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# SETTLING VELOCITY.xls 2.

## 1: Rapid Computer Calculations of the Sedimentation

Velocity and the Hindered Settling Rate of Spherical and Natural Sediment Particles
j.w.mrouweler@freeler.nl

Summary: Spreadsheet Settling Velocity.xls 2.1, starting at row 15 below, calculates the terminal settling velocity
of single spherical particles and of single natural sediment particles, in liquids and gases. It also
predicts the hindered settling velocity of concentrated suspensions, by using Richardson & Zakis Law.
Guo (2002), Song Zhiyao et al. (2008), and Cheng (2009) combined the 3 "classical" settling velocity
equations on laminar flow (Stokes Law), intermediate flow, and turbulent flow (Newtons Law)
each to only one relatively simple new settling velocity equation, used in this spreadsheet.
Calculations by these new settling laws are compared and contrasted with the sometimes tedious
classical calculations, and validated by graphical and manual sedimentation calculations.
13 worked examples illustrate how to use this spreadsheet, and how do manual calculations.

## SETTLING VELOCITY Version 2.1

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical
Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Help-file: see at row 365;
Protected; no password Worked examples: see row 58.
INPUT:
Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2
Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 1020 kg/m3
Diameter of particle d = 0.0005 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)
Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3
Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

## "Dimensionless particle diameter d*"= 2.9053804197

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 0.0017930174 m/s
Spherical particles (Guo): Settling velocity u = 0.0023514809 m/s
Spherical particles (Cheng): Settling velocity u = 0.0024198277 m/s
2. Calculation of the hindered settling velocity u h if settling at high particle concentration
uh = u * (1 - )n Law of Richardson & Zaki
Particle concentration as volume fraction: = 0.05 [-] BE AWARE: FRACTION (0 <<1); NOT %

## If natural sediment particles (Song Zhiyao (2008)):

Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.0014297056 m/s n=

If spherical particles:
- Guo (2002): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.0018832128 m/s n=
- Cheng (2009): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.0019391809 m/s n=

Theory:
1. Equations for calculating the settling velocity u of natural sediment particles

## Settling velocity u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [38.1 + 0.93d12/7]-7/8

in which:
d = dimensionless particle diameter = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3; Equ. 5 in Song Zhiyao (2008).
d = diameter particle [m];
g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2];
u = (terminal) settling velocity of a natural sediment particle [m/s];
F = density of fluid [kg/m3];
P = density of particle [kg/m3];
F = dynamic viscosity of fluid [Pa s];
F/F = = kinematic viscosity [Pa s m3/kg].

Example calculation 1: settling velocity by formula of Song Zhiyao (natural sediment particles)
Calculate the settling velocity u, in m/s, of a natural sediment silica particle,
diameter d = 1 mm, true density of silica P = 2650 kg/m3, in water of 10 C.
Density water F = 1000 kg/m3; viscosity water F = 0.001 Pa s;
acceleration due to gravity g = 9.81 m/s2.

Settling velocity natural sediment particle u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [38.1 + 0.93d12/7
with d = dimensionless particle diameter = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3
d = diameter particle = 1 mm = 0.001 m;
g = acceleration of gravity = 9.81 m/s2;
F = density of fluid = 1000 kg/m3;
P = density of particle = 2650 kg/m3;
F = dynamic viscosity of fluid = 0.001 Pa s;
Substitution in equation for d:
d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3 = 0.001[(2650/1000 - 1)9.81(1000/0.001) 2] 1/3
Substitution in equation for u:
u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [38.1 + 0.93d 12/7] -7/8 =
= [((0.001/1000)/0.001)25.2963] [38.1 + 0.9325.29612/7]-7/8 =
= 16.187 7.3510-3 = 0.11896 = 0.119 m/s = u.
So: a 1 mm natural sediment silica particle (P = 2650 kg/m3) in water will sink with velocity

Verification of Example Calculation 1: This worked example and its input cells are protecte

## SETTLING VELOCITY Version 2.1

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical
Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Protected; no password

INPUT:
Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2
Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 2650 kg/m3
Diameter of particle d = 0.001 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)
Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3
Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

## "Dimensionless particle diameter d*"= 25.2959494

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 0.118953948 m/s

Conclusion:
Both the manual calculation (row 78) and the spreadsheet Settling Velocity.xls (2.1)
single natural sediment silica particles of diameter 1 mm will have a settling velocity of

## 2a. Spherical particles: Law of Guo (2002)

Settling velocity u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [18 + ((1/3)d3) 1/2] -1 Equ. 86 in Guo
in which: equ. 10 + table 2 in Song Zhiyao (2008)
d = dimensionless particle diameter; d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3
;e
d = diameter particle [m];
g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2];
u = (terminal) settling velocity of a spherical particle [m/s];
F = density of fluid [kg/m3];
P = density of particle [kg/m3];
F = dynamic viscosity of fluid [Pa s];
F/F = = kinematic viscosity [Pa s m3/kg].

## Example calculation 2: settling velocity, calculated by formula of Guo (spherical particles)

Spherical particles with diameter d = 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m, and true particle density
are suspended in water: density of water F = 1000 kg/m3; viscosity of water F = 0.001 Pa s.
The concentration of the particles = 5 vol%. Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s
Calculate the settling velocity by Guos formula.

Settling velocity u of spherical particle u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [18 + ((1/3)d3) 1/2]
with d = dimensionless particle diameter = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3
d = diameter particle = 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m;
g = acceleration of gravity = 9.81 m/s2;
F = density of fluid = 1000 kg/m3;
P = density of particle = 1020 kg/m3;
F = dynamic viscosity of fluid = 0.001 Pa s;
Substitution in equation for d:
d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3 = 0.0005[(1020/1000 - 1)9.81(1000/0.001) 2]
Substitution in equation for u:
u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [18 + ((1/3)d3) 1/2] -1 =
= [((0.001/1000)/0.0005)2.9053] [18 + ((1/3)2.9053) 1/2] -1 =
= [0.0489] [20.859] -1 = 2.34 10-3 = 0.00234 m/s = u.
So: a d = 0.5 mm spherical particle (P = 1020 kg/m3) in water will sink with a
velocity u = 0.0023 m/s = 2.3 mm/s.

## 2b. Spherical particles: Law of Cheng (2009)

Settling velocity u = [((4d)/(3CD))1/2] [(P/F - 1)g(F/F)] 1/3;
in which
CD = drag coefficient = (432/d3)(1+0.022d3)0.54 + 0.47[1-exp(-0.15d
d = dimensionless particle diameter; d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3
;
d = diameter particle [m];
g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2];
u = (terminal) settling velocity of a spherical particle [m/s];
F = density of fluid [kg/m3];
P = density of particle [kg/m3];
F = dynamic viscosity of fluid [Pa s];
F/F = = kinematic viscosity [Pa s m3/kg].

Example calculation 3: settling velocity calculated by formula of Cheng (2009) (spherical partic
Spherical particles with diameter 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m, and true particle density P
are suspended in water: density of water F = 1000 kg/m3; viscosity of water F = 0.001 Pa s.
The concentration of the particles = 5 vol%. Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s
Calculate the settling velocity by Chengs (2009) formula.

Settling velocity u of spherical particle u = [((4d)/(3CD))1/2] [(P/F - 1)g(F/
with CD = drag coefficient = (432/d3)(1+0.022d3)0.54 + 0.47[1-exp(-0.15d
d = dimensionless particle diameter = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3
d = diameter particle = 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m;
g = acceleration of gravity = 9.81 m/s2;
F = density of fluid = 1000 kg/m3;
P = density of particle = 1020 kg/m3;
F = dynamic viscosity of fluid = 0.001 Pa s;
Substitution in equation for d:
d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3 = 0.0005[(1020/1000 - 1)9.81(1000/0.001) 2]
Substitution in equation for CD:
CD = (432/(2.9053) (1+0.0222.9053)0.54 + 0.47[1-exp(-0.15d0.45)] = 22.34 = C
Substitution in equation for u:
u = [((42.905)/(322.34))1/2] [(1020/1000 - 1)9.81(0.001/1000)] 1/3
=
= 0.4164 5.810810 = 0.0024196 m/s = u.
-3

So: a d = 0.5 mm spherical particle (P = 1020 kg/m3) in water will sink with a
velocity u = 0.0024 m/s = 2.4 mm/s.
Verification of Example Calculations 2 and 3: This worked example and its input cells are protecte

## SETTLING VELOCITY Version 2.1

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical
Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Protected; no password

INPUT:
Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2
Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 1020 kg/m3
Diameter of particle d = 0.0005 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)
Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3
Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

## "Dimensionless particle diameter d*"= 2.9053804197

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 0.0017930174 m/s
Spherical particles (Guo): Settling velocity u = 0.002351481 m/s
Spherical particles (Cheng): Settling velocity u = 0.002419828 m/s

Conclusions:
Regarding example calculation 2 (Law of Guo):
Both the manual calculation (row 138) and the spreadsheet Settling Velocity.xls (2.1)
find that a single spherical particle of diameter d = 0.5 mm and density
will have a settling velocity of u 0.0023 m/s to 0.0024 m/s.

## Regarding example calculation 3 (Law of Cheng):

Both the manual calculation (row 180) and the spreadsheet Settling Velocity.xls (2.1)
find that a single spherical particle of diameter d = 0.5 mm and density
will have a settling velocity of u = 0.0024 m/s.

## Comparing settling velocity findings of Guo and Cheng:

For a single spherical particle of diameter d = 0.5 mm and density P = 1020 kg/m
both Guo and Cheng find the same settling velocity of u 0.0024 m/s.

## Hindered settling velocity uh = u (1 - )n (Law of Richardson & Zaki)

in which:
n = exponent, depending on the Reynolds number (see table below) [-];
uh = hindered settling velocity of a particle in a concentrated suspension [m/s];
u = (terminal) settling velocity of one single particle [m/s];
= volume fraction of particles in the suspension (0 < < 1) [-].
Values of exponent n in the hindered settling velocity Law of
Richardson & Zaki: how n depends on the Reynolds number Re.
Coulson & Richardson (1991) Vol. 2, p. 204, table 5.1

## If Re = 0 - 0.2 0.2 - 1 1 - 500 > 500

then n = 4.6 4.4 Re -0.03
4.4 Re -0.1
2.4

## Example calculation 4: hindered settling velocity:

One single spherical grain of silica sand, diameter d = 3 mm, true particle density P = 2650 kg/m3,
sinks in water of 10 oC (water: density F = 1000 kg/m3; dynamic viscosity F = 0.001 Pa s)
with settling velocity u = 0.36 m/s. Reynolds number of water around sinking grain is Re = 1090.
Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2.
Calculate the hindered settling velocity uh in a 6 volume % suspension of such spherical particles.

Hindered settling velocity uh = u (1 - )n (Law of Richardson & Zaki)
in which
u = 0.36 m/s
= 6 vol% = 0.06 (fraction)
n = 2.4 (see table above; because Re = 1090, thus Re > 500, then n = 2.4)
Substitution in equation for uh: uh = u (1 - )n = 0.36 (1 - 0.06) 2.4 = 0.36 0.86 = 0.31 m/s = uh.
So: in a 6 vol% suspension, the spherical particle will have a hindered settling velocity of 0.31 m/s.

## Verification of Example Calculation 4: see Worked Example 5 below.

Example calculation 5: Calculate the (terminal) settling velocity u and the hindered settling velocity u
of both a natural sediment sand particle, and of a spherical grain of sand, in water of 10
Particle diameter d = 3 mm; true particle density P = 2650 kg/m3; concentration of suspension = 6 vol%.
Density of water F = 1000 kg/m3; dynamic viscosity of water F = 0.001 Pa s.
Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2.
This worked example and its input cells are protecte

## SETTLING VELOCITY Version 2.1

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical
Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Protected; no password

INPUT:
Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2
Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 2650 kg/m3
Diameter of particle d = 0.003 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)
Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3
Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

## "Dimensionless particle diameter d*"= 75.887848201

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 0.2298867659 m/s
Spherical particles (Guo): Settling velocity u = 0.3644891812 m/s
Spherical particles (Cheng): Settling velocity u = 0.3810951712 m/s
2. Calculation of the hindered settling velocity u h if settling at high particle concentration
uh = u * (1 - )n; Law of Richardson & Zaki
Particle concentration as volume fraction: = 0.06 [-] BE AWARE: FRACTION (0 <<1); NOT %

## If natural sediment particles (Song Zhiyao (2008)):

Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.1981622018 m/s n=

If spherical particles:
- Guo (2002): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.3141893723 m/s n=
- Cheng (2009): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.328503722 m/s n=

## Natural sediment particles:

- The (terminal) settling velocity u of a d = 3 mm single natural sediment
is u 0.23 m/s. (Cell D277).
- The hindered settling velocity of a d = 3 mm natural sediment particle of sand in a 6 vol%
suspension, is uh 0.20 m/s. (Cell D286).

Spherical particles:
- The (terminal) settling velocity u of a 3 mm single spherical grain of sand is:
- according to Guo's Law: u 0.36 m/s. (Cell D278).
- according to Cheng's Law: u 0.38 m/s. (Cell D279).
- The hindered settling velocity uh of 3 mm spherical sand grains in a 6 vol% sand suspension,
- according to Guo's Law: uh 0.31 m/s. (Cell D289).
- according to Cheng's Law: uh 0.33 m/s. (Cell D290).

Spherical particles will always settle faster than natural sediment particles of the same diameter,
because the smooth spherical form causes less turbulence than the rather rough natural form.

Example Calculation 6: Calculate the (terminal) settling velocity u and the hindered settling velocity
uh of both a natural sediment particle, and of a spherical particle, in water of 10 oC.
Particle diameter d = 15 cm; true particle density P = 2000 kg/m3; concentration of suspension = 6 vol%.
Density of water F = 1000 kg/m3; dynamic viscosity of water F = 0.001 Pa s.
Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2.
This worked example and its input cells are protecte

## SETTLING VELOCITY Version 2.1

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical
Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Protected; no password

INPUT:
Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2
Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 2000 kg/m3
Diameter of particle d = 0.15 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)
Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3
Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

## "Dimensionless particle diameter d*"= 3211.0538945

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 1.2925352282 m/s
Spherical particles (Guo): Settling velocity u = Re > 2.5*10^5 m/s
Spherical particles (Cheng): Settling velocity u = Re > 2.5*10^5 m/s
2. Calculation of the hindered settling velocity u h if settling at high particle concentration
uh = u * (1 - )n; Law of Richardson & Zaki
Particle concentration as volume fraction: = 0.06 [-] BE AWARE: FRACTION (0 <<1); NOT %

## If natural sediment particles (Song Zhiyao (2008)):

Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 1.1141642964 m/s n=

If spherical particles:
- Guo (2002): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = Re > 250000 m/s n=
- Cheng (2009): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = Re > 250000 m/s n=

## Natural sediment particles:

- The (terminal) settling velocity u of a 15 cm single natural sediment
u 1.3 m/s. (Cell D333).
- The hindered settling velocity of 15 cm natural sediment particle in a 6 vol% suspension,
is uh 1.1 m/s. (Cell D342).

Spherical particles:
- The (terminal) settling velocity u of a 15 cm single spherical particle
can NOT be calculated (Cell D334; D335), because the Reynolds number of the
sinking particle exceeds the maximum value of Re = 2.5 105. (Cell G334; G335).
- The hindered settling velocity of a 15 cm spherical particle in a 6 vol% suspension,
can NOT be calculated (Cell D345; D346), because the Reynolds number of the
sinking particle exceeds the maximum value of Re = 2.5 105. (Cell F345; F346).

HELP-FILE
lations of the Sedimentation
atural Sediment Particles
Janwillem Rouweler Dec. 13, 2013

## alculates the terminal settling velocity

es, in liquids and gases. It also
ns, by using Richardson & Zakis Law.
ned the 3 "classical" settling velocity
turbulent flow (Newtons Law)
sted with the sometimes tedious
imentation calculations.
how do manual calculations.

## Version 2.1 Dec 13, 2013

tural sediment or spherical
input cel: yellow
calculation cel: blue

## meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

usually water F = 1000 kg/m3
usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !
NOT corrected
for Re > 2.5*105.
Re = F*u*d/F = 8.97E-01 u= 0.0017930174 m/s
Re = F*u*d/F = 1.18E+00 u= 0.0023514809 m/s
Re = F*u*d/F = 1.21E+00 u= 0.0024198277 m/s
high particle concentration
Law of Richardson & Zaki

## ] BE AWARE: FRACTION (0 <<1); NOT %

4.41

4.33
4.32
natural sediment particles

[m/s];

## iyao (natural sediment particles):

rticle,
10 C.

+ 0.93d12/7] -7/8
/F) 2] 1/3

## ample and its input cells are protected.

dsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42.

Version 2.1
tural sediment or spherical
input cel: yellow
calculation cel: blue

## usually g = 9.81 m/s2

meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)
usually water F = 1000 kg/m3
usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !
NOT corrected
for Re > 2.5*105.
Re = F*u*d/F = 1.19E+02 u= 0.1189539483 m/s

## city.xls (2.1) (cell D94) find that a

tling velocity of u = 0.119 m/s.

## qu. 86 in Guo (2002); also found as

qu. 10 + table 2 in Song Zhiyao (2008).
/F) 2] 1/3
; equ. 5 in Song Zhiyao (2008).

## of Guo (spherical particles):

rticle density P = 1020 kg/m3,
water F = 0.001 Pa s.
= 9.81 m/s2.

3)d3) 1/2] -1
/F) 2] 1/3

k with a

n 3.

## xp(-0.15d0.45)]; Cheng (2009), equ. 21

/F) ] 2 1/3
; Cheng (2009), equ. 3

## of Cheng (2009) (spherical particles):

e density P = 1020 kg/m3,
water F = 0.001 Pa s.
= 9.81 m/s2.

- 1)g(F/F)] 1/3
[1-exp(-0.15d0.45)]
/F) 2] 1/3

## = 22.34 = CD. (for CD: see Cell L198)

1/3
=

k with a
ample and its input cells are protected.
dsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42.

Version 2.1
tural sediment or spherical
input cel: yellow
calculation cel: blue

## meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

usually water F = 1000 kg/m3
usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !
NOT corrected
for Re > 2.5*105.
Re = F*u*d/F = 8.97E-01 u= 0.0017930174 m/s
Re = F*u*d/F = 1.18E+00 u= 0.0023514809 m/s
Re = F*u*d/F = 1.21E+00 u= 0.0024198277 m/s

## t Settling Velocity.xls (2.1) (cell D197)

m and density P = 1020 kg/m3
4 m/s.

## t Settling Velocity.xls (2.1) (cell D198)

m and density P = 1020 kg/m3

## density P = 1020 kg/m3

of u 0.0024 m/s.

uh of concentrated suspensions

below) [-];
uspension [m/s];
1) [-].

## cle density P = 2650 kg/m3,

osity F = 0.001 Pa s)
inking grain is Re = 1090.

## dson & Zaki)

, then n = 2.4)
= 0.36 0.86 = 0.31 m/s = uh.
settling velocity of 0.31 m/s.

xample 5 below.

D EXAMPLES

## and the hindered settling velocity uh

d, in water of 10 oC.
centration of suspension = 6 vol%.
01 Pa s.

## ample and its input cells are protected.

dsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42.

Version 2.1
tural sediment or spherical
input cel: yellow
calculation cel: blue

## usually g = 9.81 m/s2

meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)
usually water F = 1000 kg/m3
usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !
NOT corrected
for Re > 2.5*105.
Re = F*u*d/F = 6.90E+02 u= 0.2298867659 m/s
Re = F*u*d/F = 1.09E+03 u= 0.3644891812 m/s
Re = F*u*d/F = 1.14E+03 u= 0.3810951712 m/s
high particle concentration
Law of Richardson & Zaki

2.40

2.40
2.40

## cal grain of sand is:

s. (Cell D278).
/s. (Cell D279).
grains in a 6 vol% sand suspension, is:
/s. (Cell D289).
m/s. (Cell D290).

## les of the same diameter,

her rough natural form.

## and the hindered settling velocity

ter of 10 oC.
ncentration of suspension = 6 vol%.
01 Pa s.

## ample and its input cells are protected.

dsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42.

Version 2.1
tural sediment or spherical
input cel: yellow
calculation cel: blue

## meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

usually water F = 1000 kg/m3
usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !
NOT corrected
for Re > 2.5*105.
Re = F*u*d/F = 1.94E+05 u= 1.2925352282 m/s
Re = F*u*d/F = 3.15E+05 u= 2.1007112171 m/s
Re = F*u*d/F = 3.07E+05 u= 2.0449217737 m/s
high particle concentration
Law of Richardson & Zaki

2.40

## Re > 250000; not valid

Re > 250000; not valid

al sediment particle is

## particle in a 6 vol% suspension,

ical particle
Reynolds number of the
105. (Cell G334; G335).
e in a 6 vol% suspension,
Reynolds number of the
105. (Cell F345; F346).
Do not use !
Cheng Drag Coefficient CD = 22.33771984
Do not use !
Cheng Drag Coefficient CD = 22.33771984
Do not use !
Cheng Drag Coefficient CD = 0.445806146
Do not use !
Cheng Drag Coefficient CD = 0.469186605