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# DELIVERING KNOWLEDGE. DEVELOPING COMPETENCE.

NEW OPPORTUNITIES
FROM OLD FIELDS
Section 7.3: Material Balance
Estimates of OOIP & OGIP

## Prepared and Presented by MHA Petroleum Consultants, Inc.

Oil Material Balance

## Dynamic Method of Estimating

Original Hydrocarbons in Place
Provides comparison to volumetric analysis
Can identify isolated reservoir volumes
Can identify reservoir mechanisms and water
influx
Equations that link pressure to net withdrawals
Combined with dynamic processes provides
basis for reservoir predictions

## Material Balance 7.3-2

Oil Material Balance

## Material Balance for an Oil Reservoir

Measure the original pressure in the reservoir
(P0)
Produce oil, gas and water (Np, Gp, Wp)
Measure a new pressure (P1)
Calculate the physical changes that took place
in the fluids and rock from P0 to P1
Calculate Orignal Oil-In-Place (OOIP)

## Material Balance 7.3-3

Oil Material Balance

## What happens in the reservoir when an oil

reservoir is produced?
The pressure drops
Oil expands
Gas cap gas expands
Connate water expands
Water influxes from aquifer
Gas evolves out of the oil
Pore volume collapses
Sometimes: Water and Gas are injected

## Material Balance 7.3-4

Material Balance for Oil Reservoirs

Fluid Expansion

## Oil & Original

Reduced Pore
Initial Pore Solution Gas
Volume at P
Volume at Pi
Water Expansion

Aquifer Influx
Compaction

Pi P

## Material Balance 7.3-5

Data Requirements for Material Balance

## Fluid Property Data

Rock Compressibility
Production Data (oil, gas, water)
Pressure History (average pressure
versus time)

## Material Balance 7.3-6

Oil Material Balance Equation

Oil Zone

## After Some Production Has Occurred, This

Reservoir Volume Contains

## Material Balance 7.3-7

Oil Material Balance Expansion Terms

## Rock and Water Expansion =

[(Cf+Sw*Cw)*(NBoi)*(Pi-P) / (1.0-Swi)]

## Material Balance 7.3-8

Oil Material Balance Equation

## Combine for Overall Material Balance Eqn.

NBoi = (N-Np)*Bo +

## [N*Rsi (N Np)*Rs Gps]*Bgs +

[Cf,w*(N*Boi)*(Pi-P)] +

## Material Balance 7.3-9

Oil Material Balance - Applications

## If No Water Influx and No Gas Cap

Solve for Original Oil-In-Place
Compare to Volumetric OOIP

## If OOIP and OGIP Known

Solve for Water Influx
Combine with Water Contact Movement to
Estimate Recovery Efficiency
If Water Contact Movement Not Known, Can
Estimate Where Contact Should Be Using
Water Influx

## Material Balance 7.3-10

Material Balance Undersaturated Oil Reservoir

## Material Balance Re-written for

Above Bubble Point, no aquifer

co S o + cw S w + c f Bo Boi
ce = and co =
So Boi P
Bo Np
N= *
ce P Boi

## Material Balance 7.3-11

Havlena-Odeh Material Balance

## Linerize Material Balance Equation

Allows comparison of Voidage (production)
to the reservoir
Expansion terms that supported that
production

## Material Balance 7.3-12

Material Balance: Equation Terms

## Total Underground Withdrawals = F

Oil Expansion
& Free Solution Gas } Eo

## & Expansion of Gas Cap Eg

}
& Connate Water Expansion
Ef,w
& Pore Volume Compaction
& Water Influx We

F = N ( Eo + mEg + (1+m)Ef,w ) + We

## Material Balance 7.3-13

Material Balance Equation

(
F = N Eo + mEg + (1 + m) Ef,w + We )
F = Np(Bo + (Rp - Rs ) Bg) + WpBw Reservoir voidage

## E o = (B o - B oi ) + (R si R s ) B g Oil zone expansion factor

B oi Bg
Eg = (B g B gi ) = B oi 1 Gas cap expansion factor
B gi B gi
c w S wc + c f
E f, w = B oi p
Compaction factor
1 S wc
We = Analytic Solution Gross water influx

## m = Gas HPV / Oil HPV

Material Balance 7.3-14
Drive Indicators

## NE o fraction of voidage replaced

by oil zone expansion
F
mNFg fraction of voidage replaced
by gas cap expansion
F
N( 1 + m ) E f,w fraction of voidage replaced
by compaction
F
+ We fraction of voidage replaced
by water influx
F

100%
Material Balance 7.3-15
Production Characteristics of Solution Gas Drive Reservoir

## reservoir Abandoned due to:

pressure - low pressure
- low oil rate
- high GOR
GOR uncontrolled
Pb Recovery
Efficiency:
producing 5 - 20% of
GOR STOIIP

Supplement with:
- GOR control
oil rate
- water injection
- gas injection

water rate
time

## Material Balance 7.3-16

Solution Gas Drive - Graphical Method

F = N(Eo + Ef , w )
Upward curve
indicates water
Below bubble point, F influx

## Note: Ignoring Ef,w above

bubble point can result in
over-estimation of N. Eo

## Material Balance 7.3-17

Production Characteristics of Gas Cap Drive Reservoir

reservoir
Abandoned
pressure due to:
- low rate
- high GOR
producing
GOR
GOR controlled
Recovery
oil rate Efficiency:
20 - 40%
of STOIIP
water rate

## time Supplement with:

- gas (re-) injection

## Material Balance 7.3-18

Gas Cap Drive - Graphical Method

F = N(Eo + mEg )
m too small

F
slope = N

## Note: With free gas present,

compaction contribution is
m too big
assumed to be minor.

Eo+mEg

## Material Balance 7.3-19

Gas Cap Drive - Graphical Method

F = N (Eo + mEg )

F = NEo + NmEg F
Eo

slope = mN
F NmEg
= +N N
Eo Eo
Eg
Note: When both m and N
Eo
are poorly defined

## Material Balance 7.3-20

Production Characteristics of Water Drive Reservoir

Pb Abandoned due
Pres to:
- low rate
Rp - high watercut

## qoil Recovery efficiency:

35-75% of STOIIP

Supplement with:
qwater
- water (re-) injection

time

## Material Balance 7.3-21

Water Drive - Graphical Method

F = N(Eo + mEg ) + We

F = We + N(Eo + mEg )
We too small
F
Eo + mEg We too big
F We
= +N
Eo + mEg Eo + mEg
N
Need tofind "correct"
aquifer model We
Eo + mEg
i.e. We = U pQ(t D ) Note: Points may move to top right
and then reverse

## Material Balance 7.3-22

Gas Material Balance, Depletion Drive

Pi P

GpBg

## Constant Pore Volume:

GBgi = (G - Gp)Bg

## Material Balance 7.3-23

Depletion Drive - p / z plot

## Conserving Reservoir Volume:

pi
(
GBgi = G Gp Bg) zi
p
z rnRTr
z
Vrc Pr zr TrPs
Bg = = =
Vsc z snRT s Pr Ts pa
Ps za

UR G
p p i Gp

= 1 Gp
z z i G

## Material Balance 7.3-24

Gas Reservoir Material Balance

## P/z vs Gp is not always a straight line.

Why?
Extra Energy Terms
Formation Compressibility
Water Influx
Reservoir Heterogeneity
Areal Compartments
Variable Layer Properties Without Vertical Crossflow
Low Permeability Insufficient Shut-in Times
Changing Drainage Volumes Well Interference

## Material Balance 7.3-25

Material Balance w/ Compaction Drive

Pi P

GpBg

GBg
(G - Gp)Bg
GBgi

GBgi ce p

## Material Balance 7.3-26

Hydrocarbon Pore Volume Reduction

HPVR = PV (c f + S wc cw )p

GB gi
PV =
Sg
ce

c f + S wc cw
HPVR = GB gi p
Sg

## Material Balance 7.3-27

Gas Material Balance, Compaction

( )
GB gi = G Gp B g + GB gic e p

(
GB gi (1 c e p ) = G Gp B g )
1 c e p = c tf Total compressib ility factor

p pi Gp
c tf = 1

z zi G

## Material Balance 7.3-28

Gas Material Balance, Compaction Effects

pi pi
zi zi
p
. c tf
z
p
z

G G
Gp Gp

## Material Balance 7.3-29

Gas Material Balance, Water Drive Reservoirs

Gp S
= Ev 1 gr
G S gi

Water Breakthrough

## Material Balance 7.3-30

Gas Material Balance , Water Drive RF

## Requires Estimates of:

Volumetric Sweep Efficiency
Residual Gas Saturation
Gas Zone Pressure at Water Breakthrough (Aquifer model)

G pBT S gr (1 Ev ) PBT Zi
= 1 Ev +
G S gi Ev Pi Z BT

## Where: Ev = Volumetric Sweep Efficiency

Sgi = Initial Gas Saturation
Sgr = Residual Gas Saturation
BT = Breakthrough Conditions
Material Balance 7.3-31
Gas Water Drive Reservoirs, Residual Gas

## consolidated sandstone 35% (25 - 50%)

limestone 50%
Actual values are a determined by a complex interaction
of rock properties (porosity, permeability, clay content)
and initial gas saturation