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Turbulence Apr 2005
Overview of Turbulence Modeling
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Outline
Background
z Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
Scales
z Eliminating the small scales
Reynolds Averaging
Filtered Equations
Turbulence Modeling Theory
z RANS Turbulence Models in FLUENT
Turbulence Modeling Options in Fluent
z Near wall modeling, Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
Turbulent Flow Examples
z Comparison with Experiments and DNS
Turbulence Models
Near Wall Treatments
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What is Turbulence?
Unsteady, irregular (aperiodic) motion in which transported quantities
(mass, momentum, scalar species) fluctuate in time and space
Fluid properties exhibit random variations
z statistical averaging results in accountable, turbulence related transport
mechanisms
Contains a wide range of eddy sizes (scales)
z typical identifiable swirling patterns
z large eddies ‘carry’ small eddies
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Turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate Turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate
Homogeneous, decaying, grid Homogeneous, decaying, grid generated turbulence generated turbulence
Two Examples of Turbulence
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Energy Cascade
Larger, higherenergy eddies, transfer energy to smaller eddies via
vortex stretching
z Larger eddies derive energy from mean flow
z Large eddy size and velocity on order of mean flow
Smallest eddies convert kinetic energy into thermal energy via viscous
dissipation
z Rate at which energy is dissipated is set by rate at which they receive
energy from the larger eddies at start of cascade
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Vortex Stretching
Existence of eddies implies vorticity
Vorticity is concentrated along vortex lines or bundles
Vortex lines/bundles become distorted from the induced velocities of
the larger eddies
z As end points of a vortex line randomly move apart
vortex line increases in length but decreases in diameter
vorticity increases because angular momentum is nearly conserved
z Most of the vorticity is contained within the smallest eddies
Turbulence is a highly 3D phenomenon
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Smallest Scales of Turbulence
Smallest eddy (Kolmogorov) scales:
z large eddy energy supply rate ~ small eddy energy dissipation
rate → ε = dk/dt
k ≡ ½(u′
2
+v′
2
+w′
2
) is (specific) turbulent kinetic energy [l
2
/ t
2
]
ε is dissipation rate of k [l
2
/ t
3
]
z Motion at smallest scales dependent upon dissipation rate, ε, and
kinematic viscosity, ν [l
2
/ t]
z From dimensional analysis:
η = (ν
3
/ ε)
1/4
; τ = (ν / ε)
1/2
; v = (νε)
1/4
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Small scales vs. Large scales
Largest eddy scales:
z Assume l is characteristic of larger eddy size
z Dimensional analysis is sufficient to estimate order of large eddy supply
rate of k as k / τ
turnover
z τ
turnover
is a time scale associated with the larger eddies
the order of τ
turnover
can be estimated as l / k
1/2
Since ε ~ k / τ
turnover
, ε ~ k
3/2
/ l or l ~ k
3/2
/ ε
Comparing l with η,
z where Re
T
= k
1/2
l / ν (turbulence Reynolds number)
4 / 3
4 / 3
4 / 1 2 / 3
4 / 1 3
Re
) / (
) / (
T
l k l l l
≈ ≈ =
ν ε ν η
1 >>
η
l
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Implication of Scales
Consider a mesh fine enough to resolve smallest eddies and large
enough to capture mean flow features
Example: 2D channel flow
N
cells
~(4l / η)
3
or
N
cells
~ (3Re
τ
)
9/4
where
Re
τ
= u
τ
H / 2ν
Re
H
= 30,800 →Re
τ
= 800 →N
cells
= 4x10
7
!
H
4 / 1 3
) / ( ε ν η
l l
≈
l
η
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Direct Numerical Simulation
“DNS” is the solution of the timedependent NavierStokes
equations without recourse to modeling
z Numerical time step size required, ∆t ~ τ
For 2D channel example
V Re
H
= 30,800
V Number of time steps ~ 48,000
z DNS is not suitable for practical industrial CFD
DNS is feasible only for simple geometries and low turbulent
Reynolds numbers
DNS is a useful research tool


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
j
i
k i k
i
k
i
x
U
x x
p
x
U
U
t
U
u ρ
τ τ
u
H
t
Channel D
Re
003 . 0
2
≈ ∆
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Removing the Small Scales
Two methods can be used to eliminate need to resolve small scales:
z Reynolds Averaging
Transport equations for mean flow quantities are solved
All scales of turbulence are modeled
Transient solution ∆t is set by global unsteadiness
z Filtering (LES)
Transport equations for ‘resolvable scales’
Resolves larger eddies; models smaller ones
Inherently unsteady, ∆t set by small eddies
Both methods introduce additional terms that must be modeled for
closure
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Turbulence Apr 2005
l
η = l/Re
T
3/4
Prediction Methods
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Turbulence Apr 2005
RANS Modeling  Velocity Decomposition
Consider a point in the given flow field:
( ) ( ) ( ) t x u t x U t x u
i i i
, , ,
r r r
′
+ =
u'
i
U
i
u
i
time
u
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Turbulence Apr 2005
RANS Modeling  Ensemble Averaging
Ensemble (Phase) average:
z Applicable to nonstationary flows such as periodic or quasiperiodic flows
involving deterministic structures
( )
( )
( )
∑
=
∞ →
=
N
n
n
i
N
i
t x u
N
t x U
1
,
1
lim ,
r r
U
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Turbulence Apr 2005
( )


.

\

∂
′
+ ∂
∂
∂
+
∂
′
+ ∂
− =


.

\

∂
′
+ ∂
′
+ +
∂
′
+ ∂
j
i i
j i k
i i
k k
i i
x
u U
x x
p p
x
u U
u U
t
u U ) ( ) (
) (
) (
u ρ
. , 0 ; 0 ; ; 0 ; etc ≠
′ ′
=
′
Φ
′ ′
+ ΦΨ = ≡
′
≡ Φ ψ φ ψ ψ φ φψ φ φ
Deriving RANS Equations
Substitute mean and fluctuating velocities in instantaneous Navier
Stokes equations and average:
Some averaging rules:
z Given φ = Φ + φ′ and ψ = Ψ + ψ′
Massweighted (Favre) averaging used for compressible flows
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RANS Equations
Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes equations:
New equations are identical to original except :
z The transported variables, U, ρ, etc., now represent the mean flow
quantities
z Additional terms appear:
R
ij
are called the Reynolds Stresses
V Effectively a stress→
These are the terms to be modeled
( )
j
j i
j
i
j i k
i
k
i
x
u u
x
U
x x
p
x
U
U
t
U
∂
− ∂
+


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
ρ
u ρ
j i ij
u u R ρ − =


.

\

−
∂
∂
∂
∂
j i
j
i
j
u u
x
U
x
ρ u
(prime notation dropped)
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Turbulence Modeling Approaches
Boussinesq approach
z isotropic
z relies on dimensional analysis
Reynolds stress transport models
z no assumption of isotropy
z contains more “physics”
z most complex and computationally expensive
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The Boussinesq Approach
Relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean flow by a turbulent (eddy)
viscosity, u
t
z Relation is drawn from analogy with molecular transport of momentum
z Assumptions valid at molecular level, not necessarily valid at
macroscopic level
u
t
is a scalar (R
ij
aligned with strainrate tensor, S
ij
)
Taylor series expansion valid if l
mfp
d
2
U/dy
2
 << dU/dy
Average time between collisions l
mfp
/ v
th
<< dU/dy
1


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
= −
∂
∂
− = − =
i
j
j
i
ij ij ij
k
k
ij j i ij
x
U
x
U
S k
x
U
S u u R
2
1
;
3
2
3
2
2
t t
δ ρ δ u u ρ
ij xy
S v u t u ρ 2 =
′ ′ ′ ′
− =
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Modeling u
t
Oh well, focus attention on modeling u
t
anyways
Basic approach made through dimensional arguments
z Units of ν
t
= u
t
/ρ are [m
2
/s]
z Typically one needs 2 out of the 3 scales:
velocity  length  time
Models classified in terms of number of transport equations solved,
e.g.,
z zeroequation
z oneequation
z twoequation
z …
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Zero Equation Model
Prandtl mixing length
model:
z Relation is drawn from same analogy with molecular transport of
momentum:
z The mixing length model:
assumes that v
mix
is proportional to l
mix
& strain rate:
requires that l
mix
be prescribed
V l
mix
must be ‘calibrated’ for each problem
z Very crude approach, but economical
Not suitable for general purpose CFD though can be useful where a
very crude estimate of turbulence is required


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
= =
i
j
j
i
ij ij ij mix t
x
U
x
U
S S S l
2
1
; 2
2
ρ u
mfp th
v
2
1
l ρ u =
mix mix
v
2
1
l
t
ρ u =
ij ij
S S l 2 v
mix mix
∝
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Other Zero Equation Models
Mixing length observed to behave differently in flows near solid
boundaries than in free shear flows
z Modifications made to the Prandtl mixing length model to account for
near wall flows
Van Driest Reduce mixing length in viscous sublayer (inner boundary
layer) with damping factor to effect reduced ‘mixing’
Clauser Define appropriate mixing length in velocity defect (outer
boundary) layer
Klebanoff Account for intermittency dependency
CebeciSmith and BaldwinLomax
V Accounts for all of above adjustments in two layer models
Mixing length models typically fail for separating flows
z Large eddies persist in the mean flow and cannot be modeled from local
properties alone
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OneEquation Models
Traditionally, oneequation models were based on transport equation
for k (turbulent kinetic energy) to calculate velocity scale, v = k
1/2
z Circumvents assumed relationship between v and turbulence length scale
(mixing)
z Use of transport equation allows ‘history effects’ to be accounted for
Length scale still specified algebraically based on the mean flow
z very dependent on problem type
z approach not suited to general purpose CFD
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− −
∂
∂
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
j j i i
j j j
i
ij
j
j
u p u u u
x
k
x x
U
R
x
k
U
t
k
'
2
1
ρ u ρε ρ
unsteady &
convective
production
dissipation
molecular
diffusion
turbulent
transport
pressure
diffusion
k
i
k
i
x
u
x
u
∂
∂
∂
∂
=ν ε
Turbulence Kinetic Energy Equation
Exact k equation derived from sum of products of NavierStokes
equations with fluctuating velocities
z (Trace of the Reynolds Stress transport equations)
z where (incompressible form)
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Modeled Equation for k
The production, dissipation, turbulent transport, and pressure
diffusion terms must be modeled
z R
ij
in production term is calculated from Boussinesq formula
z Turbulent transport and pressure diffusion:
z ε = C
D
k
3/2
/l from dimensional arguments
z u
t
= C
D
ρk
2
/ ε (recall u
t
∝ ρk
1/2
l)
z C
D
, σ
k
, and l are model parameters to be specified
Necessity to specify l limits usefulness of this model
Advanced one equation models are ‘complete’
z solves for eddy viscosity
j k
j j i i
x
k
u p u u u
∂
∂
− = +
σ
u
ρ
t
'
2
1
Using u
t
/σ
k
assumes k
can be transported by
turbulence as can U
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SpalartAllmaras Model Equations
ν
ν
χ
χ
χ
ν ρ u
~
, f ,
~
3
1
3
3
v1 1 t
≡
+
= ≡
c
v
v
f
1
v2 2
2 2
1
1 f ,
~
~
v
v
f
f
d
S S
χ
χ
κ
ν
+
− = + ≡
( )
2 2
6
2
6 / 1
6
3
6
6
3
~
~
, g ,
1
d S
r r r c r
g
g f
w
w
w
w
c
c
κ
ν
≡ − + =
+
+
=
( )
2
1
2
2
~
1
~
~ ~
~
1
~
~
~

.

\

−


.

\

∂
∂
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+ =
d
f c
x
c
x x
S c
Dt
D
w w
j
b
j j
b
ν
ρ
ν
ρ
ν
ν ρ u
σ
ν ρ
ν
ρ
ν
0
~
: condition boundary Wall = ν
modified turbulent viscosity modified turbulent viscosity
distance from wall distance from wall
damping functions damping functions
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.

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
= Ω Ω Ω ≡
i
j
j
i
x
U
x
U
S
2
1
; 2
ij ij ij
)  S min(0, C
ij ij prod ij
Ω + Ω ≡ S
SpalartAllmaras Production Term
Default definition uses rotation rate tensor only:
Alternative formulation also uses strain rate tensor:
reduces turbulent viscosity for vortical flows
more correctly accounts for the effects of rotation
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SpalartAllmaras Model
SpalartAllmaras model developed for unstructured codes in aerospace
industry
z Increasingly popular for turbomachinery applications
z “LowRe” formulation by default
can be integrated through log layer and viscous sublayer to wall
Fluent’s implementation can also use lawofthewall
z Economical and accurate for:
wallbounded flows
flows with mild separation and recirculation
z Weak for:
massively separated flows
free shear flows
simple decaying turbulence
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TwoEquation Models
Two transport equations are solved, giving two independent scales
for calculating u
t
z Virtually all use the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic
energy, k
z Several transport variables have been proposed, based on
dimensional arguments, and used for second equation
Kolmogorov, ω: u
t
∝ ρk / ω, l ∝ k
1/2
/ ω. k ∝ ε / ω
V ω is specific dissipation rate
V defined in terms of large eddy scales that define supply rate of k
Chou, ε: u
t
∝ ρk
2
/ ε, l ∝ k
3/2
/ ε
Rotta, l: u
t
∝ ρk
1/2
l, ε ∝ k
3/2
/ l
z Boussinesq relation still used for Reynolds Stresses
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Standard kε Model Equations
ij ij t
j k j
S S S S
x
k
x Dt
Dk
2 ;
2
t
= − +
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
= ρε u
σ
u
u ρ
( ) ε ρ u
ε ε
σ
u
u
ε
ρ
ε ε
ε
2
2
t 1
t
C S C
k x x Dt
D
j j
− +
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
=
k k transport equation transport equation
ε ε transport equation transport equation
production production dissipation dissipation
2
, , ,
ε ε ε
σ σ C C
i k
coefficients coefficients
turbulent viscosity turbulent viscosity
ε
ρ u
u
2
k
C
t
=
inverse time scale inverse time scale
Empirical constants determined from benchmark
experiments of simple flows using air and water.
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Simple flows render simpler model equations
z Coefficients can be isolated and compared with experiment
z e.g.,
Uniform flow past grid
V Standard kε equations reduce to just convection and dissipation terms
Homogeneous Shear Flow
NearWall (Log layer) Flow
k
C
x
U
x
k
U
2
2
d
d
;
d
d ε ε
ε
ε
− = − =
Closure Coefficients
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Buoyancy Buoyancy
production production
Dilatation Dilatation
Dissipation Dissipation
RT
k
x
g S
x
k
x Dt
Dk
i t
t
i t
j k j
γ
ρε
ρ
ρ
u
ρε u
σ
u
u ρ 2
Pr
2
t
−
∂
∂
− − +
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
=
Standard kε Model
HighReynolds number model
z (i.e., must be modified for the nearwall region)
The term “standard” refers to the choice of coefficients
Sometimes additional terms are included
z production due to buoyancy
unstable stratification (g·∇T >0) supports k production
z dilatation dissipation due to compressibility
added dissipation term, prevents overprediction of spreading rate in
compressible flows
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Standard kε Model Pros & Cons
Strengths:
z robust
z economical
z reasonable accuracy for a wide range of flows
Weaknesses:
z overly diffusive for many situations
flows involving strong streamline curvature, swirl, rotation, separating
flows, lowRe flows
z cannot predict round jet spreading rate
Variants of the kε model have been developed to address its
deficiencies
z RNG and Realizable
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RNG kε Model Equations
Derived using renormalization group theory
z scaleelimination technique applied to NavierStokes equations
(sensitizes equations to specific flow regimes)
k equation is similar to standard kε model
Additional strain rate term in ε equation
V most significant difference between standard and RNG kε models
Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl numbers
Differentialviscosity relation for low Reynolds numbers
V Boussinesq model used by default
( ) ( ) where C S C
k x x Dt
D
t
j j
ε ρ u
ε ε
u α
ε
ρ
ε ε ε
*
2
2
1 eff
− +
∂
∂
∂
∂
=
t
k
S
C
C C
u u u
β η
ε
η
βη
η
η
ρη
u
ε ε
+ =
=
+


.

\

−
+ =
eff
0
3
0
3
2
*
2
ts coefficien are ,
1
1
ε ε transport equation transport equation
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RNG kε Model Pros &Cons
For large strain rates:
z where η > η
0
, ε is augmented, and therefore k and u
t
are reduced
Option to modify turbulent viscosity to account for swirl
Buoyancy and compressibility terms can be included
Improved performance over std. kε model for
z rapidly strained flows
z flows with streamline curvature
Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddy
viscosity model
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Standard kε model could not ensure:
z Positivity of normal stresses
z Schwarz’s inequality of shear stresses
Modifications made to standard model
z k equation is same; new formulation for u
t
and ε
z C
u
is variable
z ε equation is based on a transport equation for the meansquare vorticity
fluctuation
0
2
≥
u
α
( )
u u
u u
2 2
2
β
α
β α
≤
Realizable kε Model: Motivation
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How can normal stresses become negative?
Standard kε Boussinesq viscosity relation:
Normal component:
Normal stress will be negative if:
3
2

ij
2
δ ρ
ε
ρ ρ
u
k
x
U
x
U k
C u u
i
j
j
i
j
i


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
= −
2
3
2
2
2
x
U k
C k u
∂
∂
− =
ε
u
3.7
3
1
≈ >
∂
∂
u
ε C x
U k
Realizable kε Model: Realizability
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Realizable kε Model: C
u
C
u
is not a constant, but varies as a function of mean velocity field and
turbulence (0.09 in loglayer Sk/ε = 3.3, 0.05 in shear layer of Sk/ε = 6)
C
u
contours for 2D backwardfacing step
C
u
along
bottomwall
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Realizable kε Model Equations
ε
ε
ρ u
u u
k U
A A
C
k
C
s
*
0
2
t
1
,
+
= =
where
ij ij
ki jk ij
ij ij ij ij
S S S
S
S S S
W S S U = = Ω Ω + ≡
~
,
~
,
*
( ) W A A
s
6 cos
3
1
, cos 6 , 04 . 4
1
0
−
= = = φ φ
0 . 1 , / ,
5
, 43 . 0 max
2 1
= =
+
= C Sk C ε η
η
η
νε
ε ρ
ε ρ
ε
σ
u
u
ε
ρ
ε
+
− +
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
=
k
C S C
x x Dt
D
j j
2
2 1
t
ε ε transport equation transport equation
turbulent viscosity turbulent viscosity
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Realizable kε Model Pros & Cons
Performance generally exceeds the standard kε model
Buoyancy and compressibilty terms can be included
Good for complex flows with large strain rates
z recirculation, rotation, separation, strong ∇p
Resolves the roundjet/plane jet anomaly
z predicts the speading rate for round and plane jets
Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddyviscosity
model
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Standard and SST kω Models
kω models are a popular alternative to kε
z ω ~ ε / k
z u
t
∝ ρk / ω
Wilcox’s original model was found to be quite sensitive to
inlet and farfield boundary values of ω
Can be used in nearwall region without modification
Latest version contains several refinements:
z reduced sensitivity to boundary conditions
z modifcation for the roundjet/planejet anomaly
z compressibility effects
z lowRe (transitional) effects
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Standard kω Model
The most wellknown Wilcox kω model until recently was his 1988
model (will be referred to as Wilcox’ “original” kω model)
Fluent v6 Standard kω model is Wilcox’ 1998 model
Wilcox’ original kω is a subset of the Wilcox 1998 model, and can be
recovered by deactivating some of the options and changing some of the
model constants
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
=
j
t
j j
i
ij
j k
t
j j
i
ij
t
x x
f
x
U
k Dt
D
x
k
x
k f
x
U
Dt
Dk
k
ω
σ
u
u ω β ρ τ
ω
α
ω
ρ
σ
u
u ω β ρ τ ρ
ω
ρ α u
ω
β
β
2
*
*
*
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Standard kω Turbulent Viscosity
Turbulent viscosity is computed from:
The dependency of α* upon Re
T
was designed to recover the correct
asymptotic values in the limiting cases. In particular, note that:
ω
ρ α u
k
t
*
=
0 . 1 , Re , 6
125
9
,
3
,
Re 1
Re
where
*
*
0
*
0 * *
= = =
= =


.

\

+
+
=
∞
∞
α
ωu
ρ
β
β
α
α
α α
k
R
R
R
T k
i
i
k T
k T
turbulent) (fully as ∞ → →
T
Re 1
*
α
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Standard kω Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Note the dependence upon Re
Τ
, M
t
, and χ
k
“Dilatation” dissipation is accounted for via M
t
term
The crossdiffusion parameter (χ
k
) is designed to improve free shear
flow predictions
4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1
43 42 1
3 2 1
k of Diffusion
k of rate n Dissipatio
k of production
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
j k
t
j j
i
ij
x
k
x
k f
x
U
Dt
Dk
σ
u
u ω β ρ τ ρ
β
*
*
( )  
( )
( )
09 . 0 , 5 . 1 , 0 . 2
8 ,
Re 1
Re 15 4
1
* *
4
4
* *
* * *
= = =
=
+
+
=
+ =
∞
∞
β ζ σ
β β
ζ β β
β
β
β
k
T
T
i
t i
R
R
R
M F
( )
4 4 3 4 4 2 1
parameter diffusion  cross
j j
k
k
k
k
k
t t
t t t t
t t
t
x x
k
f
RT a M
a
k
M
M M M M
M M
M F
∂
∂
∂
∂
=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
+
+
≤
=
= = =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> −
≤
=
ω
ω
χ
χ
χ
χ
χ
γ
β 3
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
1
,
0
400 1
680 1
0 1
,
4
1
,
2
0
*
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Note the dependence upon Re
Τ
, M
t
, and χ
ω
Vortexstretching parameter (χ
ω
) designed to remedy the plane/roundjet
anomaly
Standard kω Specific Dissipation Equation
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
j
t
j j
i
ij
x x
f
x
U
k Dt
D ω
σ
u
u ω β ρ τ
ω
α
ω
ρ
ω
β
2
( )
( )


.

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
= Ω


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
=
Ω Ω
=
+
+
=
+ =
= = = =
+
+
=
∞
∞
∞
∞
∞
i
j
j
i
ij
i
j
j
i
ij
ki jk ij
t
i
i
i
T
T
x
U
x
U
x
U
x
U
S
S
f M F
R
R
R
2
1
,
2
1
5 . 1 , ,
80 1
70 1
, 1
0 . 2 , 95 . 2 ,
9
1
,
25
13
,
Re 1
Re
*
3
*
*
*
0
0
*
ζ
ω β
χ
χ
χ
ζ
β
β
β β
σ α α
α
α
α
α
ω
ω
ω
β
ω ω
ω
ω
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Standard kω Model Submodels & Options (I)
“Transitional flow” option
z Corresponds to all terms involving Re
T
terms in the model
equations
z Deactivated by default
z Can benefit lowRe flows where the extent of the
transitional flow region is large
“Compressibility Effects” option
z Takes effects via F(M
t
)
z Accounts for “dilatation” dissipation
z Available with idealgas option only and is turned on by
default
z Improve highMach number free shear and boundary
layer flow predictions  reduces spreading rates
k k
k
d d s
x
u
x
u
∂
′
∂
∂
′
∂
= + = ρ ε ρ ε ρ ε ρ ε ρ
3
4
,
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Standard kω Model Submodels & Options (II)
“ShearFlow Corrections” option
z Controls both crossdiffusion and vortexstretching
terms  Activated by default
z Crossdiffusion term (in kequation)
Designed to improve the model performance for free
shear flows without affecting boundary layer flows
z Vortexstretching term
Designed to resolve the round/planejet anomaly
Takes effects for axisymmetric and 3D flows but
vanishes for planar 2D flows
( )
3
*
,
80 1
70 1
ω β
χ
χ
χ
ω
ω
ω
β
∞
Ω Ω
=
+
+
=
ki jk ij
S
f
4 4 3 4 4 2 1
parameter diffusion  cross
j j
k
k
k
k
k
x x
k
f
∂
∂
∂
∂
=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
+
+
≤
=
ω
ω
χ
χ
χ
χ
χ
β 3
2
2
1
,
0
400 1
680 1
0 1
*
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Menter’s SST kω Model Background
Many people, including Menter (1994), have noted that:
• Wilcox’ original kω model is overly sensitive to the freestream value
(BC) of ω, while kε model is not prone to such problem
• kω model has many good attributes and perform much better than kε
models for boundary layer flows
• Most twoequation models, including kε models, overpredict turbulent
stresses in the wake (velocitydefect) region, which leads to poor
performance of the models for boundary layers under adverse pressure
gradient and separated flows
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Menter’s SST kω Model Main Components
The SST kω model consists of
z Zonal (blended) kω/kε equations (to address item 1 and 2 in the previous
slide)
z Clipping of turbulent viscosity so that turbulent stresses stay within what
is dictated by the structural similarity constant. (Bradshaw, 1967) 
addresses item 3 in the previous slide
Inner layer
(sublayer,
loglayer)
Wilcox’ original kω model
ε
ε
l
2
3
k
=
Wall
Outer layer
(wake and
outward)
kω model transformed
from std. kε model
Modified Wilcox kω model
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Menter’s SST kω Model Inner Layer
The kω model equations for the inner layer are taken from the Wilcox
original kω model with some constants modified
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
j
t
j j
i
ij
t
j k
t
j j
i
ij
x x x
U
Dt
D
x
k
x
k
x
U
Dt
Dk
ω
σ
u
u ρω β τ
ν
γ ω
ρ
σ
u
u ρω β τ ρ
ω1
2
1
1
1
*
( ) 41 . 0 , , 09 . 0
0 . 2 , 176 . 1 , 075 . 0
1
* 2 *
1 1
*
1 1 1
= − = =
= = =
κ σ β κ β β γ β
σ σ β
ω
ω k
( )
( )


.

\

= =
Ω
=
ω
ν
ω
ω
ρ u
2
2
2
2 2
2 1
1
500
,
09 . 0
2
max arg , arg tanh
, a max
y y
k
F
F
k a
t
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Menter’s SST kω Model Outer Layer
The kω model equations for the outer layer are obtained from by transforming
the standard kε equations via changeofvariable
Turbulent viscosity computed from:
j j
j
t
j j
i
ij
t
j k
t
j j
i
ij
x x
k
x x x
U
Dt
D
x
k
x
k
x
U
Dt
Dk
∂
∂
∂
∂
+
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
ω
ω
ρσ
ω
σ
u
u ρω β τ
ν
γ ω
ρ
σ
u
u ρω β τ ρ
ω
ω
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
*
( ) 41 . 0 , , 09 . 0
168 . 1 , 0 . 1 , 0828 . 0
2
* 2 *
2 2
*
2 2 2
= − = =
= = =
κ σ β κ β β γ β
σ σ β
ω
ω k
ω
ρ u
k
t
=
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Menter’s SST kω Model Blending the Equations
The two sets of equations and the model constants are blended in such
a way that the resulting equation set transitions smoothly from one
equation to another.
( )


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂
=


.

\

=
=
−20
2
2
2
2 *
1
4
1 1
10 ,
1
2 max
4
,
500
, max min arg
arg tanh
j j
k
k
x x
k
CD
y CD
k
y y
k
F
ω
ω
ρσ
σ ρ
ω
ν
ω β
ω ω
ω
ω
( )
( )
γ σ σ β φ
φ φ φ
ρ ρ
ω
, , , where
1
1
2 1 1 1
outer
1
inner
1
k
F F
Dt
Dk
F
Dt
Dk
F
=
− + =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + − +
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
layer outler the in
layer inner the in
0
1
1
1
→
=
F
F
Wilcox’ original kω model
ε
ε
l
2
3
k
=
Wall
kω model transformed
from std. kε model
Modified Wilcox kω model
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Menter’s SST kω Model Blended kω Equations
The resulting blended equations are:
Wall
( )
j j
j
t
j j
i
ij
t
j k
t
j j
i
ij
x x
k
F
x x x
U
Dt
D
x
k
x
k
x
U
Dt
Dk
∂
∂
∂
∂
− +
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
∂
∂


.

\

+
∂
∂
+ −
∂
∂
=
ω
ω
σ ρ
ω
σ
u
u ω ρ β τ
ν
γ
ω
ρ
σ
u
u ω ρ β τ ρ
ω
ω
1
1 2
2 1
2
*
( ) γ σ σ β φ φ φ φ
ω
, , , , 1
2 1 1 1 k
F F = − + =
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Menter’s SST kω Model Turbulent Viscosity
Honors the “structural similarity” constant for boundary layers
(Bradshaw, 1967)
Turbulent stress implied by turbulence models can be written as:
z In many flow situations (e.g. adverse pressure gradient flows), production
of TKE can be much larger than dissipation (P
k
>> ε), which leads to
predicted turbulent stress larger than what is implied by the structural
similarity constant
z How can turbulent stress be limited?  A simple trick is to clip turbulent
viscosity such that:
ε
P
k a
y
U
k
t t 1
ρ u u τ = Ω =
∂
∂
=
1967) (Bradshaw,
1 1
a
k
v u
k a v u =
′ ′
−
← =
′ ′
− ≡ ρ ρ τ
k a
t 1
ρ u ≤ Ω
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Menter’s SST kω Model Clipping u
t
Turbulent viscosity for the inner layer is computed from:
Remarks
z F
2
is equal to 1 inside boundary layer and goes to zero far from the wall
and free shear layers
z The name SST (shearstress transport) is a big word for this simple trick
z Note that the vorticity magnitude is used (strainrate magnitude could also
be used)
( )
( )
magnitude) (vorticity
ij ij
t
y y
k
F
F
k a k
F
k a
Ω Ω ≡ Ω


.

\

= =


.

\

Ω
=
Ω
=
2
500
,
09 . 0
2
max arg , arg tanh
, min
, a max
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2 1
1
ω
ν
ω
ω
ρ
ω
ρ u
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Menter’s SST kω Model Submodels & Options
SST kω model comes with:
z Transitional Flows option (Off by
default)
z Compressibility Effects option when
idealgas option is selected (On by
default)
The original SST kω model in the
literature does not have any of these
options
z These submodels are being borrowed
from Wilcox’ 1998 model  should be
used with caution
z Do not activate any options to recover the
original SST model
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kω Models Boundary Conditions
Wall boundary conditions
z The enhanced wall treatment (EWT) is the sole nearwall option for kω
models. Neither the standard wall functions option nor the nonequilibrium
wall functions option is available for kω models in FLUENT 6
The blended laws of the wall are used exclusively
ω values at wall adjacent cells are computed by blending the walllimiting
value (y>0) and the value in the loglayer
z The kω models can be used with either a fine nearwall mesh or a coarse
nearwall mesh
For other BCs (e.g., inlet, freestream), the following relationship is used
internally, whenever possible, to convert to and from different turbulence
quantities:
09 . 0 ,
* *
= = β ω β ε k
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Faults in the Boussinesq Assumption
Boussinesq: R
ij
= 2u
t
S
ij
z Is simple linear relationship sufficient?
R
ij
is strongly dependent on flow conditions and history
R
ij
changes at rates not entirely related to mean flow processes
z R
ij
is not strictly aligned with S
ij
for flows with:
sudden changes in mean strain rate
extra rates of strain (e.g., rapid dilatation, strong streamline
curvature)
rotating fluids
stressinduced secondary flows
Modifications to twoequation models cannot be generalized for
arbitrary flows
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0 ) ( ) ( =
′
+
′
i j j i
u NS u u NS u
Reynolds Stress Models
Starting point is the exact transport equations for the
transport of Reynolds stresses, R
ij
z six transport equations in 3d
Equations are obtained by Reynoldsaveraging the product
of the exact momentum equations and a fluctuating velocity.
z
The resulting equations contain several terms that must be
modeled
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Reynolds Stress Transport Equations
k
ijk
ij ij ij
ij
x
J
P
Dt
DR
∂
∂
+ − Φ + = ε
Generation


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
≡
k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u P ρ


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
′
− ≡ Φ
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u
p
k
j
k
i
ij
x
u
x
u
∂
∂
∂
∂
≡ u ε 2
PressureStrain
Redistribution
Dissipation
Turbulent
Diffusion
(modeled)
(related to ε)
(modeled)
(computed)
(incompressible flow w/o body
forces)
Reynolds Stress
Transport Eqns.
43 42 1
43 42 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
) (
j i
k
k j i ik j jk i ijk
u u
x
u u u u p u p J
∂
∂
− +
′
+
′
≡ u ρ δ δ
Pressure/velocity
fluctuations
Turbulent
transport
Molecular
transport
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ε δ ε
ij ij
3
2
=
Dissipation Modeling
Dissipation rate is predominantly associated with small scale eddy
motions
z Large scale eddies affected by mean shear
z Vortex stretching process breaks eddies down into continually smaller
scales
The directional bias imprinted on turbulence by mean flow is gradually
lost
Small scale eddies assumed to be locally isotropic
ε is calculated with its own (or related) transport equation
Compressibility and nearwall anisotropy effects can be accounted for
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Turbulent Diffusion
Most closure models combine the pressure diffusion with the
triple products and use a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis
z Overall performance of models for these terms is generally
inconsistent based on isolated comparisons to measured triple
products
z DNS data indicate that above p′ terms are negligible
( ) ( ) ( )


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂
=


.

\

∂
∂
− + +
∂
∂
l
j i
l k s
k
j i
k
j ik i kj k j i
k
x
u u
u u
k
C
x
u u
x
u u
p
u u u
x ε
ν δ δ
ρ
'


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂
=
k
j i
k
x
u u
k
C
x ε σ
u
2
Or even a simpler model
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Pressurestrain term of same order as production
Pressurestrain term acts to drive turbulence towards
an isotropic state by redistributing the Reynolds stresses
Decomposed into parts
Model of Launder, Reece & Rodi (1978)


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
′
− ≡ Φ
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u
p
i
j
j
i
i
j
i
i i
x
u
x
u
x
u
u
x x
p
∂
∂
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
− =
∂ ∂
′
∂
2
1
ρ
∂
∂
−


.

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+ − = Φ
ij
m
l
m l
l
i
l j
l
j
l i ij ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u
x
U
u u c b c δ
3
2
2 1
i
j
j
i
i i
x
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x
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x x
p
∂
∂
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′
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1
2
ρ
“Rapid Part” “Slow” Part

.

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− ≡
ij j i
k u u
k
ij
b δ
ε
3
2
where
w ij ij ij ij , 2 , 1 ,
Φ + Φ + Φ = Φ
mean mean
gradient gradient
PressureStrain Modeling
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Advanced Fluent Training
Turbulence Apr 2005
PressureStrain Modeling Options
Wallreflection effect
z contains explicit distance from wall
z damps the normal stresses perpendicular to wall
z enhances stresses parallel to wall
SSG (Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski) Pressure Strain Model
z Expands the basic LRR model to include nonlinear (quadratic) terms
z Superior performance demonstrated for some basic shear flows
plane strain, rotating plane shear, axisymmetric expansion/contraction
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Advanced Fluent Training
Turbulence Apr 2005
Characteristics of RSM
Effects of curvature, swirl, and rotation are directly accounted for in
the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.
z When anisotropy of turbulence significantly affects the mean flow,
consider RSM
More cpu resources (vs. kε models) is needed
z 5060% more cpu time per iteration and 1520% additional memory
Strong coupling between Reynolds stresses and the mean flow
z number of iterations required for convergence may increase
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Advanced Fluent Training
Turbulence Apr 2005
θ
i
u
Heat Transfer
The Reynolds averaging process produces an additional term in the
energy equation:
z Analogous to the Reynolds stresses, this is termed the turbulent heat flux
It is possible to model a transport equation for the heat flux, but this is not
common practice
Instead, a turbulent thermal diffusivity is defined proportional to the
turbulent viscosity
VThe constant of proportionality is called the turbulent Prandtl number
VGenerally assumed that Pr
t
~ 0.850.9
Applicable to other scalar transport equations
Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com
Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005
Outline
Background
Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
Scales
Eliminating the small scales
Reynolds Averaging Filtered Equations
Turbulence Modeling Theory
RANS Turbulence Models in FLUENT
Turbulence Modeling Options in Fluent
Near wall modeling, Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
Turbulent Flow Examples
Comparison with Experiments and DNS
Turbulence Models Near Wall Treatments
2 / 65
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Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005
What is Turbulence?
Unsteady, irregular (aperiodic) motion in which transported quantities (mass, momentum, scalar species) fluctuate in time and space Fluid properties exhibit random variations
statistical averaging results in accountable, turbulence related transport mechanisms
Contains a wide range of eddy sizes (scales)
typical identifiable swirling patterns large eddies ‘carry’ small eddies
3 / 65
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gridgenerated turbulence Turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate 4 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 . decaying.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Two Examples of Turbulence Homogeneous.fluentusers.
6/7/2005 .fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Energy Cascade Larger. transfer energy to smaller eddies via vortex stretching Larger eddies derive energy from mean flow Large eddy size and velocity on order of mean flow Smallest eddies convert kinetic energy into thermal energy via viscous dissipation Rate at which energy is dissipated is set by rate at which they receive energy from the larger eddies at start of cascade 5 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. higherenergy eddies.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Vortex Stretching Existence of eddies implies vorticity Vorticity is concentrated along vortex lines or bundles Vortex lines/bundles become distorted from the induced velocities of the larger eddies As end points of a vortex line randomly move apart vortex line increases in length but decreases in diameter vorticity increases because angular momentum is nearly conserved Most of the vorticity is contained within the smallest eddies Turbulence is a highly 3D phenomenon 6 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Smallest Scales of Turbulence Smallest eddy (Kolmogorov) scales: large eddy energy supply rate ~ small eddy energy dissipation rate → ε = dk/dt k ≡ ½(u′2+v′2+w′2) is (specific) turbulent kinetic energy [l2 / t2] ε is dissipation rate of k [l2 / t3] Motion at smallest scales dependent upon dissipation rate.fluentusers. τ = (ν / ε)1/2. ε.Fluent User Services Center www. v = (νε)1/4 7 / 65 © Fluent Inc. ν [l2 / t] From dimensional analysis: η = (ν3 / ε)1/4. and kinematic viscosity. 6/7/2005 .
l l (k 3 / 2 / l )1/ 4 3/ 4 = 3 ≈ ≈ ReT η (ν / ε )1/ 4 ν 3/ 4 l l η >> 1 where ReT = k1/2l / ν (turbulence Reynolds number) 8 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. Large scales Largest eddy scales: Assume l is characteristic of larger eddy size Dimensional analysis is sufficient to estimate order of large eddy supply rate of k as k / τturnover τturnover is a time scale associated with the larger eddies the order of τturnover can be estimated as l / k1/2 Since ε ~ k / τturnover. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Small scales vs. ε ~ k3/2 / l or l ~ k3/2 / ε Comparing l with η.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Implication of Scales Consider a mesh fine enough to resolve smallest eddies and large enough to capture mean flow features η Example: 2D channel flow Ncells~(4l / η)3 or l l ≈ Ncells ~ (3Reτ)9/4 η (ν / ε ) H where l Reτ = uτH / 2ν ReH = 30.800 → Reτ = 800 → Ncells = 4x107 ! 3 1/ 4 9 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.
Fluent User Services Center www.003H Reτ uτ ∆t 2 D Channel ≈ DNS is not suitable for practical industrial CFD DNS is feasible only for simple geometries and low turbulent Reynolds numbers DNS is a useful research tool 10 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Direct Numerical Simulation “DNS” is the solution of the timedependent NavierStokes equations without recourse to modeling ∂U i ∂U i ∂p ∂ =− ρ +Uk + ∂t ∂xk ∂xi ∂xk Numerical time step size required. 6/7/2005 . ∆t ~ τ For 2D channel example ReH = 30.fluentusers.000 ∂U i µ ∂x j 0.800 Number of time steps ~ 48.
∆t set by small eddies Both methods introduce additional terms that must be modeled for closure 11 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www. models smaller ones Inherently unsteady.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Removing the Small Scales Two methods can be used to eliminate need to resolve small scales: Reynolds Averaging Transport equations for mean flow quantities are solved All scales of turbulence are modeled Transient solution ∆t is set by global unsteadiness Filtering (LES) Transport equations for ‘resolvable scales’ Resolves larger eddies.fluentusers.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Prediction Methods l η = l/ReT3/4 12 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.
t ) 13 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Velocity Decomposition Consider a point in the given flow field: u u'i Ui ui time r r r ui ( x . t ) = U i ( x .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 . t ) + ui′( x .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RANS Modeling .
Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RANS Modeling . t ) = lim N →∞ N ∑ ui n =1 N (n ) r (x.Ensemble Averaging r 1 Ensemble (Phase) average: U i ( x . 6/7/2005 .fluentusers. t ) U Applicable to nonstationary flows such as periodic or quasiperiodic flows involving deterministic structures 14 / 65 © Fluent Inc.
Φψ ′ = 0. etc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Deriving RANS Equations Substitute mean and fluctuating velocities in instantaneous NavierStokes equations and average: ∂ (U i + ui′ ) ∂ (U i + ui′ ) ∂ ( p + p′) ∂ ∂ (U i + ui′ ) µ ′ =− ρ + + (U k + uk ) ∂x j ∂x j ∂xi ∂xk ∂t Some averaging rules: Given φ = Φ + φ′ and ψ = Ψ + ψ′ Φ ≡ φ . φ ′ψ ′ ≠ 0. φψ = ΦΨ + φ ′ψ ′. Massweighted (Favre) averaging used for compressible flows 15 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. φ ′ ≡ 0.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .
. etc. U.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 . now represent the mean flow quantities Additional terms appear: Rij = − ρ ui u j Rij are called the Reynolds Stresses Effectively a stress→ ∂ ∂x j ∂U i µ − ρ ui u j ∂x j These are the terms to be modeled 16 / 65 © Fluent Inc. ρ.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RANS Equations Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes equations: ∂U ∂U i ∂p ∂ =− + ρ i + Uk ∂xk ∂xi ∂x j ∂t ∂U i ∂ − ρ ui u j µ + ∂x j ∂x j (prime notation dropped) ( ) New equations are identical to original except : The transported variables.
6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Turbulence Modeling Approaches Boussinesq approach isotropic relies on dimensional analysis Reynolds stress transport models no assumption of isotropy contains more “physics” most complex and computationally expensive 17 / 65 © Fluent Inc.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 The Boussinesq Approach Relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean flow by a turbulent (eddy) viscosity. 6/7/2005 . Sij) Taylor series expansion valid if lmfpd2U/dy2 << dU/dy Average time between collisions lmfp / vth << dU/dy1 18 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. not necessarily valid at macroscopic level µt is a scalar (Rij aligned with strainrate tensor. µt 2 ∂U k 2 δ ij − ρkδ ij .fluentusers. Rij = − ρ uiu j = 2µ t Sij − µ t 3 ∂xk 3 1 ∂U i ∂U j + Sij = ∂x j ∂xi 2 Relation is drawn from analogy with molecular transport of momentum t xy = − ρ u′′v′′ = 2µSij Assumptions valid at molecular level.
g.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Modeling µt Oh well. zeroequation oneequation twoequation … 19 / 65 © Fluent Inc. focus attention on modeling µt anyways Basic approach made through dimensional arguments Units of νt = µt/ρ are [m2/s] Typically one needs 2 out of the 3 scales: velocity . 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www..fluentusers. e.time Models classified in terms of number of transport equations solved.length .
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Zero Equation Model Prandtl mixing length model: µt = ρ l 2 mix 2 Sij Sij . 1 ∂U i ∂U j + Sij = ∂xi 2 ∂x j Relation is drawn from same analogy with molecular transport of momentum: 1 1 µt = ρ vmixlmix µ = ρ v th lmfp 2 2 The mixing length model: assumes that vmix is proportional to lmix& strain rate: vmix ∝ lmix 2Sij Sij requires that lmix be prescribed lmix must be ‘calibrated’ for each problem Very crude approach.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www. but economical Not suitable for general purpose CFD though can be useful where a very crude estimate of turbulence is required 20 / 65 © Fluent Inc.
Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .Reduce mixing length in viscous sublayer (inner boundary layer) with damping factor to effect reduced ‘mixing’ Clauser.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Other Zero Equation Models Mixing length observed to behave differently in flows near solid boundaries than in free shear flows Modifications made to the Prandtl mixing length model to account for near wall flows Van Driest.Define appropriate mixing length in velocity defect (outer boundary) layer Klebanoff.fluentusers.Account for intermittency dependency CebeciSmith and BaldwinLomax Accounts for all of above adjustments in two layer models Mixing length models typically fail for separating flows Large eddies persist in the mean flow and cannot be modeled from local properties alone 21 / 65 © Fluent Inc.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 OneEquation Models Traditionally. 6/7/2005 . oneequation models were based on transport equation for k (turbulent kinetic energy) to calculate velocity scale. v = k1/2 Circumvents assumed relationship between v and turbulence length scale (mixing) Use of transport equation allows ‘history effects’ to be accounted for Length scale still specified algebraically based on the mean flow very dependent on problem type approach not suited to general purpose CFD 22 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.
fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Turbulence Kinetic Energy Equation Exact k equation derived from sum of products of NavierStokes equations with fluctuating velocities (Trace of the Reynolds Stress transport equations) ∂k ∂k +U j = Rij ∂U i − ρε + ∂ ρ ∂t ∂x j ∂x j ∂x j unsteady & convective where production dissipation ∂k 1 − ρ u i ui u j − p ' u j µ ∂x j 2 turbulent transport pressure diffusion molecular diffusion ε =ν ∂ui ∂ui ∂xk ∂xk (incompressible form) 23 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .
σk. dissipation.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Modeled Equation for k The production. 6/7/2005 . and pressure diffusion terms must be modeled Rij in production term is calculated from Boussinesq formula Turbulent transport and pressure diffusion: µ ∂k 1 Using µt/σk assumes k ρ ui ui u j + p ' u j = − t can be transported by σ k ∂x j 2 ε = CDk3/2/l from dimensional arguments µt = CDρk2/ ε (recall µt ∝ ρk1/2l) CD.Fluent User Services Center www. and l are model parameters to be specified Necessity to specify l limits usefulness of this model turbulence as can U Advanced one equation models are ‘complete’ solves for eddy viscosity 24 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. turbulent transport.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 SpalartAllmaras Model Equations modified turbulent viscosity ~~ 1 ∂ = ρ cb1S ν + ρ Dt σ ν~ ∂x j ~ Dν ~ µ t ≡ ρν f v1 . ~ ν ~ S ≡ S + 2 2 fv2 . 6/7/2005 . g + c w3 g = r + cw 2 r − r .fluentusers. f v1 = ~ ~ 2 ~ 2 ∂ν ∂ν ν ~ − cw1 ρ f w (µ + ρν ) + cb 2 ρ ∂x ∂x j d j ~ ν χ≡ ν χ3 χ + cv1 3 3 . 6 ( ) ~ ν r≡ ~ 2 2 Sκ d distance from wall ~ Wall boundary condition :ν = 0 25 / 65 © Fluent Inc. κ d 1/ 6 f v2 = 1 − χ 1 + χf v1 damping functions 1+ 6 3 f w = g 6 cw6 .Fluent User Services Center www.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 SpalartAllmaras Production Term Default definition uses rotation rate tensor only: S≡ 2 ΩijΩij . 1 ∂U i ∂U j − Ωij = 2 ∂x j ∂xi Alternative formulation also uses strain rate tensor: S ≡ Ω ij + C prod min(0.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 .Ω ij ) reduces turbulent viscosity for vortical flows more correctly accounts for the effects of rotation 26 / 65 © Fluent Inc. Sij .Fluent User Services Center www.
6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 SpalartAllmaras Model SpalartAllmaras model developed for unstructured codes in aerospace industry Increasingly popular for turbomachinery applications “LowRe” formulation by default can be integrated through log layer and viscous sublayer to wall Fluent’s implementation can also use lawofthewall Economical and accurate for: wallbounded flows flows with mild separation and recirculation Weak for: massively separated flows free shear flows simple decaying turbulence 27 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.
ε ∝ k3/2 / l Chou. l ∝ k3/2 / ε µt ∝ ρk1/2l. ω: ω is specific dissipation rate defined in terms of large eddy scales that define supply rate of k µt ∝ ρk / ω. k Several transport variables have been proposed. and used for second equation Kolmogorov. 6/7/2005 . ε: Rotta. k ∝ ε / ω µt ∝ ρk2 / ε. l: Boussinesq relation still used for Reynolds Stresses 28 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. based on dimensional arguments. l ∝ k1/2 / ω. giving two independent scales for calculating µt Virtually all use the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 TwoEquation Models Two transport equations are solved.
Cε 2 turbulent viscosity Empirical constants determined from benchmark experiments of simple flows using air and water. ∂x j production S = 2 Sij Sij εtransport equation dissipation Dε ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j coefficients µ µ + t σε ∂ε ε 2 + C1ε µ t S − ρC2ε ε ∂x j k inverse time scale ( ) σ k .fluentusers. Ciε . µ t = ρ Cµ k2 ε © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 29 / 65 .Fluent User Services Center www. σ ε .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kε Model Equations ktransport equation Dk ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j µt µ + σk ∂k 2 + µt S − ρε .
Uniform flow past grid Standard kε equations reduce to just convection and dissipation terms dε dk ε2 U = −ε .fluentusers.g.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .. U = −C2ε dx dx k Homogeneous Shear Flow NearWall (Log layer) Flow 30 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Closure Coefficients Simple flows render simpler model equations Coefficients can be isolated and compared with experiment e.
e.Fluent User Services Center www. must be modified for the nearwall region) The term “standard” refers to the choice of coefficients Sometimes additional terms are included production due to buoyancy unstable stratification (g·∇T >0) supports k production dilatation dissipation due to compressibility added dissipation term.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kε Model HighReynolds number model (i. prevents overprediction of spreading rate in compressible flows Dk ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j µ µ + t σk ∂k µ ∂ρ k + µt S 2 − ρε − g i t − ρε 2 ∂x ρ Prt ∂xi γRT j Buoyancy production 31 / 65 Dilatation Dissipation © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.. 6/7/2005 .
separating flows.Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kε Model Pros & Cons Strengths: robust economical reasonable accuracy for a wide range of flows Weaknesses: overly diffusive for many situations flows involving strong streamline curvature.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 . swirl. rotation. lowRe flows cannot predict round jet spreading rate Variants of the kε model have been developed to address its deficiencies RNG and Realizable 32 / 65 © Fluent Inc.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RNG kε Model Equations Derived using renormalization group theory scaleelimination technique applied to NavierStokes equations (sensitizes equations to specific flow regimes) k equation is similar to standard kε model Additional strain rate term in ε equation most significant difference between standard and RNG kε models Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl numbers Differentialviscosity relation for low Reynolds numbers Boussinesq model used by default η C µ ρη 3 1 − η 0 * C 2ε = C 2ε + 3 1 + βη k η=S εtransport equation Dε ∂ * ρ (αε µeff ) ∂ε + ε C1ε µt S 2 − ρC2ε ε where = Dt ∂x j ∂x j k ( ) η0 .fluentusers. 6/7/2005 ε 33 / 65 .Fluent User Services Center www. β are coefficients µ eff = µ + µ t © Fluent Inc.
and therefore k and µt are reduced Option to modify turbulent viscosity to account for swirl Buoyancy and compressibility terms can be included Improved performance over std.Fluent User Services Center www. kε model for rapidly strained flows flows with streamline curvature Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddyviscosity model 34 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RNG kε Model Pros &Cons For large strain rates: where η > η0. 6/7/2005 . ε is augmented.
Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable kε Model: Motivation Standard kε model could not ensure: Positivity of normal stresses 2 uα ≥ 0 Schwarz’s inequality of shear stresses 2 2 2 (uα u β ) ≤ uα u β Modifications made to standard model k equation is same. new formulation for µt and ε Cµ is variable ε equation is based on a transport equation for the meansquare vorticity fluctuation 35 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable kε Model: Realizability How can normal stresses become negative? Standard kε Boussinesq viscosity relation: k 2 ∂U i ∂U j 2 .7 ε ∂x 3Cµ 36 / 65 © Fluent Inc.ρ k δ ij − ρ ui u j = ρ C µ + ε ∂x j ∂xi 3 Normal component: k 2 ∂U 2 u = k − 2Cµ ε ∂x 3 2 Normal stress will be negative if: 1 k ∂U > ≈ 3.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.
but varies as a function of mean velocity field and turbulence (0.3.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable kε Model: Cµ Cµ is not a constant.09 in loglayer Sk/ε = 3.fluentusers. 0.05 in shear layer of Sk/ε = 6) Cµ along bottomwall Cµ contours for 2D backwardfacing step 37 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.
. W = .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable kε Model Equations εtransport equation Dε ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j µ µ + t σε ∂ε ρ ε2 ∂x + C1 S ρ ε − C2 k + νε j η C1 = max 0.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.0 η + 5 turbulent viscosity µ t = ρ Cµ where k2 ε . C2 = 1. As = 6 cos φ . S = S ij S ij ~ S 38 / 65 © Fluent Inc. φ = cos −1 6W 3 S ij S jk S ki ~ * U ≡ S ij S ij + Ω ij Ω ij . Cµ = 1 A0 + As U *k 1 A0 = 4. η = Sk / ε .04. 6/7/2005 ε ( ) .43.
6/7/2005 . strong ∇p Resolves the roundjet/plane jet anomaly predicts the speading rate for round and plane jets Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddyviscosity model 39 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. separation.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable kε Model Pros & Cons Performance generally exceeds the standard kε model Buoyancy and compressibilty terms can be included Good for complex flows with large strain rates recirculation. rotation.
fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard and SST kω Models kω models are a popular alternative to kε ω~ε/k µt ∝ ρk / ω Wilcox’s original model was found to be quite sensitive to inlet and farfield boundary values of ω Can be used in nearwall region without modification Latest version contains several refinements: reduced sensitivity to boundary conditions modifcation for the roundjet/planejet anomaly compressibility effects lowRe (transitional) effects 40 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .
fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 . and can be recovered by deactivating some of the options and changing some of the model constants 41 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kω Model The most wellknown Wilcox kω model until recently was his 1988 model (will be referred to as Wilcox’ “original” kω model) Fluent v6 Standard kω model is Wilcox’ 1998 model µt = α * ρ k ω µ µ + t σk ∂k ∂x j ∂ω ∂x j ∂U i ∂ Dk − ρ β * f β * kω + = τ ij ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt ∂ Dω ω ∂U i = α τ ij − ρ β fβ ω 2 + ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt k µ µ + t σω Wilcox’ original kω is a subset of the Wilcox 1998 model.
6/7/2005 . Re T = .fluentusers. where α = α 3 1 + Re T Rk ρk * Rk = 6 . note that: α * → 1 as ReT → ∞ (fully turbulent) 42 / 65 © Fluent Inc. α 0 = i . 0 ωµ The dependency of α* upon ReT was designed to recover the correct asymptotic values in the limiting cases.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kω Turbulent Viscosity Turbulent viscosity is computed from: µt = α * ρ * * ∞ k ω βi = 9 125 * α 0 + Re T Rk β * .Fluent User Services Center www. α ∞ = 1. In particular.
ζ * = 1. a = γRT 4 a χk ≤ 0 1 1 ∂ k ∂ω . and χk “Dilatation” dissipation is accounted for via Mt term The crossdiffusion parameter (χk ) is designed to improve free shear flow predictions 43 / 65 0 M t ≤ M t0 F (M t ) = 2 M t − M t20 M t > M t 0 2k 1 M t2 = 2 .5.0.diffusion parameter © Fluent Inc. χk = 3 f β * = 1 + 680 χ k2 ω ∂x ∂xj 1 + 400 χ 2 χ k > 0 14424j43 k cross. M t 0 = .Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 . Mt .09 4 4 15 + (Re T Rβ ) 4 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kω Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dk µ ∂k ∂U i ∂ * µ + t ρ = τ ij − ρ β f β * kω + Dt σ k ∂x j ∂ x j ∂x j 14 4 2 3 3 4 123 Dissipatio n rate of k 144 2444 production of k Diffusion of k β * = β i* [1 + ζ * F (M t )] * β i* = β ∞ 1 + (Re T Rβ ) * σ k = 2. β ∞ = 0.fluentusers. Rβ = 8 Note the dependence upon ReΤ .
Ω ij = 1 ∂U i − 2 ∂ x j ∂ xi S ij = Note the dependence upon ReΤ .Fluent User Services Center www.0 * 9 25 α 1 + Re T Rω Ω ij Ω jk S ki β i* * 1 + 70 χ ω * β = β i 1 + ζ ∞ F (M t ). χω = . Mt .5 * 1 + 80 χ ω (β ∞ω )3 βi 1 ∂U i ∂U j + 2 ∂x j ∂xi ∂U j . 6/7/2005 . and χω Vortexstretching parameter (χω) designed to remedy the plane/roundjet anomaly 44 / 65 © Fluent Inc. f β = .fluentusers. ζ ∞ = 1 .95 . α 0 = . σ ω = 2. α∞ = .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kω Specific Dissipation Equation Dω ∂ ω ∂U i = α τ ij − ρ β f βω 2 + ρ Dt k ∂x j ∂x j α= µt µ + σω ∂ω ∂x j α ∞ α 0 + Re T Rω 13 1 . Rω = 2.
Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kω Model Submodels & Options (I) “Transitional flow” option Corresponds to all terms involving ReT terms in the model equations Deactivated by default Can benefit lowRe flows where the extent of the transitional flow region is large “Compressibility Effects” option Takes effects via F(Mt) Accounts for “dilatation” dissipation ′ 4 ∂u k ∂ u ′ ρ 3 ∂x k ∂x k Available with idealgas option only and is turned on by default ρ ε = ρ εs + ρ εd . ρ εd = Improve highMach number free shear and boundary layer flow predictions .reduces spreading rates 45 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 .
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard kω Model Submodels & Options (II) “ShearFlow Corrections” option Controls both crossdiffusion and vortexstretching terms . χk = 3 χk > 0 ω ∂x ∂xj 14424j43 cross .fluentusers.diffusion parameter χk ≤ 0 Designed to improve the model performance for free shear flows without affecting boundary layer flows Vortexstretching term Designed to resolve the round/planejet anomaly Takes effects for axisymmetric and 3D flows but vanishes for planar 2D flows fβ = Ω ij Ω jk S ki 1 + 70 χ ω . 6/7/2005 . χω = 3 * 1 + 80 χ ω β ∞ω ( ) 46 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.Activated by default Crossdiffusion term (in kequation) fβ* 1 = 1 + 680 χ k2 1 + 400 χ 2 k 1 ∂ k ∂ω .
6/7/2005 . overpredict turbulent stresses in the wake (velocitydefect) region. which leads to poor performance of the models for boundary layers under adverse pressure gradient and separated flows 47 / 65 © Fluent Inc. including Menter (1994).com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST kω Model Background Many people.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. while kε model is not prone to such problem kω model has many good attributes and perform much better than kε models for boundary layer flows Most twoequation models. have noted that: • • • Wilcox’ original kω model is overly sensitive to the freestream value (BC) of ω. including kε models.
k3 model ε Modified Wilcox kω model Wilcox’ original kω model Wall 48 / 65 © Fluent Inc. (Bradshaw.fluentusers. 1967) addresses item 3 in the previous slide Outer layer (wake and outward) Inner layer (sublayer. 6/7/2005 k 2 ε= lε . loglayer) kω model transformed from std.Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST kω Model Main Components The SST kω model consists of Zonal (blended) kω/kε equations (to address item 1 and 2 in the previous slide) Clipping of turbulent viscosity so that turbulent stresses stay within what is dictated by the structural similarity constant.
fluentusers. γ 1 = β 1 β * − κ 2 µt = ρ ( β σ ). ΩF2 ) µ t ∂ω µ + σ ω 1 ∂x j = 1.41 2 k 500ν F2 = tanh arg 2 .0 β * = 0. 6/7/2005 . * ω1 κ = 0.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST kω Model Inner Layer The kω model equations for the inner layer are taken from the Wilcox original kω model with some constants modified ∂U i ∂ Dk = τ ij − β *kρω + ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt µ t ∂k µ + σ k1 ∂x j ∂ Dω γ 1 ∂U i = τ ij − β1 ρω 2 + ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt ν t β 1 = 0.09ω y . arg 2 = max 2 0.09 . σ ω 1 = 2.075 .Fluent User Services Center www. σ k1 a1 k max(a 1 ω . y 2 ω ( ) 49 / 65 © Fluent Inc.176 .
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Menter’s SST kω Model Outer Layer
The kω model equations for the outer layer are obtained from by transforming the standard kε equations via changeofvariable
∂U i ∂ Dk = τ ij − β *kρω + ρ ∂x j Dt ∂x j
µ t ∂k µ + σ k 2 ∂x j µ ∂ω µ + t σ ω 2 ∂x j
∂ Dω γ 2 ∂U i − β 2 ρω 2 + = τ ij ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt ν t + 2 ρσ ω 2 1 ∂k ∂ω ω ∂x j ∂x j
β 2 = 0.0828, σ k 2 = 1.0 , σ ω 2 = 1.168 β * = 0.09 , γ 2 = β 2 β * − κ 2
Turbulent viscosity computed from:
50 / 65
( β σ ),
*
ω2
κ = 0.41
µt = ρ
k
ω
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Menter’s SST kω Model Blending the Equations
The two sets of equations and the model constants are blended in such a way that the resulting equation set transitions smoothly from one equation to another.
Dk Dk + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + (1 − F1 ) ρ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ F1 ρ Dt inner Dt outer φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ2 where φ = β , σ k , σ ω , γ
kω model transformed from std. k3ε2 model Modified Wilcox k model Wilcox’ original kωω model Wall
51 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005
4 F1 = tanh arg1
(
)
k 500ν 4 ρ σ ω 2 k arg1 = min max * β ω y , y 2 ω , CD y 2 kω 1 ∂k ∂ω , 10 −20 CDkω = max 2 ρσ ω 2 ω ∂x j ∂x j
k ε= lε
F1 = 1 F1 → 0
in the inner layer in the outler layer
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Menter’s SST kω Model Blended kω Equations
The resulting blended equations are:
µ t ∂k µ + σ k ∂x j µ ∂ω ∂U i Dω γ ∂ µ + t ρ = τ ij − β ρω 2 + σ ω ∂x j Dt ν t ∂x j ∂x j 1 ∂k ∂ω + 2 ρ (1 − F1 )σ ω 2 ω ∂x j ∂x j ∂U i Dk ∂ ρ − β * k ρω + = τ ij Dt ∂x j ∂x j
φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ 2 ,
φ = β , σ k , σ ω ,γ
Wall
52 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005
1967) k Turbulent stress implied by turbulence models can be written as: Pk ∂U = µ t Ω = ρ a1 k ∂y ε In many flow situations (e. adverse pressure gradient flows). 1967) τ ≡ − ρ u ′v′ = ρ a1 k ← − u ′v′ = a1 (Bradshaw. which leads to predicted turbulent stress larger than what is implied by the structural similarity constant How can turbulent stress be limited? .fluentusers.g.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST kω Model Turbulent Viscosity Honors the “structural similarity” constant for boundary layers (Bradshaw.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .A simple trick is to clip turbulent viscosity such that: τ = µt µ t Ω ≤ ρ a1 k 53 / 65 © Fluent Inc. production of TKE can be much larger than dissipation (Pk >> ε).
6/7/2005 . 1 ω ΩF max(a 1ω . 2 k 500ν arg 2 = max 0.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. ΩF2 ) 2 2 2 = tanh (arg ) .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST kω Model Clipping µt Turbulent viscosity for the inner layer is computed from: µt = ρ F2 k ak a1 k = ρ min .09ω y . y 2 ω Ω ≡ 2Ω ij Ω ij (vorticity magnitude) Remarks F2 is equal to 1 inside boundary layer and goes to zero far from the wall and free shear layers The name SST (shearstress transport) is a big word for this simple trick Note that the vorticity magnitude is used (strainrate magnitude could also be used) 54 / 65 © Fluent Inc.
should be used with caution Do not activate any options to recover the original SST model 55 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST kω Model Submodels & Options SST kω model comes with: Transitional Flows option (Off by default) Compressibility Effects option when idealgas option is selected (On by default) The original SST kω model in the literature does not have any of these options These submodels are being borrowed from Wilcox’ 1998 model .
to convert to and from different turbulence quantities: ε = β *ω k ..g.09 56 / 65 © Fluent Inc. Neither the standard wall functions option nor the nonequilibrium wall functions option is available for kω models in FLUENT 6 The blended laws of the wall are used exclusively ω values at wall adjacent cells are computed by blending the walllimiting value (y>0) and the value in the loglayer The kω models can be used with either a fine nearwall mesh or a coarse nearwall mesh For other BCs (e. whenever possible. inlet. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers. β * = 0.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 kω Models Boundary Conditions Wall boundary conditions The enhanced wall treatment (EWT) is the sole nearwall option for kω models.Fluent User Services Center www. freestream). the following relationship is used internally.
Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 . strong streamline curvature) rotating fluids stressinduced secondary flows Modifications to twoequation models cannot be generalized for arbitrary flows 57 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Faults in the Boussinesq Assumption Boussinesq: Rij = 2µtSij Is simple linear relationship sufficient? Rij is strongly dependent on flow conditions and history Rij changes at rates not entirely related to mean flow processes Rij is not strictly aligned with Sij for flows with: sudden changes in mean strain rate extra rates of strain (e.. rapid dilatation.g.
ui′NS (u j ) + u ′j NS (ui ) = 0 The resulting equations contain several terms that must be modeled 58 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Reynolds Stress Models Starting point is the exact transport equations for the transport of Reynolds stresses. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www. Rij six transport equations in 3d Equations are obtained by Reynoldsaveraging the product of the exact momentum equations and a fluctuating velocity.
Generation PressureStrain Redistribution Dissipation Turbulent Diffusion DR ij Dt = Pij + Φ ij − ε ij + ∂J ijk ∂x k (incompressible flow w/o body forces) (computed) ∂U j ∂Ui + u j uk Pij ≡ ρ uiuk ∂xk ∂xk ∂u ∂u ′ i + j Φ ij ≡ − p ∂x j ∂xi (modeled) ε ij ≡ 2 µ ∂u i ∂u j ∂x k ∂x k (related to ε) ∂ J ijk ≡ p′uiδ jk + p′u jδ ik + ρ ui u j uk − µ (ui u j ) 144 44 2 3 123 4 4 ∂xk 14243 Pressure/velocity fluctuations 59 / 65 (modeled) Turbulent transport Molecular transport © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations Reynolds Stress Transport Eqns.
6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Dissipation Modeling Dissipation rate is predominantly associated with small scale eddy motions Large scale eddies affected by mean shear Vortex stretching process breaks eddies down into continually smaller scales The directional bias imprinted on turbulence by mean flow is gradually lost Small scale eddies assumed to be locally isotropic ε ij = δ ij ε ε is calculated with its own (or related) transport equation Compressibility and nearwall anisotropy effects can be accounted for 2 3 60 / 65 © Fluent Inc.
Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Turbulent Diffusion Most closure models combine the pressure diffusion with the triple products and use a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis ∂ ∂x k p' ∂ u i u j u k + (δ kj u i + δ ik u j ) − ν ui u j ∂x k ρ ( ) ( ) ∂ = ∂x k k ∂u i u j C u u s ε k l ∂xl C µ k 2 ∂ ui u j σ ε ∂xk Overall performance of models for these terms is generally inconsistent based on isolated comparisons to measured triple products DNS data indicate that above p′ terms are negligible ∂ Or even a simpler model = ∂xk 61 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.
Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 . Reece & Rodi (1978) ∂U j ∂U l ∂U i 2 − ul u m Φ ij = −c1bij + c 2 u i u l + u j ul δ ij 3 ∂x m ∂xl ∂xl where bij ≡ ε 2 ui u j − k δ ij k 3 62 / 65 © Fluent Inc. w “Slow” Part ∂u j ∂ui ∂u j 1 ∂ 2 p′ = −u i + ρ ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi “Rapid Part” ∂ui ∂U j 1 ∂ 2 p′ = −2 ρ ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi mean gradient Model of Launder.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 PressureStrain Modeling ∂ui ∂u j Pressurestrain term of same order as production Φij ≡ − p′ + ∂x ∂x i j Pressurestrain term acts to drive turbulence towards an isotropic state by redistributing the Reynolds stresses Decomposed into parts Φij = Φij.1 + Φij.2 + Φij.
Sarkar and Gatski) Pressure Strain Model Expands the basic LRR model to include nonlinear (quadratic) terms Superior performance demonstrated for some basic shear flows plane strain.Fluent User Services Center www. rotating plane shear.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 PressureStrain Modeling Options Wallreflection effect contains explicit distance from wall damps the normal stresses perpendicular to wall enhances stresses parallel to wall SSG (Speziale. axisymmetric expansion/contraction 63 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .
com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Characteristics of RSM Effects of curvature.fluentusers. and rotation are directly accounted for in the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. 6/7/2005 . When anisotropy of turbulence significantly affects the mean flow. consider RSM More cpu resources (vs. kε models) is needed 5060% more cpu time per iteration and 1520% additional memory Strong coupling between Reynolds stresses and the mean flow number of iterations required for convergence may increase 64 / 65 © Fluent Inc. swirl.Fluent User Services Center www.
850.fluentusers. but this is not common practice Instead. this is termed the turbulent heat flux It is possible to model a transport equation for the heat flux. a turbulent thermal diffusivity is defined proportional to the turbulent viscosity The constant of proportionality is called the turbulent Prandtl number Generally assumed that Prt ~ 0. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Heat Transfer The Reynolds averaging process produces an additional term in the energy equation: uiθ Analogous to the Reynolds stresses.9 Applicable to other scalar transport equations 65 / 65 © Fluent Inc.
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