You are on page 1of 6

3/7/2017 LabIII7:Calorimetry:MeasuringHeatEnergy

iePhysics

ExperimentIII7

Calorimetry:MeasuringHeatEnergy
Tounderstandtheevolutionofourideasaboutheat,perhapsoneshouldstartwithabrilliant,clever,daringAmericanscoundrelproneto
exaggerate.

BenjaminThompson(b1753inWoburn,Massachusetts,d1814)lostjobsonthedock,asasalesclerk,andasaphysician'sapprentice
duringtheearlyrevolutioninBoston.Hewasmoreinterestedinprojectssuchasconstructingfireworks,aperpetualmotionmachineand
astaticelectricitymachine,andrepeatingBenFranklin'skiteexperiment(inwhichThompsonwasapparentlystruckbylightningbutsurvived).At
age19hemarriedthe30yearoldwidowofthe60yearoldrichestmaninConcord.Withinayearheobtainedacommissionofmajorin
theNewHampshireMilitiafromanewfriend,theGovernor.Accusedofbeingunfriendlytothecauseoffreedom,hiscasewas
dismissed.Butwhenfacedwithamobthreateningtarandfeathering,heabandonedhiswifeandtheirbabyforeverandfled.Letters
suggesthethensecretlyandcleverlyservedasaToryspyuntiltheBritishlostBostonandthe23yearoldThompsonsailedforLondon.

ThereThompsonshrewdlysavedtheSecretaryofStatefortheColoniesreputationandcareerandin
exchangewasmadehisprivatesecretary.Risinginpowerandleisuretime,Thompsonreturnedto
experimentation.Heusedtherecoilofgunsandcannonhungaspendulatomeasuretheeffectivenessof
differentgunpowderformulae.Despitecriticismforclaimingunwarrantedoriginality,hedidachieve
electionasafellowoftheRoyalSocietyin1781.

AccusedthatSummerofbeingaspyforFrance,ThompsonabruptlydepartedforAmericawithrankofLt.
ColoneltosuccessfullyraisearegimentofAmericanstofightonbehalfoftheBritish.Whenpeacewas
arrangetwoyearslaterThompsonreturnedtoLondonandseemstohaveusedpatronagetobe
begrudginglypromotedtofullColonelbeforeretiringathalfpayforlife.AftergalavantingaboutEurope
forayearasasoldieroffortunetellingtalesandgaininglettersofrecommendation,Thompsonwasableto
returntoEnglandandpersuadeKingGeorgeIIItoknighthimSirBenjaminbeforereturningasanadvisor
totherulerofBavariainMunichandspyfortheBritish.Inanattempttoproducebettermilitaryclothing
(anysavingswouldbecomehisprofit),Thompsondevisedawaytomeasureinsulatorsanddiscoveredthatheat
canbecarriedawaybyconvectioncurrentseveninclothing.

Whentraditionalclothingsupplierswereunwillingtomakeimprovements,Thompsondevisedaschemetorecruit,feed,andtrainthelocal
beggarstoworkinfactoriesmakingbetteruniformsandtoschooltheirchildren.Heresearchedmealswhichwouldbecheapbut
nourishing,andthenutilizedidlesoldierstogrowthefood,tendgardensandparks,andpracticemilitarytraining.Hedevisedadeviceto
measureheatfromdifferentfuelsbyhavingtheexhaustsmoketravelthoughacopperwormsurroundedinaboxofwaterofknownmass
andmonitoredfortemperaturechanges.Thompsonrealizedtheinefficiencyofcookingoveranopenfiresocreatedstovesenclosingthe
fire.Heinventedthedoubleboiler,thekitchenrange,thebakingoven,andadvocateduseofthepressurecooker.Realizingthepoor
illuminationprovidedbycandles,Thompsoninventedadeviceformeasuringlightintensity,thenresearchedvariouslightingdevicesand
fuelsanddevisedanimprovedoillamp.

Atthistimebothheatandlightweregenerallythoughttobecorpusclessimilartoatomsofotherelements.AntoineLavoisierinParishad
developedanewchemistryandrenamedheatascaloriqueandlightaslumiere.Itwasbelievedthatlightandheatwerebothchemical
productsofcombustionandwereconservedjustliketheotherchemicalelements.ButThompsonshowedthatlightfromcandlesand
lampscomesfromtheglowingsolidparticles.Athighertemperatures,theparticlesemithigherintensitiesoflight,aclear
violationofanyconservationoflight!

Inthefirst4yearsinBavaria,Thompsondidlittlemorethanstudytheproblems.Butinthenext3yearshemaderadicalchangesforthe
armyandthepoor.HerapidlyrosetoMinisterofWar,MinisterofPolice,MajorGeneral,ChamberlainoftheCourt,andsimultaneously
StateCouncillor,buthecreatedenemiesduringtherise.WhentheGermanemperordiedin1792,theBavarianElectorhadtemporary
authorityandelevatedThompsontoCountoftheHolyRomanEmpire,andThompsonchosethetitleofCountRumfordafterthe
originalnameforConcord,Massachusetts,thetownwherehestartedbymarryingtherichwidow.

After16monthsofhealthdriventravel,CountRumfordreturnedtodomoreexperimentsinvestigatingheat.Thecaloriquetheoryofheat
successfullyexplainedthatwhentheelementcaloriqueflowedintoabody,itsvolumecausedtheheatedobjecttoexpand.Anddraining
caloriquefromacooledbodyresultedinthebody'scontraction.ButRumfordhadearlierbeenpuzzledwhenpowderfiredinanempty
cannonresultedinmoreheatthanwhenthepowderpropelledacannonshot.InhisyouthhehadreadofBoerhaave'srivaltheorythatheat
wastheproductofvibrationinabody.Contrastingsoundvibrationsfromarepeatedrungbellwithwaterevaporatedfromawetsponge,
Rumfordnotedtheeventualexhaustionofthewaterbutnottheabilitytoringbecauseoneisasubstanceandtheotherisnot.Hewrote
further:

Beingengaged,lately,insuperintendingtheboringofcannon,intheworkshopsofthemilitaryarsenalatMunich,Iwas
struckwiththeveryconsiderabledegreeofHeatwhichabrassgunacquiresinashorttime,inbeingboredandwiththestill
http://d1068036.site.myhosting.com/ePhysics.f/labIII_7.html 1/6
3/7/2017 LabIII7:Calorimetry:MeasuringHeatEnergy
moreintenseHeat(muchgreaterthanthatofboilingwater,asIfoundbyexperiment)ofthemetallicchipsseparatedfromitbythe
borer.(Earlyonhefoundthechipsremovedbydrillingstillhadpreciselythesameheatcapacityastheoriginalmetal!)

ThemoreImediatedonthesephenomena,themoretheyappearedtometobidfairtogiveafartherinsightintothehidden
natureofHeatandtoenableustoformsomereasonableconjecturesrespectingtheexistence,ornonexistence,ofanigneous
fluidasubjectonwhichtheopinionsofphilosophershave,inallages,beenmuchdivided.

BeingresponsibleforsupervisingthedrillingofcannoninMunich,Rumfordarrangedtohavecannonboredinatankofwater,measuring
thetimetoheatthewaterfromroomtemperaturetoboiling.Repeatedmanytimes,Rumfordfoundnosignsofcaloriquebeing
exhaustedorevendiminishedasthattheoryrequiredfromtheprocessdrainingheatembeddedinthemetal.Hewrote:

Itishardlynecessarytoaddthatanythingwhichanyinsulatedbody,orsystemofbodies,cancontinuetofurnishwithout
limitation,cannotpossiblybeamaterialsubstanceanditappearstometobeextremelydifficult,ifnotquiteimpossible,to
formanydistinctideaofanythingcapableofbeingexcitedandcommunicatedintheseExperiments,exceptitbeMotion.

SoCountRumfordeffectivelyremovedbothlumiereandcaloriquefromLavoisier'snewlistofchemicalelements.Neitherlightnorheat
aresubstances.

ReturningtoEnglandtopopularizehisideasofreformtoimproveefficiencyofsociety,Rumford
rodeawaveofpopularity.(caricaturebyJamesGillrayatleft)WhileinLondonhenotedthedark
smokewhichhungoverthecitywaswasted,unburnedcoaldust,sohemodifiedfireplacechimneys
bynarrowingthethroat,addingashelftoblocksmokydowndrafts,andaddingadampertoclose
whentherewerenofires.Realizingthatafireplaceheatsbylittleunderstoodradiation,Rumford
didaseriesofinvestigationswherehefoundthatpolishedbodiesdonotradiatewell,butthat
rough,sootybodiesradiatemuchbetter.

WhentheFrenchandAustrianswenttowar,RumfordwassummonedbacktodefendMunichas
theentireroyalcourtandheadsofstatefledpresumingimminentconquestofthecity.Rumford
negotiatedwithbotharmiestocampoutsidethecity,andwhenafterweeksofRumford'sdaily
shuttlediplomacytheFrenchlostelsewhere,botharmieswithdrewleavingRumfordaherowithout
ashotbeingfired.Duringthesiegeforthecity,foodandfuelwereinshortsupply,soRumford
developedanefficientportablestoveandmanagedtofeedbothhisgarrisonedarmyandthecity
population.ButhisBavarianpoliticalenemieseventuallyforcedhisdeparture,andaBavarian
appointmenttoEnglandmanagedtooffendKingGeorgeIIIaswell.

Afterworkingtoestablishtwoprizestopromotecreativescientificefforts,RumfordofferedtoestablishamilitaryacademyfortheUnited
States.Theyarrangedforhimtotactfullydeclinetheiracceptanceofhisoffer!Hethenestablishedthefirstsciencemuseumdevotedto
educatingthepublic,chartedastheRoyalInstitutionofGreatBritain.TheseconddirectorappointedbyRumford,HumphryDavy
developeditintoagreatinstitution.NoteworthyamongoppositiontothepublicpresentationofscientificdiscoverieswasJamesWatt,
whowastryingtoprotecthisexpiringpatentonanefficientsteamengine.

OnaquicktripbacktoMunich,RumfordreturnedbywayofPariswherehemetMarieLavoisier,therichandfashionablewidowtothe
guillotinedchemist.Atage25,AntoineLavoisierhadmarried13yearoldMarie.Herskillsandthoseshelearnedcomplimentedthoseof
Antoinesotheybecameverycompatible,productivepartners.LeavingEnglandforthelasttime,Rumfordconducteda4yearcourtshipof
Marie.ButbothRumfordandMariehadformedhardenedopinionswithage.Despitethelongcourtship,theysoonfoundmarriage
difficultandseparatedwithin2years.RumfordcontinuedtodoscientificexperimentsandcontributedtotheFrenchAcademyof
Sciences.Thinkingthattheremightbeabetterbeveragethanalcoholwhichsometimescreatesdiscord,Rumfordinventedthedripcoffee
pottoconsistentlybrewcoffeewithoutdestroyingbyboilingorotherwiselosingtheessentialflavoroils.CountRumforddiedsuddenlyin
1814,leavinghisestatetoendowaprofessorshipatHarvardUniversitybackinAmerica.

steampower

HeronofAlexandriaabout100A.D.firstdemonstratedsteampowerwithalawnsprinklertypedevicewhichrotatedwhensteamexited
nozzlesattachedonoppositesidesofarevolvingboiler.ButsteampowerremainedanoveltyuntiltheBritishmadeitpracticaland
commerciallysuccessful.ThomasSavery(b1650,d1715)patentedafireenginein1698usinghighpressuresteamtopumpwaterfrom
Englishmines.Savery'sengineusedatwostepprocesswherethesteampressureforcedwaterfromacollectionchamberupapipeto
whereitcouldbedrainedawayatgroundlevel.Thatcompleted,thesteamwasblockedandcoldwatercooledandcondensedthesteamin
collectionchamberdrawingmoreminewaterintothechamber(pushedbyatmosphericpressure).Thenthestepswererepeated.Hesetusa
factoryandpromotedthesalesofsuchenginesin1702.ButSavery'senginecarriedriskofsteampressuregettingtoogreatandexploding
thecollectingchamberortheboiler.Itwasveryinefficient,butfuelwasabundantandtherewerenoalternativesotherthanworkanimals.

http://d1068036.site.myhosting.com/ePhysics.f/labIII_7.html 2/6
3/7/2017 LabIII7:Calorimetry:MeasuringHeatEnergy

TenyearslaterthesafetyissuewasremediedbyanotherEnglishman,ThomasNewcomen(b1663,d1729)whowithhismanufacturing
partner,JohnCalley,introducedaclosefittingpistoninauniformcylinder,coupledtoarockingbeamtolifteitherwaterorotherloads.
Itsuseofmuchlowerpressuresteamreducedtherisksofexplosion.Earlymodelsrequiredapersontomonitorprogressandopenand
closevalvestoalternatefromcompressiontocoolingandcondensation.Laterfeedbackdevicesweredesignedsothatthemotionofthe
engineactuallyopenedandclosedthevalvesatkeytimesinthecycle.Stillthecycleofheatingandcoolingthecylinderwasslowand
ratherinefficient.Whentheprimarypatentsexpiredin1733othercompaniesalsoproducedsimilarsteamenginesandrefinedthedesign.
AsaresulttheNewcomenenginewaswidelyusedinBritainandontheEuropeancontinentduringthe18thCentury.

JamesWatt(b1736,d1819),sonofaScottishcarpenter,studiedtobecomeaninstrumentmakerinLondon
thenreturnedtosuchajobattheUniversityofGlasgow.Overthewinter176364Wattwasaskedtorepair
theUniversity'sdemonstrationNewcomenengine(diagramofthatengineatright)whichhadneverworked
properly.Acquaintinghimselfwithhowthemodelfunctioned,heundertookaseriesofexperimentsand
discoveredthatmuchheatwasrequired,mostofwhichwenttowarmingthecylinderwalls,onlytohave
themcooledwithwatereachcycle.Earlyin1765Wattdevisedanimprovedsteamenginewhichmoved
thecoolingandcondensingfunctiontoaseparatechamber.Thisallowedthecylindertoremainhotandthe
condensertoremaincold,allowingformuchmoreefficientandspeedyoperation.Wattteamedupwith
enginemanufacturerMatthewBoultontoproduceandsellsuchengines.Inordertocomparetheir
improvedengineswiththoseofthepredecessors,theydefined,measuredandadvertisedthehorsepowerof
theirWattsteamengines.Poweristherateofdoingworkthatis,theamountofenergytransformedto
usefulservicedividedbytheelapsedtime.

Withthecaloriquetheoryofheatindoubt,considerationsofsuchenginesasthatdesignedbyWatt
suggestedtoafewscientiststhatheatshouldbeconsideredaformofenergy.Chemicalenergycontainedin
thefuelwouldbepassedasheattothesteam,andthenviathemovingpistonintomechanicalenergywhich
wasacombinationofkineticandpotentialenergy.TheefficientWattenginecouldbeusedintraditional
stationarysituationstoliftmaterialsloads,orinmobilesituationstodrivesteampoweredboatsorforland
transportation.Becausethesteamenginewithitssupplyoffuel,water,boiler,piston,andcondenserwere
heavy,suchenginesoftenrequiredthesupportofrailstopreventthevehiclefromsinkinginmuddyorsandyland.Butthedesignofthe
steamengineremainedlargelyamatteroftrialanderrorratherthananunderstandingoftheunderlyingscience.

Notuntil1842didJ.R.MayerpublishedinGermanyapaperpostulatingthegeneralequivalenceandconservationofallformsofenergy.
Buthispaperreceivedlittleattentionatthetime.TheEnglishphysicistJamesPrescottJoule(b1818,d1889)publishedin1829the
resultsofexperimentsheconductedinthe1840sgatheringalargebodyofconvincingevidencethatheatisaformofenergy.He
concluded:

1st.Thatthequantityofheatproducedbythefrictionofbodies,whethersolidorliquid,isalwaysproportionaltothequantity
ofenergyexpended.

And2nd.Thatquantityofheatcapableofincreasingthetemperatureofapoundofwater...by1Fahr.requiresforits
evolutiontheexpenditureofamechanicalenergyrepresentedbythefallof772lbthroughthedistanceofonefoot.

In1847WilliamThomson(b1824,d1907)crossedpathswithJamesJouleatameetingoftheBritishAssociationinOxford.Jouleargued
thatheatwasduetothevibrationofamaterial'satomicconstituents.Bystudyingthedecreaseinvolumeofagasasitwascooled,Joule
suggestedthatnosubstancecouldbecolderthanatemperatureof284C.ThomsonbecamefascinatedbyJoule'sclaims.Asking
questionsfromthefloor,heprovokedalivelydebate,butassumedthatJoule'sclaimslikelywereflawed.Butaftercarefulconsideration,
ThomsoncametoagreewithJoule.ThomsonconnectedJoule'sworkwiththatofSadiCarnotonheatengines,anddevisedamore
fundamentalwayofdefiningabsolutezerotemperatureindependentofanyparticularmaterialsubstanceandin1848proposeda
thermodynamic(absolute)temperaturescale.AsaresultthefundamentalunitoftemperaturewaslatercalledtheKelvin,afterthename
BaronKelvinofLargswhichThomsonadoptedwhenhewasmadeaLordin1892.Thomsonalsosawtheideaofconservationof
energyasagreatunifyingprincipleinscience,andintroducedtheideasofstaticalanddynamicalenergy,whatarenowcallpotentialand

http://d1068036.site.myhosting.com/ePhysics.f/labIII_7.html 3/6
3/7/2017 LabIII7:Calorimetry:MeasuringHeatEnergy
kineticenergy.Thomson,Clausius,Helmholtz,Joule,Liebig,CarnotandRankineallcontributedtoourunderstandingofheatandthefirst
andsecondlawsofthermodynamics.

Thefirstlawofthermodynamicsisanexpressionoftheuniversallawofconservationofenergy,andidentifiesheattransferasaform
ofenergytransfer.Theincreaseintheinternalenergyofathermodynamicsystem,U,isequaltotheamountofheatenergyadded
tothesystem,Q,minustheworkdonebythesystemonthesurroundings,W:
U=QW

Experiments
SpecificHeat&HeatofFusion

PartI.Specificheat

HEATEXCHANGE=SHARINGtheENERGY:Whentwoormoreobjectsatdifferenttemperaturesarebroughtinsituationwithno
outsideinfluence,theyeventuallyreachthesametemperature.Thewarmerbodytransfersheattothecolderbody.Theenergywhichis
beingtransferrediscalledtheinternalenergy,energyassociatedonthemicroscopicscalewiththerandommotionofthemolecules.This
energyincludesbothkineticenergyandthepotentialenergyduetochemicalbondinginthematerial.Ifwehavetwoisolatedbodiesand
nolossorgaintotheenvironment,thenconservationofenergyprinciplerequiresthattheheatlostbyonesubstance,Q,mustbegainedby
theother:

Qlost=Qgained

Sincetemperatureisameasureoftheaveragekineticenergyoftherandommolecularmotions,asabodygainsorloseskineticenergyits
temperaturewillincreaseordecrease.Thetemperaturechange,(isthe4thcapitalletterintheGreekalphabet,pronounceddelta,perhapschosen
becauseitresemblestheshapeofratherfrequentlychangingriverdeltas.)
T=OriginaltemperatureFinaltemperature

Althoughtheinternalenergyinanobjectisdirectlyproportionaltoitsmass,twoobjectsofdifferentcompositionmayhavedifferent
internalenergieseveniftheyhavethesamemassandtemperature.Temperaturereflectsonlythekineticenergyportionoftheinternal
energy,sodifferentsubstancesmayhavedifferingamountsofpotentialenergyandtherefordifferenttotalinternalenergiesatthesame
temperature.Forexample,agramofwaterat50ChasamuchlargerinternalenergythanagramofCopperat50C.Asaresultit
requiresalargeramountofenergytoheatwaterto60CthantoproducethesametemperaturechangeinanequalmassofCopper.Thisis
measuredinapropertycalledthespecificheat,Cp(heatCapacityatconstantpressure),definedasthequantityofheatrequiredtoraisethe
temperatureof1gramofasubstance1C.

Thequantityofheatlostorgainedbyabodycanbecalculatedby
Q=CpmT
wheremisthemassofthesubstance.

Inthepastenergywastypicallymeasuredincaloriesdefinedbytheamountofheatneededtoraisethetemperatureof1gramofliquid
water1C.ThefoodindustrystillusesadietaryCaloriewhichisactuallyakilocalorieor1000calories.(notetheCAPITALC,althoughnot
alwaysusedonfoodlabels,perhapsduelackoftechnicaltrainingintheadvertisingindustryofthedifferencebetweencalandCal.)Butmostoftherestofthe
worldchangedtotheSystemInternationalunitsinthemid20thCenturywhereenergyismeasuredconsistentlyinunitsofJoules.While
theJouleisdefinedfrommorefundamentalunits(Joule=Newtonmeter),4.184Jofheatwillwarm1gramofliquidwater1C.

Thefirstinvestigationdeterminesthespecificheatofasample(perhapsofmetal).Aheatedsampleisimmersedintocoolwaterinan
insulatedcontainer.Withcaretakentopreventheatfromenteringorescapingthisinsulatedcontainer,itisassumedthattheamountof
energylostbythehotsampleisgainedbythewater.Fromtheequationsabovetheamountofheatgainedbythewatercanbecomputed.
Sincethismustbetheamountofheatlostbythesample,thespecificheatofthesample,canbecalculated.Youwillneedawayto
measurewatertemperatureandvolume,andawaytodeterminethesample'smass.

Procedure
1.Determinethemassofachosensample.Thiscanbedoneeitherdirectlybyweighing,orbydeterminingthevolumeofwaterit
displacesandmultiplyingbythesample'sdensity.(TablesofdensitiescanbefoundontheWeb,suchasatWikipedia.kg/m3canbeconvertedto
tog/cm3 bydividingby1000.)

2.Heatthesampleinacontainerofboilingwater.Allowittoremaininthewateruntilithascometoequilibriumwiththewater,at
presumably100C.

3.Obtainorconstructaninsulatedcontainer.Astyrofoamcupwillbeadequate.Ifthatisn'tavailable,apapercontainercanbe
surroundedbyasecondcontainer,perhapswithcrumpledpaperbetweenasinsulation.

4.Measureandrecordanamountofcoolwatersufficienttoimmersethesample.Placethiswaterintotheinsulatedcontainer.(Ifyou
measurethewatervolume,recallthedensityofwateris1gram/cm3 .)

http://d1068036.site.myhosting.com/ePhysics.f/labIII_7.html 4/6
3/7/2017 LabIII7:Calorimetry:MeasuringHeatEnergy
5.Measureandrecordthetemperatureofthecoolwater.

6.Whenthemetalisthoroughlyheated,quicklytransferitintothecoolwater.

7.Stirthecoolwatergentlyuntilitstemperaturestopsrising.Recordthehighesttemperaturereached.

8.Fromtheknownmassofcoolwater,theCpforwaterof4.184J/gC,andthewater'stemperatureincrease,calculatetheheat,Q,
gainedbythewaterfromtheimmersedsample(usingtheQequation).

9.Recallthatthatenergyisconservedandnoheatwasallowedtoenterorescapefromoutsidetheinsulatedcontainerexceptwhatthe
samplebrought.Whatheatthewatergainedmusthavecomeexclusivelyfromthehotsample.Sotheamountofheatlostbythe
samplemustequaltheamountwecalculatedthecoolwatergained.

10.(AgainusingtheQequation)calculatethespecificheat,Cp,ofthesamplebydividingtheheatitlostbythesample'stemperature
change(recallitcooledfrom100Ctothetemperatureiteventuallysharedwiththewaterintheinsulatedcontainer),andalsodividebythe
sample'smass.

PartII.HeatofFusionofIce

CHANGEOFPHASE:OriginallytheGreeksthoughtthatsolids,liquids,andgasesrepresentedelementarydifferences.ButAntoine
Lavoisier(b1743,d1794,Marie's1sthusband)proposedthatasinglematerialcanexhibitthesedifferentphasesbymerelyachangein
temperature.Wenowconsiderthesetobedifferentstatesofexistence.Beyondthesecommonphases,manysubstanceshaveseveral
differentsolidphaseswhichoccuratdifferenttemperatureandpressureranges.Generallytheyarerelatedonthemicroscopicscaleto
differentcrystalpackingarrangementsoftheiratomsormolecules.Buthereweareinterestingintheenergydifferencebetweenonephase
andanother.Inthenextinvestigationwewilltrytorelatethisenergydifferencetootherwisehiddendifferencesinentropy,orconversely,
thepackingorganizationinthematerial.Generallyanincreaseininternalenergyisrequiredtoconvertasolidtoaliquid.Conversely,a
reductionininternalenergycancauseliquidstofreeze(solidify).Thesesolidliquidphasechangesoccurwithoutachangeintemperature,
thatis,withnochangeinaveragekineticenergyoccurs.Forexample,themoleculesiniceat0Caremovingjustasfastonaverage,
withthesamekineticenergy,asliquidwaterat0C!Theiraveragespeedsonlychangeiftheyareathigherorlowertemperature.
Theheatoffusionofasubstanceistheheatexchangerequiredtomeltonegramofthesubstance(Joules/gm).

Inthispartoftheexperiment,theheatoffusionofwaterwillbedetermined.Warmwaterwillbeusedtomeltice,andthechangein
temperatureofthewaterinaninsulatedcontainer.Suchadeviceiscommonlycalledacalorimeter.Veryexpensivecalorimeterscanbe
purchased,butresultsnearlyasgoodcanoftenbeobtainedinacolorimeterassimpleasaninexpensivestyrofoamcup!Apapercontainer
nestedinsideasecondcontainerisnotlikelyaswellinsulated,butcanalsoprovidereasonableresults,andconsiderableinsightintothe
scienceofcalorimetry.Theicemustabsorbheatinordertomelt.Theheatabsorbedcanbeexpressedas

Heatgainedbyice=Heatlostbyoriginalliquidwater

miceHfusion+miceTicewater=CpmwaterToriginalliquid

whereHfusionistheheatoffusioninJoules/gram.Thenecessaryheatwillbetransferredfromthewarmwatertotheice.Ifanyice
remainsunmeltedandisremoved,thelightgraytermvanishes.Ineithercaseweneedtocalculatetheamountoficewhichactually
melted,mice.Butifweusemoreliquidwater,theicewillallmeltandtheTHATicewaterwillwarmabitrequiringwesubtractthegray
termfrombothsidesoftheequation.

Procedure
1.Obtainabouthalfoftheinsulatedcontainerfullofsomeroomtemperaturewater.Accuratelymeasureandrecordthevolume.Use
thedensityofwater,1g/cm3,tocalculateandrecordthewater'smass.Addthewatertoaninsulatedcontainer.

2.Selectseveralicecubesroughly1/4thevolumeoftheroomtemperaturewater.Dryseveralicecubeswhichhadbeenmelting(soare
presumablyat0C).

3.Gentlyaddtheicetothewater,avoidinganylossofwater.Gentlystirthewaterandwatchthewatertemperatureasitcools.

4.Iftheiceallmelts,recordthelowesttemperaturereached.Ifthetemperatureapproaches0C,trytoremovetheremainingice
withoutlosinganyliquid.Forexampleshakeanywaterontheicebackintothecontainer.Recordthelowesttemperaturethatthe
waterreaches.ThistemperatureisthefinaltemperatureofthewarmwaterANDanywaterfromthemeltedice.

5.Accuratelymeasureandrecordthecurrenttotalvolumeofliquidwater.Wheredidtheextraliquidcomefrom?

6.Calculatehowmuchtheroomtemperaturewatercooled.Usethatandtheoriginalmassofwater,andtheCp=4.184J/gCto
calculatetheheatlostbythecoolingwater.

http://d1068036.site.myhosting.com/ePhysics.f/labIII_7.html 5/6
3/7/2017 LabIII7:Calorimetry:MeasuringHeatEnergy
7.Sinceenergyisconservedandnoheatwasallowedtoenterorleave(exceptviatheice),alltheheatthecoolingwaterlostmustgone
towhatwasoriginallyice.Recordtheamountofheatthaticegained.

8.Itislikelythewater,includingtheicethatmelted,endedatleastalittlewarmerthan0C.Calculatehowmuchtheicewater
warmedafteritmelted.

9.Fromtheextravolumeofliquid,calculatethevolumeandthenthemassoficewhichmelted.

10.Multiplythemassofmeltedicewater,bythetemperatureitwarmed,andCp=4.184J/gCtocalculatetheheatgainedbythe
warmingicewater.Subtractthisfromtheheatgainedbytheice.

11.Dividetheremainingheatwhichtheicegainedbythemassoficetocalculatetheheatoffusion.

Predictions
1.HowmanyCalorieswouldberequiredfromyourbodytoheatacontaineroficycoldsoda(presumingittobeessentiallyallwater)to
bodytemperature37C(afterdrinkingit)?HowdoesthiscomparetothelabeledCaloriecontentofthebeverage?

2.Howwouldtheresultsfortheheatoffusionofwaterhavebeenaffectediftheicewerenotdriedbeforebeingplacedinthe
calorimeter?Wouldthishavemadethemeasuredheatoffusionlargerorsmaller?

3.Howwouldyougoaboutmeasuringtheheatneededtoboilagramofwaterat100C?Woulditbeeasiertofindtheenergygained
bythereverseprocess?

Communicatingtechnicalinformationsuchasobservationsandfindingsisaskillusedbyscientistsbutusefulformostothers.Ifyou
needcoursecredit,useyourobservationsinyourjournaltoconstructaformalreport.

References
SanbornC.Brown,CountRumford:PhysicistExtraordinary,Doubleday,1962

D.K.C.MacDonald,Faraday,Maxwell,andKelvin,Doubleday,1964

JohnF.Sandfort,HeatEngines:ThermodynamicsinTheoryandPractice,Doubleday,1962

enginediagramsderivedfromthosebyProjectPhysicsstaff,TheTriumphofMechanics,Holt,Rinehart,Winston,1970

backtopreviousscreen

tonextexperiment
toePhysicsmenu
tositemenu
created27January2007
revised7February2007
byDTrapp

http://d1068036.site.myhosting.com/ePhysics.f/labIII_7.html 6/6