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3/7/2017 Impulse&Momentum

iePhysics

ImpulseAndMomentum
SummaryandPracticalApplicationsofPhysicsSkills
byWilliamDietsch2004

Momentum
Momentumisadynamicalquantity,carriedbyallmaterialobjects,whileinmotion.Inphysics,
momentumisthecalculatedproductofthescalarmassofabodyanditsvectorvelocity.All
movingbodieshavemomentum,regardlessoftheirsizeorvelocity.Therulesofmomentumapply
universallytoallobjectsintheuniverse.Aswithmanyscientificterms,momentumisoftenadoptedby
thegeneralpublicwithwidermeaningsdescribingthingssuchaspoliticalfortune(e.g.,CandidateX's
campaignisgainingmomentum)ortheprogressofsportingevent(e.g.,TeamYseemstohave
momentumonitsside.).Thedefinitionofmomentuminphysicsismuchmorespecificandprecisely
definedbymathematics.

Anobjectwithalargemassandlowvelocitycanhaveamomentumequaltoanobjectwithasmall
massandahighvelocity.

Thesimplelawsofmomentumdonotdistinguishbetweentheaforementionedobjects,iftheproducts
ofmassandvelocityareequal,theyaretreatedasidentical.

EquationforthecalculationofthemomentumP(unitsofkgm/s)ofabodywithvelocityv(unitsofm/s)
andmassm(unitsofkg)is:

P=mv.

Impulse
Impulsedescribesthecauseofmomentumchanges.Thecalculatedproductofaforceandthe
durationofitsapplication(timeinseconds)isequaltotheimpulse.Theequationforthecalculationof
impulsebytheapplicationofaforceF(unitsofNewtons)foradurationoftimet(unitsofseconds)is:

I=Ft=P

Impulsecausesacorrespondingchangeinthemomentumofabody.

ConservationOfMomentumInExplosionsAndCollisions
Whenbodiesinteract,inaclosedsystem(noexternalforcesactonaclosedsystemfromoutside),thevector
sumofthemomentaBEFOREtheinteractionisequaltothevectorsumofthemomentaAFTER
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theinteraction.

Collisionsoccurwhentwoormoreobjectsstrikeeachotheratsomecentralpointofimpact.

Itmaybeasignthatacollisioniselasticwhenthebodiesmovefreelyapartaftercolliding.Anexample
ofa(nearly)elasticcollisioniswhenbilliardballshittogetherandmoveoffseparately.Whentheobjects
inthecollisionremainentangledaftercolliding,itisasignthatthecollisionisinelastic.Anexamples
ofaninelasticcollisioniswhenatraincarcollideswithanotherandtheycoupleorwhenapaintball
stickstoitstarget.(Usuallyelasticisdefinedintermsofconservationofmechanicalenergy,atopicdiscussedlater.)

Whenobjectsflyapartfromrestoracenterofmass,anexplosionissaidtohaveoccurred.Theobvious
exampleofanexplosionisabombsendingpiecesflyingapart.Theindividualfragmentscarry
momentumbutthevectorsumofallmomentaintheexplosionisequaltothestartingmomentum(zero
withrespecttothecenterofmass).Jumpfromacanoeanditmovesawayfromyou,isalessexpected
exampleofanexplosion.

ImpulseAndMomentumProblems:
1.A23.5Nforceactsonabodyfordurationof12.0s.Computetheimpulsethatthebody
receives.Howlongdoesaforceof14.0Nneedtoactinordertoimpressthesameimpulseonthe
body?

2.A2.5kgbodyhasavelocityof5.8m/s.Howlongwillitrequiretostopifabreakingforceof
2.3Nactsonit?

3.Amotorcyclehasamassof325kgandhasaninitialvelocityof5.6m/s.Aforceof62Nactson
themachineandcausesitsvelocitytoincreaseto28m/s.Howlongdoestheforceactonthe
machine?

4.Asmallcarhasamassof853kgandaspeedof120km/h.Computethemomentumofthecar.

5.A0.25kgballapproachesaplayerat+6.2m/s.Theplayerkickstheballandgivesitavelocityof
12m/s.Iftheplayer'sfootisincontactwiththeballfor0.021s,computetheaverageforce
exertedontheball.

6.Aforceof1500Nisrequiredtostopacarmovingataninitialspeedof26m/sin21s.Compute
themassofthecar.

7.A15,000kgtraincarisrollingataspeedof3.2m/s.Computethetimerequiredforaforceof
1200Ntostopthecar.

8.Acarmovingat11m/scrashesintoanobstacleandstopsin0.26s.Computetheforcethata
seatbeltexertsona21kgchildtobringhim/hertoastop.

ConservationOfMomentumProblems:
IdentifythetypeofproblemusingECforelasticcollision,ICforinelasticcollision,andEXfor
explosions.Allofthefollowingproblemsareonedimensional.Thatallowsustouse+formotionto
therightandformotiontotheleft.(Manymomentumproblemsallowforthissimpletreatmentoftheirvector
momentabycarefullychoosingasuitableframeofreference.)

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1.A0.018kgballmovingat+48m/siscaughtbya81kgpersonstandingonafrictionlesssurface.
Computethespeedofthepersonaftertheballiscaught.

2.A0.038kgbulletstrikesastationary5.0kgblockofwoodandembedsitself(sticksinit).The
blockfliesoffataspeedof8.8m/s.Computethespeedofthebullet.

3.A0.50kgballwithavelocityof+6.0m/scollidesheadonwitha1.0kgballmovinginthe
oppositedirectionat12.0m/s.The0.50kgballmovesoffat14m/safterimpact.Computethe
velocityofthe1.0kgball.

4.A98kgrunningback,runningat8.7m/s,collidesinmidairwitha130kgtacklemovinginthe
oppositedirection.Ifthefinalvelocityofthetwoplayersiszero,computetheinitialvelocityof
thetackle.

5.BallAwithamassof5.0kg,movesatavelocityof0.20m/s.ItcollideswithballB,mass
10.0kgmovinginthesamedirectionat0.10m/s.IfthevelocityofballAis0.08m/safterthe
collision,computethefinalvelocityofballB.

6.A2800kgSUVmovingatsomespeedhitstherearendofa950kgcaratrest.Afterthe
collision,theyremainentangledandmoveoffat9.1m/s.ComputetheinitialspeedoftheSUV.

7.A15gbulletisfiredintoa5.10kgblockatrest.Afterimpact,thebulletandblockmoveoffat
1.0m/s.Computetheinitialspeedofthebullet.

8.Acarwithamassof1350kg,movingataspeedof31m/s,strikesastationary2170kgcar.Ifthe
carsremaintogetherafterthecrash,computethespeedofthewreck.

9.A6.0gbulletmovingat+120m/shitsastationary5.20kgblockandricochetsintheopposite
directionwithspeedof110m/s.Computethespeedoftheblockaftertheimpact.

10.A5.2kgrocketshoots0.89kgofexhaustgasoutofitsenginewithanaveragevelocityof
755m/s.Computethespeedoftherocket.

11.A1.5kgcartfliesapartat0.27m/sfromanexplosionwitha4.5kgcart.Whatisthevelocityof
the4.5kgcart?

12.An80kgcamperjumpsfroma45kgcanoe.Ifthevelocityofthecamperis4.0m/s,whatisthe
velocityofthecanoeintheoppositedirection?Hasthiseverhappenedtoyou?

13.A225kgcannonfiresa5.1kgprojectilewithamuzzlevelocityof850m/s.Computetherecoil
velocityofthecannon.

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createdand2004byWilliamDietsch
posted&edited12April2007byDTrapp

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