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**AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY
**

Volume 355, Number 7, Pages 2663–2674

S 0002-9947(03)03194-5

Article electronically published on February 27, 2003

TAYLOR EXPANSION OF AN EISENSTEIN SERIES

TONGHAI YANG

Abstract. In this paper, we give an explicit formula for the ﬁrst two terms

of the Taylor expansion of a classical Eisenstein series of weight 2k + 1 for

Γ

0

(q). Both the ﬁrst term and the second term have interesting arithmetic

interpretations. We apply the result to compute the central derivative of some

Hecke L-functions.

0. Introduction

Consider the classical Eisenstein series

¸

γ∈Γ∞\ SL2(Z)

Im(γτ)

s

,

which has a simple pole at s = 1. The well-known Kronecker limit formula gives

a closed formula for the next term (the constant term) in terms of the Dedekind

η-function and has a lot of applications in number theory. It seems natural and

worthwhile to study the same question for more general Eisenstein series. For

example, consider the Eisenstein series

(0.1) E(τ, s) =

¸

γ∈Γ∞\Γ0(q)

(d)(cτ + d)

−2k−1

Im(γτ)

s

2

−k

.

Here γ =

a b

c d

**, −q is a fundamental discriminant of an imaginary quadratic ﬁeld,
**

and = (

−q

). This Eisenstein series was used in the celebrated work of Gross and

Zagier ([GZ, Chapter IV]) to compute the central derivative of cuspidal modular

forms of weight 2k +2. The Eisenstein series is holomorphic (as a function of s) at

the symmetric center s = 0 with the leading term (constant term) given by a theta

series via the Siegel-Weil formula. The analogue of the Kronecker limit formula

would be a closed formula for the central derivative at s = 0—the main object

of this paper. This would give a direct proof of [GZ, Proposition 4.5]. Another

application is to give a closed formula for the central derivative of a family of Hecke

L-series associated to CM abelian varieties, which is very important in the arith-

metic of CM abelian varieties in view of the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture.

This application will be given in section 4. We will also prove a transformation

equation for the tangent line of the Eisenstein series at the center, which should be

of independent interest.

Received by the editors September 9, 2002.

2000 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. Primary 11G05, 11M20, 14H52.

Key words and phrases. Kronecker formula, central derivative, elliptic curves, Eisenstein series.

Partially supported by an AMS Centennial fellowship and NSF grant DMS-0070476.

c 2003 American Mathematical Society

2663

2664 TONGHAI YANG

To make the exposition simple, we assume that q > 3 is a prime congruent to 3

modulo 4. Let k = Q(

√

−q).

Set

(0.2) Λ(s, ) = π

−

s+1

2

Γ

s + 1

2

L(s, )

and

(0.3) E

∗

(τ, s) = q

s+1

2

Λ(s + 1, )E(τ, s).

It is well known that E

∗

(τ, s) is holomorphic.

As in [GZ, Propositions 4.4 and 3.3], we deﬁne

(0.4) p

k

(t) =

k

¸

m=0

(

k

m

)

(−t)

m

m!

and

(0.5) q

k

(t) =

∞

1

e

−tu

(u −1)

k

u

−k−1

du, t > 0.

We remark that p

k

(−t) and q

k

(t) are two “basic” solutions of the diﬀerential equa-

tions

(0.6) tC

(t) + (1 + t)C

(t) −kC(t) = 0.

Finally, let ρ(n) be given by

(0.7) ζ

k

(s) =

¸

ρ(n)n

−s

.

Theorem 0.1. Let the notation be as above, and let h be the ideal class number of

k. Write τ = u + iv. Then

E

∗

(τ, 0) = v

−k

(h + 2

¸

n>0

ρ(n)p

k

(4πnv)e(nτ))

and

E

∗

(τ, 0) +

1

4

k

¸

j=1

1

j

E

∗

(τ, 0)

=

1

2

v

−k

¸

a

0

(v) −2

¸

n>0

a

n

p

k

(4πnv)e(nτ) −2

¸

n<0

ρ(−n)q

k

(−4πnv)e(nτ)

¸

.

Here

a

0

(v) = h

¸

log(qv) + 2

Λ

(1, )

Λ(1, )

+

k

¸

j=1

1

j

¸

and

a

n

= (ord

q

n + 1)ρ(n) log q +

¸

(

p

q

)=−1

(ord

p

n + 1)ρ(n/p) log p.

The formulas should be compared to those for

˜

Φ in [GZ, Propositions 4.4 and

4.5]. In fact, multiplying our formulas by the theta function in their paper and

taking the trace would yield their formulas for

˜

Φ. The method used here seems

to be more suitable for generalization. The proof is based on the observation that

the Eisenstein series (0.1) can be split into two Eisenstein series. One of them is

coherent, and it is easy to compute its value. It contributes little to the central

TAYLOR EXPANSION OF AN EISENSTEIN SERIES 2665

derivative. The other one is incoherent, contributes nothing to the value, and its

central derivative can be computed by the method of [KRY], where we dealt with

the case k = 0. This consists of sections 1 and 2.

In section 3, we study how the value and derivative behave under the Fricke

involution τ → −1/qτ and obtain the following functional equation. One inter-

esting point about the equation is that it basically follows from the deﬁnition of

automorphic forms (see (3.2)).

Theorem 0.2. The modular forms E

∗

(τ, 0) and E

∗

(τ, 0) satisfy the following func-

tional equation:

E

∗

(−

1

qτ

, 0)

E

∗

(−

1

qτ

, 0)

= i(

√

qτ)

2k+1

−1 0

¸

k

j=1

1

j

+

1

2

log q 1

E

∗

(τ, 0)

E

∗

(τ, 0)

.

Finally, let µ be a canonical Hecke character of weight 1 of k (see section 4 for the

deﬁnition). It is associated to the CM elliptic curve A(q) studied by Gross ([Gro]).

When q ≡ 3 mod 8, S. Miller and the author proved recently that the central

derivative L

**(1, µ) = 0 ([MY]). Since the central derivative encodes very important
**

information in the arithmetic of A(q), it is important to ﬁnd a good formula for the

central derivative. Standard calculation shows that the L-series L(s, µ) is E(τ, 2s)

evaluated at a CM cycle. So Theorem 0.1 gives an explicit formula for the central

derivative L

(1, µ) (Corollary 4.2).

1. Coherent and incoherent Eisenstein series

Let G = SL

2

over Q, and let B = TN be the standard Borel subgroup, where

T is the standard maximal split torus of B and N is the unipotent radical of B.

Their rational points are given by

T(Q) = {m(a) =

a 0

0 a

−1

: a ∈ Q

∗

}

and

N(Q) = {n(b) =

1 b

0 1

: b ∈ Q}.

Consider the global induced representation

I(s, ) = Ind

G(A)

B(A)

| |

s

A

of G(A), where A is the ring of ad`eles of Q. By deﬁnition a section Φ(s) ∈ I(s, )

satisﬁes

(1.1) Φ(n(b)m(a)g, s) = (a)|a|

s+1

Φ(g, s)

for a ∈ A

∗

and b ∈ A. Let K = SL

2

(

ˆ

Z) and let K

∞

= SO(2)(R). Associated to a

standard section Φ, which means that its restriction on KK

∞

is independent of s,

one deﬁnes the Eisenstein series

(1.2) E(g, s, Φ) =

¸

γ∈B(Q)\G(Q)

Φ(γg, s).

It is absolutely convergent for Re s > 1 and has a meromorphic continuation to

the whole complex s-plane. We consider three standard sections Φ

0

, Φ

±

in this

paper. For every prime p q∞, let Φ

p

∈ I(s,

p

) be the unique spherical section

2666 TONGHAI YANG

such that Φ

p

(x) = 1 for every x ∈ K

p

= SL

2

(Z

p

). Let Φ

∞

∈ I(s,

∞

) be the unique

section of weight 2k + 1 in the sense that

(1.3) Φ

∞

(gk

θ

, s) = Φ

∞

(g, s)e

i(2k+1)θ

for every k

θ

=

cos θ sin θ

−sin θ cos θ

∈ K

∞

. For p = q, let

J

q

=

a b

cq d

∈ SL

2

(Z

q

) : a, b, c, d ∈ Z

q

**be the Iwahori subgroup of K
**

q

. Then

q

deﬁnes a character of J

q

via

(1.4)

q

(

a b

cq d

) =

q

(d).

As described in [KRY, section 2], the subspace of I(s,

q

) consisting of

q

eigenvec-

tors of J

q

is two-dimensional and is spanned by the cell functions of Φ

i

q

, determined

by

(1.5) Φ

i

q

(w

j

, s) = δ

ij

, where w

0

= 1 and w

1

= w =

0 −1

1 0

.

We denote this subspace by W(J

q

,

q

, s). A better basis for this subspace turns out

to be given by

(1.6) Φ

±

q

= Φ

0

q

±

1

√

−q

Φ

1

q

,

which are “eigenfunctions” of some intertwining operator (see Lemma 2.2). Set

(1.7) Φ

0

= Φ

0

q

¸

p=q

Φ

p

and Φ

±

= Φ

±

q

¸

p=q

Φ

p

.

Clearly, Φ

0

=

1

2

(Φ

+

+ Φ

−

). For τ = u + iv with v > 0, let

(1.8) g

τ

= n(u)m(

√

v).

Then standard computation gives

Proposition 1.1. Let the notation be as above. Then

E

∗

(τ, s) = v

−k−

1

2

E

∗

(g

τ

, s, Φ

0

)

=

1

2

v

−k−

1

2

(E

∗

(g

τ

, s, Φ

+

) + E

∗

(g

τ

, s, Φ

−

)).

Here

E

∗

(g, s, Φ) = q

s+1

2

Λ(s + 1, )E(g, s, Φ)

is the completion of the Eisenstein series E(g, s, Φ).

As we will see in Proposition 2.4, the Eisenstein series with Φ

±

behave almost as

“even/odd” functions respectively, and both have nice functional equations. This

is not a coincidence. Indeed, from the point of view of representation theory,

Φ

+

(g, 0) is a coherent section in I(0, ) in the sense that it comes from a global

(two-dimensional) quadratic space, while Φ

−

(g, 0) is an incoherent section in I(0, ),

coming from a collection of inconsistent local quadratic spaces. We refer to [Ku]

for explanation of this terminology and for a general idea for computing the cen-

tral derivative of incoherent Eisenstein series. Every section in I(0, ) is a linear

combination of coherent and incoherent sections; we just made it explicit in this

case.

TAYLOR EXPANSION OF AN EISENSTEIN SERIES 2667

2. Proof of Theorem 0.1

Let ψ =

¸

ψ

p

be the “canonical” additive character of A via

ψ

p

(x) =

e

2πix

if p = ∞,

e

−2πiλ(x)

if p = ∞.

Here λ is the canonical map Q

p

−→ Q

p

/Z

p

→ Q/Z. For a standard section

Φ =

¸

Φ

p

∈ I(s, ) and d ∈ Q, one deﬁnes the local Whittaker function

(2.1) W

d,p

(g, s, Φ) =

Qp

Φ(wn(b)g, s)ψ

p

(−db)db.

Let

(2.2) W

∗

d,p

(g, s, Φ) = L

p

(s + 1, )W

d,p

(g, s, Φ)

be its completion. We also set M

p

(s) = W

0,p

(s) and M

∗

p

(s) = W

∗

0,p

(s). So M

∗

(s) =

¸

M

∗

p

(s) is a normalized intertwining operator from I(s, ) to I(−s, ).

In general, an Eisenstein series E

∗

(g, s, Φ) has a Fourier expansion

(2.3) E

∗

(g, s, Φ) =

¸

d

E

∗

d

(g, s, Φ)

with

(2.4) E

∗

d

(g, s, Φ) = q

s+1

2

¸

p

W

∗

d,p

(g, s, Φ)

for d = 0 and

(2.5) E

∗

0

(g, s, Φ) = q

s+1

2

Λ(s + 1, )Φ(g, s) + q

s+1

2

M

∗

(s)Φ(g, s).

The local Whittaker integrals are computed in the next three lemmas.

Lemma 2.1 ([KRY, Lemma 2.4]). For a ﬁnite prime number p = q, one has

W

∗

d,p

(1, s, Φ

p

) = 0 unless ord

p

d ≥ 0. In such a case, one has

W

∗

d,p

(1, s, Φ

p

) =

ordp d

¸

r=0

(

p

(p)p

−s

)

r

and

M

∗

p

(s)Φ(s) = L

p

(s, )Φ

p

(−s).

Here Φ

p

is the unique spherical section deﬁned in section 1. In particular,

W

∗

d,p

(1, 0, Φ

p

) = ρ

p

(d),

where ρ

p

(d) = ρ(p

ordp d

) for p < ∞.

Lemma 2.2. For p = q, one has

W

∗

d,q

(w

0

, s, Φ

±

)

W

∗

d,q

(w

1

, s, Φ

±

)

=

(1 ±

q

(d)q

−s(ordq d+1)

)

±

1

√

−q

−

1

q

if ord

q

d ≥ 0,

(1 ±

q

(d))

0

−q

−1

if ord

q

d = −1,

0 otherwise

2668 TONGHAI YANG

and

M

∗

q

(s)Φ

±

q

= ±

1

√

−q

Φ

±

q

.

Proof. The ﬁrst formula follows from [KRY, (3.26)-(3.29)]. For the second formula,

notice that M

∗

q

(s) is an intertwining operator between eigenspaces W(J

q

,

q

, s) and

W(J

q

,

q

, −s) of J

p

. So

M

∗

q

(s)Φ

±

q

= a

±

Φ

+

q

+ b

±

Φ

−

q

for some constants a

±

and b

±

. Plugging in g = w

0

and w

1

, and applying the ﬁrst

formula, one gets the desired formula.

Lemma 2.3. Let Φ = Φ

∞

be the local section in I(s,

∞

) deﬁned by (1.3).

(1)

W

∗

d,∞

(g

τ

, s, Φ) = 2iv

1+s

2

π

−

s

2

e(du)

k

¸

j=0

j −

s

2

j +

s

2

η(2v, πd,

s

2

+ k + 1,

s

2

−k)

Γ(

s

2

)

.

Here

η(g, h, α, β) =

x±h>0

e

−gx

(x + h)

α−1

(x −h)

β−1

dx

is Shimura’s eta function for g > 0, h ∈ R, and Re α and Re β suﬃciently large

[Sh].

(2) For d > 0, one has

W

∗

d,∞

(g

τ

, 0, Φ) = 2iv

1

2

p

k

(4πdv)e(dτ),

where p

k

is deﬁned by (0.4).

(3) For d < 0 , one has W

∗

d,∞

(g

τ

, 0, Φ) = 0, and

W

∗

d,∞

(g

τ

, 0, Φ) = iv

1

2

q

k

(−4πdv)e(dτ),

where q

k

is given by (0.5).

(4) M

∗

∞

(s)Φ

∞

(s) = i

¸

k

j=0

j−s/2

j+s/2

L

∞

(s, )Φ

∞

(−s).

Proof. The proof is the same as that of [KRY, Proposition 2.6] and is left to the

reader.

Proposition 2.4. One has the functional equation as s goes to −s:

(2.6)

k

¸

j=0

(j −

s

2

)E

∗

(g, −s, Φ

±

) = ±

k

¸

j=0

(j +

s

2

)E

∗

(g, s, Φ

±

).

Proof. By Lemmas 2.1-2.3, one has

(2.7) M

∗

(s)Φ(g, s) = ±q

−

1

2

k

¸

j=0

j −

s

2

j +

s

2

Λ(s, )Φ(g, −s).

Now the proposition follows from the functional equations

q

s

2

Λ(s, ) = q

−

s

2

Λ(−s, )

and

E(g, s, Φ) = E(g, −s, M(s)Φ).

Here M(s) = M

∗

(s)Λ(s + 1, )

−1

is the unnormalized intertwining operator from

I(s, ) to I(−s, ).

TAYLOR EXPANSION OF AN EISENSTEIN SERIES 2669

Theorem 2.5. One has

(2.8) v

−

1

2

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

) = 2(h

q

+ 2

¸

n>0

ρ(n)p

k

(4πnv)e(nτ))

and

v

−

1

2

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) (2.9)

= h

q

(log qv + 2

Λ

(1, )

Λ(1, )

+

k

¸

j=1

1

j

) −2

¸

n>0

a

n

p

k

(4πnv)e(nτ)

−2

¸

n<0

ρ(−n)q

k

(−4πnv)e(nτ).

Proof. First we observe that

(2.10)

¸

pq∞

ρ

p

(d)(1 ±

q

(d)) = ρ(|d|)(1 ±

q

(d)) = 2ρ(d)

since

1 =

¸

p≤∞

p

(d) = sign(d)

q

(d)

¸

p|d

(−1)

ordp d

.

Formula (2.8) is a special case of the Siegel-Weil formula. We give a direct proof

here using Lemmas 2.1-2.3. First, the lemmas imply E

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

) = 0 unless d ≥ 0

is an integer. When d > 0 is an integer, the lemmas and (2.10) imply

E

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

) = q

1

2

¸

pq∞

ρ

p

(d)

1 +

q

(d)

√

−q

2iv

1

2

p

k

(4πdv)e(dτ)

= 4v

1

2

ρ(d)p

k

(4πdv)e(dτ). (2.11)

The same lemmas also imply

E

∗

0

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

) = q

1

2

Λ(1, )Φ

+

(g

τ

, 0) + q

1

2

M

∗

(0)Φ

+

(g

τ

, 0)

= hv

1

2

+ Λ(0, )v

1

2

= 2hv

1

2

.

This proves (2.8).

As for (2.9), we again check term by term, and it is clear from the lemmas that

E

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) = 0 unless d is an integer, which we assume from now on.

When d < 0, W

∗

d,∞

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) = 0 by Lemma 2.3(3), and so (using Lemmas

2.1-2.3 and (2.10))

E

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) = q

1

2

W

∗

d,∞

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

∞

)W

∗

d,q

(1, 0, Φ

−

q

)

¸

pq∞

W

∗

d,p

(1, 0, Φ

p

)

= −2v

1

2

q

k

(−4πdv)e(dτ)(1 −

q

(d))

¸

pq∞

ρ

p

(d)

= −2v

1

2

ρ(−d)q

k

(−4πdv)e(dτ),

as desired.

When d > 0 and

q

(d) = 1, one has W

∗

d,q

(1, 0, Φ

−

) = 0 and

W

∗

d,q

(1, 0, Φ

−

) =

−1

√

−q

(ord

q

d + 1) log q.

2670 TONGHAI YANG

The same computation using Lemmas 2.1-2.3 and (2.10) yields

E

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) = −2v

1

2

p

k

(4πdv)e(dτ)(ord

q

d + 1)ρ(d) log q

= −2v

1

2

a

n

p

k

(4πdv)e(dτ), (2.12)

since a

n

= (ord

q

d + 1)ρ(d) log q in this case.

When d > 0 and

q

(d) = −1, there is a prime l|d such that W

∗

d,l

(1, 0, Φ

l

) =

ρ

l

(d) = 0 by (2.10). In this case,

W

∗

d,l

(1, 0, Φ

l

) =

1

2

(ord

l

d + 1) log l.

The same calulation yields

E

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) = −2v

1

2

a

n

p

k

(4πdv)e(dτ),

as desired.

Finally, when d = 0, one has by the same lemmas,

(2.13) E

∗

0

(g

τ

, s, Φ

±

) =

1

¸

k

j=1

(j +

s

2

)

(G(s) ±G(−s))

with

(2.14) G(s) = (qv)

1+s

2

Λ(1 + s, )

k

¸

j=1

(j +

s

2

).

So

(2.15) E

∗

0

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) =

2G

(0)

k!

= hv

1

2

¸

log(qv) + 2

Λ

(1, )

Λ(1, )

+

k

¸

j=1

1

j

¸

.

This ﬁnishes the proof of (2.9).

Proof of Theorem 0.1. One has by Proposition 2.4,

(2.16) E

∗

(τ, 0) =

1

2

v

−k−

1

2

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

)

and

(2.17) E

∗

(τ, 0) =

1

2

v

−k−

1

2

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) −

1

2

k

¸

j=1

1

j

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

)

¸

¸

.

Now Theorem 0.1 easily follows from Propositions 1.1 and 2.4 and Theorem 2.5.

3. Proof of Theorem 0.2

By Proposition 1.1 and Formulas (2.16) and (2.17), Theorem 0.2 is equivalent

to the identity

(3.1)

|τ|

τ

2k+1

E

∗

(g

−

1

qτ

, 0, Φ

+

)

E

∗

(g

−

1

qτ

, 0, Φ

−

)

= i

−1 0

1

2

log q 1

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

)

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

)

.

To prove (3.1), one observes the following trivial but fundamental identity and

computes both sides:

(3.2) E

∗

(w

−1

∞

g

qτ

, s, Φ

±

) = E

∗

(w

f

g

qτ

, s, Φ

±

).

TAYLOR EXPANSION OF AN EISENSTEIN SERIES 2671

Here w

f

and w

∞

are the images of w =

0 −1

1 0

in G(A

f

) and G(R) respectively.

The left-hand side of this identity is given by

Lemma 3.1.

E

∗

(w

−1

∞

g

τ

, s, Φ

±

) =

|τ|

τ

2k+1

E

∗

(g

−

1

τ

, s, Φ

±

).

Proof. Write w

−1

∞

g

τ

= g

−

1

τ

k

θ

; then e

iθ

= |τ|/τ. So one has, for any γ ∈ G(Q),

Φ

∞

(γ

∞

w

−1

∞

g

τ

, s) =

|τ|

τ

2k+1

Φ

∞

(γ

∞

g

−

1

τ

, s).

Plugging this into the deﬁnition of the Eisenstein series, one gets the lemma.

For the right-hand side of (3.2), one has

Lemma 3.2.

E

∗

(w

f

g

qτ

, 0, Φ

+

)

E

∗

(w

f

g

qτ

, 0, Φ

−

)

= i

−1 0

1

2

log q 1

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

)

E

∗

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

)

.

Proof. We verify these identities by comparing the Fourier coeﬃcients E

∗

d

q

(w

f

g

qτ

,

s, Φ

±

) with E

∗

d

(g

τ

, s, Φ

±

). We may assume that d is an integer by Lemmas 2.1-2.3.

Straightforward calculation using the same lemmas yields, for any integer d,

(3.3) W

∗

d

q

,p

(w

f

g

qτ

, s, Φ

±

) = F

±

p

(d)W

∗

d,p

(g

τ

, s, Φ

±

)

with

(3.4) F

±

p

(d) =

1 if p q∞,

q

1−s

2

if p = ∞,

±

1

√

−q

1±q(d)q

−sr

1±q(d)q

−s(r+1)

if p = q.

Here r = ord

q

d. We will verify the derivative part and leave the value part to the

reader. First assume d = 0. It follows from (3.3) that

E

∗

d

q

(w

f

g

qτ

, 0, Φ

−

) = iE

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

)

1 if

q

(d) = −1,

1 −

1

ordq d+1

if

q

(d) = 1.

When

q

(d) = 1, one has by (2.11) and (2.12),

E

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) = −E

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

)

ord

q

d + 1

2

log q.

So

(3.5) E

∗

d

q

(w

f

g

qτ

, 0, Φ

−

) = iE

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) +

i

2

log qE

∗

d

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

+

),

as desired. When

q

(d) = −1 we have E

∗

d

(g

τ

, φ0, Φ

+

) = 0, and (3.5) still holds.

It remains to check the constant term. Recall (2.13)-(2.15). Direct calculation

using Lemmas 2.1-2.3 also gives

(3.6) E

∗

0

(w

f

g

qτ

, s, Φ

±

) = ∓

i

¸

k

j=1

(j +

s

2

)

(q

s

2

G(s) ±q

−s

2

G(−s)).

2672 TONGHAI YANG

Therefore,

E

∗

0

(w

f

g

qτ

, 0, Φ

−

) = i

2G

(0)

k!

+ i

2G(0)

k!

1

2

log q

= iE

∗

0

(g

τ

, 0, Φ

−

) +

i

2

log qE

∗

0

(g

qτ

, 0, Φ

+

), (3.7)

as expected, too.

4. L-series

Recall that q is a prime congruent to 3 modulo 4 and k = Q(

√

−q) is the

associated imaginary quadratic ﬁeld. Recall also ([Roh]) that a canonical Hecke

character of k of weight 2k + 1 is a Hecke character µ satisfying

(1) The conductor of µ is

√

−qO

k

.

(2) µ(

¯

A) = µ(A) for an ideal A relatively prime to

√

−qO

k

.

(3) µ(αO

k

) = ±α

2k+1

.

In this section, we will give an explicit formula for the central derivative of its

L-function, which has deep arithmetic implications as mentioned in the introduc-

tion. We refer to [Gro] for the arithmetics of elliptic curves associated to these

Hecke characters (see also [MY] and [Ya] and the reference there for more recent

developments). For each ideal class C of k, we can deﬁne the partial L-series by

(4.1) L(s, µ, C) =

¸

B∈C, integral

µ(B)(NB)

−s

.

Of course, L(s, µ) =

¸

C∈ CL(k)

L(s, µ, C). The following proposition is standard.

Proposition 4.1. Let A ∈ C be a primitive ideal of k relatively prime to 2q, and

write

(4.2) A = [a,

b +

√

−q

2

], with a > 0, b ≡ 0 mod q.

Let τ

A

=

b+

√

−q

2aq

. Then

L(s + k + 1, µ, C) =

µ(A)

(NA)

2k+1

(2

√

q)

s−k

L(2s + 1, )E(τ

A

, 2s).

Set

(4.3) θ

k

(τ) = h + 2

¸

n>0

ρ(n)p

k

(4πnv)e(nτ)

and

(4.4) φ

k

(τ) = a

0

(v) −2

¸

n>0

a

n

p

k

(4πnv)e(nτ) −2

¸

n<0

ρ(−n)q

k

(−4πnv)e(nτ).

Then Theorem 0.1 says that

(4.5) E

∗

(τ, 0) = v

−k

θ

k

(τ)

and

(4.6) E

∗

(τ, 0) =

1

2

v

−k

(φ

k

(τ) −

1

2

k

¸

j=1

1

j

θ

k

(τ)).

TAYLOR EXPANSION OF AN EISENSTEIN SERIES 2673

Corollary 4.2. Let the notation be as in Proposition 4.1.

(1) The central L-value is

L(k + 1, µ, C) =

πµ(A)

√

q(NA)

k+1

θ

k

(τ

A

).

(2) When the root number of µ is −1, i.e., (−1)

k

(

2

q

) = −1, the central L-

derivative

L

(k + 1, µ, C) =

πµ(A)

√

q(NA)

k+1

φ

k

(τ

A

).

In particular,

L

(k + 1, µ, trivial)

=

π

√

q

φ

k

(

1

2

+

i

2

√

q

)

=

π

√

q

h(log

√

q

2

+ 2

Λ

(1, )

Λ(1, )

+

k

¸

j=1

1

j

)

−2

¸

n>0

(−1)

n

a

n

p

k

(

2πn

√

q

)e

−

πn

√

q

−2

¸

n<0

(−1)

n

ρ(−n)q

k

(−

2πn

√

q

)e

−

πn

√

q

¸

.

Proof. Only the second one needs a little explanation. When (−1)

k

(

2

q

) = −1 we

have L(k + 1, µ, C) = 0 automatically and thus θ

k

(τ

A

) = 0. So Theorem 0.1 and

Proposition 4.1 imply

L

(k + 1, µ, C) =

πµ(A)

√

q(NA)

2k+1

(2

√

q)

−k

2E

∗

(τ

A

, 0)

=

πµ(A)

√

q(NA)

k+1

(φ

k

(τ

A

) −

1

2

k

¸

j=1

1

j

θ

k

(τ

A

))

=

πµ(A)

√

q(NA)

k+1

φ

k

(τ

A

).

When C is trivial, one can take A = O

k

. In this case, a = 1 and

b

2q

≡

1

2

mod 1,

and thus

φ

k

(τ

A

) = φ

k

(

1

2

+

i

2

√

q

).

In recent joint work with S. Miller ([MY]), we proved that L

(1, µ, trivial) > 0

when q ≡ 3 mod 8 and k = 0. Combining that with Corollary 4.2, one has the

following curious inequality:

h(log

√

q

2

+ 2

Λ

(1, )

Λ(1, )

+

k

¸

j=1

1

j

) (4.7)

> 2

¸

n>0

(−1)

n

a

n

p

k

(

2πn

√

q

)e

−

πn

√

q

+ 2

¸

n<0

(−1)

n

ρ(−n)q

k

(−

2πn

√

q

)e

−

πn

√

q

.

2674 TONGHAI YANG

Acknowledgement

This work was inspired by joint work with Steve Kudla and Michael Rapoport.

The author thanks them for the inspiration. He thanks Rene Schoof for numerically

verifying the formulae in Corollary 4.2, which corrects a mistake in an earlier version

of this paper. Finally, he thanks Dick Gross, Steve Miller, and David Rohrlich for

stimulating discussions.

References

[Gro] B. Gross, Arithmetic on elliptic curves with complex multiplication, Lecture Notes in

Math., no. 776, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980. MR 81f:10041

[GZ] B. Gross and D. Zagier, Heegner points and derivatives of L-series, Invent. Math. 84

(1986), 225-320. MR 87j:11057

[Ku] S. Kudla, Central derivatives of Eisenstein series and height pairings, Ann. Math. 146

(1997), 545-646. MR 99j:11047

[KRY] S. Kudla, M. Rapoport, and T.H. Yang, On the derivative of an Eisenstein series of

weight one, Internat. Math. Res. Notices 7 (1999), 347-385. MR 2000b:11057

[MY] S. D. Miller and T. H. Yang, Non-vanishing of the central derivative of canonical Hecke

L-functions, Math. Res. Letters 7 (2000), 263-277. MR 2001i:11058

[Roh] D. Rohrlich, Root numbers of Hecke L-functions of CM ﬁelds, Amer. J. Math. 104

(1982), 517-543. MR 83j:12011

[Sh] G. Shimura, Conﬂuent hypergeometric functions on tube domains, Math. Ann. 260

(1982), 269-302. MR 84f:32040

[Ya] T.H. Yang, On CM abelian varieties over imaginary quadratic ﬁelds, preprint.

Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706

E-mail address: thyang@math.wisc.edu

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