle manufactured in Japan with a 4JJ1 engine and model year of 2007
2. A vehicle manufactured in Japan with a 4JJ1 engine and model year of 2008
3. A vehicle manufactured in Thailand with a 4JJ1 engine and model year of 2007
4. A vehicle manufactured in America with a 4JJ1 engine and model year of 2008

Correct answer: 2
Explanation: This vehicle is a vehicle manufactured in Japan with a 4JJ1 engine and model year of 2008.