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PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE

Properties of liquid.

1. Calculate the density, specific weight, dynamic and kinematic viscosity of


carbon dioxide at pressure of 400 kN/m2 absolute and a temperature of 20 C.
Ans. [4.75 kg/m3, 46.66 N/m3, 0.001 N-s/m2, 2.16 m2/s]
2. Calculate the specific weight, density ad specific gravity of a liquid having a
volume of 4 m3 and weighing 29.43 KN. Ans.[7.3573 kN/m3, 0.75 kg/m3 & 0.75]
3. Calculate the specific weight and specific gravity of a liquid whose density is
1098.72 N/m3. Ans. [10778.45 N/m3 & 1.1]

Viscosity.

1. A plate having an area of 1 m2 is dragged down an inclined plane at 45o to the


horizontal with a velocity of 50 cm/s. There is a cushion of fluid of 1 mm
thickness between the plane and plate. If the viscosity of the fluid is 0.1 N-s/m2,
calculate the weight of the plate. Ans.[70.72 N]
2. Find the torque required to overcome the friction in a bearing in which a 5 cm
diameter shaft rotates at 500 rpm. The length of the bearing is 8 cm and the
clearance between the bearing and the shaft is 0.5 mm which is filled with
lubricating oil with viscosity of 0.01 N-s/m2. Ans.[0.0083 N-m]
3. A piston of 6.9 cm diameter rotates concentrically inside a cylinder of 7 cm
diameter. Both the piston and the cylinder are 8 cm long. Find the tangential
velocity of the piston if the space between the piston and cylinder is filled oil of
viscosity 0.235 N-s/m2 and the torque of 1.37 N-m is applied. Ans.[4.88 cm/s]
o o
4. What is the change in the viscosity of water between 10 C and 70 C ? What is the
change in the viscosity of air between 10 oC and 70 oC ? Assume standard
atmospheric pressure P = 101KN/m2 absolute.
Ans. [For water : = -9.06*10-4 N-s/m2, for air : = 0.28*10-5 N-s/m2]
5. Given U = 10*Y1/6, where U is the velocity of water @ 20 oC in m/s and Y is the
distance from the boundary. Determine the shear stress at Y= 2 mm. Ans. [0.296
N/m2]
6. Two horizontal plates are placed at 1.25 cm apart. The space between them is
being filled with oil of viscosity of 1.4 N-s/m2. Calculate the shear stress if the
upper plate moved with velocity of 2.5 m/s. Ans. [280 N/m2]
7. A vertical gap 2.35 cm wide of infinite length contains oil of specific gravity 0.95
and viscosity 2.45 N-s/m2. A metal plate 1.5 m * 1.5 m * 0.15 m weighing 5 Kg is
to be lifted through the gap at constant speed of 0.1 m/s. Estimate the force
required. Ans. [118 N]
2/3
8. If the equation of velocity profile is U = 3*Y (U is in cm/s and Y is in cm), what
is the velocity gradient at 10 cm from the boundary. Ans. [0.9275 s-1]
9. If the velocity distribution over the plate is given by : U = (2/3)*Y Y2 in which U
is the velocity in m/s at a distance Y meters above the plate. Determine the shear
stress at y=0 and 15 m. Take the dynamic viscosity = 0.863 N-s/m2.
Ans. [0.574 N/m2 , 0.316 N/m2]
10. A plate of 2.5*10-5 m distance from the fixed boundary moves at speed of 0.6 m/s
and requires a force of 1.96 N/m2 to maintain this speed. Determine the fluid
viscosity of the substance that fills the space between them. Ans. [8108*10-6 N-s/m2]
11. A piston of 12 cm diameter and 15 cm long moves down in a 12.04 cm diameter
cylinder. The oil filling the gap between them is having viscosity of 8.0*10-2 N-
s/m2 and the weight of the piston is 9.81 N. Find the speed with which it is sliding
down. Ans. [0.433 m/s]

Elasticity.

1. At atmospheric conditions, determine the increase of pressure required to cause


: (i) 1% reduction in the volume of water, (ii) 1% reduction in the volume of air
subjected to adiabatic compression and (iii) 1% reduction in the volume of air
subjected to isothermal compression. Ans. [1.96*107 , 1.42*103 & 1.01*103 N/m2]
2. Calculate the velocity of sound in air (i) @ 20 oC and 101.2 kN/m2, and (ii) 267
o
C and 706 kN/m2. Ans. [343, 465
m/s]

Surface tension and capillary effect.

1. Calculate the maximum capillary rise of water ( @ T = 20 oC) to be expected in a


vertical glass tube of 1 mm diameter. The surface tension @ T = 20 oC is 0.0718
N/m. Ans. [2.932 m]
2. A soap bubble of 5 cm in diameter contains a pressure (in excess of atmosphere) of
20.07 N/m2. Calculate the tension in the soap bubble. Ans. [0.1293 N/m]
3. Calculate the capillary effect in millimeters in a glass tube of 4 mm diameter when
immersed in (I) Water and (II) Mercury. The temperature of the liquid is = 20 oC,
and the value of the surface tension of water and mercury @ T = 20 oC when in
contact with air are 0.073575 N/m and 0.04905 N/m respectively. The contact
angle for water is = 0o and that for mercury = 130o 24. Ans. [7.5 for water, 2.47 mm for
mercury]
4. Determine the absolute pressure and the gauge pressure that would exist within :
(i) A spherical droplet of water of 5 mm diameter, (ii) A jet of water of 5 mm
diameter. The surface tension of water at the prevalent temperature is 0.0.073575
N/m and the barometer reading stands at 750 mm of mercury. Take the specific
gravity of mercury as 13.55 and specific weight of water as 9.8*103 N/m3.
Ans. [99.728 kN/m2, 99.699 kN/m2]
5. Air is introduced through a nozzle into a tank of water to form a stream of bubbles.
If the bubble is intended to have a diameter of 2 mm, calculate by how much the
pressure of the air at the nozzle must exceed that of the surrounding water. Assume
surface tension is 0.071613 N/m. Ans. [143.24 N/m2]