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Job No.

: 12060

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

FOR

NUTSHELL FILTRATION UNIT

PDVSA
Job No.: 12060

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WARNING - DANGER

EXPLOSIVE/HAZARDOUS GASES AND LIQUID

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Work being performed on this equipment may expose you to conditions which can be
hazardous and dangerous, as this equipment or area may contain explosive, flammable or toxic
gases or liquids. Keep all open flames at least 30 meters away.

This equipment must be serviced and operated by properly trained and qualified personnel
only.

Do not clean, service, repair, or attempt to perform any work without relieving pressure and
purging combustibles.

Check for unsafe conditions and follow your company's safety practices any time work is
performed on this equipment.

If you have any questions, contact Custom Process Equipment, llc. prior to performing any
work on these units.
Job No.: 12060

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents
1.0 EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................................ 4

2.0 DESIGN BASIS ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

2.1 Nutshell Filters (TAG: FIL-1401A/B) ............................................................................................................................ 4


3.0 BASIC OPERATION ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.0 START UP............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.1 PRE-START-UP INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................................................ 7


5.0 START-UP ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Procedure .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9


6.0 MAINTENANCE ............................................................................................................................................................... 11

7.0 TROUBLE SHOOTING ................................................................................................................................................ 12


Job No.: 12060

1.0 EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION

The Nutshell Filtration package consists of the following items:


Two (2) 36 OD x 60 S/S filtration vessels provided with internals.
One (1) Junction Box (IJB-4707/8) complete with control system AB Micrologix 1400
PLC configured to automate valves, display instrument readings and control filtering
process.
Access Platform and Handrail.

2.0 DESIGN BASIS

2.1 Nutshell Filters (TAG: FIL-1401A/B)

A. The process design conditions for the filters are as follows:

Two (2) 36 OD X 60 S/S Vertical coarse media water filters built in accordance with ASME
Section VIII, Div. 1, code Certified with national board. Each filter can accommodate a 3000 BPD
water rate.

3.0 BASIC OPERATION

3.1 The Nutshell Filtration package is used to filter produced water. The Nutshell filter media
effectively retains residual oil droplets, solids and other impurities as the produced water
flows through the medium. The package is equipped with 2 @ 100% capacity filters and
suited for continuous operations.

The two Nutshell filter vessels are equipped with the following internals. Please refer to the
Custom Process Equipment vessel drawing no. CPE-12060-DW-2206 & CPE-12060-DW-
2208 for reference.

A) Inlet disperser/backwash collector which uniformly distributes the inlet flow across
the filtering media during normal filtering mode & collects backwash during filter
backwashing cycles.

B) Outlet collector/ Backwash inlet bed fluidizer header.

C) Concrete support pad for nutshell media.


Job No.: 12060

D) One (1) 1 150# gas sparging/bed fluidizing entrance nozzle, one (1) top mounted
10 150# media fill with blind nozzle, one (1) side mounted 10 150# media cleanout
with blind nozzle and one (1) 1 150# sample point.

E) One (1) 150# 18 manway with blind & davit provided for access to inside of vessel.

3.2 The quality of the product leaving the vessel depends on many factors such as
temperatures, specific gravities and viscosities of oil and water, solid content, pH, process
chemicals used, and most importantly flow rate. To achieve maximum performance, the
rated capacities should not be exceeded.

3.3 As the filter media begins to accumulate oil and particulates, the differential pressure across
the filter medium is measured by PDIT14071A & PDIT14081A for both vessels V-1401A &
V-1401B respectively. This differential pressure will continuously increase proportional to
the amount of particulates accumulated in the nutshell media. Once an initially
predetermined and/or adjustable amount of differential pressure is measured by these
devices, the PLC will then initialize a backwash sequence for the vessel while
simultaneously directing a portion of total produced water entering the package to the
alternate vessel which will now be automated by the PLC into normal filtering mode. The
flow splitting is achieved via Flow elements and transmitters FE/FT-14073B, FE/FT-14083B,
and flow control valves FCV-14073B/14083B. The possible manual adjustment of valves
KV-14071B & KV-140811 whose adjustment points are accessible through the HMI of the
PLC is utilized if determined necessary during transient operating conditions such as start-
ups, shut-downs and maintenance as well as for fine tune adjustments of flow ratio control.

3.4 The total backwashing cycle time and flow split ratios are adjustable via the HMI of the PLC,
while the valve sequencing logic can only be adjusted by changes to the PLC logic.

3.5 The Backwashing cycle for each vessel involves directing a portion of the produced water
entering the package into the vessel opposite the vessels normal liquid flow path, while
simultaneously injecting natural gas (supplied via fuel gas supply). This promotes the
nutshell filter media bed to become fluidized and releases the majority of sludge and
particulates accumulated during the normal filtration mode. The backwash fluid is typically
recycled to an up-stream three-phase separator or electrostatic coalescer.
.
See Equipment P&ID for process flow details. Also refer to the Instrument Data Sheets and
vendor data for reference.

3.6 When the backwashing cycle is complete the vessel is returned to stand-by mode, and
100% of the produced water flow is directed to the alternate filter running in normal filtration
mode. The entire normal/backwash/standby cycling is repeated for each vessel as
determined by the differential pressures across the filter media.

3.7 In the cases where both media beds have extended their life expectancies and/or not
cleanable/renewable via the backwashing cycle, or inadequately performing; the produced
Job No.: 12060

water monitoring system controlled via the PLC and produced water analyzer AIT-14071E
are adjustable to direct the packages outlet flow through one of the following produced
water outlet lines depending on the plants global operating conditions or needs.
Outlet line numbers:
3-PW-104112-AA1
3-PW-104113-AA1
3-PW-104114-AA1

3.8 The amount of fuel gas utilized in the backwashing cycles to facilitate filter media bed
fluidization is monitored and transmitted to the PLC via FE/FT-14071B.

3.9 Two levels of safety systems have been provided on the test separator unit.

The first level of the safety system is alarms. An alarm is initiated when an event causes
the operating conditions of the separator to deviate from the normal process variables. The
event could be an abnormal flow condition or a mechanical malfunction. An alarm can be
initiated by the following instruments:
PDIT-14071A & PDIT-14081A each have a PDAH (Pressure Differential Alarm High)
which is intended to warn operators when the pressure drop across the filter media bed
is greater than the PDAHs set point.
AIT-14071E will trip an alarm in the PLC when the product spec is above or below its
alarming set points.

The alarm signal is sent to the PLC which informs the operator of a possible abnormal
process condition or system malfunction.

The second layer of protection installed on each vessel within the package includes PSV-
140710 & PSV 140810 which are intended to be routed to the drain system and used to
protect the vessels from operating above their MAWP.
Job No.: 12060

4.0 START UP

The Nutshell filtration unit is mounted on a 13-6 wide X 8-6 deep steel skid with run off drainage
connections. The unit should be located on a flat level surface. Leveling may be required to ensure
that the unit is not listing excessively which will interfere with the proper operation of the unit.

4.1 PRE-START-UP INSTRUCTIONS

4.1.1 Ensure that the Nutshell filtration unit is located on firm level ground. Remove all
shipping braces, temporary flange covers, and protective guards. Inventory all parts.

4.1.2 Visually check the vessels couplings, nozzles, vessel shell, and accessory items, to
see that none have been damaged during transportation.

4.1.3 Verify that all grating, handrails, etc. are properly installed if it was removed for
transportation.

4.1.4 Check and tighten as needed all pipe support bolting.

4.1.5 Install vessel accessories, ship loose items and all necessary field piping that may
have been shipped loose during transportation. (PI's, TI's, Level Gauges, etc.).

4.1.6 Check that all vessel accessories such as pressure gauges, gauge glasses, relief
valves, etc. are installed in proper location. Refer to the drawings for nozzle
locations, dimensions and general description. In addition, you may refer to vendor
literature.

4.1.7 Check all instrument tubing for damaged areas or kinks. Repair or replace before
start-up. Check all electrical connections for damage. Repair as required.

4.1.8 Nutshell filling: When charging the vessel with new or reclaimed nutshell filter
media the dry flat level of the media should be 6 to 12 BELOW the normal
inlet distributor header for proper operation.
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4.1.9 Verify the position of the following valves:

1/2 Manual Block valves V101, V131A/B & V110A/B, are sample points and
should be in the closed position during start-up.
Manual vent valves are closed.
1&1/2 Manual globe valve directly proceeding FE/FT14072B should be
between 20 & 70% open. Exact value is not needed as this valve is to be
manually set during the first backwashing cycle.
4 Manual ball valve on packages produced water inlet should be closed and
remain closed until later in the start-up sequence.
2 manual globe valve downstream of FE/FT14071B controls the amount of
gas needed to facilitate fluidizing the nutshell filter medium during backwash
cycles and should be fully closed until later in the start-up sequence.
1&1/2 Manual ball valve at skid edge for the backwash outlet is open.
1/2 Manual isolation valves connecting PDIT-1407A & PDIT-14081A to the
filters are open.
Manual bleed valve above and below PDIT-1407A and PDIT-14081A are
closed.
Any Valve that lies between PSV-140710 & PSV-140810 and low/Atm
pressure drain tie in point for vessel safety and relieving purposes on or off
skid, must be in a locked open position to ensure that the vessels are not
pressurized above their MAWP during start-up.
3/4 Pressure Instrument isolation valves are open, while valve on
pressure instrument manifolds are closed.
AIT-14071E isolation valves are open and bypass globe valve is open to
100%.
3 Manual valve upstream of AIT-14071Es by-pass loop is open.
1 Manual ball valve on instrument air supply header is open and confirm
each instrument air supply regulator is correctly set and receiving adequate
air supply.
Any downstream block valve that may prevent or block flow through package
should be open and the plants global operating philosophy should be
consulted before attempting start-up.

4.1.10 Re-check all flanged connections and tighten any loose nuts. Remove any
temporary flange covers on PSV outlet if applicable.

4.1.11 Ensure that the PLC data cable is securely connected. The PLC cable should be
protected at all times to avoid damage.

4.1.12. Verify proper electrical grounding of all equipment.

4.1.13 Ensure that the appropriate flow lines, hoses, unions, etc. which connect the filtration
unit both upstream and downstream are connected securely.
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4.1.14 Strainer screens are to be inspected and cleaned prior to unit start-up. (may be
located on separate pumping skid)

4.1.15 Power-up the PLC and place both vessels into stand-by mode and confirm all set
points, valve positions, and readouts are in conjunction with valve sequence logic
from document for stand-by mode see DATABOOK.

4.1.16 While 4 produced water inlet manual ball is still in closed position and before
the package is pressurized. Use the PLC to individually place each vessel into its
standby, online and backwash operating modes. Confirm that all valves are
functioning correctly and in the correct positions according to valve sequence logic
see DATABOOK.

5.0 START-UP

Start-up of this equipment should be performed only by qualified personnel. Prior to unit
start-up, the user should read section 4 of this document.

5.1 When starting up the unit for the first time or after maintenance, all vessels and associated
piping should be completely liquid filled according to the liquid filling procedure located in
section 5.2 and slowly brought up to line pressure. During this time, the pressure indicators
should be checked to ensure that all pieces of equipment are operating within the design
parameters. In addition, check all flanges and screwed connections for possible leaks. A
thorough review of the Vendor Data Manual to familiarize the operator with the equipment
supplied is recommended.

5.2 Procedure

5.2.1 Make sure all manual valves are in the proper start-up position. See section 4.1.9
above for proper valve position.

5.2.2 Verify that all instruments have been calibrated to desired ranges and use the HMI of
the PLC to place both vessels into stand-by mode. Inform the plant operations
supervisor at each stage of the start-up.

5.2.3 [Use the PLC to manually set both KV-140711 & KV-140811 to the fully open
positions. Manually open both vent valves each located upstream of KV-140721
& KV-140821 respectively. Slowly open the main 4 inlet valve to begin filling both
vessel. As the liquid level gradually rises, check all piping connections for leaks.
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Do not fully open the inlet valve. The liquid level will rise until each vessel is 100%
liquid filled and produced water is exiting through each vent. At this time close the
vent valves. USE CAUTION AND ENSURE THAT NO ONE IS STANDING
DIRECTLY UNDERNEATH OR INFRONT OF VENTS DURING THIS
PROCEDURE. Now visually inspect pipes and flanges for leaks.]Liquid filling procedure.

5.2.4 Use the PLC to manually set both KV-140711 & KV-140811 to the fully closed
positions.

5.2.5 Use the vent valves associated with all pressure reading devices to vent off any
gases that may be caught in the pressure reading lines and/or manifolds.

5.2.6 Fully open the 4 produced water inlet manual ball valve. Use the PLC to place only
one of the vessels into its normal online mode, while leaving the other in stand-by
mode. Confirm that the vessels associated flow control loop and the packages AIT-
14071E produced water analyzer is operating correctly. Check all pipes and flanges
for leaks. Check that differential pressure for the unit is reasonable and within
operating parameters.

5.2.6 Only after the vessel reaches a stable operating condition, then use the PLC to lower
the set point on the differential pressure reading for the vessel which is currently
online below the actual reading being transmitted to the PLC. This will automatically
force the vessel into backwashing mode, and place the other filter into its normal
online mode. Slowly open the 2 globe valve downstream of FE/FT-14071B until the
flow indicator is reading its suggested setting. This may trip the Differential pressure
alarm high for the vessel in backwash mode. Reset the differential pressures set
point back to its original setting. Check the all pipes and flanges are leak free, all
instruments and valves are operating correctly, all set points in the PLC are correct,
and inform the plant operations supervisor that the package is online.
Job No.: 12060

6.0 MAINTENANCE

6.1 Refer to manufacturers literature and manuals for detailed information on maintenance of
valves and instrumentation supplied with the unit.

6.2 Cleaning and Inspection: Vessels should be cleaned and inspected at the end of the first 6
months in high paraffin service and at the end of one year for normal service. Where heavy
sand and particulates are suspected, cleaning every 60-90 days may be necessary.
Frequency of future cleanings should be constantly re-evaluated as production operations
continue and based on results of past inspections and cleanings.

6.3 Valves and Controls: All valves and controls should be properly lubricated at selected
intervals to assure best performance. Maintenance and repair of valves and controls
depends upon severity of service, e.g. mud, sand, etc. Refer to manufacturers literature
provided.

6.4 The produced water analyzer should be maintained in accordance with the manufacturers
recommended practices. See the manufacturer literature maintenance schedule.

6.4 Safety Valve: A safety valve requires periodic inspection to assure the operator that the
valve is not sticking and will provide "safety relief". Pressure testing is the approved
method.

6.5 Routine Maintenance Recommendation

Daily: 1) Check the pressure gauge readings


2) Check the gauge glass levels if applicable
(Clean as required)
3) Note any irregularities
4) Check for leaks and repair as required

Weekly: 1) Inspect controls and valves for proper operation

Monthly: 1) Clean and inspect strainer screens per company procedure

Semi-
Annually: 1) Check all pressure relief valves

Annually: 1) Inspect vessel internals for scale and sludge accumulation and
corrosion (especially pits) and clean as required.
2) Inspect, clean and repair valves and controls, replace damaged trim
3) Inspect nutshell filter media, replace if needed.
Job No.: 12060

7.0 TROUBLE SHOOTING

The following is a trouble-shooting guide for the test separator vessel. For trouble shooting of the
PLC control system and wiring, see applicable vendor documentation.

PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSE SOLUTIONS


Break in production water inlet flow line or Check inlet connections, flow lines, components,
upstream process upset. and vessels upstream of unit for damage or leaks.
Repair as required.

4 produced water inlet manual ball or 1&1/2 Check that valve is fully open.
backwash water exit valve not fully open

KV-140711 and/or KV-140811 in open or Check and manually place in closed position via
partially open positions PLC HMI
Low Flow Through Package
Check elements and transmitters
Check that each bed is being fluidized, check flow
High differential across filtering media transitions and manual globe valve positions
continues to exist after backwash cycle. Nutshell filter media may need replacement or one
or both of the vessels may be over filled with filter
medium.
One or both PSVs stuck in open position Check valve. Repair or replace as required.
One or more of the PLC controller sequenced Check valve. Repair or replace as required.
valves are stuck open or closed.

Check flow control loops for proper operation.


Adjust or repair as required
KV-140820 or KV-140720 in fixed open
Check pneumatic control signal to each valve
position
Vessel High Differential Check actuator and valve for proper operation.
Pressure Readings (after Repair or replace as required
instrument elements, wiring Filter media clogged, overfull, expended, or Inspect, clean or replace filter media and piping for
and signal confirmed to be in blocking outlet valving. obstructions. Check that all in-line valves are in
good operations) correct position.
Check pressure tap lines. Vent, repair or replace
Pressure tap lines to instruments damaged or as required
gas filled. (high, low, or erroneous readings)

New or inadequate chemical treatment Consult chemical treatment expert.


program
Check that the instrument is properly calibrated
AIT-14071E is not calibrated or malfunctioning
and functioning properly
Insufficient gas or water flow during backwash
Filter package unable to meet cycle. Increase both variables slowly using manual
produced water specifications Backwash cycle is ineffective globe valves.
Filter media in one or both of the vessels may be
over filled.
Filter media, Absent, spent, or clogged Check, inspect, clean and or replace as required.
Decrease flow through package at that or below its
Package is being ran beyond capacity rated capacity.