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Journal of Number Theory 107 (2004) 215–227

http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jnt

**Lucas sequences whose 12th or 9th term is a square
**

A. Bremnera,Ã and N. Tzanakisb

a

Department of Mathematics, Arizona State University, Box 871804, Tempe AZ 85287-1804, USA b Department of Mathematics, University of Crete, Iraklion, Greece Received 20 May 2002; revised 18 February 2004

Communicated by D.J. Lewis

Abstract Let P and Q be non-zero relatively prime integers. The Lucas sequence fUn ðP; QÞg is deﬁned by U0 ¼ 0; U1 ¼ 1; Un ¼ PUnÀ1 À QUnÀ2 ðnX2Þ:

We show that the only sequence with U12 ðP; QÞ a perfect square is the Fibonacci sequence fUn ð1; À1Þg; and we show that there are no non-degenerate sequences fUn ðP; QÞg with U9 ðP; QÞ a perfect square. The argument involves ﬁnding all rational points on several curves of genus 2. r 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Lucas sequence; Elliptic curve; Formal group

1. Introduction Let P and Q be non-zero relatively prime integers. The Lucas sequence fUn ðP; QÞg is deﬁned by U0 ¼ 0;

Ã

U1 ¼ 1;

Un ¼ PUnÀ1 À QUnÀ2

ðnX2Þ:

ð1Þ

Corresponding author. Fax: +480-965-8119. E-mail addresses: bremner@asu.edu (A. Bremner), tzanakis@math.uoc.gr (N. Tzanakis). URLs: http://math.la.asu.edu/~andrew/bremner.html, http://www.math.uoc.gr/~tzanakis.

0022-314X/$ - see front matter r 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jnt.2004.04.002

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The sequence fUn ð1; À1Þg is the familiar Fibonacci sequence, and it was proved by Cohn [12] in 1964 that the only perfect square greater than 1 in this sequence is U12 ¼ 144: The question arises, for which parameters P; Q; can Un ðP; QÞ be a perfect square? This has been studied by several authors: see for example [13–15,22,25]. Using Baker’s method on linear forms in logarithms, work of Shorey and Tijdeman [26] implies that there can only be ﬁnitely many squares in the sequence fUn ðP; QÞg: Ribenboim and McDaniel [23] with only elementary methods show that when P and Q are odd, and P2 À 4Q40; then Un can be square only for n ¼ 0; 1; 2; 3; 6 or 12; and that there are at most two indices greater than 1 for which Un can be square. They characterize fully the instances when Un ¼ &; for n ¼ 2; 3; 6; and observe that U12 ¼ & if and only if there is a solution to the Diophantine system P ¼ &; P2 À Q ¼ 2&; P2 À 2Q ¼ 3&; P2 À 3Q ¼ &; ðP2 À 2QÞ2 À 3Q2 ¼ 6&: ð2Þ When P is even, a later paper of Ribenboim and McDaniel [24] proves that if Q 1 ðmod 4Þ; then Un ðP; QÞ ¼ & for n40 only if n is a square or twice a square, and all prime factors of n divide P2 À 4Q: Further, if p2t jn for a prime p; then Up2u is square for u ¼ 1; y; t: In addition, if n is even, then Un ¼ & only if P is a square or twice a square. A remark is made that no example is known of an integer pair P; Q; and an odd prime p; such that Up2 ¼ & (note none can exist for P; Q odd, P2 À 4Q40). In this paper, we complete the results of Ribenboim and MacDaniel [23] by determining all Lucas sequences fUn ðP; QÞg with U12 ¼ & (in fact, the result is extended, because we do not need the restrictions that P; Q be odd, and P2 À 4Q40): it turns out that the Fibonacci sequence provides the only example. Moreover, we also determine all Lucas sequences fUn ðP; QÞg with U9 ¼ &; subject only to the restriction that ðP; QÞ ¼ 1: Throughout this paper the symbol & means square of a non-zero rational number. Theorem 1. Let ðP; QÞ be any pair of relatively prime non-zero integers. Then,

* *

U12 ðP; QÞ ¼ & iff ðP; QÞ ¼ ð1; À1Þ (corresponding to the Fibonacci sequence). U9 ðP; QÞ ¼ & iff ðP; QÞ ¼ ð72; 1Þ (corresponding to the sequences Un ¼ n and Un ¼ ðÀ1Þnþ1 n).

The remainder of the paper is devoted mainly to the proof of this theorem. Theorems 3 and 6 of [23] combined with the ﬁrst statement of Theorem 1 imply the following. Theorem 2. Let P; Q be relatively prime odd integers, such that P2 À 4Q40: Then the nth term, n41; of the Lucas sequence Un ¼ Un ðP; QÞ can be a square only if n ¼ 2; 3; 6 or 12. More precisely:1

Below it is understood that parameters a; b are in every case chosen so that P; Q are odd, relatively prime and P2 À 4Q40:

1

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* * * *

217

U2 ¼ & iff P ¼ a2 : U3 ¼ & iff P ¼ a; Q ¼ a2 À b2 : 8 4 4 8 U6 ¼ & iff P ¼ 3a2 b2 ; Q ¼ Àa þ12a b À9b : 2 U12 ¼ & iff ðP; QÞ ¼ ð1; À1Þ: Moreover, this result is also valid even if we remove all restrictions on P; Q except for gcdðP; QÞ ¼ 1:

The proof of Theorem 1 hinges, in both cases, upon ﬁnding all rational points on a curve of genus 2. When the rank of the Jacobian of such a curve is less than 2, then methods of Chabauty [11], as expounded subsequently by Coleman [16], Cassels and Flynn [10] and Flynn [17] may be used to determine the (ﬁnitely many) rational points on the curve. When the rank of the Jacobian is at least 2, as is the case here, a direct application of these methods fails. In order to deal with such situations, very interesting methods have been developed recently by a number of authors; see Chapter 1 of Wetherell’s Ph.D. thesis [31], Bruin [2–4], Bruin and Flynn [7,8], Flynn [18], and Flynn and Wetherell [19,20]. For the purpose of this paper, the method of [18,19] is sufﬁcient.

2. The Diophantine equations 2.1. The case U12 For U12 ðP; QÞ to be square, we have from (1) U12 ðP; QÞ ¼ PðP2 À 3QÞðP2 À 2QÞðP2 À QÞðP 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 Þ ¼ &: ð3Þ

Now ðPðP2 À 3QÞðP2 À QÞ; ðP2 À QÞðP 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 ÞÞ divides 2, so that U12 ¼ & implies PðP2 À 3QÞðP2 À QÞ ¼ d&; ðP2 À 2QÞðP 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 Þ ¼ d&;

where d ¼ 71; 72: With x ¼ Q=P2 ; we deduce ð1 À 2xÞð1 À 4x þ x2 Þ ¼ d& and of these four elliptic curves, only the curve with d ¼ 2 has positive rational rank. Torsion points on the three other curves do not provide any solutions for P; Q: We are thus reduced to considering the equations PðP2 À 3QÞðP2 À QÞ ¼ 2&; From the ﬁrst equation, PðP2 À 3QÞ ¼ 72&; P2 À Q ¼ 7&; or PðP2 À 3QÞ ¼ 7&; P2 À Q ¼ 72&: ðP2 À 2QÞðP 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 Þ ¼ 2&:

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The former case implies one of P ¼ d& P2 À 3Q ¼ 2d& P ¼ d& P2 À 3Q ¼ À2d& P2 À 3Q ¼ d& P2 À 3Q ¼ Àd& P2 À Q ¼ &; P2 À Q ¼ À&; P2 À Q ¼ &; P2 À Q ¼ À&; ð4Þ

P ¼ 2d& P ¼ 2d&

where d ¼ 71; 73: The latter case implies one of P ¼ d& P2 À 3Q ¼ d& P ¼ d& P2 À 3Q ¼ Àd& P2 À Q ¼ 2&; P2 À Q ¼ À2&; ð5Þ

where d ¼ 71; 73: Solvability in R or elementary congruences shows impossibility of the above equations (4), (5), except in the following instances: P ¼ À&; P ¼ À3&; P ¼ 6&; P ¼ &; P ¼ 6&; P ¼ &; P ¼ À3&; Recall now that ðP2 À 2QÞðP 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 Þ ¼ 2&; P2 À 3Q ¼ À2&; P2 À 3Q ¼ À6&; P2 À 3Q ¼ 3&; P2 À 3Q ¼ À2&; P2 À 3Q ¼ À3&; P2 À 3Q ¼ &; P2 À Q ¼ &; P2 À Q ¼ &; P2 À Q ¼ &; P2 À Q ¼ À&; P2 À Q ¼ À&; P2 À Q ¼ 2&; P2 À Q ¼ 2&: ð6Þ

P2 À 3Q ¼ À3&;

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from which P2 À 2Q ¼ Z&; P 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 ¼ 2Z& or

P2 À 2Q ¼ 2Z&; P 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 ¼ Z&; where Z ¼ 71; 73: The only locally solvable equations are P2 À 2Q ¼ À&; P2 À 2Q ¼ 3&; P2 À 2Q ¼ 2&; P 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 ¼ À2&; P 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 ¼ 6&; P 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 ¼ &: ð7Þ

It is straightforward by elementary congruences to deduce from (6), (7), that we must have one of the following: P À& 6& & & P2 À 3Q À2& 3& À2& & P2 À Q & & À& 2& P2 À 2Q À& 2& À& 3& P 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 À2& & À2& 6&

Now the rational ranks of the following elliptic curves are 0: ðÀx þ 1Þðx2 À 4x þ 1Þ ¼ À2&; ðÀx þ 1Þðx2 À 4x þ 1Þ ¼ 2&; and consequently the rational points on the curves corresponding to the ﬁrst three rows of the above table are straightforward to determine: they are ðP; QÞ ¼ ðÀ1; 1Þ; ð0; À1Þ; and ð1; 1Þ; respectively. These lead to degenerate Lucas sequences with U12 ¼ 0: It remains only to ﬁnd all rational points on the following curve: P ¼ &; P2 À 3Q ¼ &; P2 À Q ¼ 2&; P2 À 2Q ¼ 3&; P 4 À 4P2 Q þ Q2 ¼ 6&; satisfying ðP; QÞ ¼ 1: Note that this is the curve (2), though we have removed the restriction that P and Q be odd, and P2 À 4Q40: Put Q=P2 ¼ 1 À 2u2 ; so that 3u2 À 1 ¼ 2&; 4u2 À 1 ¼ 3&; 2u4 þ 2u2 À 1 ¼ 3&: ð8Þ ðÀ3x þ 1Þðx2 À 4x þ 1Þ ¼ 3&;

Eq. (8) deﬁnes a curve of genus 9, with certainly only ﬁnitely many points. We restrict attention to the curve of genus 2 deﬁned by 4u2 À 1 ¼ 3&; 2u4 þ 2u2 À 1 ¼ 3&:

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pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ Deﬁne K ¼ Qð 3Þ; with ring of integers OK ¼ Z½ 3; and fundamental unit 2 þ 3: Observe that ðu2 À 1Þ2 À 3u4 ¼ À3& implies pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ u2 À 1 þ u2 3 ¼ e 3g 2 ; pﬃﬃﬃ for e a unit of OK of norm þ1; and gAOK : If e ¼ 2 þ 3; the resulting equation is locally unsolvable above 3, and so without loss of generality, e ¼ 1: Consider now u2 ð4u2 À 1Þðu2 ð1 þ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 3Þ À 1Þ ¼ 3 3V 2 ; V AK:

pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ In consequence, ðx; yÞ ¼ ðð12 þ 4 3Þu2 ; ð36 þ 12 3ÞV Þ is a point deﬁned over K on the elliptic curve E1 : y2 ¼ xðx À ð3 þ pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 3ÞÞðx À 4 3Þ ð9Þ

pﬃﬃ satisfying ð3À 3Þ xAQ2 : We shall see that the K-rank of E1 is equal to 1, with 24 pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ generator of inﬁnite order P ¼ ð 3; 3 3Þ:

2.2. The case U9 For U9 ðP; QÞ to be square, we have from (1) U9 ðP; QÞ ¼ ðP2 À QÞðP6 À 6P 4 Q þ 9P2 Q2 À Q3 Þ ¼ &: So P2 À Q ¼ d&; P6 À 6P 4 Q þ 9P2 Q2 À Q3 ¼ d&; ð10Þ

where 7d ¼ 1; 3: Put Q ¼ P2 À dR2 : Then 3 6 P À 9P 4 R2 þ 6dP2 R4 þ d2 R6 ¼ &; d with covering elliptic curves 3 À 9x þ 6dx2 þ d2 x3 ¼ &; d 3 3 x À 9x2 þ 6dx þ d2 ¼ &: d ð12Þ ð11Þ

For d ¼ 71; the ﬁrst curve has rational rank 0, and torsion points do not lead to non-zero solutions for P; Q: For d ¼ 73; both curves at (12) have rational rank 1, so that the rank of the Jacobian of (11) equals 2. To solve the equation U9 ðP; QÞ ¼ &; it is necessary to determine all integer points on the two curves P6 À 9P 4 R2 þ 18P2 R4 þ 9R6 ¼ & ð13Þ

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and ÀP6 À 9P 4 R2 À 18P2 R4 þ 9R6 ¼ &: ð14Þ

To this end, let L ¼ QðaÞ be the number ﬁeld deﬁned by a3 À 3a À 1 ¼ 0: Gal(L=Q) is cyclic of order 3, generated by s; say, where as ¼ À1=ð1 þ aÞ ¼ À2 À a þ a2 : The ring of integers OL has basis f1; a; a2 g; and class number 1. Generators for the group of units in OL are e1 ¼ a; e2 ¼ 1 þ a; with norms Normðe1 Þ ¼ 1; Normðe2 Þ ¼ À1: The discriminant of L=Q is 81, and the ideal (3) factors in OL as ðÀ1 þ aÞ3 : 2.2.1 Eq. (13) may be written in the form NormL=Q ðP2 þ ðÀ5 þ a þ a2 ÞR2 Þ ¼ S2 ; say; and it follows that P2 þ ðÀ5 þ a þ a2 ÞR2 ¼ lU 2 ; with lAOL squarefree and of norm þ1 modulo LÃ : Applying s; P2 þ ðÀ5 À 2a þ a2 ÞR2 ¼ ls V 2 : ð16Þ

2

ð15Þ

Suppose P is a ﬁrst degree prime ideal of OL dividing ðlÞ: Then for the norm of l to be a square, l must also be divisible by one of the conjugate prime ideals of P: It follows that P; or one of its conjugates, divides both l and ls : Then this prime will divide ððÀ5 þ a þ a2 Þ À ðÀ5 À 2a þ a2 ÞÞ ¼ ð3aÞ ¼ ð1 À aÞ3 : So P has to be ð1 À aÞ; with ð1 À aÞ2 dividing l; contradicting l squarefree. If the residual degree of P is 3, then the norm of l cannot be square. Finally, the residual degree of P cannot be 2, otherwise y ¼ 5 À a À a2 m ðmod PÞ; for some rational integer m; so that a ¼ 1 À 2y þ 1 y2 is congruent to a rational integer modulo P; impossible. In 3 consequence, l is forced to be a unit, of norm þ1: Without loss of generality, the only possibilities are l ¼ 1; e1 ; Àe2 ; Àe1 e2 : However, specializing the left-hand side of (15) at the root a0 ¼ 1:8793852415::: of x3 À 3x À 1 ¼ 0 shows that P2 þ 0:4114::R2 ¼ lða0 ÞUða0 Þ2 ; so that lða0 Þ40; giving unsolvability of (15) for l ¼ Àe2 ; Àe1 e2 : There remain the two cases l ¼ 1; with solution ðP; R; UÞ ¼ ð1; 0; 1Þ; and l ¼ e1 ; with solution ðP; R; UÞ ¼ ð0; 1; 4 À a2 Þ: From (15) and (16) we now have P2 ðP2 þ ðÀ5 þ a þ a2 ÞR2 ÞðP2 þ ðÀ5 À 2a þ a2 ÞR2 Þ ¼ mW 2 ; with m ¼ lls ¼ 1 or 1 þ a À a2 : Accordingly, X ¼ P2 =R2 gives a point on the elliptic curve: X ðX þ ðÀ5 þ a þ a2 ÞÞðX þ ðÀ5 À 2a þ a2 ÞÞ ¼ mY 2 : ð17Þ

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Now when m ¼ 1; a relatively straightforward 2-descent argument shows that the QðaÞ-rank of (17) is equal to 0 (we also checked this result using the Pari-GP software of Denis Simon [30]). The torsion group is of order 4, and no non-zero P; Q arise. When m ¼ 1 þ a À a2 ; then ðx; yÞ ¼

2 m P2 ; m W ð1ÀaÞ2 R2 ð1ÀaÞ3 R3

is a point on the elliptic

**curve E2 over QðaÞ; where E2 : y2 ¼ xðx þ ðÀ2 À a þ a2 ÞÞðx þ ðÀ1 þ a þ a2 ÞÞ;
**

2

ð18Þ

satisfying ð1ÀaÞ x ¼ ð4 þ a À 2a2 ÞxAQ2 : m We shall see that the QðaÞ-rank of E2 is 1, with generator of inﬁnite order equal to ð1; aÞ: 2.2.2 Eq. (14) may be written in the form NormL=Q ðÀP2 þ ðÀ5 þ a þ a2 ÞR2 Þ ¼ S 2 ðsayÞ; so that ÀP2 þ ðÀ5 þ a þ a2 ÞR2 ¼ lU 2 ;

2

ð19Þ

with lAOL squarefree and of norm þ1 modulo LÃ : Arguing as in the previous case, l must be a squarefree unit of norm þ1; so without loss of generality equal to 1, e1 ; Àe2 ; Àe1 e2 : Only when l ¼ e1 is (19) solvable at all the inﬁnite places. Thus ÀP2 þ ðÀ5 þ a þ a2 ÞR2 ¼ aU 2 ;

2 2

ÀP2 þ ðÀ5 À 2a þ a2 ÞR2 ¼ ðÀ2 À a þ a2 ÞV 2

P and x ¼ ð1þaÀa2 Þ R2 is the x-coordinate of a point on the elliptic curve ð1ÀaÞ

**y2 ¼ xðx þ ð2 þ a À a2 ÞÞðx þ ð1 À a À a2 ÞÞ
**

2

ð20Þ

ð1ÀaÞ satisfying ð1þaÀa2 Þ x ¼ ð4 þ a À 2a2 ÞxAQ2 : However, a straightforward calculation shows that the QðaÞ-rank of (20) is equal to 0; with torsion group the obvious group of order 4. There are no corresponding solutions for P; Q:

3. The Mordell–Weil basis Here we justify our assertions about the elliptic curves E1 at (9) and E2 at (18). These curves are deﬁned over ﬁelds F (where F =K or L; respectively) with unique factorization, and have F -rational two-torsion. So standard two-descents over F work analogously to the standard two-descent over Q for an elliptic curve with rational two-torsion; see for example Silverman [28, Chapter 10.4]. It is thus

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straightforward to determine generators for Ei ðF Þ=2Ei ðF Þ; i ¼ 1; 2 (and in fact software packages such as that of Simon [30] written for Pari-GP, and ALGAE [5] of Bruin written for KASH, with m-ALGAE [6] for MAGMA, also perform this pﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ calculation effortlessly). Such generators are the classes of P1 ¼ ð 3; 3 3Þ for the curve E1 ; and P2 ¼ ð1; aÞ for the curve E2 : In fact P1 and P2 are generators for the pﬃﬃﬃ Mordell–Weil groups E1 ðQð 3ÞÞ and E2 ðQðaÞÞ; respectively. To show this necessitates detailed height calculations over the appropriate number ﬁeld, with ˆ ˆ careful estimates for the difference hðQÞ À 1 hðQÞ where hðQÞ is the canonical height 2 of the point Q; and hðQÞ the logarithmic height. The KASH/TECC package of Kida [21] was useful here in conﬁrming calculations. The standard Silverman bounds [29] are numerically too crude for our purposes, so recourse was made to the reﬁnements of Siksek [27]. Full details of the argument are given in Section 3 of [1]. Actually, determination of the full F -rational Mordell–Weil groups of E1 and E2 may be redundant; it is likely that the subsequent local computations can be performed subject only to a simple condition on the index in EðF Þ of a set of generators for EðF Þ=2EðF Þ: The reader is referred to Bruin [4] or Flynn and Wetherell [20] for details and examples. This latter technique must be used of course when the height computations are simply too time consuming to be practical.

4. Finding all points on (9) and (18) under the rationality conditions 4.1. General description of the method The problems to which we were led in Section 2 are of the following shape. Problem. Let E : y2 þ a1 xy þ a3 y ¼ x3 þ a2 x2 þ a4 x þ a6 ; ð21Þ

be an elliptic curve deﬁned over QðaÞ; where a is a root of a polynomial f ðX ÞAZ½X ; irreducible over Q; of degree dX2 and bAQðaÞ an algebraic integer. Find all points ðx; yÞAEðQðaÞÞ for which bx is the square of a rational number. For the solution of this type of problem we adopt the technique described and applied in [19].2 Several problems of this type have already been solved with a similar technique (besides [19], see also [4,8,18,20]); therefore we content ourselves with a rather rough description of the employed method and refer the interested reader to Section 4 of [1] for a detailed exposition. We assume the existence of a rational prime p with the following properties: (i) f ðX Þ is irreducible in Qp ½X : (ii) The coefﬁcients of (21) are in Zp ½a:

2

But see also the references at the end of Section 1.

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(iii) Eq. (21) is a minimal Weierstrass equation for E=Qp ðaÞ at the unique discrete valuation v deﬁned on QðaÞ with vðpÞ ¼ 1: (iv) bAQp ðaÞ is a p-adic unit. We work with both (21) and the associated model w ¼ z3 þ a1 zw þ a2 z2 w þ a3 w2 þ a4 zw2 þ a6 w3 ; which are related by means of the birational transformation ðx; yÞ/ðz; wÞ ¼ ðÀx=y; À1=yÞ; ðz; wÞ/ðx; yÞ ¼ ðz=w; À1=wÞ: We also need the formal group law which is deﬁned by means of two p-adically convergent power series Fðz1 ; z2 ÞAZ½a½½z1 ; z2 (‘‘sum’’) and iðzÞAZ½a½½z (‘‘inverse’’), satisfying certain properties (see Section 2, Chapter IV of [28]). These series can be explicitly calculated up to any precision, and the operations # # ðz1 ; z2 Þ/Fðz1 ; z2 Þ; z/iðzÞ make pZp ½a a group E (or, more precisely, E=Zp ½a), which is the formal group associated to E=Qp ðaÞ: # There is a group isomorphism between E and the subgroup of EðQp ðaÞÞ consisting of those points Q whose reduction mod p is the zero point of the reduced mod p curve, deﬁned by z/Q; where Q ¼ ðz=wðzÞ; À1=wðzÞÞ if za0 and Q ¼ O if z ¼ 0; with wðzÞ a p-adically convergent power series, that can be explicitly calculated up to any p-adic precision. The inverse map is given by zðOÞ ¼ 0 and for QAEðQp ðaÞÞ different from O whose reduction mod p is zero, zðQÞ ¼ À xðQÞ: yðQÞ The remarkable property relating the functions z and F is that, for any points Q1 ; Q2 as Q above, zðQ1 þ Q2 Þ ¼ FðzðQ1 Þ; zðQ2 ÞÞ: ð22Þ

With respect to E; a logarithmic function log is deﬁned on pZp ½a and an exponential function exp is deﬁned on pr Zp ½a; where r ¼ 1 if p42 and r ¼ 2 if p ¼ 2: These functions are mutually inverse and can be explicitly calculated as p-adic power series up to any precision. Moreover, if r is as above and z1 ; z2 Apr Zp ½a; then log Fðz1 ; z2 Þ ¼ log z1 þ log z2 and expðz1 þ z2 Þ ¼ Fðexp z1 ; exp z2 Þ: ð23Þ

Suppose now we know a point such that zðQÞApr Zp ½a and assume further that, for a certain speciﬁcally known point PAQðaÞ-EðZp ½aÞ; or for P ¼ O; we want to ﬁnd all nAZ for which bxðP þ nQÞ is a rational number (or, more particularly, a square of a rational). According to whether P is a ﬁnite point or P ¼ O; we express bxðP þ nQÞ or 1=bxðnQÞ ﬁrst as an element of Zp ½a½½zðnQÞ and then, using properties (22) and (23), as a sum y0 ðnÞ þ y1 ðnÞa þ ? þ ydÀ1 ðnÞadÀ1 ; where each series yi ðnÞ is a padically convergent power series in n with coefﬁcients in Zp ; which can be explicitly calculated up to any desired p-adic precision. In order that this sum be a rational number we must have yi ðnÞ ¼ 0 for i ¼ 1; y; d À 1: At this point we use Strassman’s Theorem,3 which restricts the number of p-adic integer solutions n: If the maximum number of solutions implied by this theorem is equal to the number of solutions that

3

Theorem 4.1, in [9].

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we actually know, then we have explicitly all solutions. Sometimes, as in some instances of the sections below, even Strassman’s Theorem is not necessary. In the following two sections we apply the above method to Eqs. (9) and (18). At the suggestion of the referee, we give only a few computational details; most of our computational results, including the explicit form of the functions Fðz1 ; z2 Þ; wðzÞ; log and exp with the required precision, can be found in Section 5.1 of [1]. 4.2. Eq. (9) pﬃﬃﬃ For this section, let a ¼ 3: We write (9) as E: y2 ¼ x3 À ð3 þ 5aÞx2 þ 12ð1 þ aÞx and according to the discussion in Section 2.1 we must ﬁnd all pointsðx; yÞ on this curve, such that bx ¼ u2 AQ2 ; where b ¼ ð3 À aÞ=24: We work p-adically with p ¼ 7: According to Section 3, any point on EðQðaÞÞ is of the form n1 P1 þ T; where P1 ¼ ða; 3aÞ and TAfO; ð0; 0Þ; ð4a; 0Þ; ð3 þ a; 0Þg: For Q ¼ 11P1 we have zðQÞA7Z7 ½a; and any point of EðQðaÞÞ can be written in the form n1 P1 þ T ¼ ð11n þ rÞP1 þ T ¼ nQ þ P; with P ¼ rP1 þ T; À 5prp5 and T a torsion point as above. There are 44 possibilities for P; one of which is P ¼ O: (i) Consider ﬁrst the case when P is one out of the 43 possible ﬁnite points. As noted in Section 4.1, we are led to a relation bxðP þ nQÞ ¼ y0 ðnÞ þ y1 ðnÞa; where the 7-adically convergent series yi ðnÞ; i ¼ 0; 1 depend on P: In 35 out of the 43 cases, it turns out that y1 ð0Þc0 ðmod 7Þ; which, in particular, implies that bxðP þ nQÞ ¼ y0 ðnÞ þ y1 ðnÞa y0 ð0Þ þ y1 ð0Þa ðmod 7Þ cannot be rational. The only cases that are not excluded in this way occur when P is one of the following points: 74P1 þ ð0; 0Þ; 73P1 þ ð0; 0Þ; 7P1 þ ð0; 0Þ; ð0; 0Þ; ð3 þ a; 0Þ: We deal with these cases as follows: If P ¼ 74P1 þ ð0; 0Þ; then y0 ð0Þ ¼ 5; a quadratic non-residue of 7; therefore, whatever n may be, bxðP þ nQÞ ¼ y0 ðnÞ þ y1 ðnÞa cannot be the square of a rational number. In a completely analogous manner we exclude P ¼ 73P1 þ ð0; 0Þ; since, in this case, y0 ð0Þ ¼ 6: Next, consider P ¼ 7P1 þ ð0; 0Þ ¼ ð12 þ 4a; 7ð36 þ 12aÞÞ: With the plus sign we compute y1 ðnÞ ¼ 7 Á 94n þ 72 Á 40n2 þ 73 Á 6n3 þ ?; and with the minus sign, y1 ðnÞ ¼ 7 Á 249n þ 72 Á 40n2 þ 73 n3 þ ?: In both cases, if na0; then dividing out by 7n we are led to an impossible relation mod 7; hence n ¼ 0 and x ¼ xðP þ nQÞ ¼ xðPÞ ¼ 12 þ 4a; which gives u2 ¼ bð12 þ 4aÞ ¼ 1 and u ¼ 1: If P ¼ ð0; 0Þ; then we compute y1 ðnÞ ¼ 73 Á 6889n2 þ 74 Á 1733n4 þ 77 Á 2n6 þ 77 Á 8 5n þ ? and if na0 we divide out by 73 n2 and we are led to an impossible relation mod 7: Thus, n ¼ 0; which leads to x ¼ 0 and u ¼ 0: Finally, if P ¼ ð3 þ a; 0Þ; then y1 ðnÞ ¼ 72 Á 288n2 þ 74 n4 þ ?; forcing again n ¼ 0: Thus, x ¼ 3 þ a and u2 ¼ bð3 þ aÞ ¼ 1=4; hence u ¼ 1=2: (ii) Assume now that P ¼ O: Then we have 1=bxðnQÞ ¼ y0 ðnÞ þ y1 ðnÞa; where y1 ðnÞ ¼ 72 Á 244n2 þ 74 Á 2n4 þ ?: Since we are interested in ﬁnite points ðx; yÞ ¼ nQ; n must be non-zero. Dividing out y1 ðnÞ ¼ 0 by 72 n2 we obtain an impossible equality. Conclusion: The only points on (9) satisfying bx ¼ u2 AQ2 are those with x ¼ 12 þ 4a; 3 þ a; 0; corresponding to u ¼ 1; 1; 0: Only the ﬁrst leads to a solution of (8) 2 and this leads to the solution ðP; QÞ ¼ ð1; À1Þ of (3) with U12 ð1; À1Þ ¼ 122 :

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226 A. Bremner, N. Tzanakis / Journal of Number Theory 107 (2004) 215–227

4.3. Eq. (18) We write (18) as y2 ¼ x3 þ ðÀ3 þ 2a2 Þx2 þ ð2 À a2 Þx: According to the discussion in Section 2.2.1, it sufﬁces to ﬁnd all points ðx; yÞ on this curve such that bxAQ2 ; where b ¼ 4 þ a À 2a2 : We work p-adically with p ¼ 2: According to Section 3, any point on EðQðaÞÞ is of the form n1 P1 þ T; where P1 ¼ ð1; aÞ and TAfO; ð1 À a À a2 ; 0Þ; ð0; 0Þ; ð2 þ a À a2 ; 0Þg: For the point Q ¼ 4P1 we have zðQÞA4Z2 ½a and we write any point on EðQðaÞÞ in the form n1 P1 þ T ¼ ð4n þ rÞP1 þ T ¼ nQ þ P; with P ¼ rP1 þ T; rAfÀ1; 0; 1; 2g and T a torsion point as above. Therefore, there are 16 possibilities for P; one of which is P ¼ O: Working as in Section 4.2 we check that the only solutions ðx; yÞ such that bxAQ2 are ðx; yÞ ¼ ð0; 0Þ; 2P1 þ ð0; 0Þ; À2P1 þ ð0; 0Þ: To give an idea of how we apply Strassman’s Theorem, let us consider the instance when P ¼ 2P1 þ T with T ¼ ð0; 0Þ: We compute y1 ðnÞ ¼ 26 Á 7n þ 26 Á 3n2 þ 0 Á n3 þ 0 Á n4 þ 0 Á n5 þ 27 n6 ð?Þ: By Strassman’s Theorem, y1 ðnÞ ¼ 0 can have at most two solutions in 2-adic integers n: On the other hand, a straightforward computation shows that bxðP þ 0 Á QÞ ¼ 4 ¼ bxðP À QÞ; which implies, in particular, that y1 ð0Þ ¼ 0 ¼ y1 ðÀ1Þ: Hence, n ¼ 0; À1 are the only solutions obtained for the above speciﬁc value of P; leading to the points ðx; yÞ ¼ P þ 0Q ¼ 2P1 þ ð0; 0Þ and ðx; yÞ ¼ P þ ðÀ1ÞQ ¼ À2P1 þ ð0; 0Þ; both having x ¼ 4 ð1 À a2 Þ and bx ¼ 4: 3 Conclusion: The only points on (18) satisfying bxAQ2 are those with x ¼ 0 (leading to P ¼ 0), and x ¼ 4 ð1 À a2 Þ giving successively (in the notation of Section 3 2.2.1)

P2 R2

¼ 4 and ðP; QÞ ¼ ð72; 1Þ; corresponding to degenerate Lucas sequences.

Acknowledgments We are grateful to the referee for suggestions which have greatly improved the presentation of this paper.

References

[1] A. Bremner, N. Tzanakis, Lucas sequences whose 12th or 9th term is a square, Extended version, http://www.math.uoc.gr/~tzanakis/Papers/Fibonacci 9 12.pdf. [2] N. Bruin, Chabauty methods and covering techniques applied to generalized Fermat equations, CWI Tract, Vol. 133, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica, Amsterdam, 2002; Dissertation, University of Leiden, Leiden, 1999. [3] N. Bruin, The diophantine equations x2 7y4 ¼ 7z6 and x2 þ y8 ¼ z3 ; Compositio Math. 118 (1999) 305–321. [4] N. Bruin, Chabauty methods using elliptic curves, J. Reine Angew. Math. 562 (2003) 27–49. [5] N. Bruin, http://www.cecm.sfu.ca/~bruin/ell.shar [6] N. Bruin, http://www.cecm.sfu.ca/~bruin/malgae.tgz [7] N. Bruin, E.V. Flynn, Towers of 2-covers of hyperelliptic curves, PIMS-01-12, Paciﬁc Institute Math. Sci., 2001, preprint.

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