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Overview of Turbulence Modeling
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Outline
‹ Background
z Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
„ Scales
z Eliminating the small scales
„ Reynolds Averaging
„ Filtered Equations
‹ Turbulence Modeling Theory
z RANS Turbulence Models in FLUENT
‹ Turbulence Modeling Options in Fluent
z Near wall modeling, Large Eddy Simulation (LES)
‹ Turbulent Flow Examples
z Comparison with Experiments and DNS
„ Turbulence Models
„ Near Wall Treatments
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What is Turbulence?
‹ Unsteady, irregular (aperiodic) motion in which transported quantities
(mass, momentum, scalar species) fluctuate in time and space
‹ Fluid properties exhibit random variations
z statistical averaging results in accountable, turbulence related transport
mechanisms
‹ Contains a wide range of eddy sizes (scales)
z typical identifiable swirling patterns
z large eddies ‘carry’ small eddies
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Turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate Turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate
Homogeneous, decaying, grid Homogeneous, decaying, grid- -generated turbulence generated turbulence
Two Examples of Turbulence
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Energy Cascade
‹ Larger, higher-energy eddies, transfer energy to smaller eddies via
vortex stretching
z Larger eddies derive energy from mean flow
z Large eddy size and velocity on order of mean flow
‹ Smallest eddies convert kinetic energy into thermal energy via viscous
dissipation
z Rate at which energy is dissipated is set by rate at which they receive
energy from the larger eddies at start of cascade
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Vortex Stretching
‹ Existence of eddies implies vorticity
‹ Vorticity is concentrated along vortex lines or bundles
‹ Vortex lines/bundles become distorted from the induced velocities of
the larger eddies
z As end points of a vortex line randomly move apart
„ vortex line increases in length but decreases in diameter
„ vorticity increases because angular momentum is nearly conserved
z Most of the vorticity is contained within the smallest eddies
‹ Turbulence is a highly 3D phenomenon
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Smallest Scales of Turbulence
‹ Smallest eddy (Kolmogorov) scales:
z large eddy energy supply rate ~ small eddy energy dissipation
rate → ε = -dk/dt
„ k ≡ ½(u′
2
+v′
2
+w′
2
) is (specific) turbulent kinetic energy [l
2
/ t
2
]
„ ε is dissipation rate of k [l
2
/ t
3
]
z Motion at smallest scales dependent upon dissipation rate, ε, and
kinematic viscosity, ν [l
2
/ t]
z From dimensional analysis:
‹ η = (ν
3
/ ε)
1/4
; τ = (ν / ε)
1/2
; v = (νε)
1/4
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Small scales vs. Large scales
‹ Largest eddy scales:
z Assume l is characteristic of larger eddy size
z Dimensional analysis is sufficient to estimate order of large eddy supply
rate of k as k / τ
turnover
z τ
turnover
is a time scale associated with the larger eddies
„ the order of τ
turnover
can be estimated as l / k
1/2
‹ Since ε ~ k / τ
turnover
, ε ~ k
3/2
/ l or l ~ k
3/2
/ ε
‹ Comparing l with η,
z where Re
T
= k
1/2
l / ν (turbulence Reynolds number)
4 / 3
4 / 3
4 / 1 2 / 3
4 / 1 3
Re
) / (
) / (
T
l k l l l
≈ ≈ =
ν ε ν η
1 >>
η
l
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Implication of Scales
‹ Consider a mesh fine enough to resolve smallest eddies and large
enough to capture mean flow features
‹ Example: 2D channel flow
‹ N
cells
~(4l / η)
3
or
N
cells
~ (3Re
τ
)
9/4
where
Re
τ
= u
τ
H / 2ν
‹ Re
H
= 30,800 →Re
τ
= 800 →N
cells
= 4x10
7
!
H
4 / 1 3
) / ( ε ν η
l l

l
η
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Direct Numerical Simulation
‹ “DNS” is the solution of the time-dependent Navier-Stokes
equations without recourse to modeling
z Numerical time step size required, ∆t ~ τ
„ For 2D channel example
V Re
H
= 30,800
V Number of time steps ~ 48,000
z DNS is not suitable for practical industrial CFD
„ DNS is feasible only for simple geometries and low turbulent
Reynolds numbers
„ DNS is a useful research tool
|
|
.
|

\
|




+


− =
|
|
.
|

\
|


+


j
i
k i k
i
k
i
x
U
x x
p
x
U
U
t
U
u ρ
τ τ
u
H
t
Channel D
Re
003 . 0
2
≈ ∆
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Removing the Small Scales
‹ Two methods can be used to eliminate need to resolve small scales:
z Reynolds Averaging
„ Transport equations for mean flow quantities are solved
„ All scales of turbulence are modeled
„ Transient solution ∆t is set by global unsteadiness
z Filtering (LES)
„ Transport equations for ‘resolvable scales’
„ Resolves larger eddies; models smaller ones
„ Inherently unsteady, ∆t set by small eddies
‹ Both methods introduce additional terms that must be modeled for
closure
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l
η = l/Re
T
3/4
Prediction Methods
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Turbulence Apr 2005
RANS Modeling - Velocity Decomposition
‹ Consider a point in the given flow field:
( ) ( ) ( ) t x u t x U t x u
i i i
, , ,
r r r

+ =
u'
i
U
i
u
i
time
u
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RANS Modeling - Ensemble Averaging
‹ Ensemble (Phase) average:
z Applicable to nonstationary flows such as periodic or quasi-periodic flows
involving deterministic structures
( )
( )
( )

=
∞ →
=
N
n
n
i
N
i
t x u
N
t x U
1
,
1
lim ,
r r
U
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Turbulence Apr 2005
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|


+ ∂


+


+ ∂
− =
|
|
.
|

\
|


+ ∂

+ +


+ ∂
j
i i
j i k
i i
k k
i i
x
u U
x x
p p
x
u U
u U
t
u U ) ( ) (
) (
) (
u ρ
. , 0 ; 0 ; ; 0 ; etc ≠
′ ′
=

Φ
′ ′
+ ΦΨ = ≡

≡ Φ ψ φ ψ ψ φ φψ φ φ
Deriving RANS Equations
‹ Substitute mean and fluctuating velocities in instantaneous Navier-
Stokes equations and average:
‹ Some averaging rules:
z Given φ = Φ + φ′ and ψ = Ψ + ψ′
‹ Mass-weighted (Favre) averaging used for compressible flows
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RANS Equations
‹ Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations:
‹ New equations are identical to original except :
z The transported variables, U, ρ, etc., now represent the mean flow
quantities
z Additional terms appear:
„ R
ij
are called the Reynolds Stresses
V Effectively a stress→
„ These are the terms to be modeled
( )
j
j i
j
i
j i k
i
k
i
x
u u
x
U
x x
p
x
U
U
t
U

− ∂
+
|
|
.
|

\
|




+


− =
|
|
.
|

\
|


+


ρ
u ρ
j i ij
u u R ρ − =
|
|
.
|

\
|





j i
j
i
j
u u
x
U
x
ρ u
(prime notation dropped)
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Turbulence Modeling Approaches
‹ Boussinesq approach
z isotropic
z relies on dimensional analysis
‹ Reynolds stress transport models
z no assumption of isotropy
z contains more “physics”
z most complex and computationally expensive
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The Boussinesq Approach
‹ Relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean flow by a turbulent (eddy)
viscosity, u
t
z Relation is drawn from analogy with molecular transport of momentum
z Assumptions valid at molecular level, not necessarily valid at
macroscopic level
„ u
t
is a scalar (R
ij
aligned with strain-rate tensor, S
ij
)
„ Taylor series expansion valid if l
mfp
|d
2
U/dy
2
| << |dU/dy|
„ Average time between collisions l
mfp
/ v
th
<< |dU/dy|
-1
|
|
.
|

\
|


+


= −


− = − =
i
j
j
i
ij ij ij
k
k
ij j i ij
x
U
x
U
S k
x
U
S u u R
2
1
;
3
2
3
2
2
t t
δ ρ δ u u ρ
ij xy
S v u t u ρ 2 =
′ ′ ′ ′
− =
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Modeling u
t
‹ Oh well, focus attention on modeling u
t
anyways
‹ Basic approach made through dimensional arguments
z Units of ν
t
= u
t
/ρ are [m
2
/s]
z Typically one needs 2 out of the 3 scales:
„ velocity - length - time
‹ Models classified in terms of number of transport equations solved,
e.g.,
z zero-equation
z one-equation
z two-equation
z …
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Zero Equation Model
‹ Prandtl mixing length
model:
z Relation is drawn from same analogy with molecular transport of
momentum:
z The mixing length model:
„ assumes that v
mix
is proportional to l
mix
& strain rate:
„ requires that l
mix
be prescribed
V l
mix
must be ‘calibrated’ for each problem
z Very crude approach, but economical
„ Not suitable for general purpose CFD though can be useful where a
very crude estimate of turbulence is required
|
|
.
|

\
|


+


= =
i
j
j
i
ij ij ij mix t
x
U
x
U
S S S l
2
1
; 2
2
ρ u
mfp th
v
2
1
l ρ u =
mix mix
v
2
1
l
t
ρ u =
ij ij
S S l 2 v
mix mix

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Other Zero Equation Models
‹ Mixing length observed to behave differently in flows near solid
boundaries than in free shear flows
z Modifications made to the Prandtl mixing length model to account for
near wall flows
„ Van Driest- Reduce mixing length in viscous sublayer (inner boundary
layer) with damping factor to effect reduced ‘mixing’
„ Clauser- Define appropriate mixing length in velocity defect (outer
boundary) layer
„ Klebanoff- Account for intermittency dependency
„ Cebeci-Smith and Baldwin-Lomax
V Accounts for all of above adjustments in two layer models
‹ Mixing length models typically fail for separating flows
z Large eddies persist in the mean flow and cannot be modeled from local
properties alone
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One-Equation Models
‹ Traditionally, one-equation models were based on transport equation
for k (turbulent kinetic energy) to calculate velocity scale, v = k
1/2
z Circumvents assumed relationship between v and turbulence length scale
(mixing)
z Use of transport equation allows ‘history effects’ to be accounted for
‹ Length scale still specified algebraically based on the mean flow
z very dependent on problem type
z approach not suited to general purpose CFD
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− −




+ −


=
|
|
.
|

\
|


+


j j i i
j j j
i
ij
j
j
u p u u u
x
k
x x
U
R
x
k
U
t
k
'
2
1
ρ u ρε ρ
unsteady &
convective
production
dissipation
molecular
diffusion
turbulent
transport
pressure
diffusion
k
i
k
i
x
u
x
u




=ν ε
Turbulence Kinetic Energy Equation
‹ Exact k equation derived from sum of products of Navier-Stokes
equations with fluctuating velocities
z (Trace of the Reynolds Stress transport equations)
z where (incompressible form)
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Modeled Equation for k
‹ The production, dissipation, turbulent transport, and pressure
diffusion terms must be modeled
z R
ij
in production term is calculated from Boussinesq formula
z Turbulent transport and pressure diffusion:
z ε = C
D
k
3/2
/l from dimensional arguments
z u
t
= C
D
ρk
2
/ ε (recall u
t
∝ ρk
1/2
l)
z C
D
, σ
k
, and l are model parameters to be specified
„ Necessity to specify l limits usefulness of this model
‹ Advanced one equation models are ‘complete’
z solves for eddy viscosity
j k
j j i i
x
k
u p u u u


− = +
σ
u
ρ
t
'
2
1
Using u
t

k
assumes k
can be transported by
turbulence as can U
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Spalart-Allmaras Model Equations
ν
ν
χ
χ
χ
ν ρ u
~
, f ,
~
3
1
3
3
v1 1 t

+
= ≡
c
v
v
f
1
v2 2
2 2
1
1 f ,
~
~
v
v
f
f
d
S S
χ
χ
κ
ν
+
− = + ≡
( )
2 2
6
2
6 / 1
6
3
6
6
3
~
~
, g ,
1
d S
r r r c r
g
g f
w
w
w
w
c
c
κ
ν
≡ − + =

+
+
=
( )
2
1
2
2
~
1
~

~ ~
~
1
~
~
~
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|


+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦


+


+ =
d
f c
x
c
x x
S c
Dt
D
w w
j
b
j j
b
ν
ρ
ν
ρ
ν
ν ρ u
σ
ν ρ
ν
ρ
ν
0
~
: condition boundary Wall = ν
modified turbulent viscosity modified turbulent viscosity
distance from wall distance from wall
damping functions damping functions
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|
|
.
|

\
|





= Ω Ω Ω ≡
i
j
j
i
x
U
x
U
S
2
1
; 2
ij ij ij
) - S min(0, C
ij ij prod ij
Ω + Ω ≡ S
Spalart-Allmaras Production Term
‹ Default definition uses rotation rate tensor only:
‹ Alternative formulation also uses strain rate tensor:
Š reduces turbulent viscosity for vortical flows
Š more correctly accounts for the effects of rotation
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Spalart-Allmaras Model
‹ Spalart-Allmaras model developed for unstructured codes in aerospace
industry
z Increasingly popular for turbomachinery applications
z “Low-Re” formulation by default
„ can be integrated through log layer and viscous sublayer to wall
„ Fluent’s implementation can also use law-of-the-wall
z Economical and accurate for:
„ wall-bounded flows
„ flows with mild separation and recirculation
z Weak for:
„ massively separated flows
„ free shear flows
„ simple decaying turbulence
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Two-Equation Models
‹ Two transport equations are solved, giving two independent scales
for calculating u
t
z Virtually all use the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic
energy, k
z Several transport variables have been proposed, based on
dimensional arguments, and used for second equation
„ Kolmogorov, ω: u
t
∝ ρk / ω, l ∝ k
1/2
/ ω. k ∝ ε / ω
V ω is specific dissipation rate
V defined in terms of large eddy scales that define supply rate of k
„ Chou, ε: u
t
∝ ρk
2
/ ε, l ∝ k
3/2
/ ε
„ Rotta, l: u
t
∝ ρk
1/2
l, ε ∝ k
3/2
/ l
z Boussinesq relation still used for Reynolds Stresses
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Standard k-ε Model Equations
ij ij t
j k j
S S S S
x
k
x Dt
Dk
2 ;
2
t
= − +



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


= ρε u
σ
u
u ρ
( ) ε ρ u
ε ε
σ
u
u
ε
ρ
ε ε
ε
2
2
t 1
t
C S C
k x x Dt
D
j j
− +



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


=
k k- -transport equation transport equation
ε ε- -transport equation transport equation
production production dissipation dissipation
2
, , ,
ε ε ε
σ σ C C
i k
coefficients coefficients
turbulent viscosity turbulent viscosity
ε
ρ u
u
2

k
C
t
=
inverse time scale inverse time scale
Empirical constants determined from benchmark
experiments of simple flows using air and water.
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‹ Simple flows render simpler model equations
z Coefficients can be isolated and compared with experiment
z e.g.,
„ Uniform flow past grid
V Standard k-ε equations reduce to just convection and dissipation terms
„ Homogeneous Shear Flow
„ Near-Wall (Log layer) Flow
k
C
x
U
x
k
U
2
2
d
d
;
d
d ε ε
ε
ε
− = − =
Closure Coefficients
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Buoyancy Buoyancy
production production
Dilatation Dilatation
Dissipation Dissipation
RT
k
x
g S
x
k
x Dt
Dk
i t
t
i t
j k j
γ
ρε
ρ
ρ
u
ρε u
σ
u
u ρ 2
Pr
2
t



− − +



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


=
Standard k-ε Model
‹ High-Reynolds number model
z (i.e., must be modified for the near-wall region)
‹ The term “standard” refers to the choice of coefficients
‹ Sometimes additional terms are included
z production due to buoyancy
„ unstable stratification (g·∇T >0) supports k production
z dilatation dissipation due to compressibility
„ added dissipation term, prevents overprediction of spreading rate in
compressible flows
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Standard k-ε Model Pros & Cons
‹ Strengths:
z robust
z economical
z reasonable accuracy for a wide range of flows
‹ Weaknesses:
z overly diffusive for many situations
„ flows involving strong streamline curvature, swirl, rotation, separating
flows, low-Re flows
z cannot predict round jet spreading rate
‹ Variants of the k-ε model have been developed to address its
deficiencies
z RNG and Realizable
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RNG k-ε Model Equations
‹ Derived using renormalization group theory
z scale-elimination technique applied to Navier-Stokes equations
(sensitizes equations to specific flow regimes)
„ k equation is similar to standard k-ε model
„ Additional strain rate term in ε equation
V most significant difference between standard and RNG k-ε models
„ Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl numbers
„ Differential-viscosity relation for low Reynolds numbers
V Boussinesq model used by default
( ) ( ) where C S C
k x x Dt
D
t
j j
ε ρ u
ε ε
u α
ε
ρ
ε ε ε
*
2
2
1 eff
− +





=
t
k
S
C
C C
u u u
β η
ε
η
βη
η
η
ρη
u
ε ε
+ =
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
eff
0
3
0
3
2
*
2
ts coefficien are ,
1
1

ε ε- -transport equation transport equation
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RNG k-ε Model Pros &Cons
‹ For large strain rates:
z where η > η
0
, ε is augmented, and therefore k and u
t
are reduced
‹ Option to modify turbulent viscosity to account for swirl
‹ Buoyancy and compressibility terms can be included
‹ Improved performance over std. k-ε model for
z rapidly strained flows
z flows with streamline curvature
‹ Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddy-
viscosity model
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‹ Standard k-ε model could not ensure:
z Positivity of normal stresses
z Schwarz’s inequality of shear stresses
‹ Modifications made to standard model
z k equation is same; new formulation for u
t
and ε
z C
u
is variable
z ε equation is based on a transport equation for the mean-square vorticity
fluctuation
0
2

u
α
( )
u u
u u
2 2
2
β
α
β α

Realizable k-ε Model: Motivation
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‹ How can normal stresses become negative?
‹ Standard k-ε Boussinesq viscosity relation:
‹ Normal component:
‹ Normal stress will be negative if:

3
2
-
ij
2
δ ρ
ε
ρ ρ
u
k
x
U
x
U k
C u u
i
j
j
i
j
i
|
|
.
|

\
|


+


= −
2
3
2

2
2
x
U k
C k u


− =
ε
u
3.7
3
1
≈ >


u
ε C x
U k
Realizable k-ε Model: Realizability
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Realizable k-ε Model: C
u
‹ C
u
is not a constant, but varies as a function of mean velocity field and
turbulence (0.09 in log-layer Sk/ε = 3.3, 0.05 in shear layer of Sk/ε = 6)
C
u
contours for 2D backward-facing step
C
u
along
bottom-wall
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Realizable k-ε Model Equations
ε
ε
ρ u
u u
k U
A A
C
k
C
s
*
0
2
t
1
,
+
= =
where
ij ij
ki jk ij
ij ij ij ij
S S S
S
S S S
W S S U = = Ω Ω + ≡
~
,
~
,
*
( ) W A A
s
6 cos
3
1
, cos 6 , 04 . 4
1
0

= = = φ φ
0 . 1 , / ,
5
, 43 . 0 max
2 1
= =

+
= C Sk C ε η
η
η
νε
ε ρ
ε ρ
ε
σ
u
u
ε
ρ
ε
+
− +



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


=
k
C S C
x x Dt
D
j j
2
2 1
t


ε ε- -transport equation transport equation
turbulent viscosity turbulent viscosity
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Realizable k-ε Model Pros & Cons
‹ Performance generally exceeds the standard k-ε model
‹ Buoyancy and compressibilty terms can be included
‹ Good for complex flows with large strain rates
z recirculation, rotation, separation, strong ∇p
‹ Resolves the round-jet/plane jet anomaly
z predicts the speading rate for round and plane jets
‹ Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddy-viscosity
model
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Standard and SST k-ω Models
‹ k-ω models are a popular alternative to k-ε
z ω ~ ε / k
z u
t
∝ ρk / ω
‹ Wilcox’s original model was found to be quite sensitive to
inlet and far-field boundary values of ω
‹ Can be used in near-wall region without modification
‹ Latest version contains several refinements:
z reduced sensitivity to boundary conditions
z modifcation for the round-jet/plane-jet anomaly
z compressibility effects
z low-Re (transitional) effects
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Standard k-ω Model
‹ The most well-known Wilcox k-ω model until recently was his 1988
model (will be referred to as Wilcox’ “original” k-ω model)
‹ Fluent v6 Standard k-ω model is Wilcox’ 1998 model
‹ Wilcox’ original k-ω is a subset of the Wilcox 1998 model, and can be
recovered by deactivating some of the options and changing some of the
model constants



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=
=
j
t
j j
i
ij
j k
t
j j
i
ij
t
x x
f
x
U
k Dt
D
x
k
x
k f
x
U
Dt
Dk
k
ω
σ
u
u ω β ρ τ
ω
α
ω
ρ
σ
u
u ω β ρ τ ρ
ω
ρ α u
ω
β
β
2
*
*
*
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Standard k-ω Turbulent Viscosity
‹ Turbulent viscosity is computed from:
‹ The dependency of α* upon Re
T
was designed to recover the correct
asymptotic values in the limiting cases. In particular, note that:
ω
ρ α u
k
t
*
=
0 . 1 , Re , 6
125
9
,
3
,
Re 1
Re
where
*
*
0
*
0 * *
= = =
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=


α
ωu
ρ
β
β
α
α
α α
k
R
R
R
T k
i
i
k T
k T
turbulent) (fully as ∞ → →
T
Re 1
*
α
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Standard k-ω Turbulent Kinetic Energy
‹ Note the dependence upon Re
Τ
, M
t
, and χ
k
‹ “Dilatation” dissipation is accounted for via M
t
term
‹ The cross-diffusion parameter (χ
k
) is designed to improve free shear
flow predictions
4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1
43 42 1
3 2 1
k of Diffusion
k of rate n Dissipatio
k of production



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=
j k
t
j j
i
ij
x
k
x
k f
x
U
Dt
Dk
σ
u
u ω β ρ τ ρ
β
*
*
( ) | |
( )
( )
09 . 0 , 5 . 1 , 0 . 2
8 ,
Re 1
Re 15 4
1
* *
4
4
* *
* * *
= = =
=
+
+
=
+ =


β ζ σ
β β
ζ β β
β
β
β
k
T
T
i
t i
R
R
R
M F
( )
4 4 3 4 4 2 1
parameter diffusion - cross
j j
k
k
k
k
k
t t
t t t t
t t
t
x x
k
f
RT a M
a
k
M
M M M M
M M
M F




=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
+
+

=
= = =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> −

=
ω
ω
χ
χ
χ
χ
χ
γ
β 3
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
1
,
0
400 1
680 1
0 1
,
4
1
,
2
0
*
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Turbulence Apr 2005
‹ Note the dependence upon Re
Τ
, M
t
, and χ
ω
‹ Vortex-stretching parameter (χ
ω
) designed to remedy the plane/round-jet
anomaly
Standard k-ω Specific Dissipation Equation



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=
j
t
j j
i
ij
x x
f
x
U
k Dt
D ω
σ
u
u ω β ρ τ
ω
α
ω
ρ
ω
β
2
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|





= Ω
|
|
.
|

\
|


+


=
=
Ω Ω
=
+
+
=

+ =
= = = =
+
+
=





i
j
j
i
ij
i
j
j
i
ij
ki jk ij
t
i
i
i
T
T
x
U
x
U
x
U
x
U
S
S
f M F
R
R
R
2
1
,
2
1
5 . 1 , ,
80 1
70 1
, 1
0 . 2 , 95 . 2 ,
9
1
,
25
13
,
Re 1
Re
*
3
*
*
*
0
0
*
ζ
ω β
χ
χ
χ
ζ
β
β
β β
σ α α
α
α
α
α
ω
ω
ω
β
ω ω
ω
ω
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Standard k-ω Model Sub-models & Options (I)
‹ “Transitional flow” option
z Corresponds to all terms involving Re
T
terms in the model
equations
z Deactivated by default
z Can benefit low-Re flows where the extent of the
transitional flow region is large
‹ “Compressibility Effects” option
z Takes effects via F(M
t
)
z Accounts for “dilatation” dissipation
z Available with ideal-gas option only and is turned on by
default
z Improve high-Mach number free shear and boundary
layer flow predictions - reduces spreading rates
k k
k
d d s
x
u
x
u






= + = ρ ε ρ ε ρ ε ρ ε ρ
3
4
,
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Standard k-ω Model Sub-models & Options (II)
‹ “Shear-Flow Corrections” option
z Controls both cross-diffusion and vortex-stretching
terms - Activated by default
z Cross-diffusion term (in k-equation)
„ Designed to improve the model performance for free
shear flows without affecting boundary layer flows
z Vortex-stretching term
„ Designed to resolve the round/plane-jet anomaly
„ Takes effects for axisymmetric and 3-D flows but
vanishes for planar 2-D flows
( )
3
*
,
80 1
70 1
ω β
χ
χ
χ
ω
ω
ω
β

Ω Ω
=
+
+
=
ki jk ij
S
f
4 4 3 4 4 2 1
parameter diffusion - cross
j j
k
k
k
k
k
x x
k
f




=
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
+
+

=
ω
ω
χ
χ
χ
χ
χ
β 3
2
2
1
,
0
400 1
680 1
0 1
*
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Menter’s SST k-ω Model Background
‹ Many people, including Menter (1994), have noted that:
• Wilcox’ original k-ω model is overly sensitive to the freestream value
(BC) of ω, while k-ε model is not prone to such problem
• k-ω model has many good attributes and perform much better than k-ε
models for boundary layer flows
• Most two-equation models, including k-ε models, over-predict turbulent
stresses in the wake (velocity-defect) region, which leads to poor
performance of the models for boundary layers under adverse pressure
gradient and separated flows
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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Main Components
‹ The SST k-ω model consists of
z Zonal (blended) k-ω/k-ε equations (to address item 1 and 2 in the previous
slide)
z Clipping of turbulent viscosity so that turbulent stresses stay within what
is dictated by the structural similarity constant. (Bradshaw, 1967) -
addresses item 3 in the previous slide
Inner layer
(sublayer,
log-layer)
Wilcox’ original k-ω model
ε
ε
l
2
3
k
=
Wall
Outer layer
(wake and
outward)
k-ω model transformed
from std. k-ε model
Modified Wilcox k-ω model
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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Inner Layer
‹ The k-ω model equations for the inner layer are taken from the Wilcox
original k-ω model with some constants modified



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=
j
t
j j
i
ij
t
j k
t
j j
i
ij
x x x
U
Dt
D
x
k
x
k
x
U
Dt
Dk
ω
σ
u
u ρω β τ
ν
γ ω
ρ
σ
u
u ρω β τ ρ
ω1
2
1
1
1
*
( ) 41 . 0 , , 09 . 0
0 . 2 , 176 . 1 , 075 . 0
1
* 2 *
1 1
*
1 1 1
= − = =
= = =
κ σ β κ β β γ β
σ σ β
ω
ω k
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

=
ω
ν
ω
ω
ρ u
2
2
2
2 2
2 1
1
500
,
09 . 0
2
max arg , arg tanh
, a max
y y
k
F
F
k a
t
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Menter’s SST k-ω Model Outer Layer
‹ The k-ω model equations for the outer layer are obtained from by transforming
the standard k-ε equations via change-of-variable
‹ Turbulent viscosity computed from:
j j
j
t
j j
i
ij
t
j k
t
j j
i
ij
x x
k
x x x
U
Dt
D
x
k
x
k
x
U
Dt
Dk




+



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=
ω
ω
ρσ
ω
σ
u
u ρω β τ
ν
γ ω
ρ
σ
u
u ρω β τ ρ
ω
ω
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
*
( ) 41 . 0 , , 09 . 0
168 . 1 , 0 . 1 , 0828 . 0
2
* 2 *
2 2
*
2 2 2
= − = =
= = =
κ σ β κ β β γ β
σ σ β
ω
ω k
ω
ρ u
k
t
=
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Menter’s SST k-ω Model Blending the Equations
‹ The two sets of equations and the model constants are blended in such
a way that the resulting equation set transitions smoothly from one
equation to another.
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|




=

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
−20
2
2
2
2 *
1
4
1 1
10 ,
1
2 max
4
,
500
, max min arg
arg tanh
j j
k
k
x x
k
CD
y CD
k
y y
k
F
ω
ω
ρσ
σ ρ
ω
ν
ω β
ω ω
ω
ω
( )
( )
γ σ σ β φ
φ φ φ
ρ ρ
ω
, , , where
1
1
2 1 1 1
outer
1
inner
1
k
F F
Dt
Dk
F
Dt
Dk
F
=
− + =

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + − +

⋅ ⋅ ⋅ +
layer outler the in
layer inner the in
0
1
1
1

=
F
F
Wilcox’ original k-ω model
ε
ε
l
2
3
k
=
Wall
k-ω model transformed
from std. k-ε model
Modified Wilcox k-ω model
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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Blended k-ω Equations
‹ The resulting blended equations are:
Wall
( )
j j
j
t
j j
i
ij
t
j k
t
j j
i
ij
x x
k
F
x x x
U
Dt
D
x
k
x
k
x
U
Dt
Dk




− +



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=



|
|
.
|

\
|
+


+ −


=
ω
ω
σ ρ
ω
σ
u
u ω ρ β τ
ν
γ
ω
ρ
σ
u
u ω ρ β τ ρ
ω
ω
1
1 2
2 1
2
*
( ) γ σ σ β φ φ φ φ
ω
, , , , 1
2 1 1 1 k
F F = − + =
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Turbulence Apr 2005
Menter’s SST k-ω Model Turbulent Viscosity
‹ Honors the “structural similarity” constant for boundary layers
(Bradshaw, 1967)
‹ Turbulent stress implied by turbulence models can be written as:
z In many flow situations (e.g. adverse pressure gradient flows), production
of TKE can be much larger than dissipation (P
k
>> ε), which leads to
predicted turbulent stress larger than what is implied by the structural
similarity constant
z How can turbulent stress be limited? - A simple trick is to clip turbulent
viscosity such that:
ε
P
k a
y
U
k
t t 1
ρ u u τ = Ω =


=
1967) (Bradshaw,
1 1
a
k
v u
k a v u =
′ ′

← =
′ ′
− ≡ ρ ρ τ
k a
t 1
ρ u ≤ Ω
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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Clipping u
t
‹ Turbulent viscosity for the inner layer is computed from:
‹ Remarks
z F
2
is equal to 1 inside boundary layer and goes to zero far from the wall
and free shear layers
z The name SST (shear-stress transport) is a big word for this simple trick
z Note that the vorticity magnitude is used (strain-rate magnitude could also
be used)
( )
( )
magnitude) (vorticity
ij ij
t
y y
k
F
F
k a k
F
k a
Ω Ω ≡ Ω
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

=
2
500
,
09 . 0
2
max arg , arg tanh
, min
, a max
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2 1
1
ω
ν
ω
ω
ρ
ω
ρ u
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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Submodels & Options
‹ SST k-ω model comes with:
z Transitional Flows option (Off by
default)
z Compressibility Effects option when
ideal-gas option is selected (On by
default)
‹ The original SST k-ω model in the
literature does not have any of these
options
z These submodels are being borrowed
from Wilcox’ 1998 model - should be
used with caution
z Do not activate any options to recover the
original SST model
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k-ω Models Boundary Conditions
‹ Wall boundary conditions
z The enhanced wall treatment (EWT) is the sole near-wall option for k-ω
models. Neither the standard wall functions option nor the non-equilibrium
wall functions option is available for k-ω models in FLUENT 6
„ The blended laws of the wall are used exclusively
„ ω values at wall adjacent cells are computed by blending the wall-limiting
value (y->0) and the value in the log-layer
z The k-ω models can be used with either a fine near-wall mesh or a coarse
near-wall mesh
‹ For other BCs (e.g., inlet, free-stream), the following relationship is used
internally, whenever possible, to convert to and from different turbulence
quantities:
09 . 0 ,
* *
= = β ω β ε k
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Faults in the Boussinesq Assumption
‹ Boussinesq: R
ij
= 2u
t
S
ij
z Is simple linear relationship sufficient?
„ R
ij
is strongly dependent on flow conditions and history
„ R
ij
changes at rates not entirely related to mean flow processes
z R
ij
is not strictly aligned with S
ij
for flows with:
„ sudden changes in mean strain rate
„ extra rates of strain (e.g., rapid dilatation, strong streamline
curvature)
„ rotating fluids
„ stress-induced secondary flows
‹ Modifications to two-equation models cannot be generalized for
arbitrary flows
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0 ) ( ) ( =

+

i j j i
u NS u u NS u
Reynolds Stress Models
‹ Starting point is the exact transport equations for the
transport of Reynolds stresses, R
ij
z six transport equations in 3d
‹ Equations are obtained by Reynolds-averaging the product
of the exact momentum equations and a fluctuating velocity.
z
‹ The resulting equations contain several terms that must be
modeled
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Reynolds Stress Transport Equations
k
ijk
ij ij ij
ij
x
J
P
Dt
DR


+ − Φ + = ε
Generation
|
|
.
|

\
|


+



k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u P ρ
|
|
.
|

\
|


+



− ≡ Φ
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u
p
k
j
k
i
ij
x
u
x
u




≡ u ε 2
Pressure-Strain
Redistribution
Dissipation
Turbulent
Diffusion
(modeled)
(related to ε)
(modeled)
(computed)
(incompressible flow w/o body
forces)
Reynolds Stress
Transport Eqns.
43 42 1
43 42 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
) (
j i
k
k j i ik j jk i ijk
u u
x
u u u u p u p J


− +

+

≡ u ρ δ δ
Pressure/velocity
fluctuations
Turbulent
transport
Molecular
transport
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ε δ ε
ij ij
3
2
=
Dissipation Modeling
‹ Dissipation rate is predominantly associated with small scale eddy
motions
z Large scale eddies affected by mean shear
z Vortex stretching process breaks eddies down into continually smaller
scales
„ The directional bias imprinted on turbulence by mean flow is gradually
lost
„ Small scale eddies assumed to be locally isotropic
„ ε is calculated with its own (or related) transport equation
„ Compressibility and near-wall anisotropy effects can be accounted for
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Turbulent Diffusion
‹ Most closure models combine the pressure diffusion with the
triple products and use a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis
z Overall performance of models for these terms is generally
inconsistent based on isolated comparisons to measured triple
products
z DNS data indicate that above p′ terms are negligible
( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|




=
|
|
.
|

\
|


− + +


l
j i
l k s
k
j i
k
j ik i kj k j i
k
x
u u
u u
k
C
x
u u
x
u u
p
u u u
x ε
ν δ δ
ρ
'
|
|
.
|

\
|




=
k
j i
k
x
u u
k
C
x ε σ
u
2
Or even a simpler model
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‹ Pressure-strain term of same order as production
‹ Pressure-strain term acts to drive turbulence towards
an isotropic state by redistributing the Reynolds stresses
‹ Decomposed into parts
‹ Model of Launder, Reece & Rodi (1978)
|
|
.
|

\
|


+



− ≡ Φ
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u
p
i
j
j
i
i
j
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i i
x
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x
u
x
u
u
x x
p




+


− =
∂ ∂


2
1
ρ




|
|
.
|

\
|


+


+ − = Φ
ij
m
l
m l
l
i
l j
l
j
l i ij ij
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U
u u
x
U
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x
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u u c b c δ
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− =
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2
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“Rapid Part” “Slow” Part
|
.
|

\
|
− ≡
ij j i
k u u
k
ij
b δ
ε
3
2
where
w ij ij ij ij , 2 , 1 ,
Φ + Φ + Φ = Φ
mean mean
gradient gradient
Pressure-Strain Modeling
© Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 63 / 65
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Advanced Fluent Training
Turbulence Apr 2005
Pressure-Strain Modeling Options
‹ Wall-reflection effect
z contains explicit distance from wall
z damps the normal stresses perpendicular to wall
z enhances stresses parallel to wall
‹ SSG (Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski) Pressure Strain Model
z Expands the basic LRR model to include non-linear (quadratic) terms
z Superior performance demonstrated for some basic shear flows
„ plane strain, rotating plane shear, axisymmetric expansion/contraction
© Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 64 / 65
Fluent User Services Center
www.fluentusers.com
Advanced Fluent Training
Turbulence Apr 2005
Characteristics of RSM
‹ Effects of curvature, swirl, and rotation are directly accounted for in
the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.
z When anisotropy of turbulence significantly affects the mean flow,
consider RSM
‹ More cpu resources (vs. k-ε models) is needed
z 50-60% more cpu time per iteration and 15-20% additional memory
‹ Strong coupling between Reynolds stresses and the mean flow
z number of iterations required for convergence may increase
© Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 65 / 65
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Advanced Fluent Training
Turbulence Apr 2005
θ
i
u
Heat Transfer
‹ The Reynolds averaging process produces an additional term in the
energy equation:
z Analogous to the Reynolds stresses, this is termed the turbulent heat flux
„ It is possible to model a transport equation for the heat flux, but this is not
common practice
„ Instead, a turbulent thermal diffusivity is defined proportional to the
turbulent viscosity
VThe constant of proportionality is called the turbulent Prandtl number
VGenerally assumed that Pr
t
~ 0.85-0.9
‹ Applicable to other scalar transport equations

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com

Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005

Outline
Background
Characteristics of Turbulent Flow
Scales

Eliminating the small scales
Reynolds Averaging Filtered Equations

Turbulence Modeling Theory
RANS Turbulence Models in FLUENT

Turbulence Modeling Options in Fluent
Near wall modeling, Large Eddy Simulation (LES)

Turbulent Flow Examples
Comparison with Experiments and DNS
Turbulence Models Near Wall Treatments

2 / 65

© Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com

Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005

What is Turbulence?
Unsteady, irregular (aperiodic) motion in which transported quantities (mass, momentum, scalar species) fluctuate in time and space Fluid properties exhibit random variations
statistical averaging results in accountable, turbulence related transport mechanisms

Contains a wide range of eddy sizes (scales)
typical identifiable swirling patterns large eddies ‘carry’ small eddies

3 / 65

© Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005

grid-generated turbulence Turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate 4 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Two Examples of Turbulence Homogeneous. decaying.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.

6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Energy Cascade Larger. transfer energy to smaller eddies via vortex stretching Larger eddies derive energy from mean flow Large eddy size and velocity on order of mean flow Smallest eddies convert kinetic energy into thermal energy via viscous dissipation Rate at which energy is dissipated is set by rate at which they receive energy from the larger eddies at start of cascade 5 / 65 © Fluent Inc. higher-energy eddies.

6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Vortex Stretching Existence of eddies implies vorticity Vorticity is concentrated along vortex lines or bundles Vortex lines/bundles become distorted from the induced velocities of the larger eddies As end points of a vortex line randomly move apart vortex line increases in length but decreases in diameter vorticity increases because angular momentum is nearly conserved Most of the vorticity is contained within the smallest eddies Turbulence is a highly 3D phenomenon 6 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.

ν [l2 / t] From dimensional analysis: η = (ν3 / ε)1/4. ε.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 . and kinematic viscosity. v = (νε)1/4 7 / 65 © Fluent Inc. τ = (ν / ε)1/2.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Smallest Scales of Turbulence Smallest eddy (Kolmogorov) scales: large eddy energy supply rate ~ small eddy energy dissipation rate → ε = -dk/dt k ≡ ½(u′2+v′2+w′2) is (specific) turbulent kinetic energy [l2 / t2] ε is dissipation rate of k [l2 / t3] Motion at smallest scales dependent upon dissipation rate.

Large scales Largest eddy scales: Assume l is characteristic of larger eddy size Dimensional analysis is sufficient to estimate order of large eddy supply rate of k as k / τturnover τturnover is a time scale associated with the larger eddies the order of τturnover can be estimated as l / k1/2 Since ε ~ k / τturnover.fluentusers. l l (k 3 / 2 / l )1/ 4 3/ 4 = 3 ≈ ≈ ReT η (ν / ε )1/ 4 ν 3/ 4 l l η >> 1 where ReT = k1/2l / ν (turbulence Reynolds number) 8 / 65 © Fluent Inc. ε ~ k3/2 / l or l ~ k3/2 / ε Comparing l with η.Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Small scales vs. 6/7/2005 .

800 → Reτ = 800 → Ncells = 4x107 ! 3 1/ 4 9 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Implication of Scales Consider a mesh fine enough to resolve smallest eddies and large enough to capture mean flow features η Example: 2D channel flow Ncells~(4l / η)3 or l l ≈ Ncells ~ (3Reτ)9/4 η (ν / ε ) H where l Reτ = uτH / 2ν ReH = 30.

800 Number of time steps ~ 48.fluentusers.000  ∂U i   µ  ∂x j    0. ∆t ~ τ For 2D channel example ReH = 30.Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Direct Numerical Simulation “DNS” is the solution of the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations without recourse to modeling  ∂U i ∂U i  ∂p ∂ =− ρ +Uk +  ∂t ∂xk  ∂xi ∂xk   Numerical time step size required.003H Reτ uτ ∆t 2 D Channel ≈ DNS is not suitable for practical industrial CFD DNS is feasible only for simple geometries and low turbulent Reynolds numbers DNS is a useful research tool 10 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .

models smaller ones Inherently unsteady.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Removing the Small Scales Two methods can be used to eliminate need to resolve small scales: Reynolds Averaging Transport equations for mean flow quantities are solved All scales of turbulence are modeled Transient solution ∆t is set by global unsteadiness Filtering (LES) Transport equations for ‘resolvable scales’ Resolves larger eddies.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 . ∆t set by small eddies Both methods introduce additional terms that must be modeled for closure 11 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.

6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Prediction Methods l η = l/ReT3/4 12 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.

Velocity Decomposition Consider a point in the given flow field: u u'i Ui ui time r r r ui ( x . t ) = U i ( x .Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RANS Modeling . t ) + ui′( x . t ) 13 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

6/7/2005 . t ) U Applicable to nonstationary flows such as periodic or quasi-periodic flows involving deterministic structures 14 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Ensemble Averaging r 1 Ensemble (Phase) average: U i ( x .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RANS Modeling .Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. t ) = lim N →∞ N ∑ ui n =1 N (n ) r (x.

φ ′ ≡ 0. φ ′ψ ′ ≠ 0. Φψ ′ = 0. Mass-weighted (Favre) averaging used for compressible flows 15 / 65 © Fluent Inc. φψ = ΦΨ + φ ′ψ ′.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 . etc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Deriving RANS Equations Substitute mean and fluctuating velocities in instantaneous NavierStokes equations and average:  ∂ (U i + ui′ ) ∂ (U i + ui′ )  ∂ ( p + p′) ∂  ∂ (U i + ui′ )   µ ′ =−  ρ + + (U k + uk )    ∂x j  ∂x j ∂xi ∂xk ∂t    Some averaging rules: Given φ = Φ + φ′ and ψ = Ψ + ψ′ Φ ≡ φ .

com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RANS Equations Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations:  ∂U ∂U i  ∂p ∂  =− + ρ i + Uk ∂xk  ∂xi ∂x j  ∂t   ∂U i  ∂ − ρ ui u j µ +  ∂x j  ∂x j   (prime notation dropped) ( ) New equations are identical to original except : The transported variables.Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.. 6/7/2005 . U. ρ. etc. now represent the mean flow quantities Additional terms appear: Rij = − ρ ui u j Rij are called the Reynolds Stresses Effectively a stress→ ∂ ∂x j  ∂U i  µ − ρ ui u j   ∂x  j   These are the terms to be modeled 16 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Turbulence Modeling Approaches Boussinesq approach isotropic relies on dimensional analysis Reynolds stress transport models no assumption of isotropy contains more “physics” most complex and computationally expensive 17 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.

not necessarily valid at macroscopic level µt is a scalar (Rij aligned with strain-rate tensor.Fluent User Services Center www. µt 2 ∂U k 2 δ ij − ρkδ ij . Rij = − ρ uiu j = 2µ t Sij − µ t 3 ∂xk 3 1  ∂U i ∂U j   + Sij =   ∂x j ∂xi  2  Relation is drawn from analogy with molecular transport of momentum t xy = − ρ u′′v′′ = 2µSij Assumptions valid at molecular level. Sij) Taylor series expansion valid if lmfp|d2U/dy2| << |dU/dy| Average time between collisions lmfp / vth << |dU/dy|-1 18 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 The Boussinesq Approach Relates the Reynolds stresses to the mean flow by a turbulent (eddy) viscosity.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 .

e.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Modeling µt Oh well.g.fluentusers.. 6/7/2005 . focus attention on modeling µt anyways Basic approach made through dimensional arguments Units of νt = µt/ρ are [m2/s] Typically one needs 2 out of the 3 scales: velocity . zero-equation one-equation two-equation … 19 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.time Models classified in terms of number of transport equations solved.length .

but economical Not suitable for general purpose CFD though can be useful where a very crude estimate of turbulence is required 20 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Zero Equation Model Prandtl mixing length model: µt = ρ l 2 mix 2 Sij Sij . 1  ∂U i ∂U j   + Sij =  ∂xi  2  ∂x j   Relation is drawn from same analogy with molecular transport of momentum: 1 1 µt = ρ vmixlmix µ = ρ v th lmfp 2 2 The mixing length model: assumes that vmix is proportional to lmix& strain rate: vmix ∝ lmix 2Sij Sij requires that lmix be prescribed lmix must be ‘calibrated’ for each problem Very crude approach. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.

Reduce mixing length in viscous sublayer (inner boundary layer) with damping factor to effect reduced ‘mixing’ Clauser.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Other Zero Equation Models Mixing length observed to behave differently in flows near solid boundaries than in free shear flows Modifications made to the Prandtl mixing length model to account for near wall flows Van Driest.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .Define appropriate mixing length in velocity defect (outer boundary) layer Klebanoff.Account for intermittency dependency Cebeci-Smith and Baldwin-Lomax Accounts for all of above adjustments in two layer models Mixing length models typically fail for separating flows Large eddies persist in the mean flow and cannot be modeled from local properties alone 21 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.

Fluent User Services Center www. one-equation models were based on transport equation for k (turbulent kinetic energy) to calculate velocity scale.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 One-Equation Models Traditionally.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 . v = k1/2 Circumvents assumed relationship between v and turbulence length scale (mixing) Use of transport equation allows ‘history effects’ to be accounted for Length scale still specified algebraically based on the mean flow very dependent on problem type approach not suited to general purpose CFD 22 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

fluentusers. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Turbulence Kinetic Energy Equation Exact k equation derived from sum of products of Navier-Stokes equations with fluctuating velocities (Trace of the Reynolds Stress transport equations)  ∂k ∂k   +U j  = Rij ∂U i − ρε + ∂ ρ  ∂t ∂x j  ∂x j ∂x j   unsteady & convective where production dissipation   ∂k 1 − ρ u i ui u j − p ' u j  µ  ∂x j 2    turbulent transport pressure diffusion molecular diffusion ε =ν ∂ui ∂ui ∂xk ∂xk (incompressible form) 23 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

fluentusers. dissipation. and pressure diffusion terms must be modeled Rij in production term is calculated from Boussinesq formula Turbulent transport and pressure diffusion: µ ∂k 1 Using µt/σk assumes k ρ ui ui u j + p ' u j = − t can be transported by σ k ∂x j 2 ε = CDk3/2/l from dimensional arguments µt = CDρk2/ ε (recall µt ∝ ρk1/2l) CD.Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Modeled Equation for k The production. σk. and l are model parameters to be specified Necessity to specify l limits usefulness of this model turbulence as can U Advanced one equation models are ‘complete’ solves for eddy viscosity 24 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 . turbulent transport.

κ d 1/ 6 f v2 = 1 − χ 1 + χf v1 damping functions  1+ 6  3 f w = g  6 cw6  . f v1 = ~ ~ 2 ~ 2   ∂ν   ∂ν   ν  ~   − cw1 ρ f w   (µ + ρν )  + cb 2 ρ   ∂x   ∂x j   d    j  ~ ν χ≡ ν χ3 χ + cv1 3 3 . 6/7/2005 .fluentusers. 6 ( ) ~ ν r≡ ~ 2 2 Sκ d distance from wall ~ Wall boundary condition :ν = 0 25 / 65 © Fluent Inc. ~ ν ~ S ≡ S + 2 2 fv2 .Fluent User Services Center www.  g + c w3    g = r + cw 2 r − r .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Spalart-Allmaras Model Equations modified turbulent viscosity ~~ 1  ∂  = ρ cb1S ν + ρ Dt σ ν~  ∂x j  ~ Dν ~ µ t ≡ ρν f v1 .

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers. Sij .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Spalart-Allmaras Production Term Default definition uses rotation rate tensor only: S≡ 2 ΩijΩij . 1  ∂U i ∂U j   − Ωij =  2  ∂x j ∂xi    Alternative formulation also uses strain rate tensor: S ≡ Ω ij + C prod min(0. 6/7/2005 .Ω ij ) reduces turbulent viscosity for vortical flows more correctly accounts for the effects of rotation 26 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Spalart-Allmaras Model Spalart-Allmaras model developed for unstructured codes in aerospace industry Increasingly popular for turbomachinery applications “Low-Re” formulation by default can be integrated through log layer and viscous sublayer to wall Fluent’s implementation can also use law-of-the-wall Economical and accurate for: wall-bounded flows flows with mild separation and recirculation Weak for: massively separated flows free shear flows simple decaying turbulence 27 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

k ∝ ε / ω µt ∝ ρk2 / ε.fluentusers. giving two independent scales for calculating µt Virtually all use the transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy. and used for second equation Kolmogorov. k Several transport variables have been proposed. l: Boussinesq relation still used for Reynolds Stresses 28 / 65 © Fluent Inc. l ∝ k1/2 / ω. based on dimensional arguments. 6/7/2005 . ε: Rotta. ε ∝ k3/2 / l Chou.Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Two-Equation Models Two transport equations are solved. ω: ω is specific dissipation rate defined in terms of large eddy scales that define supply rate of k µt ∝ ρk / ω. l ∝ k3/2 / ε µt ∝ ρk1/2l.

Cε 2 turbulent viscosity Empirical constants determined from benchmark experiments of simple flows using air and water. 6/7/2005 29 / 65 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ε Model Equations k-transport equation Dk ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j  µt  µ +  σk    ∂k  2   + µt S − ρε . Ciε .Fluent User Services Center www. σ ε .  ∂x  j  production S = 2 Sij Sij ε-transport equation dissipation Dε ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j coefficients  µ µ + t  σε    ∂ε  ε 2   + C1ε µ t S − ρC2ε ε  ∂x  j k  inverse time scale ( ) σ k . µ t = ρ Cµ k2 ε © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.

Fluent User Services Center www.g. U = −C2ε dx dx k Homogeneous Shear Flow Near-Wall (Log layer) Flow 30 / 65 © Fluent Inc. Uniform flow past grid Standard k-ε equations reduce to just convection and dissipation terms dε dk ε2 U = −ε .fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Closure Coefficients Simple flows render simpler model equations Coefficients can be isolated and compared with experiment e. 6/7/2005 ..

com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ε Model High-Reynolds number model (i..e.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. must be modified for the near-wall region) The term “standard” refers to the choice of coefficients Sometimes additional terms are included production due to buoyancy unstable stratification (g·∇T >0) supports k production dilatation dissipation due to compressibility added dissipation term. 6/7/2005 . prevents overprediction of spreading rate in compressible flows Dk ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j  µ µ + t  σk    ∂k  µ ∂ρ k  + µt S 2 − ρε − g i t − ρε 2  ∂x  ρ Prt ∂xi γRT  j  Buoyancy production 31 / 65 Dilatation Dissipation © Fluent Inc.

low-Re flows cannot predict round jet spreading rate Variants of the k-ε model have been developed to address its deficiencies RNG and Realizable 32 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ε Model Pros & Cons Strengths: robust economical reasonable accuracy for a wide range of flows Weaknesses: overly diffusive for many situations flows involving strong streamline curvature. separating flows.Fluent User Services Center www. swirl. rotation.

β are coefficients µ eff = µ + µ t © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RNG k-ε Model Equations Derived using renormalization group theory scale-elimination technique applied to Navier-Stokes equations (sensitizes equations to specific flow regimes) k equation is similar to standard k-ε model Additional strain rate term in ε equation most significant difference between standard and RNG k-ε models Analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl numbers Differential-viscosity relation for low Reynolds numbers Boussinesq model used by default  η C µ ρη 3 1 −   η  0   * C 2ε = C 2ε + 3 1 + βη k η=S ε-transport equation  Dε ∂  * ρ (αε µeff ) ∂ε  + ε C1ε µt S 2 − ρC2ε ε where =  Dt ∂x j  ∂x j  k   ( ) η0 .fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 ε 33 / 65 .

and therefore k and µt are reduced Option to modify turbulent viscosity to account for swirl Buoyancy and compressibility terms can be included Improved performance over std. k-ε model for rapidly strained flows flows with streamline curvature Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddyviscosity model 34 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 RNG k-ε Model Pros &Cons For large strain rates: where η > η0.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www. ε is augmented.

Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable k-ε Model: Motivation Standard k-ε model could not ensure: Positivity of normal stresses 2 uα ≥ 0 Schwarz’s inequality of shear stresses 2 2 2 (uα u β ) ≤ uα u β Modifications made to standard model k equation is same.fluentusers. 6/7/2005 . new formulation for µt and ε Cµ is variable ε equation is based on a transport equation for the mean-square vorticity fluctuation 35 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable k-ε Model: Realizability How can normal stresses become negative? Standard k-ε Boussinesq viscosity relation: k 2  ∂U i ∂U j  2  .7 ε ∂x 3Cµ 36 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .ρ k δ ij  − ρ ui u j = ρ C µ +  ε  ∂x j ∂xi  3  Normal component: k 2 ∂U 2 u = k − 2Cµ ε ∂x 3 2 Normal stress will be negative if: 1 k ∂U > ≈ 3.

Fluent User Services Center www.3.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable k-ε Model: Cµ Cµ is not a constant.fluentusers. 0. but varies as a function of mean velocity field and turbulence (0. 6/7/2005 .05 in shear layer of Sk/ε = 6) Cµ along bottom-wall Cµ contours for 2D backward-facing step 37 / 65 © Fluent Inc.09 in log-layer Sk/ε = 3.

0 η + 5  turbulent viscosity µ t = ρ Cµ where k2 ε .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable k-ε Model Equations ε-transport equation Dε ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j  µ µ + t  σε    ∂ε  ρ ε2   ∂x  + C1 S ρ ε − C2 k + νε  j   η  C1 = max 0. C2 = 1. 6/7/2005 ε ( ) .04.43. φ = cos −1 6W 3 S ij S jk S ki ~ * U ≡ S ij S ij + Ω ij Ω ij . Cµ = 1 A0 + As U *k 1 A0 = 4.fluentusers. . As = 6 cos φ .Fluent User Services Center www. S = S ij S ij ~ S 38 / 65 © Fluent Inc. η = Sk / ε . W = .

rotation. separation.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Realizable k-ε Model Pros & Cons Performance generally exceeds the standard k-ε model Buoyancy and compressibilty terms can be included Good for complex flows with large strain rates recirculation. strong ∇p Resolves the round-jet/plane jet anomaly predicts the speading rate for round and plane jets Still suffers from the inherent limitations of an isotropic eddy-viscosity model 39 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.

Fluent User Services Center www.fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard and SST k-ω Models k-ω models are a popular alternative to k-ε ω~ε/k µt ∝ ρk / ω Wilcox’s original model was found to be quite sensitive to inlet and far-field boundary values of ω Can be used in near-wall region without modification Latest version contains several refinements: reduced sensitivity to boundary conditions modifcation for the round-jet/plane-jet anomaly compressibility effects low-Re (transitional) effects 40 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005 .

fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. and can be recovered by deactivating some of the options and changing some of the model constants 41 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ω Model The most well-known Wilcox k-ω model until recently was his 1988 model (will be referred to as Wilcox’ “original” k-ω model) Fluent v6 Standard k-ω model is Wilcox’ 1998 model µt = α * ρ k ω  µ µ + t  σk    ∂k    ∂x   j   ∂ω    ∂x   j  ∂U i ∂ Dk − ρ β * f β * kω + = τ ij ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt ∂ Dω ω ∂U i = α τ ij − ρ β fβ ω 2 + ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt k  µ µ + t  σω   Wilcox’ original k-ω is a subset of the Wilcox 1998 model. 6/7/2005 .

Re T = .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ω Turbulent Viscosity Turbulent viscosity is computed from: µt = α * ρ * * ∞ k ω βi = 9 125 *  α 0 + Re T Rk  β *  . 0 ωµ The dependency of α* upon ReT was designed to recover the correct asymptotic values in the limiting cases. α 0 = i . where α = α   3  1 + Re T Rk  ρk * Rk = 6 .fluentusers. note that: α * → 1 as ReT → ∞ (fully turbulent) 42 / 65 © Fluent Inc. In particular. α ∞ = 1.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .

6/7/2005 . Rβ = 8 Note the dependence upon ReΤ .fluentusers. χk = 3 f β * = 1 + 680 χ k2 ω ∂x ∂xj 1 + 400 χ 2 χ k > 0 14424j43 k  cross.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ω Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dk µ  ∂k  ∂U i ∂  * µ + t  ρ = τ ij − ρ β f β * kω +   Dt σ k  ∂x j  ∂ x j  ∂x j 14 4 2 3  3  4 123 Dissipatio n rate of k 144 2444  production of k Diffusion of k β * = β i* [1 + ζ * F (M t )] * β i* = β ∞ 1 + (Re T Rβ ) * σ k = 2. a = γRT 4 a χk ≤ 0 1 1 ∂ k ∂ω  . and χk “Dilatation” dissipation is accounted for via Mt term The cross-diffusion parameter (χk ) is designed to improve free shear flow predictions 43 / 65 0 M t ≤ M t0  F (M t ) =  2 M t − M t20 M t > M t 0  2k 1 M t2 = 2 . ζ * = 1.Fluent User Services Center www.0.diffusion parameter © Fluent Inc.5. β ∞ = 0.09 4 4 15 + (Re T Rβ ) 4 . M t 0 = . Mt .

and χω Vortex-stretching parameter (χω) designed to remedy the plane/round-jet anomaly 44 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ω Specific Dissipation Equation Dω ∂ ω ∂U i = α τ ij − ρ β f βω 2 + ρ Dt k ∂x j ∂x j α=  µt  µ +  σω    ∂ω    ∂x   j  α ∞ α 0 + Re T Rω 13 1 . Ω ij = 1  ∂U i −  2  ∂ x j ∂ xi       S ij = Note the dependence upon ReΤ . α 0 = .95 . f β = .5 * 1 + 80 χ ω (β ∞ω )3  βi  1  ∂U i ∂U j  + 2  ∂x j ∂xi    ∂U j  . Mt .fluentusers.0 * 9 25 α 1 + Re T Rω Ω ij Ω jk S ki  β i* *  1 + 70 χ ω * β = β i 1 + ζ ∞ F (M t ). Rω = 2. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www. χω = . σ ω = 2. ζ ∞ = 1 . α∞ = .

fluentusers.reduces spreading rates 45 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ω Model Sub-models & Options (I) “Transitional flow” option Corresponds to all terms involving ReT terms in the model equations Deactivated by default Can benefit low-Re flows where the extent of the transitional flow region is large “Compressibility Effects” option Takes effects via F(Mt) Accounts for “dilatation” dissipation ′ 4 ∂u k ∂ u ′ ρ 3 ∂x k ∂x k Available with ideal-gas option only and is turned on by default ρ ε = ρ εs + ρ εd . 6/7/2005 . ρ εd = Improve high-Mach number free shear and boundary layer flow predictions .Fluent User Services Center www.

Activated by default Cross-diffusion term (in k-equation) fβ* 1  = 1 + 680 χ k2 1 + 400 χ 2 k  1 ∂ k ∂ω . 6/7/2005 .diffusion parameter χk ≤ 0 Designed to improve the model performance for free shear flows without affecting boundary layer flows Vortex-stretching term Designed to resolve the round/plane-jet anomaly Takes effects for axisymmetric and 3-D flows but vanishes for planar 2-D flows fβ = Ω ij Ω jk S ki 1 + 70 χ ω .Fluent User Services Center www. χω = 3 * 1 + 80 χ ω β ∞ω ( ) 46 / 65 © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Standard k-ω Model Sub-models & Options (II) “Shear-Flow Corrections” option Controls both cross-diffusion and vortex-stretching terms . χk = 3 χk > 0 ω ∂x ∂xj 14424j43 cross .fluentusers.

while k-ε model is not prone to such problem k-ω model has many good attributes and perform much better than k-ε models for boundary layer flows Most two-equation models. which leads to poor performance of the models for boundary layers under adverse pressure gradient and separated flows 47 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. including k-ε models.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST k-ω Model Background Many people.Fluent User Services Center www. over-predict turbulent stresses in the wake (velocity-defect) region. have noted that: • • • Wilcox’ original k-ω model is overly sensitive to the freestream value (BC) of ω. 6/7/2005 . including Menter (1994).

com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST k-ω Model Main Components The SST k-ω model consists of Zonal (blended) k-ω/k-ε equations (to address item 1 and 2 in the previous slide) Clipping of turbulent viscosity so that turbulent stresses stay within what is dictated by the structural similarity constant. log-layer) k-ω model transformed from std. k-3 model ε Modified Wilcox k-ω model Wilcox’ original k-ω model Wall 48 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 k 2 ε= lε . 1967) addresses item 3 in the previous slide Outer layer (wake and outward) Inner layer (sublayer. (Bradshaw.

ΩF2 )  µ t  ∂ω    µ +   σ ω 1  ∂x j      = 1.0 β * = 0. σ k1 a1 k max(a 1 ω .075 . 6/7/2005 . y 2 ω    ( ) 49 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www.41  2 k 500ν   F2 = tanh arg 2 .176 .09 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST k-ω Model Inner Layer The k-ω model equations for the inner layer are taken from the Wilcox original k-ω model with some constants modified ∂U i ∂ Dk = τ ij − β *kρω + ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt  µ t  ∂k    µ +   σ k1  ∂x j      ∂ Dω γ 1 ∂U i = τ ij − β1 ρω 2 + ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt ν t β 1 = 0.fluentusers. * ω1 κ = 0. σ ω 1 = 2. arg 2 = max  2  0.09ω y . γ 1 = β 1 β * − κ 2 µt = ρ ( β σ ).

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Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005

Menter’s SST k-ω Model Outer Layer
The k-ω model equations for the outer layer are obtained from by transforming the standard k-ε equations via change-of-variable

∂U i ∂ Dk = τ ij − β *kρω + ρ ∂x j Dt ∂x j

 µ t  ∂k    µ +   σ k 2  ∂x j       µ  ∂ω  µ + t    σ ω 2  ∂x j     

∂ Dω γ 2 ∂U i − β 2 ρω 2 + = τ ij ρ ∂x j ∂x j Dt ν t + 2 ρσ ω 2 1 ∂k ∂ω ω ∂x j ∂x j

β 2 = 0.0828, σ k 2 = 1.0 , σ ω 2 = 1.168 β * = 0.09 , γ 2 = β 2 β * − κ 2
Turbulent viscosity computed from:
50 / 65

( β σ ),
*

ω2

κ = 0.41

µt = ρ

k

ω
© Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005

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Menter’s SST k-ω Model Blending the Equations
The two sets of equations and the model constants are blended in such a way that the resulting equation set transitions smoothly from one equation to another.
 Dk   Dk  + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + (1 − F1 )  ρ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ F1  ρ  Dt  inner  Dt  outer φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ2 where φ = β , σ k , σ ω , γ
k-ω model transformed from std. k-3ε2 model Modified Wilcox k- model Wilcox’ original k-ωω model Wall
51 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005
4 F1 = tanh arg1

(

)

  k 500ν  4 ρ σ ω 2 k   arg1 = min max *  β ω y , y 2 ω  , CD y 2    kω       1 ∂k ∂ω , 10 −20  CDkω = max 2 ρσ ω 2   ω ∂x j ∂x j  

k ε= lε

F1 = 1 F1 → 0

in the inner layer in the outler layer

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Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005

Menter’s SST k-ω Model Blended k-ω Equations
The resulting blended equations are:
 µ t  ∂k     µ +  σ k  ∂x j      µ  ∂ω  ∂U i Dω γ ∂  µ + t  ρ = τ ij − β ρω 2 +   σ ω  ∂x j  Dt ν t ∂x j ∂x j     1 ∂k ∂ω + 2 ρ (1 − F1 )σ ω 2 ω ∂x j ∂x j ∂U i Dk ∂ ρ − β * k ρω + = τ ij Dt ∂x j ∂x j

φ = F1 φ1 + (1 − F1 )φ 2 ,

φ = β , σ k , σ ω ,γ

Wall
52 / 65 © Fluent Inc. 6/7/2005

fluentusers. 1967) k Turbulent stress implied by turbulence models can be written as: Pk ∂U = µ t Ω = ρ a1 k ∂y ε In many flow situations (e.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 . production of TKE can be much larger than dissipation (Pk >> ε). which leads to predicted turbulent stress larger than what is implied by the structural similarity constant How can turbulent stress be limited? .g. adverse pressure gradient flows).com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST k-ω Model Turbulent Viscosity Honors the “structural similarity” constant for boundary layers (Bradshaw. 1967) τ ≡ − ρ u ′v′ = ρ a1 k ← − u ′v′ = a1 (Bradshaw.A simple trick is to clip turbulent viscosity such that: τ = µt µ t Ω ≤ ρ a1 k 53 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

6/7/2005 .fluentusers. ΩF2 ) 2   2 2 = tanh (arg ) .  2 k 500ν   arg 2 = max   0.Fluent User Services Center www.09ω y .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST k-ω Model Clipping µt Turbulent viscosity for the inner layer is computed from: µt = ρ F2 k ak  a1 k = ρ min  . 1   ω ΩF  max(a 1ω . y 2 ω    Ω ≡ 2Ω ij Ω ij (vorticity magnitude) Remarks F2 is equal to 1 inside boundary layer and goes to zero far from the wall and free shear layers The name SST (shear-stress transport) is a big word for this simple trick Note that the vorticity magnitude is used (strain-rate magnitude could also be used) 54 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Menter’s SST k-ω Model Submodels & Options SST k-ω model comes with: Transitional Flows option (Off by default) Compressibility Effects option when ideal-gas option is selected (On by default) The original SST k-ω model in the literature does not have any of these options These submodels are being borrowed from Wilcox’ 1998 model .should be used with caution Do not activate any options to recover the original SST model 55 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.

inlet.09 56 / 65 © Fluent Inc.. Neither the standard wall functions option nor the non-equilibrium wall functions option is available for k-ω models in FLUENT 6 The blended laws of the wall are used exclusively ω values at wall adjacent cells are computed by blending the wall-limiting value (y->0) and the value in the log-layer The k-ω models can be used with either a fine near-wall mesh or a coarse near-wall mesh For other BCs (e. the following relationship is used internally.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 k-ω Models Boundary Conditions Wall boundary conditions The enhanced wall treatment (EWT) is the sole near-wall option for k-ω models. to convert to and from different turbulence quantities: ε = β *ω k .Fluent User Services Center www. whenever possible. β * = 0. 6/7/2005 . free-stream).fluentusers.g.

com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Faults in the Boussinesq Assumption Boussinesq: Rij = 2µtSij Is simple linear relationship sufficient? Rij is strongly dependent on flow conditions and history Rij changes at rates not entirely related to mean flow processes Rij is not strictly aligned with Sij for flows with: sudden changes in mean strain rate extra rates of strain (e.Fluent User Services Center www. strong streamline curvature) rotating fluids stress-induced secondary flows Modifications to two-equation models cannot be generalized for arbitrary flows 57 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.. rapid dilatation. 6/7/2005 .g.

ui′NS (u j ) + u ′j NS (ui ) = 0 The resulting equations contain several terms that must be modeled 58 / 65 © Fluent Inc.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers. Rij six transport equations in 3d Equations are obtained by Reynolds-averaging the product of the exact momentum equations and a fluctuating velocity.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Reynolds Stress Models Starting point is the exact transport equations for the transport of Reynolds stresses.

Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers. Generation Pressure-Strain Redistribution Dissipation Turbulent Diffusion DR ij Dt = Pij + Φ ij − ε ij + ∂J ijk ∂x k (incompressible flow w/o body forces) (computed) ∂U j  ∂Ui   + u j uk Pij ≡ ρ  uiuk  ∂xk ∂xk     ∂u ∂u  ′ i + j  Φ ij ≡ − p   ∂x  j ∂xi  (modeled) ε ij ≡ 2 µ ∂u i ∂u j ∂x k ∂x k (related to ε) ∂ J ijk ≡ p′uiδ jk + p′u jδ ik + ρ ui u j uk − µ (ui u j ) 144 44 2 3 123 4 4 ∂xk 14243 Pressure/velocity fluctuations 59 / 65 (modeled) Turbulent transport Molecular transport © Fluent Inc.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations Reynolds Stress Transport Eqns.

6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Dissipation Modeling Dissipation rate is predominantly associated with small scale eddy motions Large scale eddies affected by mean shear Vortex stretching process breaks eddies down into continually smaller scales The directional bias imprinted on turbulence by mean flow is gradually lost Small scale eddies assumed to be locally isotropic ε ij = δ ij ε ε is calculated with its own (or related) transport equation Compressibility and near-wall anisotropy effects can be accounted for 2 3 60 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.

Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .fluentusers.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Turbulent Diffusion Most closure models combine the pressure diffusion with the triple products and use a simple gradient diffusion hypothesis ∂ ∂x k  p' ∂  u i u j u k + (δ kj u i + δ ik u j ) − ν ui u j  ∂x k ρ  ( ) ( )  ∂ =  ∂x k   k ∂u i u j C u u  s ε k l ∂xl       C µ k 2 ∂ ui u j     σ ε ∂xk    Overall performance of models for these terms is generally inconsistent based on isolated comparisons to measured triple products DNS data indicate that above p′ terms are negligible ∂ Or even a simpler model = ∂xk 61 / 65 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .2 + Φij.fluentusers. Reece & Rodi (1978)  ∂U j ∂U l  ∂U i  2  − ul u m Φ ij = −c1bij + c 2  u i u l + u j ul δ ij    3 ∂x m  ∂xl  ∂xl    where bij ≡ ε 2   ui u j − k δ ij  k  3 62 / 65 © Fluent Inc.1 + Φij. w “Slow” Part ∂u j ∂ui ∂u j 1 ∂ 2 p′ = −u i + ρ ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi “Rapid Part” ∂ui ∂U j 1 ∂ 2 p′ = −2 ρ ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi mean gradient Model of Launder.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Pressure-Strain Modeling  ∂ui ∂u j   Pressure-strain term of same order as production Φij ≡ − p′ +  ∂x ∂x  i   j Pressure-strain term acts to drive turbulence towards an isotropic state by redistributing the Reynolds stresses Decomposed into parts Φij = Φij.

com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Pressure-Strain Modeling Options Wall-reflection effect contains explicit distance from wall damps the normal stresses perpendicular to wall enhances stresses parallel to wall SSG (Speziale. rotating plane shear. axisymmetric expansion/contraction 63 / 65 © Fluent Inc.fluentusers. Sarkar and Gatski) Pressure Strain Model Expands the basic LRR model to include non-linear (quadratic) terms Superior performance demonstrated for some basic shear flows plane strain. 6/7/2005 .Fluent User Services Center www.

When anisotropy of turbulence significantly affects the mean flow.com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Characteristics of RSM Effects of curvature. and rotation are directly accounted for in the transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. swirl. k-ε models) is needed 50-60% more cpu time per iteration and 15-20% additional memory Strong coupling between Reynolds stresses and the mean flow number of iterations required for convergence may increase 64 / 65 © Fluent Inc. consider RSM More cpu resources (vs.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www. 6/7/2005 .

6/7/2005 .com Advanced Fluent Training Turbulence Apr 2005 Heat Transfer The Reynolds averaging process produces an additional term in the energy equation: uiθ Analogous to the Reynolds stresses. a turbulent thermal diffusivity is defined proportional to the turbulent viscosity The constant of proportionality is called the turbulent Prandtl number Generally assumed that Prt ~ 0.85-0. this is termed the turbulent heat flux It is possible to model a transport equation for the heat flux.9 Applicable to other scalar transport equations 65 / 65 © Fluent Inc. but this is not common practice Instead.fluentusers.Fluent User Services Center www.

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