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Velocity and the Hindered Settling Rate of Spherical and Natural Sediment Particles

j.w.mrouweler@freeler.nl

Summary: Spreadsheet Settling Velocity.xls 2.1, starting at row 15 below, calculates the terminal settling velocity

of single spherical particles and of single natural sediment particles, in liquids and gases. It also

predicts the hindered settling velocity of concentrated suspensions, by using Richardson & Zakis Law.

Guo (2002), Song Zhiyao et al. (2008), and Cheng (2009) combined the 3 "classical" settling velocity

equations on laminar flow (Stokes Law), intermediate flow, and turbulent flow (Newtons Law)

each to only one relatively simple new settling velocity equation, used in this spreadsheet.

Calculations by these new settling laws are compared and contrasted with the sometimes tedious

classical calculations, and validated by graphical and manual sedimentation calculations.

13 worked examples illustrate how to use this spreadsheet, and how do manual calculations.

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical

Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Help-file: see at row 365;

Protected; no password Worked examples: see row 58.

INPUT:

Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2

Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 1020 kg/m3

Diameter of particle d = 0.0005 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 0.0017930174 m/s

Spherical particles (Guo): Settling velocity u = 0.0023514809 m/s

Spherical particles (Cheng): Settling velocity u = 0.0024198277 m/s

2. Calculation of the hindered settling velocity u h if settling at high particle concentration

uh = u * (1 - )n Law of Richardson & Zaki

Additional INPUT:

Particle concentration as volume fraction: = 0.05 [-] BE AWARE: FRACTION (0 <<1); NOT %

Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.0014297056 m/s n=

If spherical particles:

- Guo (2002): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.0018832128 m/s n=

- Cheng (2009): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.0019391809 m/s n=

Theory:

1. Equations for calculating the settling velocity u of natural sediment particles

in which:

d = dimensionless particle diameter = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3; Equ. 5 in Song Zhiyao (2008).

d = diameter particle [m];

g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2];

u = (terminal) settling velocity of a natural sediment particle [m/s];

F = density of fluid [kg/m3];

P = density of particle [kg/m3];

F = dynamic viscosity of fluid [Pa s];

F/F = = kinematic viscosity [Pa s m3/kg].

Example calculation 1: settling velocity by formula of Song Zhiyao (natural sediment particles)

Calculate the settling velocity u, in m/s, of a natural sediment silica particle,

diameter d = 1 mm, true density of silica P = 2650 kg/m3, in water of 10 C.

Density water F = 1000 kg/m3; viscosity water F = 0.001 Pa s;

acceleration due to gravity g = 9.81 m/s2.

Worked answer 1:

Settling velocity natural sediment particle u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [38.1 + 0.93d12/7

with d = dimensionless particle diameter = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3

d = diameter particle = 1 mm = 0.001 m;

g = acceleration of gravity = 9.81 m/s2;

F = density of fluid = 1000 kg/m3;

P = density of particle = 2650 kg/m3;

F = dynamic viscosity of fluid = 0.001 Pa s;

Substitution in equation for d:

d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3 = 0.001[(2650/1000 - 1)9.81(1000/0.001) 2] 1/3

Substitution in equation for u:

u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [38.1 + 0.93d 12/7] -7/8 =

= [((0.001/1000)/0.001)25.2963] [38.1 + 0.9325.29612/7]-7/8 =

= 16.187 7.3510-3 = 0.11896 = 0.119 m/s = u.

So: a 1 mm natural sediment silica particle (P = 2650 kg/m3) in water will sink with velocity

Verification of Example Calculation 1: This worked example and its input cells are protecte

For your spreadsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical

Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Protected; no password

INPUT:

Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2

Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 2650 kg/m3

Diameter of particle d = 0.001 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 0.118953948 m/s

Conclusion:

Both the manual calculation (row 78) and the spreadsheet Settling Velocity.xls (2.1)

single natural sediment silica particles of diameter 1 mm will have a settling velocity of

Settling velocity u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [18 + ((1/3)d3) 1/2] -1 Equ. 86 in Guo

in which: equ. 10 + table 2 in Song Zhiyao (2008)

d = dimensionless particle diameter; d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3

;e

d = diameter particle [m];

g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2];

u = (terminal) settling velocity of a spherical particle [m/s];

F = density of fluid [kg/m3];

P = density of particle [kg/m3];

F = dynamic viscosity of fluid [Pa s];

F/F = = kinematic viscosity [Pa s m3/kg].

Spherical particles with diameter d = 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m, and true particle density

are suspended in water: density of water F = 1000 kg/m3; viscosity of water F = 0.001 Pa s.

The concentration of the particles = 5 vol%. Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s

Calculate the settling velocity by Guos formula.

Worked answer 2:

Settling velocity u of spherical particle u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [18 + ((1/3)d3) 1/2]

with d = dimensionless particle diameter = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3

d = diameter particle = 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m;

g = acceleration of gravity = 9.81 m/s2;

F = density of fluid = 1000 kg/m3;

P = density of particle = 1020 kg/m3;

F = dynamic viscosity of fluid = 0.001 Pa s;

Substitution in equation for d:

d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3 = 0.0005[(1020/1000 - 1)9.81(1000/0.001) 2]

Substitution in equation for u:

u = [((F/F)/d)d3] [18 + ((1/3)d3) 1/2] -1 =

= [((0.001/1000)/0.0005)2.9053] [18 + ((1/3)2.9053) 1/2] -1 =

= [0.0489] [20.859] -1 = 2.34 10-3 = 0.00234 m/s = u.

So: a d = 0.5 mm spherical particle (P = 1020 kg/m3) in water will sink with a

velocity u = 0.0023 m/s = 2.3 mm/s.

Settling velocity u = [((4d)/(3CD))1/2] [(P/F - 1)g(F/F)] 1/3;

in which

CD = drag coefficient = (432/d3)(1+0.022d3)0.54 + 0.47[1-exp(-0.15d

d = dimensionless particle diameter; d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3

;

d = diameter particle [m];

g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2];

u = (terminal) settling velocity of a spherical particle [m/s];

F = density of fluid [kg/m3];

P = density of particle [kg/m3];

F = dynamic viscosity of fluid [Pa s];

F/F = = kinematic viscosity [Pa s m3/kg].

Example calculation 3: settling velocity calculated by formula of Cheng (2009) (spherical partic

Spherical particles with diameter 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m, and true particle density P

are suspended in water: density of water F = 1000 kg/m3; viscosity of water F = 0.001 Pa s.

The concentration of the particles = 5 vol%. Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s

Calculate the settling velocity by Chengs (2009) formula.

Worked answer 3:

Settling velocity u of spherical particle u = [((4d)/(3CD))1/2] [(P/F - 1)g(F/

with CD = drag coefficient = (432/d3)(1+0.022d3)0.54 + 0.47[1-exp(-0.15d

d = dimensionless particle diameter = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3

d = diameter particle = 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m;

g = acceleration of gravity = 9.81 m/s2;

F = density of fluid = 1000 kg/m3;

P = density of particle = 1020 kg/m3;

F = dynamic viscosity of fluid = 0.001 Pa s;

Substitution in equation for d:

d = d[(P/F - 1)g(F/F) 2] 1/3 = 0.0005[(1020/1000 - 1)9.81(1000/0.001) 2]

Substitution in equation for CD:

CD = (432/(2.9053) (1+0.0222.9053)0.54 + 0.47[1-exp(-0.15d0.45)] = 22.34 = C

Substitution in equation for u:

u = [((42.905)/(322.34))1/2] [(1020/1000 - 1)9.81(0.001/1000)] 1/3

=

= 0.4164 5.810810 = 0.0024196 m/s = u.

-3

So: a d = 0.5 mm spherical particle (P = 1020 kg/m3) in water will sink with a

velocity u = 0.0024 m/s = 2.4 mm/s.

Verification of Example Calculations 2 and 3: This worked example and its input cells are protecte

For your spreadsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical

Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Protected; no password

INPUT:

Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2

Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 1020 kg/m3

Diameter of particle d = 0.0005 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 0.0017930174 m/s

Spherical particles (Guo): Settling velocity u = 0.002351481 m/s

Spherical particles (Cheng): Settling velocity u = 0.002419828 m/s

Conclusions:

Regarding example calculation 2 (Law of Guo):

Both the manual calculation (row 138) and the spreadsheet Settling Velocity.xls (2.1)

find that a single spherical particle of diameter d = 0.5 mm and density

will have a settling velocity of u 0.0023 m/s to 0.0024 m/s.

Both the manual calculation (row 180) and the spreadsheet Settling Velocity.xls (2.1)

find that a single spherical particle of diameter d = 0.5 mm and density

will have a settling velocity of u = 0.0024 m/s.

For a single spherical particle of diameter d = 0.5 mm and density P = 1020 kg/m

both Guo and Cheng find the same settling velocity of u 0.0024 m/s.

in which:

n = exponent, depending on the Reynolds number (see table below) [-];

uh = hindered settling velocity of a particle in a concentrated suspension [m/s];

u = (terminal) settling velocity of one single particle [m/s];

= volume fraction of particles in the suspension (0 < < 1) [-].

Values of exponent n in the hindered settling velocity Law of

Richardson & Zaki: how n depends on the Reynolds number Re.

Coulson & Richardson (1991) Vol. 2, p. 204, table 5.1

then n = 4.6 4.4 Re -0.03

4.4 Re -0.1

2.4

One single spherical grain of silica sand, diameter d = 3 mm, true particle density P = 2650 kg/m3,

sinks in water of 10 oC (water: density F = 1000 kg/m3; dynamic viscosity F = 0.001 Pa s)

with settling velocity u = 0.36 m/s. Reynolds number of water around sinking grain is Re = 1090.

Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2.

Calculate the hindered settling velocity uh in a 6 volume % suspension of such spherical particles.

Worked answer 4:

Hindered settling velocity uh = u (1 - )n (Law of Richardson & Zaki)

in which

u = 0.36 m/s

= 6 vol% = 0.06 (fraction)

n = 2.4 (see table above; because Re = 1090, thus Re > 500, then n = 2.4)

Substitution in equation for uh: uh = u (1 - )n = 0.36 (1 - 0.06) 2.4 = 0.36 0.86 = 0.31 m/s = uh.

So: in a 6 vol% suspension, the spherical particle will have a hindered settling velocity of 0.31 m/s.

Example calculation 5: Calculate the (terminal) settling velocity u and the hindered settling velocity u

of both a natural sediment sand particle, and of a spherical grain of sand, in water of 10

Particle diameter d = 3 mm; true particle density P = 2650 kg/m3; concentration of suspension = 6 vol%.

Density of water F = 1000 kg/m3; dynamic viscosity of water F = 0.001 Pa s.

Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2.

This worked example and its input cells are protecte

For your spreadsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical

Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Protected; no password

INPUT:

Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2

Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 2650 kg/m3

Diameter of particle d = 0.003 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 0.2298867659 m/s

Spherical particles (Guo): Settling velocity u = 0.3644891812 m/s

Spherical particles (Cheng): Settling velocity u = 0.3810951712 m/s

2. Calculation of the hindered settling velocity u h if settling at high particle concentration

uh = u * (1 - )n; Law of Richardson & Zaki

Additional INPUT:

Particle concentration as volume fraction: = 0.06 [-] BE AWARE: FRACTION (0 <<1); NOT %

Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.1981622018 m/s n=

If spherical particles:

- Guo (2002): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.3141893723 m/s n=

- Cheng (2009): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 0.328503722 m/s n=

- The (terminal) settling velocity u of a d = 3 mm single natural sediment

is u 0.23 m/s. (Cell D277).

- The hindered settling velocity of a d = 3 mm natural sediment particle of sand in a 6 vol%

suspension, is uh 0.20 m/s. (Cell D286).

Spherical particles:

- The (terminal) settling velocity u of a 3 mm single spherical grain of sand is:

- according to Guo's Law: u 0.36 m/s. (Cell D278).

- according to Cheng's Law: u 0.38 m/s. (Cell D279).

- The hindered settling velocity uh of 3 mm spherical sand grains in a 6 vol% sand suspension,

- according to Guo's Law: uh 0.31 m/s. (Cell D289).

- according to Cheng's Law: uh 0.33 m/s. (Cell D290).

Spherical particles will always settle faster than natural sediment particles of the same diameter,

because the smooth spherical form causes less turbulence than the rather rough natural form.

Example Calculation 6: Calculate the (terminal) settling velocity u and the hindered settling velocity

uh of both a natural sediment particle, and of a spherical particle, in water of 10 oC.

Particle diameter d = 15 cm; true particle density P = 2000 kg/m3; concentration of suspension = 6 vol%.

Density of water F = 1000 kg/m3; dynamic viscosity of water F = 0.001 Pa s.

Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2.

This worked example and its input cells are protecte

For your spreadsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42

1. Calculation of the settling velocity u of a single particle: natural sediment or spherical

Janwillem Rouweler; HAS University of Applied Sciences; NL. Protected; no password

INPUT:

Acceleration of gravity g = 9.81 m/s2

Density of particle PARTICLE = P = 2000 kg/m3

Diameter of particle d = 0.15 meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

Density of fluid FLUID = F = 1000 kg/m3

Viscosity of fluid FLUID = F = 0.001 Pa s

Natural particles (Song Zhiyao): Settling velocity u = 1.2925352282 m/s

Spherical particles (Guo): Settling velocity u = Re > 2.5*10^5 m/s

Spherical particles (Cheng): Settling velocity u = Re > 2.5*10^5 m/s

2. Calculation of the hindered settling velocity u h if settling at high particle concentration

uh = u * (1 - )n; Law of Richardson & Zaki

Additional INPUT:

Particle concentration as volume fraction: = 0.06 [-] BE AWARE: FRACTION (0 <<1); NOT %

Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = 1.1141642964 m/s n=

If spherical particles:

- Guo (2002): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = Re > 250000 m/s n=

- Cheng (2009): Calculated hindered settling velocity u h = Re > 250000 m/s n=

- The (terminal) settling velocity u of a 15 cm single natural sediment

u 1.3 m/s. (Cell D333).

- The hindered settling velocity of 15 cm natural sediment particle in a 6 vol% suspension,

is uh 1.1 m/s. (Cell D342).

Spherical particles:

- The (terminal) settling velocity u of a 15 cm single spherical particle

can NOT be calculated (Cell D334; D335), because the Reynolds number of the

sinking particle exceeds the maximum value of Re = 2.5 105. (Cell G334; G335).

- The hindered settling velocity of a 15 cm spherical particle in a 6 vol% suspension,

can NOT be calculated (Cell D345; D346), because the Reynolds number of the

sinking particle exceeds the maximum value of Re = 2.5 105. (Cell F345; F346).

HELP-FILE

lations of the Sedimentation

atural Sediment Particles

Janwillem Rouweler Dec. 13, 2013

es, in liquids and gases. It also

ns, by using Richardson & Zakis Law.

ned the 3 "classical" settling velocity

turbulent flow (Newtons Law)

n, used in this spreadsheet.

sted with the sometimes tedious

imentation calculations.

how do manual calculations.

tural sediment or spherical

input cel: yellow

calculation cel: blue

usually water F = 1000 kg/m3

usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !

NOT corrected

for Re > 2.5*105.

Re = F*u*d/F = 8.97E-01 u= 0.0017930174 m/s

Re = F*u*d/F = 1.18E+00 u= 0.0023514809 m/s

Re = F*u*d/F = 1.21E+00 u= 0.0024198277 m/s

high particle concentration

Law of Richardson & Zaki

4.41

4.33

4.32

natural sediment particles

[m/s];

rticle,

10 C.

+ 0.93d12/7] -7/8

/F) 2] 1/3

dsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42.

Version 2.1

tural sediment or spherical

input cel: yellow

calculation cel: blue

meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

usually water F = 1000 kg/m3

usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !

NOT corrected

for Re > 2.5*105.

Re = F*u*d/F = 1.19E+02 u= 0.1189539483 m/s

tling velocity of u = 0.119 m/s.

qu. 10 + table 2 in Song Zhiyao (2008).

/F) 2] 1/3

; equ. 5 in Song Zhiyao (2008).

rticle density P = 1020 kg/m3,

water F = 0.001 Pa s.

= 9.81 m/s2.

3)d3) 1/2] -1

/F) 2] 1/3

k with a

n 3.

/F) ] 2 1/3

; Cheng (2009), equ. 3

e density P = 1020 kg/m3,

water F = 0.001 Pa s.

= 9.81 m/s2.

- 1)g(F/F)] 1/3

[1-exp(-0.15d0.45)]

/F) 2] 1/3

1/3

=

k with a

ample and its input cells are protected.

dsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42.

Version 2.1

tural sediment or spherical

input cel: yellow

calculation cel: blue

usually water F = 1000 kg/m3

usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !

NOT corrected

for Re > 2.5*105.

Re = F*u*d/F = 8.97E-01 u= 0.0017930174 m/s

Re = F*u*d/F = 1.18E+00 u= 0.0023514809 m/s

Re = F*u*d/F = 1.21E+00 u= 0.0024198277 m/s

m and density P = 1020 kg/m3

4 m/s.

m and density P = 1020 kg/m3

of u 0.0024 m/s.

uh of concentrated suspensions

below) [-];

uspension [m/s];

1) [-].

osity F = 0.001 Pa s)

inking grain is Re = 1090.

, then n = 2.4)

= 0.36 0.86 = 0.31 m/s = uh.

settling velocity of 0.31 m/s.

xample 5 below.

D EXAMPLES

d, in water of 10 oC.

centration of suspension = 6 vol%.

01 Pa s.

dsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42.

Version 2.1

tural sediment or spherical

input cel: yellow

calculation cel: blue

meter (Be Aware: 1 mm = 0.001 m)

usually water F = 1000 kg/m3

usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !

NOT corrected

for Re > 2.5*105.

Re = F*u*d/F = 6.90E+02 u= 0.2298867659 m/s

Re = F*u*d/F = 1.09E+03 u= 0.3644891812 m/s

Re = F*u*d/F = 1.14E+03 u= 0.3810951712 m/s

high particle concentration

Law of Richardson & Zaki

2.40

2.40

2.40

s. (Cell D278).

/s. (Cell D279).

grains in a 6 vol% sand suspension, is:

/s. (Cell D289).

m/s. (Cell D290).

her rough natural form.

ter of 10 oC.

ncentration of suspension = 6 vol%.

01 Pa s.

dsheet calculations: see row 15 to 42.

Version 2.1

tural sediment or spherical

input cel: yellow

calculation cel: blue

usually water F = 1000 kg/m3

usually water F = 0.001 Pa s Do not use !

NOT corrected

for Re > 2.5*105.

Re = F*u*d/F = 1.94E+05 u= 1.2925352282 m/s

Re = F*u*d/F = 3.15E+05 u= 2.1007112171 m/s

Re = F*u*d/F = 3.07E+05 u= 2.0449217737 m/s

high particle concentration

Law of Richardson & Zaki

2.40

Re > 250000; not valid

al sediment particle is

ical particle

Reynolds number of the

105. (Cell G334; G335).

e in a 6 vol% suspension,

Reynolds number of the

105. (Cell F345; F346).

Do not use !

Cheng Drag Coefficient CD = 22.33771984

Do not use !

Cheng Drag Coefficient CD = 22.33771984

Do not use !

Cheng Drag Coefficient CD = 0.445806146

Do not use !

Cheng Drag Coefficient CD = 0.469186605

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