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3/7/2017 Work,PowerAndEnergy

iePhysics

SummaryandPracticeApplicationsofBasicPhysicsSkills
indevelopment

Work,PowerAndEnergy
byWilliamDietsch2003

WorkDefinedastheproductofaforceandthedisplacementcausedbytheforce.Ifaforceacts
entirelyinthedirectionofthedisplacement,theentireforcedoeswork.Iftheforceactsinadirection
otherthantheexactdirectionofthedisplacement,useresolutionofforcetechniquestodeterminethe
effectivecomponent.Theeffectivecomponentisthenusedtocomputethework.Workisexpressedin
Joules(Nm).Equation:W=Fd

PowerDefinedastherateofdoingwork.Poweriscomputedbydividingthetotalworkdonebythe
timerequiredforthework.PowerisexpressedinWatts(J/s).Equation:P=W/t.

EnergyDefinedastheabilitytodowork.Therearemanydifferenttypesofenergysuchaselectrical,
light,magnetic,heatetc.Mechanicalenergyisclassifiedaskineticorpotential.

ConservativeVersesNonConservativeForces:Aforceforwhichworkdonedoesnotdependona
pathofmotion(justinitialandfinalpositionorstate)iscalledaconservativeforce.Gravity,elasticforces,
andelectricforcesareconservative.Aforcesuchasfrictiondependsuponthepaththroughwhichitacts
andisrefereedtoasanonconservativeforce.

PotentialEnergy:
Theenergypossessedbyabodybyvirtueofitspositionorstate.Thisenergyisonlyassociatedwith
conservativeforces.

GravitationalPE:Thisisenergy,whichisstoredinthegravitationalfieldoftheEarth.Ifworkisdone
inseparatinganobjectfromazeropoint(liftingitup)theenergystoredinthegravitationalfieldisequal
totheworkdoneinliftingtheobject.Equation:PEgrav=mgh(measuredinJoules).

ElasticPE:Thisisenergy,whichisstoredbydistortingtheshapeofanelasticobjectsuchasaspringor
abow.Thedistortedstateoftheobjectisthataspectoftheobject,whichcontainstheenergy.Thework
doneindistortingtheobjectisequaltotheenergystoredinit.Equations:PEelastic=ks2(measuredin
Joules)wherekistheelasticconstantoftheobjectandsistheamountofdistortionorstretch.
PEelastic=Fs(measuredinJoules)whereFisthefinalstretchingforceandsistheamountofdistortion
orstretch.

KineticEnergy:
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KineticEnergyistheenergypossessedbyabodybyvirtueofitsmotion.

Anymovingobjecthaskineticenergy.Equation:KE=mv2(measuredinJoules).Wherethemassisin
Kgandthespeedisinm/s.

ConservationOfEnergy:
Inaclosedsystemofconservativeforces(noenergyinputorloss),thetotalenergyofthesystemremains
constant.

Ifasystemconsistsofaweightsuspendedfromsomeheight,thetotalenergyofthesystemisPEgrav.If
theweightisreleasedandfalls,thePEgravislostastheheightisdecreased.AtthesametimetheKE
increasesasthebodyspeedsup.Atthelowestpoint(justbeforetheweighthitstheground)alloftheenergy
ofthesystemiskinetic.

Ifasystemconsistsofadrawnbowandarrow,thetotalenergyofthesystemisstoredinthebowas
PEelastic.Whenthearrowisreleased,allofthePEelasticisconvertedintoKE.

WorkAndPowerProblems

1.Ateamofmulespullswithaforceof2500Nonawagon.Howmuchworkdoestheteamdoif
thewagonispulled1820m?

2.A45Kgboxisliftedfromthefloortothetopofashelf1.1mhigh.Computetheworkdone
againstgravity.

3.Amanpullsasledbymeansofarope,whichmakesanangleof48tothehorizontal.Ifthesled
ismovedatotaldistanceof56m,computetheworkdonebythemanifhepullstheropewitha
forceof200N.

4.Asledispulledadistanceof185mbymeansofaropeheldatsomeanglemeasuredfromthe
horizontal.If12000Jofworkisdoneandthepullalongtheropeis125N,computethevalueof
.

5.Acraneliftsa2250Nbucketcontaining1.15m3ofsand.Ifthedensityofsandis2000Kg/m3,
andthebucketislifted8.4m,computetheworkdoneagainstgravity.

6.A250Nweightispushedupa5.6mfrictionlessinclinedplane,whichmakesanangleof35to
thehorizontal.Computetheworkdoneagainstgravity.Hint:findtheheightoftheinclinedplane.

7.Aconveyorbeltlifts56Kgofstoneuptoaheightof15m.Ifthemachineliftstheloadin
55seconds,computethepoweroutputoftheconveyorbeltinkW.

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8.In35seconds,apumpdelivers56dm3ofliquidintoatank31mabovethereservoir.Ifthe
densityoftheliquidis0.91Kg/dm3,computetheworkdoneandthepoweroutputofthepump.

9.A115Nforceexertedbyarope,whichmakesanangleof43tothehorizontal,pullsasled.Ifthe
ropegenerates66Wofpowerfor92s,computethedistancethatthesledmovesasaresult.Hint:
findtheeffectivecomponentoftheforcefirst.

10.A14mconveyorbeltinclinedat35,deliversbundlesofrecycledpaper,whichhaveamassof
5.0Kg.Iftheconveyorbeltdelivers23bundlesperminute,computethepoweroutputofthe
machine>

ElasticPotentialEnergyProblems

11.Theelasticforceconstantofaspringinatoyis550N/m.Ifthespringiscompressed1.2cm,
computethepotentialenergystoredinthespring.

12.Atotalof56Jofpotentialenergyisstoredinaspringthatisstretched4.5cm.Computethe
elasticforceconstantofthespring.

13.Aforceof125Nisusedtostretchaspring0.33m.Computethepotentialenergystoredinthe
spring.

14.A100.0garrowispulledback30.0cmagainstabow,whichhasanelasticforceconstantof
125N/m.Iftheentirepotentialenergystoredinthebowisconvertedtothekineticenergyofthe
arrow,computethespeedofthearrow.

15.Aspringwithaconstantof650N/miscompressedto5.5cmandisusedtoshootatoydartwitha
massof56gramsstraightup.Assumingthattheentirepotentialenergyinthespringisconverted
tokineticenergy,computethespeedofthedartuponlaunch.

16.Ifalloftheenergyofthedartinproblem15isconvertedtogravitationalpotentialenergybythe
dartbeingfiredstraightup,computetheheightthatthedartwillreach.

17.Aforceof56Nisusedtocompressaspring2.35cm.Computethepotentialenergystoredinthe
spring.

18.Ifthespringinproblem17isusedtolauncha2.1gballstraightup,computethemaximumheight
thattheballwillreach.

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ConservationOfEnergyProblems:

19.A550Kgrollercoastertrainrollsdownfromthetopofahill94mhigh.Whatisthelossof
potentialenergyatthebottomofthehill?Assumingthatallofthepotentialenergylostis
convertedtokineticenergy,computethespeedofthetrain.

20.Arollercoastertrainrollsdownfromthetopofahill85mhigh.Assuminga21%lossofenergy
tofriction,whatisthespeedofthecoastertrainatthebottomofthehill?

21.A2.1Kgweightreceives210Jofkineticenergybyalauncher,whichispointedstraightup.
Whatisthemaximumheightthattheweightwillachieve?

SimpleMachines:

22.Amachinereceivesaworkinputof25Jandhasefficiencyratingof54%.Computetheuseful
workoutputofthemachine.

23.Aneffortof55Nactsthroughadistanceof1.2mtolifta350Nweightstraightup.Assuming
thatthemachineis100%efficient,computehowhightheweightwillbeliftedbythemachine.

24.Aneffortof545Nisexertedontheropeofapulleysystem.Theropeispulled10.0m.Ifthis
workcausesa2520Nweighttoberaised1.50m,computetheefficiencyofthemachine.

25.Aneffortforceof56Nactsthroughadistanceof15mtoraisea1120Nweightadistanceof
0.525mstraightup.ComputetheIMA,theAMA,andtheefficiencyofthemachine.

26.Whatworkinputisrequiredtolifta215Kgmassadistanceof5.65musingamachinethatis
72.5%efficient?

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createdand2003byWilliamDietsch
posted&edited30May2007byDTrapp

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