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DELIVERING KNOWLEDGE. DEVELOPING COMPETENCE.

NEW OPPORTUNITIES
FROM OLD FIELDS
Section 7.3: Material Balance
Estimates of OOIP & OGIP

Prepared and Presented by MHA Petroleum Consultants, Inc.


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Oil Material Balance

Dynamic Method of Estimating


Original Hydrocarbons in Place
Provides comparison to volumetric analysis
Can identify isolated reservoir volumes
Can identify reservoir mechanisms and water
influx
Equations that link pressure to net withdrawals
Combined with dynamic processes provides
basis for reservoir predictions

Material Balance 7.3-2


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Oil Material Balance

Material Balance for an Oil Reservoir


Measure the original pressure in the reservoir
(P0)
Produce oil, gas and water (Np, Gp, Wp)
Measure a new pressure (P1)
Calculate the physical changes that took place
in the fluids and rock from P0 to P1
Calculate Orignal Oil-In-Place (OOIP)

Material Balance 7.3-3


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Oil Material Balance

What happens in the reservoir when an oil


reservoir is produced?
The pressure drops
Oil expands
Gas cap gas expands
Connate water expands
Water influxes from aquifer
Gas evolves out of the oil
Pore volume collapses
Sometimes: Water and Gas are injected

Material Balance 7.3-4


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Material Balance for Oil Reservoirs

Fluid Expansion

Primary Gas Cap

Oil & Original


Reduced Pore
Initial Pore Solution Gas
Volume at P
Volume at Pi
Water Expansion

Aquifer Influx
Compaction

Pi P

Material Balance 7.3-5


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Data Requirements for Material Balance

Fluid Property Data


Rock Compressibility
Production Data (oil, gas, water)
Pressure History (average pressure
versus time)

Material Balance 7.3-6


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Oil Material Balance Equation

Preserve the Reservoir Volume in Original


Oil Zone

Initial Oil Volume = NBoi

After Some Production Has Occurred, This


Reservoir Volume Contains

Remaining Oil Volume = (N-Np)*Bo

Plus Additional Expansion Terms

Material Balance 7.3-7


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Oil Material Balance Expansion Terms

Gas Cap Expansion = [(G-Gpc)*Bgc GBgci] +Ginj*Bginj

Released Solution Gas = [N*Rsi-(N-Np)*Rs-Gps]*Bgs

Rock and Water Expansion =


[(Cf+Sw*Cw)*(NBoi)*(Pi-P) / (1.0-Swi)]

Net Water Influx = We Wp*Bw + Winj*Bwinj

Material Balance 7.3-8


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Oil Material Balance Equation

Combine for Overall Material Balance Eqn.


NBoi = (N-Np)*Bo +

[(G-Gpc)*Bgc G*Bgci + Ginj*Bginj] +

[N*Rsi (N Np)*Rs Gps]*Bgs +

[Cf,w*(N*Boi)*(Pi-P)] +

[We Wp*Bw + Winj*Bwinj]

Material Balance 7.3-9


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Oil Material Balance - Applications

If No Water Influx and No Gas Cap


Solve for Original Oil-In-Place
Compare to Volumetric OOIP

If OOIP and OGIP Known


Solve for Water Influx
Combine with Water Contact Movement to
Estimate Recovery Efficiency
If Water Contact Movement Not Known, Can
Estimate Where Contact Should Be Using
Water Influx

Material Balance 7.3-10


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Material Balance Undersaturated Oil Reservoir

Material Balance Re-written for


Above Bubble Point, no aquifer

co S o + cw S w + c f Bo Boi
ce = and co =
So Boi P
Bo Np
N= *
ce P Boi

Material Balance 7.3-11


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Havlena-Odeh Material Balance

Linerize Material Balance Equation


Allows comparison of Voidage (production)
to the reservoir
Expansion terms that supported that
production

This is the approach used in MBAL software

Material Balance 7.3-12


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Material Balance: Equation Terms

Total Underground Withdrawals = F


Oil Expansion
& Free Solution Gas } Eo

& Expansion of Gas Cap Eg

}
& Connate Water Expansion
Ef,w
& Pore Volume Compaction
& Water Influx We

F = N ( Eo + mEg + (1+m)Ef,w ) + We

Material Balance 7.3-13


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Material Balance Equation

(
F = N Eo + mEg + (1 + m) Ef,w + We )
F = Np(Bo + (Rp - Rs ) Bg) + WpBw Reservoir voidage

E o = (B o - B oi ) + (R si R s ) B g Oil zone expansion factor

B oi Bg
Eg = (B g B gi ) = B oi 1 Gas cap expansion factor
B gi B gi
c w S wc + c f
E f, w = B oi p
Compaction factor
1 S wc
We = Analytic Solution Gross water influx

m = Gas HPV / Oil HPV


Material Balance 7.3-14
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Drive Indicators

NE o fraction of voidage replaced


by oil zone expansion
F
mNFg fraction of voidage replaced
by gas cap expansion
F
N( 1 + m ) E f,w fraction of voidage replaced
by compaction
F
+ We fraction of voidage replaced
by water influx
F

100%
Material Balance 7.3-15
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Production Characteristics of Solution Gas Drive Reservoir

reservoir Abandoned due to:


pressure - low pressure
- low oil rate
- high GOR
GOR uncontrolled
Pb Recovery
Efficiency:
producing 5 - 20% of
GOR STOIIP

Supplement with:
- GOR control
oil rate
- water injection
- gas injection

water rate
time

Material Balance 7.3-16


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Solution Gas Drive - Graphical Method

F = N(Eo + Ef , w )
Upward curve
indicates water
Below bubble point, F influx

Ef,w << Eo slope = N

Note: Ignoring Ef,w above


bubble point can result in
over-estimation of N. Eo

Material Balance 7.3-17


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Production Characteristics of Gas Cap Drive Reservoir

reservoir
Abandoned
pressure due to:
- low rate
- high GOR
producing
GOR
GOR controlled
Recovery
oil rate Efficiency:
20 - 40%
of STOIIP
water rate

time Supplement with:


- gas (re-) injection

Material Balance 7.3-18


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Gas Cap Drive - Graphical Method

F = N(Eo + mEg )
m too small

F
slope = N

Note: With free gas present,


compaction contribution is
m too big
assumed to be minor.

Eo+mEg

Material Balance 7.3-19


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Gas Cap Drive - Graphical Method

F = N (Eo + mEg )

F = NEo + NmEg F
Eo

slope = mN
F NmEg
= +N N
Eo Eo
Eg
Note: When both m and N
Eo
are poorly defined

Material Balance 7.3-20


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Production Characteristics of Water Drive Reservoir

Pb Abandoned due
Pres to:
- low rate
Rp - high watercut

qoil Recovery efficiency:


35-75% of STOIIP

Supplement with:
qwater
- water (re-) injection

time

Material Balance 7.3-21


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Water Drive - Graphical Method

F = N(Eo + mEg ) + We

F = We + N(Eo + mEg )
We too small
F
Eo + mEg We too big
F We
= +N
Eo + mEg Eo + mEg
N
Need tofind "correct"
aquifer model We
Eo + mEg
i.e. We = U pQ(t D ) Note: Points may move to top right
and then reverse

Material Balance 7.3-22


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Gas Material Balance, Depletion Drive

Pi P

GpBg

GBgi GBg (G - Gp)Bg

Constant Pore Volume:

GBgi = (G - Gp)Bg

Material Balance 7.3-23


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Depletion Drive - p / z plot

Conserving Reservoir Volume:


pi
(
GBgi = G Gp Bg) zi
p
z rnRTr
z
Vrc Pr zr TrPs
Bg = = =
Vsc z snRT s Pr Ts pa
Ps za

UR G
p p i Gp

= 1 Gp
z z i G

Material Balance 7.3-24


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Gas Reservoir Material Balance

P/z vs Gp is not always a straight line.


Why?
Extra Energy Terms
Formation Compressibility
Water Influx
Reservoir Heterogeneity
Areal Compartments
Variable Layer Properties Without Vertical Crossflow
Low Permeability Insufficient Shut-in Times
Changing Drainage Volumes Well Interference

Material Balance 7.3-25


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Material Balance w/ Compaction Drive

Pi P

GpBg

GBg
(G - Gp)Bg
GBgi

GBgi ce p

Reduced Pore Volume

GBgi = (G - Gp)Bg + GBgi ce p

Material Balance 7.3-26


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Hydrocarbon Pore Volume Reduction

HPVR = PV (c f + S wc cw )p

Initial Hydrocarbo n Bearing Pore Volume = PV ( S g ) = GB gi

GB gi
PV =
Sg
ce

c f + S wc cw
HPVR = GB gi p
Sg

Material Balance 7.3-27


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Gas Material Balance, Compaction

( )
GB gi = G Gp B g + GB gic e p

(
GB gi (1 c e p ) = G Gp B g )
1 c e p = c tf Total compressib ility factor

p pi Gp
c tf = 1

z zi G

Material Balance 7.3-28


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved
Gas Material Balance, Compaction Effects

pi pi
zi zi
p
. c tf
z
p
z

G G
Gp Gp

Material Balance 7.3-29


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Gas Material Balance, Water Drive Reservoirs

Gp S
= Ev 1 gr
G S gi

Water Breakthrough

Material Balance 7.3-30


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Gas Material Balance , Water Drive RF

Equation for Gas Recovery Without Co-Production of Water

Requires Estimates of:


Volumetric Sweep Efficiency
Residual Gas Saturation
Gas Zone Pressure at Water Breakthrough (Aquifer model)

G pBT S gr (1 Ev ) PBT Zi
= 1 Ev +
G S gi Ev Pi Z BT

Where: Ev = Volumetric Sweep Efficiency


Sgi = Initial Gas Saturation
Sgr = Residual Gas Saturation
BT = Breakthrough Conditions
Material Balance 7.3-31
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Gas Water Drive Reservoirs, Residual Gas

unconsolidated sand 15%

slightly consolidated sand 20%

consolidated sandstone 35% (25 - 50%)

limestone 50%
Actual values are a determined by a complex interaction
of rock properties (porosity, permeability, clay content)
and initial gas saturation

Material Balance 7.3-32


2003 PetroSkills LLC, All Rights Reserved