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Fundamentals of management (FINAL PROJECT)

Section: B

Nabbea Amin L1F15BBAM0086

Ammar Tahir L1F15BBAM0076
Arslan Gillani L1F15BBAM0070
Uzair Amjad L1F15BBAM0077
Mubeen Irfan L1F15BBAM0071



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I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher

Ms.QURATULAIN MUQARRAB who provided me with this wonderful opportunity
to do this project on the topic of Fundamentals of management, which also
helped in doing a lot of research. Secondly I would also like to thanks my group
mates who helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame.

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Table of Contents
Executive summary
History / Background
Introduction To Organization
Business Mission
Mission Statement
Goals & Objectives
Managerial levels
Identification of several levels of managers
Identification of managers roles at different level
Levels of Managerial Hierarchy
Decision Making Process
Contemporary Issues Faced by the Managers while Planning for Business
Technology Issues
Analyzing Organizational Structure
Vertical Differentiation
Chain of Command
Span of Control
Work Specialization
Horizontal Differentiation
Functional vs. divisional departmentalization
Matrix structure
Coordination by Standardization
Coordination by Plan
Coordination by mutual adjustments
Communication Channels
Controlling Mechanism

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Executive Summary
Mr. Izhar Ahmad Qureshi, a reputed name in engineers community of Pakistan,
established a construction company in 1959. With its rich experience and high standards
of technical performance in numerous construction projects, ranging from Civil Works,
Housing and Urban Development, and Heavy Industrial Construction to Defense-
Oriented Projects, IZHAR has earned an outstanding recognition from the nation.
Professional staff and hardworking, experienced crew work with our clients, assuming a
tight schedule, economical construction and above all quality workmanship throughout
the execution of projects.

IZHAR Group has one of the largest, fully integrated Real Estate and Community
Development setups in Pakistan and is now in its sixth decade of operations. It
encompasses residential & commercial property management and coordination of all
The MONNOO dynasty was founded in the beginning of the 20th century in Calcutta.
The MONNOO Group has developed with remarkable growth from a traditional family
owned rubber factory into a modern high tech industrial and agricultural conglomerate.
MONNOO Group, The Symbol of Progress, today with more than 16 active units in
textiles, power, sugar, and agriculture, is now at the threshold of its 7th decade.
MONNOO Group has within its fold the best team of professional, skilled, and dedicated
people who have been shaping the business landscape of Pakistan since its inception.

MONNOO Group is now charting a new course of growth by extending its expertise in
creating Master Planned Urban Communities.

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History / Background
IZHAR GROUP was established in 1959 by Engineer lzhar Ahmad Qureshi who was highly
regarded amongst the veteran engineers community of Pakistan. Since its inception,
the Group has now moved in 6th decade of successful innovative Construction
Operations. The legendary contributions of Mr. lzhar in the arena of Engineering and
Construction has progressed IZHAR GROUP into a multifaceted organization having an
authority over innovative cum economical building solutions and cherishes successful
completion of numerous large infrastructures, industrial, commercial, educational, and
other development projects to its credit. We take pride in pioneering/ introducing
Precast and Pre-stressed Concrete Solutions in Pakistan. Our innovative techniques have
continued to gain momentous popularity year after year and we are producing a wide
variety of high-quality pre-cast / pre-stressed structural concrete members to the entire
satisfaction of our valued customers.
The Monnoo Family is a traditional name in Pakistan that has been the story of success
for the industrial growth of the country. A name that unique stands out as the pioneer
industrial family that has played a significant role in the growth of the economy.
The growth of the Group down through the decades has played a positive role in
dominating the local industry and providing a secure future for its employees. The
transformations brought about in the local industries by the Monnoo Group have made
them pioneers in the technological and customer oriented business conglomerates.

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Business mission
Our Vision is to be The Most Trusted Real Estate Development Company.

Mission Statement
Our mission is to provide Clients with exemplary service in a quality home environment,
to provide partners with maximized real estate asset value and to provide employees
unparalleled opportunities for personal and professional development. Our goal is to be
the community home provider of choice--a goal we attain through our Clients, Partners
and Employees. We believe that by encouraging professional and personal growth, our
associates will exceed their expectations with the benefits being realized by all. Our aim
is to be the market leader in real estate investment in terms of bespoke investment
opportunities, quality of service and professionalism. Finally, we believe that our
business can be successful for generations only if we continue a Tradition of Trust.

Dream Gardens Lahore
Dream Avenue Lahore
Dream Gardens Multan


Goals and Objectives

Their goal is to be the best real estate agency in this region . We want dream gardens
and avenues to be the first choice of people.

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Managerial levels
Identification of several levels of managers
Just like every organization this also has all the type of managements i.e. top level
management , middle level management and lower level management also known as
front line management. The top level management consists of CEO (Chief Executive
Officer) the COO (Chief Operating Officer) and the Director of Finance Administration
and Human Resource. The top level management consists of these three persons the
whole idea of this organization is made up by them. All the major decision of this
organization cannot be carried out without their approval.
The middle level management of Izhar Moonno developers consists of 7 managers
1. General managers of operation development
2. The Assistant general manager of finance
3. Senior manager of Intelligence
4. Project manager
5. Assistant general manager of administration
6. General Manager of Marketing and sales
7. Senior Inventory Controller

Identification of managers roles at different level

All of these managers have to report directly back to CEO and COO of the company. The
General Manager of Operation Development report all the monthly activates to the
Director of Finance Administration and Human Resource. The Assistant manager of
finance handles all the cash flow within the company the money being spend on all the
inventory and where to invest and where the maximum profit can be obtained through
thats the function of the General manager of finance. Senior Manager of intelligence
also the head engineer works on all the maps and design the structure of the housing
scheme the maps of the house cannot be built without his approval. Project Manager
has the role to assign the projects to different apartments of this joint company to
assign to who handles which project. General Manager of administration has the work
to administering the whole department figuring out whatever goes on inside the
organization and he has to deal with any kind of problem that arises and give the best
solution. General Manager of marketing and sales manager deals with all kings of
marketing products the location within society or the city or the scheme. Senior

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inventory controller controls the flow inventory going in and out of the ware house he is
also in charge of all the warehouses under this joint company and he keeps the regular
check on the entire inventory and to check whether there is any flaw in the product or
any item is not damaged or need to be replaced.

Levels of Managerial Hierarchy

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Decision Making Process
IMD uses top-down approach, and the decision making in IMD is pretty much
centralized. Their decision making process is conducted by exclusive group of people
who gather the relevant information and present their reports, but they dont have the
right to implement their own devised strategies. CEO enjoys this right and he is the one
who takes the final decision for the organization. The lower level management is
excluded, despite a fact that they are also affected by the final outcomes.
They ignore the Management by Objectives (MBO) technique through which an
organization aims to improve its performance by including the employees in their
decision making process as Google does.
Even those decisions regarding everyday operations and processes are usually taken by
the upper level executives or the head of the departments. IMD is not as big as some of
the other organizations such as Google. They dont offer a range of diversified products
or services; hence they dont have the complex business processes involved in day to
day operations. They have a few projects to work on and their daily tasks are more or
less the same every day.
IMD is actually benefitting through the centralized organizational structure. Since all the
decisions are made by the top level management, there is a less margin of error which
means that their basic business process and their more detailed operations are in place.

Contemporary Issues Faced by the Managers while Planning for Business

Planning is considered to be the most important function of management for any
business, so the managers at IMD plan for changes in their industry, the macroeconomic
environment, the marketplace and the legal environment. Some of the issues involved
in business planning are; technological advancements, the modern methods of
marketing, and the changing face of lending market.

If we compare todays marketing world with the yesteryears marketing world, it has
evolved up to a great deal. The Marketing Managers at IMD have to plan for the
changes in customer demands and preferences. They also have to conduct the SWOT
analysis in order to identify their position in the market.

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Technology Issues
The element of technological advancement has been a game changer in businesses for
past 25 years. In the past, they have been using newspapers for advertising their new
projects or their services, but now they have to hire more technical staff that is able to
use the graphic visualizations software for their marketing and advertising campaigns to
develop eye catching advertisements to stand out from their competitors, and most
importantly to attract new customers.

Legal Issues
The managers at IMD have to keep an eye on the new laws, or the amendments
in the relevant laws, so they can make the necessary changes in their organization
timely, to gain a competitive advantage. This is an important step if they have to
avoid the hindrance or losses in their business due to the implementation of new

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Analyzing Organizational Structure

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Vertical Differentiation
Izhar monno Developers varies in different types of projects including Defense, Bahria
town, Johar town, Dream Gardens LDA and their recent project was Packages Mall.
Every house has a different price range and target different types of people. These
prices depend upon the size designs and other properties of the house. Even the
housing scheme varies in different prices range Defense and Bahria by far are the most
expensive among them.

Work Specialization
In every organization there is a work Specialization. Each of them is categorize in
different department according to their work specialization. There are many
departments in this Organization some of them are:
1. Human resource Department
2. Marketing Department
3. Operation Development Department
4. Inventory Department
5. Sales and Procurement Department
6. Finance Department
7. Accounts Department
8. Horticulture Department
9. Production Department
Each of these departments is made to complete the work effectively and efficiently.
Every department only deals with their own task in which they specialize so the work
can be done faster and every task is completed within the given time span. Every
department deals with employees working under them.

Chain of Command
The chain of command in every organization is different. Every manager has to report to
someone and every employee has to report to their own manager. Sometime a single
employee has to report to more than one manager. In this situation on top are the CEO
and the COO which are the top level management of this company every middle level

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management report back to them. In this organization as Izhar Moono Developers is a
joint project so they have to report back to their regional managers and their General

There is a document in which there are goals and targets of the organization and the
central idea, the plan and the budget provided It is signed by the head usually the top
level managers CEO and COO and which goes through the GM of the company. The
organization works according to this document set their goals to achieve them and their
progress can be checked through this because at the end of the month everyone has to
report back to their managers to the progress and targets achieved through the month.
This document keeps the workers motivated and every employee is formalized

Horizontal Differentiation
Functional vs. divisional departmentalization
Departmentalization is an important task which is more effective and saves a lot of time.
The Izhar and Manoo group is also divided in different teams (departments) to perform
the task easily. Company is divided on the basis of functional departmentalization as
there are many different departments in the company and all the departments are

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focused for the success of the Izhar and Manoo group as well as for generating profits.
Different departments as shown in the chart of the company are:
AGM finance
SR manager I.A
AGM admin
AGM sales and marketing

Matrix structure
A matrix organizational structure is a company structure in which the reporting
relationships are set up as a grid, or matrix, rather than in the traditional hierarchy. In
other words, employees have dual reporting relationships - generally to both a
functional manager and a product manager. In our case, matrix of structure is
implemented in the company as we can see in the organizational chart above, that
manager procurement and senior quality surveyors are reporting to project manager
and to GM operations.

Coordination by Standardization
Coordination by standardization means to coordinate activities by establishing standard
operating procedures. Coordination by standardization is present in the company as if
you purchase a land in the society, some procedures will be followed to maintain the
record of the owner of the land. All that information which the owner will provide about
him is standardized; same information will be required by every new owner.

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Coordination by Plan
Planning facilitates co-ordination by integrating the various plans through mutual
discussion, exchange of ideas. Now coordination through planning is done in the
company as all the senior management arrange a meeting with the CEO and COO of the
company at the end of every month (on last Friday of the month). When CEO and COO
are reported about the companys functioning, they take decision regarding the
investment of resources based on the provided information e.g. whether to invest in the
development sector of the society or to invest on the marketing of the society to attract
the attention of customers. In this way, the company makes its future plans. Every order
is signed by the CEO and the order letter contains the information about goals, tasks,
objectives and deadlines.

Coordination by mutual adjustments

Mutual adjustment which achieves coordination by the simple process of informal
communication (as between two operating employees). Izhar groups and Monnoo
groups are operating as a joint venture. They face problems in making decision together.
They come to common terms by mutual adjustments to achieve flexible coordination.

Communication Channels
They call in a meeting for the board of directors. For managers they deliver memos as
well as they call in meetings for middle level management.

Controlling Mechanism
If the goals and objectives are met, the employees are appreciated through incentives
and increments. This evaluation is done quarterly and semi quarterly. Employees
performances are monitored by employee reports and employee evaluation process.

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