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INTRODUCTION

Formaldehyde is the first member of the aldehyde family (CH2O) and is the most important
aldehyde in the environment.3 It is a naturally occurring chemical and a by-product of most
organisms, including human, industrial and natural processes. Formaldehyde forms from
the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials; smoke from forest fires, in
automobile exhaust, and in tobacco smoke. Atmospheric formaldehyde is formed by the
action of sunlight and oxygen on methane and other hydrocarbons.2 Due to its simple
nature, metabolic processes break formaldehyde into carbon dioxide. Formaldehyde does
not accumulate in the environment or within plants, animals or people, as it quickly breaks
down in the body and the atmosphere.1 It has a pungent odour and is an irritant and is an
irritant to eyes, nose and throat, even at low concentrations. The recommended odour
detection limit is between 0.05 - 1ppm.3
Formaldehyde is an important industrial chemical and is employed in the manufacture of
many industrial products and consumer articles. More than 50 branches of industry now use
formaldehyde, mainly in the form of aqueous solutions and formaldehyde-containing resins.
In 1995, the demand for formaldehyde in the three major markets - Northern America,
Western Europe, Japan - was 4.1-106 t/a [Chem. Systems Inc.: "Formaldehyde" (April
1996).].

History of Formaldehyde
Research in the early 1800s by Liebig discovered the chemical composition and nature of
various aldehydes excluding formaldehyde due to the ease with which methanol was
oxidized to formic acid and further synthesized to carbon dioxide and water.
In 1859, Alexandra Mikhailovich Butler inadvertently discovered formaldehyde as a result of
his proposed synthesis of methylene glycol [CH2 (OH)2]. During his laboratory experiment,
Butlerov observed the distinctive odour of the formaldehyde solution while hydrolysing
methylene acetate, which decomposed to form formaldehyde and water.
He also produced formaldehyde in other forms which led him to publish a detailed report of
formaldehyde solution, its gas and polymer. He gave additional evidence of its structure and
described the chemical reactions together with the creation of hexamethylenetetramine,
[(CH2)6N4] on reacting with ammonia, (NH3).
The main way by which formaldehyde is still being produced till date was discovered by
A.W. Hofmann but with other catalysts. In 1868, Hofmann made a successive breakthrough
by passing a mixture of methanol and air over a heated platinum spiral. This process is
currently industrialised by use of a metal catalyst. Over two decades later, the isolation and
purification of formaldehyde was achieved by Friedrich Von Stradonitz (1892).
1882 marked two significant improvements in formaldehyde research. Kekule then
described the preparation of pure formaldehyde and Tollens discovered a method of
regulating the methanol vapour: air ratio, thereby affecting the yield of the reaction.
The spiral platinum catalyst was replaced with more efficient copper gauze in 1886 by
Leow. Commercial manufacture of formaldehyde was initiated by a German firm, Mercklin
and Losekann in 1889 with the first use of silver catalyst patented by Hugo Blank, another
German company in 1910.
Industrial development continued from 1900 to 1905, when plant sizes, flow rates, yields,
and efficiency were increased. In 1905, Badische Anilin&Soda-Fabrik (BASF) started to
manufacture formaldehyde by a continuous process employing a crystalline silver catalyst.
Formaldehyde output was 30 kg/d in the form of an aqueous 30 wt% solution. The methanol
required for the production of formaldehyde was initially obtained from the timber industry
by carbonizing wood. The development of the high-pressure synthesis of methanol by
BASF in 1925 allowed the production of formaldehyde on a true industrial scale.

Importance of Formaldehyde
For several decades, formaldehyde has been used consistently in a wide range of products,
ranging from personal hygiene, to medicine, to building products and much more. Many
different resins are created from formaldehyde, which are in turn used to create other
materials having different properties. Formaldehyde derivatives are used as preservatives in
personal hygiene products because they kill bacteria or they are used to make other
products more effective in terms of foaming action such as soaps and detergents. Its
versatile chemistry and unique properties have created applications for use of formaldehyde
in all kinds of every day products such as plastics, carpeting, clothing, resins, glues,
medicines, vaccines and the film used in x-rays.
One of the first benefits you derive from formaldehyde chemistry is as a child, when you
received your vaccinations for childhood diseases. These include diphtheria, polio and
influenza, to name a few. Since it also acts as a preservative, formaldehyde plays a critical
role in our medical schools, preserving cadavers used in teaching human anatomy. It has
been used for tissue and organ preservation for more than a century and has greatly
assisted the advance of biological science.

PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS FORMS OF


FORMALDEHYDE
Formaldehyde is more complicated than many simple carbon compounds because it adopts
different forms. Formaldehyde is a gas at room temperature, but the gas readily converts to
a variety of derivatives. These derivatives generally behave similarly to gaseous
formaldehyde and are used in industry