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3/7/2017 Dynamics

iePhysics

Dynamics
SummaryandPracticeApplicationsofPhysics
Skills
byWilliamDietsch2000

Dynamicsaddressesthecauseofmotion.Ingeneralthebasiclawsofdynamicsareattributedtothe
workofSirIsaacNewton(b1642,d1727).Hislawsofmotionarethebasisforthemechanical
principleswhichallphysicistsmustmaster.

Forceisclassifiedasapushorapull.Forcesarevectorquantities,requiringadirectionaswellas
magnitude.TheunitofforceusedintheSystemInternational(metricsystem)iscalledtheNewton
(N),whichhastheunits:Kgm/s2.TheunitofforceintheincreasinglyarchaicEnglishsystemisthe
Pound.Itoftenseemstoalaymanthattherearelotsofforcesinnature,howevertherearereallyonly
fourforcesintheuniverse.Gravitationalforceistheforceexertedbyallmasscarryingbodies.The
gravitationalforceisonlyanattractiveforce.Electromagnetismisthenamegiventotheforce,which
occursbetweenobjectswithelectricchargesormagneticproperties.Electromagneticforcescanbe
attractiveandrepulsive.Thestrongnuclearforceactswithinthenucleusoftheatomandisresponsible
forholdingthenucleonstogether.Theweaknuclearforceistheforceinvolvedinthedecayofthe
nucleusoftheatom.(Technicallywemightarguethatelectromagnetismandtheweakforcehavebeenunifiedalthough
theyarestilloftendiscussesasdistinct.Andwesuspectanewfourthforcemayberelatedtothedarkenergy.

Newton'sfirstlawofmotion(thelawofinertia)statesthatabodywhichhasnonetforceactingonit
willremaininastateofconstantvelocity.Thismeansthatabodyatrestwillremainatrest,andabody
movinginastraightlinewillmoveinthatstraightlineataconstantspeed,forever.

Newton'ssecondlawofmotion(thelawofacceleration)statesthattheaccelerationofabodyis
directlyproportionaltotheunbalancedforceactingonitandisindirectlyproportionaltothemassofthe
body.Laboratoryexercise,whichyouwilldo,willillustratetheseaspectsofthesecondlaw.The
equationassociatedwiththesecondlawis:F=ma,whereFisthenetforce(see2below),misthemass,
andaistheaccelerationofthebody.

Newton'sthirdlawofmotion(thelawofreaction)statesthatforeveryactionthereisanequalbut
oppositereaction.Moreaboutthislawwillbediscussedwhenwestudymomentum.Themain
implicationforthislawisthatforcesalwayscomeinpairs,sometimesactingacrosslongdistances.

Netforcereferstotheunbalancedforceactingonabody,causingittoaccelerate.Ausefulwayto
keeptrackofforcesisbytheuseofafreebodydiagram.(Seeprocedurebelow.)

Weightisaforce,whichactsdownwardonallbodies.Theweightofabodyistheforceactingonthat
bodyasaresultofthegravitationalpulloftheEarth(orothermassivebody).Thingshaveweightonother
planets,butwewillbeconsideringonlyterrestrialweighthere.Weightiscomputedusingthesecond

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3/7/2017 Dynamics

law.Weight(Fw)=mass(m)xaccelerationofgravity(g).Usingthevaluesofthemetricsystem,mass
ismeasuredinKg,weightismeasuredinN,andghastheaveragevalueof9.80m/s2.

Frictionisaforce,whichopposesmotionintherealworld.Sliding(orkinetic)frictionoccursasa
resultoftheinteractionofsurfaces,whichareslidingpasteachother.Staticfrictionoccursbetween
surfaces,whichareincontactwitheachother,butnotmoving.Foranygivenpairofsurfaces,static
frictionisalwayslargerthanslidingfriction.Frictiondependsonthenatureofthesurfacesincontact,
expressedasacoefficientoffriction().Thecoefficientoffrictionrepresentstheratiooftheforceof
friction/normalforce.Thecoefficientisapurenumberlessthanone.Frictionalsodependsonthe
forcepressingthesurfacestogether(calledthenormalforce=FN).Ifthebodyisrestingona
horizontalsurface,thenormalforceisequaltotheweightofthebody.

Freebodydiagrams
Freebodydiagramsareusedindynamicstoindicaterelevantforces,whichactonabody.Fromafree
bodydiagram,thenetforceactingonabodycanbefoundmoreeasily.

Procedure:

A.Drawacircletorepresenttheobject
B.Insidethecircle,indicatethemassoftheobject(ifitisknown).Rememberthatweight/g=
mass.
C.Usearrowstoindicateallrelevantforcesactingontheobject.
D.Indicatethevalueanddirectionoftheacceleration(ifitisknown).

Examples:

1.Astonewithamassof12Kgissuspendedbyarope,whichexertsanupwardforceof150N.
Computetheaccelerationoftherock.

2.Aboxwithamassof18Kgispulledbyaropethroughwhichaforceof48Nacts.Africtional
forceof45Nopposesthemotion.Computetheaccelerationofthebox.

Forcepracticeproblems
Intheseproblemsuseg=9.80m/s2.

1.Whenashotputterexertsanetforceon140Nonashot,theshothasanaccelerationof19m/s2.
Whatisthemassoftheshot?

2.Togetheramotorbikeandriderhaveamassof275kg.Themotorbikeissloweddownwithan
accelerationof4.50m/s2.Whatisthenetforceonthemotorbike?Describethedirectionofthis
forceandthemeaningofthenegativesign.

3.Acar,mass1225kg,travelingat105km/h,slowstoastopin53m.Whatisthesizeanddirection
oftheforcethatactedonthecar?Whatprovidedtheforce?

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4.Imagineaspiderwithmass7.0x105kgmovingdownwardonitsthread.Thethreadexertsan
upwardforceonthespiderof1.2x104N.
a.Whatistheaccelerationofthespider?
b.Explainthesignoftheaccelerationanddescribeinwordshowthethreadchangesthe
velocityofthespider.(USEAFREEBODYDIAGRAM)

5.Whatistheweightofeachofthefollowingobjects?
a.0.113kghockeypuck
b.108kgfootballplayer
c.870kgautomobile

6.Findthemassofeachoftheseweights.
a.98N
b.80N
c.0.98N

7.A52Nsledispulledacrossacementsidewalkatconstantspeed.Ahorizontalforceof36Nis
exerted.
a.Whatisthecoefficientofslidingfrictionbetweenthesidewalkandthemetalrunnersofthe
sled?
b.Supposetheslednowrunsonpackedsnow.Thecoefficientoffrictionisnowonly0.12.If
apersonweighing650Nsitsonthesled,whatforceisneededtoslidethesledacrossthe
snowatconstantspeed?

8.Thecoefficientofslidingfrictionbetweenrubbertiresandwetpavementis0.50.Thebrakesare
applieda750kgcartraveling30m/s,andthecarskidstoastop.
a.Whatisthesizeanddirectionoftheforceoffrictionthattheroadexertsonthecar?
b.Whatwouldbethesizeanddirectionoftheaccelerationofthecar?
c.Howfarwouldthecartravelbeforestopping?

9.Ifthetiresofthecarinthepreviousproblemdidnotskid,thecoefficientoffrictionwouldhave
been0.70.Wouldtheforceoffrictionhavebeenlarger,smaller,orthesame?Wouldthecarhave
cometoastopinashorter,thesame,oralongerdistance?Usecalculationstosupportyour
answers.

10.Arubberballweighs49N.a)Whatisthemassoftheball?b)Whatistheaccelerationoftheball
ifanupwardforceof69Nisapplied?(USEAFREEBODYDIAGRAM)

11.Asmallweatherrocketweighs14.7N.a)Whatisitsmass?b)Aballooncarriestherocketup.
Therocketisreleasedfromtheballoonandfired,butitsengineexertsanupwardforceof10.2N.
Whatistheaccelerationoftherocket?(USEAFREEBODYDIAGRAM)

12.Thespaceshuttlehasamassof2.0x106kg.Atliftofftheenginesgenerateanupwardforceof
30x106N.
a.Whatistheweightoftheshuttle?(Whatassumptionshaveyoumade?)
b.Whatistheaccelerationoftheshuttlewhenlaunched?
c.Theaverageaccelerationoftheshuttleduringits10minutelaunchis13m/s2.What
velocitydoesitattain?

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d.Asthespaceshuttleenginesburn,themassofthefuelbecomeslessandless.Assumingthe
forceexertedbytheenginesremainsthesame,wouldyouexpecttheaccelerationto
increase,decrease,orremainthesame?Explainyourreasoning.(USEAFREEBODY
DIAGRAM)

13.Acertainsportscaracceleratesfrom0to60mphin9.0s(averageacceleration=3.0m/s2).The
massofthecaris1354kg.Theaveragebackwardforceduetoairdragduringaccelerationis
280N.Findtheforwardforcerequiredgivingthecarthisacceleration.(USEAFREEBODY
DIAGRAM)

14.AnAtwood'smachinehasamassof1.25Kgsuspendedontheleftconnectedtoamassof1.31Kg
ontheright.Computetheaccelerationofthesystemandthetensioninthestring.(USEAFREE
BODYDIAGRAM)

15.A50.Kgsledrestsonasurface,whichhasacoefficientofstaticfrictionof0.30,andacoefficient
ofslidingfrictionof0.10.Howmuchforceisrequiredtostartthesledmoving?Howmuchforce
isneededtokeepthesledmoving?Howmuchforceisrequiredtoacceleratethesledatarateof
3.5m/s2?

16.A2500.Kgcarismovingataspeedof14.0m/swhenthebrakesareapplied,bringingthecartoa
haltafterskiddingfor25.0m.Computetheaccelerationofthecar,theforceoffrictionandthe
coefficientoffrictionofthetires.

17.Anelevatorcancarry20personsofaverageweight(75Kg).Theelevatorhasamassof
1000.Kg.Thecable,whichliftstheelevator,canexertamaximumforceof29600N.Compute
themaximumaccelerationthattheelevatorcanexperience.

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createdand2000byWilliamDietsch
posted&edited4April2007byDTrapp

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