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CDB 4612 – FINAL YEAR PROJECT I

TECHNICAL WRITING AND
FORMATTING

Dr. Kiki Adi Kurnia
(Coordinator)
Email: adi.kurnia@utp.edu.my

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LEARNING OUTCOME
By end of this lecture, students should be able to

1 Write extended proposal and interim report
according to the FYP guideline

2 Format the extended proposal and interim report
according to University Rule and Regulation

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DID YOU KNOW?

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DID YOU KNOW?

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PROJECT  Extended Proposal and Interim Report 5 . level of understanding.”  You are challenged to write about highly technical FINAL YEAR subjects but in a way that a beginner—a non-specialist— could understand. for a OBJECTIVE specific purpose.TECHNICAL WRITING DEFINITION Technical writing is the delivery of technical information to readers in a manner that is adapted to their needs.  Its function is to clearly explain the steps to accomplishing a task so anyone can do it. and background.  Technical writing is intended to communicate to a specific audience.

that converts light impulses to nerve impulses. 6 .)  Define the unfamiliar CLARITY  If you must abbreviate. found at the back of the eye. define the term in its first occurrence.TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT. and put abbreviations in parentheses Ex 1: Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution. A COD test can be used to easily quantify the amount of organics in water.  Italicize first occurrence of unfamiliar terms and define them right away Ex 2: Retina is a light-sensitive tissue.

Ex. 7 . 4: The synthesized catalyst has toxicity of 50 mg/L toward microorganism. thus you should give value instead of qualitative measurement. Ex.TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT. 3: The synthesized catalyst has low toxicity.)  State the value CLARITY  Technical report relates to the number.

6: The fluctuating salinity in Pangkor beach concerns many environmentalists. residents. 8 . 5: The relationship between the nature of salt water to fresh water in the Pangkor beach that fluctuates often is extremely important to everyone including scientists. and environmentalists on Pangkor’s area. Ex.)  Use the word efficiently Brevity  Never use two words when one word will do. and residents. scientists.TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT. Ex.

Ex. despite making several error in first few attempt. 9 . 7: Despite making several error in first few attempt. 8: The synthesis of catalyst is successful. the synthesis of catalyst is successful.TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT.)  Most Important First Brevity  Place key information in the main clause Ex.

10: Water quality in UTP lake declined in March because heavy rainfalls overloaded UTP’s water treatment plant.TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT. Ex. 10 . This decline occurred because of the heavy rainfall that month.)  Remove redundancy Brevity  Combine overlapping sentences when possible Ex. All the extra water overloaded UTP’s water treatment plant. 9: Water quality in UTP lake declined in March.

12: The average house in the area has a radon level of 0. and levels above 200 picocuries per liter are considered dangerous.4 picocuries per litre. 13: The average house in the area has a radon level of 0. 1987]. Ex.4 picocuries per litre. Ex. 11: The average house in the area has a radon level of 0. Levels between 20 and 200 picocuries per liter are considered high.2 picocuries per litre. the average radon level in outdoor air is about 0. which is considered low by the EPA [Lafavore.TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT. Ex. which is considered low by the EPA [Lafavore. but be careful to balance detail with audience needs for clarity—significance is more important. 1987].4 picocuries per litre. For reference. 11 .)  Use Detail Wisely Simplicity  Specific details are desirable.

but this can come at the expense of readers understanding and their main point Ex. the number of possible C40H82 is over 60 trillion.319 and the number of C40H82 is 62. 14: The number of particular hydrocarbon combinations in our study is enormous. 15: The number of hydrocarbon combinations in our study is enormous.TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT. For example.831. Ex.)  Use Detail Wisely Simplicity  Many engineers want to provide as much specific detail as possible. 12 .491.178.805. For example. the number of possible C20H42 is 366.

TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT. 13 . it was mounted in a silver-plated stainless steel container. the former was mounted in a silver-plated stainless steel container.)  Ambiguity Language  Do not overuse pronouns—particularly “it”and “this”—because it is often difficult to identify the antecedent Ex 16: Because the receiver presented the radiometer with a high-flux environment. Ex 17: Because the receiver presented the radiometer with a high-flux environment.

 Learning and improvement requires self-review. peer-review.TECHNICAL WRITING (CONT.  There are no shortcuts. practice makes perfect! 14 . revising. and practice. it requires planning.) Writing Is A Process  Good writing doesn’t happen overnight. drafting. re-reading. and editing. subject- matter expert feedback.

Extended Proposal and Interim Report 15 .

A well thought proposal would help a student to go through his/her research 16 .

 Objectives of the research  Methodology  Expected output A good proposal should consists of the first three chapters of the thesis It should :-  Begin with a statement of the problem/background information (Chapter 1)  A review of the literature (Chapter 2)  Defining of the research methodology (Chapter 3) 17 .  Rational of the research.PURPOSE OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL To make the examiner to understand :  What you are going to do.

Table 1 Extended Proposal Interim Report Cover Page Yes Yes Abstract Yes Yes Table of Content Not necessary Yes List of Figure Not necessary Yes List of Table Not necessary Yes List of Abbreviation Not necessary Yes Chapter 1: Introduction Yes Yes 1.2 Problem Statement Yes Yes 1.3 Research Objectives Yes Yes 1.4 Scope of Research Yes Yes 18 .CONTENT Table 1 shows the content that should be available for both extended proposal and interim report.1 Background of Study Yes Yes 1.

) Table 1 (Cont.) Extended Proposal Interim Report Chapter 2: Literature Review Yes Yes (minimum 10 (minimum 20 References) References) Chapter 3: Research Methodology Yes Yes (in future tense) Chapter 4: Results and Discussions Not necessary Must have preliminary result Chapter 5: Conclusions and Yes Yes Recommendations References Yes Yes (using ENDNOTE) (using ENDNOTE) Appendices Not necessary Not necessary Number of Page 10 20 19 .CONTENT (CONT.

Conclusion 20 . (Expected) Results 5. The importance of the research (between 2-5 lines) 2.  Write the reference in the abstract. DO Good abstract MUST contain at least 3 of the following 1.ABSTRACT DON’T  Write abstract more than one page. The proposed research 3. Research Methodology 4.

et al. The new method relies on the synergistic properties of negligible vapor pressure and incorporation of cross-linkable functional groups into our TSIL starting materials." Chemistry of Materials 21(20): 4756-4758. J. The structural morphology such as porosity and surface area and adsorption capacity of these porous materials are highly dependent on the structural motif of the corresponding TSIL precursor.5 g of a particular TSIL into an alumina crucible placed within a quartz tube furnace. Source: Lee.ABSTRACT (CONT. (2009). 18: A novel class of anion-exchange polymers based on cation cross-linked ionic liquids (CCLIL) with anion-exchange capabilities has been reported. Anion-exchangeable CCLIL were prepared by introducing 0. "Cation cross-linked ionic liquids as anion-exchange materials. S.. The development of sorbents for these anions is very important for their effective removal from contaminated sites. 21 . Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) results for CCLILs derived at 400 °C reveal a significant retention of anions in the corresponding cross-linked polymers.) Ex.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  Chapter I . 22 . and answers the question. provide the status quo of the relevant work field and identify a gap in knowledge or activities that must be filled to move the field forward. “so what?”  In this section.Introduction addresses why the proposed work is important in the field.

 A very common description of how to perform the project.  A list of prerequisites and key reasons for launch.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (CONT. you need to regard the following information:  Primary focus (what is to be addressed by the project). 23 . How? When you develop a background document for your project initiative.) Background of Project  A Background of Project is a formal document containing a common description of (1) what is expected to be done within the project. and (3) how to produce the expected amount of work. (2) what prerequisites for the project are.  A plain explanation of the desired outcome.

declarative statement of relationships between variables based on previous Statement observations.  Start with a general statement of the problem or issues How?   Make sure the problem is restricted in scope Make sure the context of the problem is clear  Cite the references from which the problem was stated previously. Problem clear. focused.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (CONT.)  A good problem statement is a testable.  Provide justification for the research to be conducted  Motivates to conduct the proposed research  Highlight the problems/demerits of the available techniques 24 .

to study. e.) Research Objectives  Research Objectives SHOULD be the answer for your problem statement..  When writing research objectives.g. Mapping between problem statement and research objectives Problems Statement a b c Objectives 1 Research 2 3 25 . Table 2. measurable terms.  For undergraduate research.  Use bloom taxonomy to help you to create research objectives. to identify.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (CONT. the research objectives SHOULD NOT be more than THREE (3). use active. to characterize vs.

Bloom Taxonomy Chart 26 .RESEARCH OBJECTIVES (CONT.)  Bloom Taxonomy Figure 1.

YOUR RESEARCH GLOBAL RESEARCH 27 .) Scope of Research  Provide the area/scope that will be considered in the proposed research and justification why it is being considered.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (CONT.

Connection between each chapter in the research proposal and interim report 28 .1 Objectives 2 Methodology 2.3 Statement Research Methodology 2.1 Objectives 1 Answer to objectives Methodology 1.2 Figure 2.2 research Problem Methodology 1.) Problem Research Research Conclusion Statement Objectives Methodologies Research Methodology 1.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION (CONT.

It gives overview of What has Key writer Prevailing Question Appropriate been said theories and being asked and useful hypothesis methods and methodologist 29 . It can be  Part of thesis or dissertation.  A useful background outlining a piece of research. forming an early context-setting chapter. which annotates and/or critiques the literature in a particular subject area.LITERATURE REVIEW A literature review is description of the literature relevant to DEFINITION a particular field or topic  A whole paper. or putting forward a hypothesis.

 It is important to establish what is original in your approach (innovative). Selecting Sources  Select literature that is relevant or closely related to the problem and purpose  Emphasize the primary sources  Use secondary sources selectively  Concentrate on scholarly research articles  Discuss your criteria for inclusion of articles 30 .  Discussions of work done by others should therefore lead the reader to a clear impression of how you will be building upon what has already been done and how your work differs from theirs.LITERATURE REVIEW  Literature reviews should be selective and critical. or what is unique about the time and place of the proposed research.  Examiners DO NOT want to read through a voluminous working bibliography. what circumstances have changed since related work was done. they want to know the pertinent works and your evaluation of them.

contrasting the views of particular authors. or raising questions.  A critical assessment of the literature in particular field. stating where the weaknesses and gaps are. A descriptive It may take two forms review should not just list and paraphrase. but should add comment and bring out themes and trends. DO DON’T Look at the relationship Just write a list of between the view and quote authors draw out themes without citing them 31 . so that key themes emerge.LITERATURE REVIEW (CONT.)  Purely descriptive – as in an annotated bibliography. It will evaluate and show relationship.

LITERATURE REVIEW (CONT. body and conclusion.  The introduction defines the framework of the review.  Explicitly show the relevance of each to the problem statement.  Organize the review logically (least to most relevant – evolution of topic –by key variables).  Note for conflicting and inconclusive results.  Adequately criticize the design and methodology of important studies so readers can draw their own conclusions  Compare and contrast studies. the body that evaluates the literature and the conclusion summarizes the current state of knowledge on the problem. not by author.  Discuss major studies/theories individually and minor studies with similar results or limitation as a group.  Organize the review by topics or ideas. 32 .)  The literature should have an introduction.

) THREE STEPS ON DEVELOPING LITERATURE REVIEW Identify Your Title #1 This is starting place from where you Refine by develop literature Searching review (1) What has already been done and (2) #2 what are the issue Refine by surrounding the Narrowing topic #AskGoogle #sciencedirect #ACS #RSC #SCOPUS #3 Be more specific.LITERATURE REVIEW (CONT. Breakdown your project title 33 .

Flow workflow or process.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  A research method is a systematic plan for conducting research. EXPERIMENT or MODELLING DESCRIPTION  A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that illustrates a GANTT project schedule: the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. 34 .  It consists of THREE (3) sub chapters. and their order by connecting them with arrows. showing the steps as boxes of various kinds. CHART  This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem.  A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm. CHART  Gantt chart MUST contain research activity and milestone (Including milestone from FYP coordinator).

) The following is NOT a flowchart! 35 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (CONT.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (CONT. Example of Flowchart 36 . Figure 2.) A graphical representation of a computer program in relation to its sequence of functions (as distinct from the data it processes).

 Must related to the research objectives (see Table 2). Mapping between problem statement and research objectives Research Methodology a b c Objectives 1 Research 2 3 37 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  A research method is a systematic plan for conducting research.  Research methodology is step by step approach to achieve your research objectives. Table 3. One research objectives may be mapped with more than one research methodology / research activity.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (CONT. Overly optimistic notions of what the project can accomplish in one. two. if successful.  A frequent comment made by examiners to FYP student is “the work is too ambitious”. will form a sound basis for further work. or of its effects on the world. or three years. specific sampling plan. 38 . target sample size.  Be realistic in designing the research methodology.)  Highlight the breadth and depth of research  Identify variables  Research design – it would be good to put it into a flow chart  Data collection plan  Give a detailed sampling plan – the target population characteristics. will only detract from the proposal's chances of being approved.  Research plans should be scaled down to a more specific and manageable project that will permit the approach to be evaluated and.

 Provide justification for selection of instruments based on theory. where and by whom the data will be collected  Describe the design of the test will be conducted or statistical test will be selected in this section.  Provide published reliability of instrument and plan to establish reliability 39 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (CONT. etc. research question. etc). how. subject characteristics. Instrument  Describe the instruments will be used to gather data (tests.  Provide reliability and validity information to show techniques are valid for the study.) Procedure  Describe how the study will be conducted  When.  Describe how the variables will be measured. surveys. techniques.

) Table 4.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (CONT. Example of Gantt Chart Week Research Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Literature Review Submission of Extended Proposal Research Activity 1 Research Activity 2 Extended Proposal Defends Research Activity 3 Research Activity 4 Research Activity 5 Completion of Research Objectives 1 Submission of Interim Report 40 .

RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS  Describe your anticipated results based on the literature review and theory based 41 .

CONCLUSIONS  Write your conclusions if your research questions would be supported  Write your tentative conclusions if your research questions would not be supported 42 .

REFERENCES  Write the references to support your extended proposal/research methodology’ approaches. 43 .

What is the benefit of answering your research question? Who will it help (and how)? 44 .TO CLOSE… A strong research idea should pass the “so what” test. Think about the potential impact of the research you are proposing.

Question and Answer 45 .