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Y10 Chemistry Lab Report

Name: Katii Tang


Grade: Y10 Hope
Teacher: Mr. Ng

Experiment to investigate the effect of the surface area of calcium carbonate


on the rate of reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid.
Investigation Question -Bi
To what extent does the surface area (i.e. size) of calcium carbonate affect its rate of
reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid?

Background to the Investigation question -Bi


The aim of this experiment is to investigate how the size (i.e. surface area) of Calcium
Carbonate chips affects the rate of reaction with hydrochloric acid.
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) = CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
When Calcium Carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid, the above reaction starts straight
away. The reaction can be monitored as it proceeds by measuring the change in mass of the
reaction flask. The rate of reaction can be calculated by putting Calcium Carbonate of
different surface areas (i.e. powdered form, small marble chips, large marble chips) into a
conical flask with the same amount and concentration of Hydrochloric Acid. As the reaction
begins, effervescence will react in the flask, carbon dioxide is produced, and the mass of the
flask and its contents will decrease as the carbon dioxide gas escapes from the gas. We will
take down the change of mass in regular time intervals (i.e. every 20 seconds).

The amount of product produced can be calculated by deducting the mass at different time
intervals by the original mass of the contents (CaCO2 + HCl). Then, the rate of reaction can
be calculated by using the following formula:
mount of Reactants Used Up
Rate of reaction = A
Time

After comparing the reaction rates of the different surface areas with Calcium Carbonate, it
would be evident how the amount of surface area can affect the reaction rate with solutions.
In previous scientific work, it has been seen that decreasing the particle size (or increasing
the surface area) of a solid reactant will increase the rate of reaction. Understanding the
relationship between the surface area and reaction rate is important; For example, in
industries, dusts such as wheat, sugar, flour, coal and pharmaceuticals can cause terrible
explosions. Fine particles like those have a very high surface area for their volumes. This
can be dangerous if there is plenty of oxygen around each particle, so if there is a spark
(enough activation energy), a massive number of combustion reactions can occur, which can
cause an explosion.

Hypothesis Bii
I predict that the larger the surface area of the calcium carbonate (i.e. the more finely
powdered) it is, the higher the rate of reaction will be. Conversely, the smaller the surface
area of the calcium carbonate (i.e. the larger the marble chip), the lower the rate of reaction
will be.

Explanation of your HypothesisBii


I predict that the larger the surface area of the solid, the quicker the reaction will be.

When a lump of Calcium Carbonate is chopped into smaller pieces or grounded into powder,
there are more surface particles. When there are more surface particles exposed, there will
be more particles for the other reactants to collide into, resulting in a higher chance of an
effective collisions taking place. However, if particles are trapped within the solid itself, they
cannot react with particles of the other reactant.

For example, consider a block of 8 cm x 8 cm x 2 cm. The exposed surface area is 4(8 x 2) +
2 (8 x 8) = 192 cm2. When the block is divided into 16 smaller pieces, the total surface area
will become 16 (6 x 2 x 2) = 384 cm2. This shows that there will be a larger surface area
when things are divided into smaller pieces, which also result in more surface particles for
reactant particles to collide to.

Therefore, increasing the surface area of a solid can increase the rate of reaction with the
other reactant.

Graph indicating my hypothesis:


VariablesBiii
Independent variable The independent variable will be the surface area of the
Calcium Carbonate

Unit(s) of IV No unit

Range of IV measured There will be three independent variables measure: Powdered


Calcium Carbonate, Small Calcium Carbonate chips and Large
Calcium Carbonate chips.
Describe and explain Three different surface areas of Calcium Carbonate will be
the procedure to used. An electric weight is used to measure 3 bundles of 5g
change the large Calcium Carbonate. One bundle will be large Calcium
independent variable. Carbonate chips, another bundle will be smaller Calcium
Carbonate chips, and the last bundle will be Calcium Carbonate
in powdered form. The independent will be changed by putting
each of the bundle separately into a respective conical flask
filled with the same amount of dilute hydrochloric acid, and the
reaction will be observed and recorded.

Dependent variable The dependent variable will be the change of mass of the
conical flask and its contents at regular time intervals (i.e. 20
seconds)
Unit(s) of DV Seconds

Derived variable The rate of reaction

Unit(s) of DV No unit

Describe and explain The rate of reaction at any point of the experiment can be
the procedure to calculated by using the following equation:
calculate the derived
variable. Rate of Reaction
= Reactants used up
Time
(Reactants used up can be calculated by deducting the mass at
certain time interval by the initial mass of the reactants)

Controlled variable Procedure to control it and explain


why it matters to the investigation.

Describe and explain 1. The temperature The environment in which the


the procedure to of the dilute hydrochloric acid is placed should
control other hydrochloric acid. remain the same throughout the
experiment. If the experiment is
variables in the performed indoors, the air conditioning
investigation. should remain at the same temperature
until the experiment is completed.

It is important to keep the temperature


constant because warming a substance
transfers kinetic energy to its particles,
causing the particles to move faster,
resulting in an increase of rate of
reaction. If the temperature of the
hydrochloric acid is different in each
trial, it will affect final speed of the
reaction (i.e. if the temperature is
increased, the reaction will happen
faster, and vice versa).
2. The volume and The volume and concentration of the
concentration of the hydrochloric acid should remain
hydrochloric acid. constant. This can be done by using 50
cm3 of hydrochloric acid of 2 mol/dm-3
and 50 cm3 of water throughout the
whole experiment. The volume of
hydrochloric acid and water can be
measured accurately using a measuring
cylinder at the beginning of each
experiment.

It is important to keep the concentration


of the solution constant because equal
volumes of different solutions that have
the same concentration contain the
same number of particles of dissolved
solute. The higher the concentration and
volume, the more particles are present,
which increases the chance there is of
collisions between reactant particles,
resulting in a higher rate of reaction. If
the concentration and volume of the
hydrochloric acid is different in each
trial, it will affect final speed of the
reaction (i.e. if the concentration and
volume is increased, the reaction will
happen faster, and vice versa).
3. Amount of The amount (mass) of Calcium
Calcium Carbonate. Carbonate used in each experiment
should be kept the same. The amount
can be measured using an electric scale
prior to every experiment.

It is important to keep the amount of


Calcium Carbonate the same because it
will affect the initial and final weight of
the flask and its contents, hence the
data collection will be inaccurate.
4. The timekeeper. The timekeeper should be kept the
same by having the same person do all
of the timing.

Different people have different reaction


times, so not changing the time keeper
will keep the consistency of the data
collected, which increases the reliability
of the results.
5. The environment The environment where the experiment
in which the is performed should remain constant by
experiment is completing the whole experiment in the
performed. same place and preferably on the same
day and same time.

It is important to keep the environment


the same because the temperature of
the surroundings and the humidity of the
area might affect the reaction rates of
the experiments. This will cause the
results unreliable.

Materials / Equipment ListBiv


Apparatus:
- 50 cm3 of Water x 9
- Conical Flask 250cm3 x 9
- Measuring Cylinder 100 cm3 x 2
- Electrical Balance x1
- Stopwatch x 1
- Small Spoon x 1
- Lab Coat x 1
- Safety Goggles x1

Chemicals:
- 5g of Calcium Carbonate in solid (large sized chips) form x 3 (CaCO3)
- 5g of Calcium Carbonate in solid (small sized chips) form x 3 (CaCO3)
- 5g of Calcium Carbonate in powdered form x 3 (CaCO3)
- 50 cm3 of Hydrochloric Acid (2 mol/dm-3) x 9

Risk Assessment Biv


- Keep eye protection on throughout the experiment. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is toxic,
and might cause eye irritation. Rinse eyes with water immediately when in contact
with eyes.
- Keep labcoat on throughout the experiment. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is toxic and
might cause skin irritation. Wash off immediately when in contact with skin.
- Glassware should be handled properly and with care to reduce the chance of
breakage and injuries. Any broken glassware should be reported to the teacher
immediately.
- Keep chemicals away from your mouth.

Method / ProcedureBiv
1. Collect all materials listed above. Put on your safety goggles and lab coat.
2. Put the conical flask on the electrical balance and press tear so it returns to 0g.
3. Measure 5g of large sized Calcium Carbonate chips in the conical flask using the
electric scale.
4. Measure 50 cm3 of Hydrochloric acid in one measuring cylinder.
5. Measure 50 cm3 of water in the other measuring cylinder.
6. Pour both the water and the Hydrochloric acid into the conical flask at the same time
and start the timer. Take down the initial mass.
7. Take down the mass of the reactants in 20 seconds time intervals.
8. Stop recording results after you have reached 400 seconds.
9. Repeat steps 1 to 7 for 2 more times.
10. Repeat steps 1 to 8 for medium sized Calcium Carbonate and powdered Calcium
Carbonate.

Results - Ci
Table 1: This table shows how large Calcium Carbonate chips affect the rate of reaction with
Hydrochloric acid.
Independent Variable 1: Large Calcium Carbonate Chips

Time (s) Dependent Variable (g)


Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average
=(Trial 1+Trial 2+Trial 3)
3

0 104.98 105.37 105.15 105.17

20 104.95 105.36 105.13 105.15

40 104.96 105.34 105.10 105.13

60 104.96 105.32 105.09 105.12

80 104.94 105.31 105.08 105.11

100 104.93 105.31 105.07 105.10

120 104.92 105.30 105.06 105.09

140 104.91 105.29 105.05 105.08

160 104.90 105.28 105.02 105.07

180 104.90 105.26 105.00 105.05

200 104.89 105.25 104.96 105.03

220 104.88 105.23 104.93 104.99

240 104.88 105.20 104.89 104.99

260 104.87 105.19 104.87 104.98

280 104.86 105.16 104.85 104.96

300 104.85 105.15 104.80 104.93

320 104.84 105.14 104.78 104.92

340 104.83 105.13 104.77 104.90

360 104.83 105.11 104.76 104.90

380 104.80 105.10 104.75 104.88

400 104.79 105.06 104.74 104.86

Table 2: A table that shows how small Calcium Carbonate chips affect the reaction with
Hydrochloric acid.
Independent Variable 2: Small Calcium Carbonate Chips

Time (s) Dependent Variable (g)

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average


=(Trial 1+Trial 2+Trial 3)
3

0 105.69 105.11 105.68 105.49

20 105.65 105.06 105.61 105.44

40 105.62 105.02 105.59 105.41

60 105.59 104.96 105.55 105.37

80 105.55 104.93 105.50 105.33

100 105.49 104.89 105.46 105.28

120 105.45 104.83 105.42 105.23

140 105.40 104.76 105.39 105.18

160 105.36 104.72 105.35 105.14

180 105.30 104.67 105.32 105.10

200 105.25 104.64 105.29 105.06

220 105.28 104.60 105.26 105.05

240 105.22 104.53 105.22 104.99

260 105.17 104.49 105.19 104.95

280 105.13 104.45 105.16 104.91

300 105.08 104.41 105.13 104.87

320 105.05 104.39 105.10 104.84

340 105.02 104.38 105.07 104.82

360 104.99 104.37 105.05 104.80

380 104.97 104.35 105.03 104.78

400 104.95 104.33 105.02 104.77

Table 3: A table that shows how powdered Calcium Carbonate affect the reaction with
Hydrochloric acid.
Independent Variable 3: Powdered Calcium Carbonate

Time (s) Dependent Variable (g)

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average


=(Trial 1+Trial 2+Trial 3)
3

0 105.49 105.00 105.14 105.21

20 105.39 104.97 104.95 105.10

40 105.31 104.91 104.87 105.03

60 105.24 104.84 104.78 104.95

80 105.16 104.78 104.71 104.88

100 105.10 104.72 104.64 104.82

120 105.04 104.63 104.58 104.75

140 104.96 104.56 104.51 104.68

160 104.89 104.50 104.46 104.62

180 104.82 104.46 104.40 104.56

200 104.77 104.40 104.36 104.51

220 104.63 104.34 104.26 104.4

240 104.60 104.28 104.20 104.36

260 104.57 104.16 104.18 104.3

280 104.56 104.10 104.19 104.28

300 104.55 104.08 104.19 104.27

320 104.55 104.07 104.20 104.27

340 104.54 104.08 104.16 104.26

360 104.53 104.08 104.17 104.26

380 104.54 104.09 104.16 104.26

400 104.54 104.08 104.17 104.26

Qualitative Observations- Ci
When the calcium carbonate was put with the dilute hydrochloric acid, it creates a fizzing
sound, and bubbles evolved onto the surface of the liquids.The larger the surface area of the
calcium carbonate, the bigger the bubbles were, and vice versa. The reactants react to form
a white precipitate in a colourless solution.

Processed data- Ci
Table 1: A table that shows how the large calcium carbonate chips affects the average of the
rate of reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid at different time intervals.
Independent Variable 1: Large Calcium Carbonate Chips

Dependent Derived Variable


Variable

Time Average Average reactants used up Rate of Reaction


Interval Mass of (g)
reactants
(g) Steps Reactants Steps Rate of
=Average Mass of used up = Amount of Reaction
Reactants (g) - Reactants Used (one sig figure)
105.17 (initial
(g) Time
average mass)

0 105.17 105.17-105.17 0 0 0
0

20 105.15 105.17-105.15 0.02 0.02 0.001


20

40 105.13 105.17-105.13 0.04 0.04 0.001


40

60 105.12 105.17-105.12 0.05 0.05 0.0008


60

80 105.11 105.17-105.11 0.06 0.06 0.0008


80

100 105.10 105.17-105.10 0.07 0.07 0.0007


100
120 105.09 105.17-105.09 0.08 0.08 0.0007
120

140 105.08 105.17-105.08 0.09 0.09 0.0006


140

160 105.07 105.17-105.07 0.1 0.10 0.0006


160

180 105.05 105.17-105.05 0.12 0.12 0.0007


180

200 105.03 105.17-105.03 0.14 0.14 0.0007


200

220 104.99 105.17-104.99 0.18 0.18 0.0008


220

240 104.99 105.17-104.99 0.18 0.18 0.0008


240

260 104.98 105.17-104.98 0.19 0.19 0.0007


260

280 104.96 105.17-104.96 0.21 0.21 0.0008


280

300 104.93 105.17-104.93 0.24 0.24 0.0008


300

320 104.92 105.17-104.92 0.25 0.25 0.0008


320

340 104.90 105.17-104.90 0.27 0.27 0.0008


340

360 104.90 105.17-104.90 0.27 0.27 0.0008


360

380 104.88 105.17-104.88 0.29 0.29 0.0008


380

400 104.86 105.17-104.86 0.31 0.31 0.0008


400
Table 2: A table that shows how the small calcium carbonate chips affects the average of the
rate of reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid at different time intervals.
Independent Variable 2: Small Calcium Carbonate Chips

Dependent Derived Variable


Variable

Time Average Average reactants used up Rate of Reaction


Interval Mass of (g)
reactants
(g) Steps Reactants Steps Rate of
=Average Mass of used up = Amount of Reaction
Reactants (g) - Reactants Used (one sig figure)
105.49 (initial
(g) Time
average mass)

0 105.49 105.49-105.49 0 0 0
0

20 105.44 105.49-105.44 0.05 0.05 0.003


20

40 105.41 105.49-105.41 0.08 0.08 0.002


40

60 105.37 105.49-105.37 0.12 0.12 0.002


60

80 105.33 105.49-105.33 0.16 0.16 0.002


80

100 105.28 105.49-105.28 0.21 0.21 0.002


100

120 105.23 105.49-105.23 0.26 0.26 0.002


120

140 105.18 105.49-105.18 0.31 0.31 0.002


140

160 105.14 105.49-105.14 0.35 0.35 0.002


160

180 105.10 105.49-105.10 0.39 0.39 0.002


180

200 105.06 105.49-105.06 0.43 0.43 0.002


200

220 105.05 105.49-105.05 0.44 0.44 0.002


220

240 104.99 105.49-104.99 0.5 0.50 0.002


240

260 104.95 105.49-104.95 0.54 0.54 0.002


260

280 104.91 105.49-104.91 0.58 0.58 0.002


280

300 104.87 105.49-104.87 0.62 0.62 0.002


300

320 104.84 105.49-104.84 0.65 0.65 0.002


320

340 104.82 105.49-104.82 0.67 0.67 0.002


340

360 104.80 105.49-104.80 0.69 0.69 0.002


360

380 104.78 105.49-104.78 0.71 0.71 0.002


380

400 104.77 105.49-104.77 0.70 0.70 0.002


400

Table 3: A table that shows how the powdered calcium carbonate affects the average of the
rate of reaction with dilute hydrochloric acid at different time intervals.
Independent Variable 3: Powdered Calcium Carbonate

Dependent Derived Variable


Variable

Time Average Average reactants used up Rate of Reaction


Interval Mass of (g)
reactants
(g) Steps Reactants Steps Rate of
=Average Mass of used up = Amount of Reaction
Reactants (g) - Reactants Used (one sig figure)
105.21 (initial
(g) Time
average mass)

0 105.21 105.21-105.21 0 0 0
0

20 105.10 105.21-105.10 0.11 0.11 0.006


20

40 105.03 105.21-105.03 0.18 0.18 0.005


40

60 104.95 105.21-104.95 0.26 0.26 0.004


60

80 104.88 105.21-104.88 0.33 0.33 0.004


80

100 104.82 105.21-104.82 0.39 0.39 0.004


100

120 104.75 105.21-104.75 0.46 0.46 0.004


120

140 104.68 105.21-104.68 0.53 0.53 0.004


140

160 104.62 105.21-104.62 0.59 0.59 0.004


160

180 104.56 105.21-104.56 0.65 0.65 0.004


180

200 104.51 105.21-104.51 0.70 0.70 0.004


200

220 104.4 105.21-104.40 0.81 0.81 0.004


220

240 104.36 105.21-104.36 0.85 0.85 0.003


240

260 104.3 105.21-104.30 0.91 0.91 0.003


260

280 104.28 105.21-104.28 0.93 0.93 0.003


280

300 104.27 105.21-104.27 0.94 0.94 0.003


300

320 104.27 105.21-104.27 0.94 0.94 0.003


320

340 104.26 105.21-104.26 0.95 0.95 0.003


340

360 104.26 105.21-104.26 0.95 0.95 0.003


360

380 104.26 105.21-104.26 0.95 0.95 0.002


380

400 104.26 105.21-104.26 0.95 0.95 0.002


400
Graph- Ci
Graph 1: A graph of time against amount of reactants used up

Graph 2: A graph of time against rate of reaction


Conclusion - Cii
My hypothesis was accurate. The larger the surface area of the calcium carbonate, the
higher the rate of reaction; and the smaller the surface area of the calcium carbonate, the
lower the rate of reaction.

From graph 1, comparing the reactants used up of large calcium carbonate chips and
powdered calcium carbonate, the graph line of powdered CaCO3 has a steeper gradient at
the beginning, which shows that its reaction is quicker. We can see for example that, at 120
seconds, the large calcium carbonate chips only used up 0.08g of its reactants, while the
small calcium carbonate chips used up 0.26g its reactants, and the powdered calcium
carbonate already used up 0.46g of its reactants. The reason why the large and small
CaCO3 chips dont reach a horizontal line at the end of the graph is because its reaction has
not ended by 400 seconds.

From this, the data was elaborated further. When comparing the rate of reaction of different
surface areas at a certain time, it can be seen that the largest surface area of CaCO3
(powdered) has the highest rate of reaction. For example, at 20 seconds, the large calcium
carbonate had a rate of reaction of 0.001, and the small chips and powdered calcium
carbonate had a rate of reaction of 0.003 and 0.006 respectively.

Explanation of results - Cii


The larger the surface area of the solid, the quicker the reaction will take place. This is
because increasing the surface area of the solid increases the amount of surface particles,
resulting in a higher chance of effective collisions taking place.

In order for a chemical reaction to occur, the reacting particles must collide. For an effective
collision to happen, there must be sufficient energy in the collision to break the chemical
ffective collision
bonds in the particles, or else the particles will bounce off each other. An e
is where collisions have enough energy to break up those chemical bonds.

When a chemical reaction takes


place with the presence of solid, only
the particles on the surface are
exposed. These surface particles are
the only particles that has a chance
to collide (i.e. react) with particles
from other reactants. The inner
particles are protected by the outer
particles, and they are unable to
collide with particles of other
reactants until they are exposed. Therefore, when a lump of solid is broken into smaller
pieces, or grounded into powder, the number of particles on the react remains unchanged,
however there is now more surface area, which means more particles are exposed for
collisions. The more exposed particles available, more collisions between particles will
occur, therefore the chance of effective collisions will increase, hence a faster reaction will
take place.
Evaluation-Validity of the hypothesis - Ciii
The results of my experiment is valid for the following reasons:
Firstly, as seen in my results table above, the data I have collected for each of the three
trials for each independent variable is similar. The data shows how the trend of the mass of
reactants decreases through each of the time intervals. When data is processed and
graphed, it is seen that the larger the surface area, the higher the rate of reaction, and the
steeper the line on the graph; Conversely, the smaller the surface area, the lower the rate of
reaction, and the less steep the line will be on the graph.

Even though none of my other classmates have done a similar investigation, there have
been real scientific research done previously that is similar to mine. Even though the
experiment was not exactly the same, it can still prove my hypothesis and the validity of my
data. The experiment was to compare how the surface area of sodium thiosulphate affect
the speed of reaction with hydrochloric acid, and it proved my hypothesis as well as the
collision theory: When 20 g of sodium thiosulphate pellets took 60 seconds to react with 10 g
hydrochloric acid, while the same grams sodium thiosulphate powder only took 6.51 seconds
to react with hydrochloric acid. This proves that the increase of surface area speeds up the
reaction.

Another experiment done which is similar to my investigation is to compare the speed of


reaction of different surface areas of Magnesium with hydrochloric acid. The results were
shown that when a Magnesium ribbon was put together with hydrochloric acid, the duration
of the reaction was 37 seconds; when the same gram of magnesium was put together with
hydrochloric acid, but in powdered form, the duration of the reaction was 16 seconds. This
experimental data proves that powdered magnesium increases the speed of reaction with
hydrochloric acid, which therefore supports my hypothesis.

To conclude, I believe that my hypothesis was valid not only because of the experimental
data I have collected, but by looking through the results of other similar experiments to mine.
These scientific studies all support my hypothesis, which is why I am confident with the
validity of my hypothesis.

Evaluation - Validity of the method - Civ


I believe that it is appropriate to investigate the effect of surface area on the rate of reaction,
by recording the loss of mass of the reactants when different surface areas of Calcium
Carbonate is reacted with hydrochloric acid.

This is because when Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid reacts, it produces carbon
dioxide, which is dense and quite a heavy gas. When the carbon dioxide is produced and
escaped from the reaction flask, it is easy to witness a the loss of mass in different time
intervals, compared with reactions that produce lighter gases, for example, hydrogen. In my
experiment. I could then deduct the mass at a certain time interval by the initial mass to find
out the amount of reactants used up, and therefore using that to calculate the rate of
reactions. Therefore, the method is valid to investigate the effect of surface area on the rate
of reaction.

However, the scales on different electric weights might differ, so an alternative method is by
finding the reactants produced using the gas collection methods. For example, using a gas
syringe to measure the amount of reactants produced. A gas syringe is connected from a
tube to a stopper on the conical flask. The hydrogen released in the experiment will pass
through the tube into the gas syringe, which has marks along its length. We can easily
measure the volume of hydrogen produced as the time increases by reading the markings
on the syringe, and therefore use the data to work out the rates of reaction.

Evaluation of the Method and Suggested Improvements - Cv


Problems with the The effect caused by the Suggested improvements
experiment problem
With our first few trials of the The reaction ended so We have modified and
experiment, we used 25cm3 quickly because one of our improved our method by
of hydrochloric acid with the reactants was used up, and reducing the amount of
concentration of 2 mol/dm-3, we were unable to take hydrochloric acid by putting
and reacted it with 5 grams down any data. This was 50cm3 of hydrochloric acid
of powdered Calcium because the ratio of our of 2 mol/dm-3, and then
Carbonate. The reaction reactants was not accurate. diluting it with 50cm3 of
took place almost instantly When the calcium water. This has slowed
and we were unable to carbonate reacted with the down its reaction with
collect any data from those hydrochloric acid, Calcium Calcium Carbonate, and we
trials. Carbonate was the limiting can actually see the
reactant because it was all reaction happening and take
gone in the end, and the down some data.
hydrochloric acid was the
reactant in excess because
it was still there by the end
of the reaction.
The loss of mass of the This can affect our results Other methods can be used
reactants was very minor because the sometimes the to find the amount of
and it was hard to record the numbers after the decimal hydrogen produced in order
exact weight of the point goes up and down, to find the rate of reaction,
reactants at certain time and sometimes there is for example, using a gas
intervals, because the little to no decrease in the syringe is a great way to
hydrogen released in the mass even towards the record the amount of
reaction is not dense and beginning of the reaction, hydrogen produced at a
weighs very little. which makes me question certain time interval. This is
the reliability of the data a way to improve the
collected. reliability of the data instead
of recording the loss of
mass.
The timekeeper and the Since everybody has a This can be improved if one
person who records the different reaction time, person can do all of the time
mass is different for each having different people keeping and the other do all
experiment with a different read the time and mass for of the results reading to
independent variable. each of the independent make sure the results are
variable might have a slight constant and the time
difference, as the mass of intervals in which the mass
the reactants can change in is read are more consistent.
very short time. This can
affect the data collection
and the comparisons
between each independent
variable.
There were a few different Different electric weights This can be improved by
electric weights used for have might have minor making sure that the
different trials and different differences when taking electronic scales are kept
independent variables. down the weight of the the same throughout the
reactants. If the three trials whole experiment to reduce
of the same independent the chance of unreliable
variable is done on different results when calculating an
electronic scales, the average in the end.
results might come out
slightly different, which
affects the calculation of
averages.

Extensions to the experiment:


This experiment can possibly be extended to increase the reliability of my hypothesis.
After investigating my independent variables with dilute hydrochloric acid, I can try to
react the different surface areas of Calcium Carbonates with nitric acid, to see if the
results are similar and the conclusion I made is accurate.
I can possibly investigate on the surface area of Calcium Carbonate with different
concentrations of hydrochloric acid to prove the validity of my hypothesis.

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