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GUIDE FOR

BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

APRIL 2004 (Updated October 2008 – see next page)

American Bureau of Shipping Incorporated by Act of Legislature of the State of New York 1862

Copyright © 2004 American Bureau of Shipping ABS Plaza 16855 Northchase Drive Houston, TX 77060 USA

Updates

October 2008 consolidation includes:

• Juner2007 version plus Corrigenda/Editorials

**June 2007 consolidation includes:
**

• • June 2006 – Corrigenda/Editorials June 2007 – Corrigenda/Editorials and added list of updates

Foreword

Foreword

This Guide for the Buckling and Ultimate Strength Assessment of Offshore Structures is referred to herein as “this Guide”. This Guide provides criteria that can be used in association with specific Rules and Guides issued by ABS for the classification of specific types of Offshore Structures. The specific Rules and Guides that this Guide supplements are the latest editions of the following. • • • • Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations [for steel structure only] Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) Rules for Building and Classing Single Point Moorings (SPMs) Guide for Building and Classing Floating Production Installations (FPIs) [for non ship-type hulls].

In case of conflict between the criteria contained in this Guide and the above-mentioned Rules and Guides, the latter will have precedence. These criteria are not to be applied to ship-type FPIs, which are being reviewed to receive a SafeHullrelated Classification Notation. (This includes ship-type FPIs receiving the SafeHull-Dynamic Load Approach Classification Notation) In these vessel-related cases, the criteria based on the contents of Part 5C of the ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels (SVR) apply. The criteria presented in this Guide may also apply in other situations such as the certification or verification of a structural design for compliance with the Regulations of a Governmental Authority. However, in such a case, the criteria specified by the Governmental Authority should be used, but they may not produce a design that is equivalent to one obtained from the application of the criteria contained in this Guide. Where the mandated technical criteria of the cognizant Governmental Authority for certification differ from those contained herein, ABS will consider the acceptance of such criteria as an alternative to those given herein so that, at the Owner or Operator’s request, both certification and classification may be granted to the Offshore Structure. ABS welcomes questions on the applicability of the criteria contained herein as they may apply to a specific situation and project. ABS also appreciates the receipt of comments, suggestions and technical and application questions for the improvement of this Guide. For this purpose, enquiries can be sent electronically to rsd@eagle.org.

ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 2004

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....................... 16 Axial Compression and Bending Moment ................1 1 3 5 7 9 11 General . Bending Moment and Hydrostatic Pressure.......16 5....................2 Maximum Allowable Strength Utilization Factors ........5 9................................................3 SECTION 2 Individual Structural Members......Table of Contents GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CONTENTS SECTION 1 Introduction . 12 Bending Moment .................................................................................................. 15 Axial Tension and Bending Moment...........................................................................................................................................3 7 Tubular Members Subjected to Combined Loads with Hydrostatic Pressure...........................................................2 Loadings ......12 3........7 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES ..................................... 2004 v ................. 17 3 Members Subjected to a Single Action.......................3 Axial Tension............ Bending Moment and Hydrostatic Pressure............................................... 12 Axial Compression .......................7 1..21 9..................................... 23 9 Local Buckling.....1 5............................................5 1 General ..............................9 Geometries and Properties of Structural Members ........... 11 Axial Tension....... 22 Plate Elements Subjected to Compression and Bending Moment .............................................................1 1.....19 7......1 9.......................... 22 Tubular Members Subjected to Hydrostatic Pressure ............................................ 19 Axial Compression.........5 1........................................1 Corrosion Wastage ........5 5 Members Subjected to Combined Loads.........................................................................................................3 1........................1 3.................. 5 Failure Modes .1 Tolerances and Imperfections ................. 11 Adjustment Factor ............................................................... 21 Tubular Members Subjected to Bending Moment ..............................1 Scope of this Guide......................................................1 7...................3 3............................... 20 Tubular Members Subjected to Axial Compression . 5 Load Application......5 1................. 6 Cross Section Classification.......3 9..................................................................................................................................................................

...........................30 Adjustment Factor ......................TABLE 1 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 Geometries........................................27 Load Application............................................44 Stiffness of Stiffeners ...........49 Stiffened Panels ...............5 7 Girders and Webs .......................27 1......................................................36 5.................7 7...........................................................5 7............29 Buckling Control Concepts .....................3 9.............................1 11........................................47 11...................................46 Local Plate Panels..................................5 13 Geometric Properties .................3 3..................................25 Load Application on a Tubular Member..........43 Face Plate and Flange ....................45 Stiffness of Web Stiffeners ...................47 Overall Buckling ................5 Effective Length Factor ......45 Stiffness of Supporting Girders....................................................5 1..... Properties and Compact Limits of Structural Members........................1 9...7 Effective Length Factor ....31 Ultimate Strength under Combined In-plane Stresses ......................................................5 Geometry of Plate.......46 Proportions of Flanges and Faceplates ...................................14 Definition of Edge Stresses......................35 Beam-Column Buckling State Limit ................................................................3 7...................................5 5 Stiffened Panels................................3 5...............................................................................................................45 9...9 9 Stiffness and Proportions............................1 5........................ 27 1 General ..31 Buckling State Limit .....50 13.........................50 Corrugated Panels ......................................................................................................... Flange and Face Plate ............................. ks .........43 7................................................................14 Minimum Buckling Coefficients under Compression and Bending Moment...........................................................................................43 Large Brackets and Sloping Webs ....................................................7 9............................... 2004 .............36 Flexural-Torsional Buckling State Limit ...........................................................43 Tripping Brackets .51 3 Plate Panels......................24 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 SECTION 3 Plates........47 Unit Corrugation ...............................46 Proportions of Webs of Stiffeners......................9 11 Corrugated Panels .1 3.....42 Web Plate..................1 1....................1 7......................... Stiffened Panel and Corrugated Panels ................40 Local Buckling of Web..................................31 3.......................................................44 Effects of Cutouts ........1 13.... Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels .................5 9..............3 1..3 11...........................................................3 vi ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES ..34 Uniform Lateral Pressure..............

..................................................................................1 13..................................... 57 Critical Buckling Stress for External Pressure .........59 5.............. 60 Critical Buckling Stress under External Pressure ........ 55 Bay Buckling Limit State ..... 53 Load Application...........................62 7.............5 1.....FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 Typical Stiffened Panel .....................................3 1........................................................ 67 Faceplate and Flange Buckling .53 1........................................................... 65 Web Plate Buckling ...................................1 9................................................... 56 Critical Buckling Stress for Axial Compression or Bending Moment ................................................1 1..................................................................................... 59 Critical Buckling Stress for Axial Compression or Bending Moment ........................................... 62 Critical Buckling Stress for Axial Compression or Bending Moment .......28 Typical Corrugated Panel ....65 9.............3 9............ 68 Hoop Stress .............................................7 9 Local Buckling Limit State for Ring and Stringer Stiffeners.............................................. 65 3 Unstiffened or Ring-stiffened Cylinders ..............................................1 7...... 54 Buckling Control Concepts .................................................. 64 General Buckling... 61 Bay Buckling Limit State ..................5 7 Ring and Stringer-stiffened Shells ................ 54 Adjustment Factor ..............................28 Sectional Dimensions of a Stiffened Panel................................................................................................................................31 Unsupported Span of Longitudinal ............39 Effective Breadth of Plating sw.......................53 1 General ...........68 13.......................................................................................................................3 7................................. 69 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .................................... 59 Buckling State limit.....5 7..5 Flexural-Torsional Buckling ......................................................................30 Failure Modes (‘Levels’) of Stiffened Panel ...56 3.... 67 11 13 Beam-Column Buckling ....................................................................................................................................3 Longitudinal Stress.....43 Tripping Brackets .....................40 Large Brackets and Sloping Webs .......................5 3...........................7 5 Curved Panels ........ 63 Critical Buckling Stress for External Pressure ............67 Stress Calculations .........1 3............................................3 5..3 3.... 58 General Buckling.29 Sectional Dimensions of a Corrugated Panel ....................7 Geometry of Cylindrical Shells .............1 5.....................................................................44 SECTION 4 Cylindrical Shells ....................... 2004 vii ................29 Primary Loads and Load Effects on Plate and Stiffened Panel.................................

.............................................1 3....................1 1...................................................1 15.......... Qu........53 Dimensions of Stiffeners ............. 73 1 General ............................................................76 3.................................9 TABLE 1 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 Strength Factor..............................................................................................54 Typical Buckling Modes of Ring and Stringer Cylindrical Shells..............................3 3....................................................................70 Stiffness of Stringer Stiffeners ..................................................79 5...............75 Adjustment Factor ........7 5...........................................................83 Engineering Model .................76 Joint Cans ............7 1.....................84 Solution Procedures............................73 Examples of Tubular Joint Categoriztion .............74 Classfication of Tubular Joints.....78 Multiplanar Joints ..7 Stiffness of Ring Stiffeners ..........................3 1...............................................................................................................................................84 Verification and Validation ............................................73 1......................................74 Failure Modes.......................72 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 Ring and Stringer-stiffened Cylindrical Shell ..............................................................................................................55 SECTION 5 Tubular Joints .............................................................................................85 viii ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES ...77 Strength State Limit .....1 5................................73 Loading Application ...........81 APPENDIX 1 Review of Buckling Analysis by Finite Element Method (FEM) ...79 Grouted Joints..........71 Proportions of Webs of Stiffeners...77 Geometry of Tubular Joints.......................80 Ring-Stiffened Joints .....................5 15..............................................................................................................5 1.....................15 Stiffness and Proportions.....5 5.......................................................................................................................... 2004 ...............................................83 FEM Analysis Model ....................................3 5................70 15...................81 3 Simple Tubular Joints .........................79 Grouted Joints ...........78 Multiplanar Joints ...............81 Cast Joints....................................................................71 Proportions of Flanges and Faceplates ...................76 Joint Capacity.............79 Overlapping Joints.............................................................................................. 83 1 3 5 7 9 General ......................................................................................................................9 Geometry of Tubular Joints .........................................3 15.75 Examples of Effective Can Length..............5 5 Other Joints.

. Appendix 1 contains guidance on the review of buckling analysis using the finite element method (FEM) to establish buckling capacities. Imperfections exceeding such published tolerances are not acceptable unless it is shown using a recognized method that the strength capacity and utilization factor of the imperfect structural component are within proper target safety levels. it is important that imperfections be monitored and repaired. These methods and factors are deemed to provide an equivalent level of safety. For this reason. stiffened panels and corrugated panels [see Section 3] Stiffened cylindrical shells [see Section 4] Tubular joints [see Section 5] Additionally. but also in the completed structure to ensure that the structural components satisfy tolerance limits. Because of their effect on strength. 5 Tolerances and Imperfections The buckling and ultimate strength of structural components are highly dependent on the amplitude and shape of the imperfections introduced during manufacture. in ABS Guide for Shipbuilding and Repair Quality Standard for Hull Structures During Construction. transportation and installation. Typical imperfections causing strength deterioration are: • • Initial distortion due to welding and/or other fabrication-related process Misalignments of joined components In general. ABS does not seek to inhibit the use of an alternative technological approach that is demonstrated to produce an acceptable level of safety. It is acknowledged that new methods and criteria for design are constantly evolving. for example. the effects of imperfections in the form of initial distortions. as necessary. The tolerances on imperfections to which the strength criteria given in this Guide are considered valid are listed.Section 1: Introduction SECTION 1 Introduction 1 General The criteria in this Guide are primarily based on existing methodologies and their attendant safety factors. 2004 1 . ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 3 Scope of this Guide This Guide provides criteria that should be used on the following structural steel components or assemblages: • • • • Individual structural members (i. misalignments and weldinduced residual stresses are implicitly incorporated in the buckling and ultimate strength formulations. storage.e. reflecting what is considered to be appropriate current practice. not only during construction. discrete beams and columns) [see Section 2] Plates.

Stresses due to combined loadings. As appropriate. when assessing the strength of existing structures. such as may result from impact and fluid sloshing. 9 Loadings Conditions representing all modes of operation of the Offshore Structure are to be considered to establish the most critical loading cases. they are ‘Static Loadings’ and ‘Combined Loadings’. impulsive) loads. and in the ABS Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations (Offshore Installations Rules). including acceleration and heeling forces. Combined Loadings. 2 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . Dynamic (e.e. Stresses due to operating environmental loading combined with dead and maximum live loads appropriate to the function and operations of the structure Severe Storm. The determination of the magnitudes of each load component and each load effect (i. the effects of stress concentrations. P-Δ effects) and additional shear displacements and shear stress in beam elements are to be suitably accounted for in the analysis. stress. as described above. with the unit afloat or resting on the seabed in calm water.. SPM Rules and FPI Guide are: i) ii) Normal Operations. is to be dealt with using an appropriate nonlinear analysis. secondary stress arising from eccentrically applied loads and member displacements (i. actual as-gauged minimum thickness is to be used instead of the as-built thickness. The component loads of these loading conditions are discussed below.) are to be performed using recognized calculation methods and/or test results and are to be fully documented and referenced. The ABS Rules and Guides for the classification of various types of Offshore Structures typically define two primary loading conditions. can induce ‘dynamic buckling’. where the applicable static loads. Stresses due to design environmental loading combined with dead and live loads appropriate to the function and operations of the structure during design environmental condition The buckling and ultimate strength formulations in this Guide are applicable to static/quasi-static loads. internal boundary condition. deflection. Similarly.e. are combined with relevant environmental loadings. where the static loads include operational gravity loads and the weight of the unit.. a design corrosion margin need not be deducted from the thickness of the structural components. Therefore. Stresses due to static loads only. which..g. 2004 . in general. In the ABS Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODU Rules). the ABS Rules for Building and Classing Single Point Moorings (SPM Rules) and the ABS Guide for Building and Classing Floating Production Installations (FPI Guide) they are ‘Normal Operation’ and ‘Severe Storm’.Section 1 Introduction 7 Corrosion Wastage Corrosion wastage is not incorporated into the buckling and ultimate strength formulations provided in this Guide. etc. The primary loading conditions to be considered in the MODU Rules are: i) Static Loadings. ii) The primary loading conditions to be considered in the Offshore Installations Rules.

The maximum allowable strength utilization factors will. η. which are the inverse of safety factors. different adjustment factors may apply to different types of loading (i. maximum allowable strength utilization factors. as applicable. MODU Rules. The maximum allowable strength utilization factors have the following values. respectively. Under the above-mentioned Rules and Guides. depend on the given loading condition. To represent the values of η applicable to the different types of load components.). ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . η1 and η2. Floating Production Installation and Single Point Mooring: η = 0. the type of structural component and the failure consequence. The maximum allowable strength utilization factors. in Section 2.60ψ ii) For a loading condition that is characterized as a combined loading of a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit or severe storm of an Offshore Installation. or normal operation and severe storm) are to be applied in the design and assessment of a structure.Section 1 Introduction 11 Maximum Allowable Strength Utilization Factors The buckling and ultimate strength equations in this Guide provide an estimate of the average strength of the considered components while achieving the lowest standard deviation when compared with nonlinear analyses and mechanical tests.. To ensure the safety of the structural components. SPM Rules and FPI Guide. static and combined. are applied to the predicted strength. In the Sections that follow concerning specific structural components. 2004 3 . to axial compression or tension/bending in the individual structural member.e. in general. as given in subsequent sections of this Guide. Floating Production Installation and Single Point Mooring: η = 0. apply.. i) For a loading condition that is characterized as a static loading of a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit or normal operation of an Offshore Installation..e. it is required that both of the characteristic types of loading conditions (i.80ψ where ψ = adjustment factor. are based on the factors of safety given in the Offshore Installations Rules. tension or bending versus pure compression). The loading condition producing the most severe requirement governs the design. subscripts are sometimes added to the symbol η (e.g.

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the required geometric properties are to be calculated based on acceptable formulations. 1. 2004 5 . q Combined axial tension and bending moment Combined axial compression and bending moment Combined axial tension. The types of members considered in this Section are tubular and non-tubular members with uniform geometric properties along their entire length and made of a single material. 1.3 Load Application This Section includes the strength criteria for any of the following loads and load effects: • • • • • • • Axial force in longitudinal direction. The behavior of structural members is influenced by a variety of factors. The criteria provided in this Section are for tubular and non-tubular elements. Table 1. Table 1. bending moment and hydrostatic pressure Combined axial compression. boundary conditions.Section 2: Individual Structural Members SECTION 2 Individual Structural Members 1 General This Section provides strength criteria for individual structural members. bending moment and hydrostatic pressure The load directions depicted in Section 2. P Bending moment. For sections which are not listed in Section 2. loading types and parameters and fabrication methods. The geometries and properties of some typical cross sections are illustrated in Section 2. FIGURE 1 Load Application on a Tubular Member z P M y q P L t M D q y z x ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . but other recognized standards are also acceptable. material characteristics. M Hydrostatic pressure. Figure 1 are positive. including sectional shape.1 Geometries and Properties of Structural Members A structural member with a cross section having at least one axis of symmetry is considered.

Bending about the axis of the least resistance. Twisting about the longitudinal (x) axis.5 Failure Modes Failure modes for a structural member are categorized as follows: • • • • Flexural buckling. as for a member with a thin-walled open cross section. Local buckling. It may occur if the torsional rigidity of the section is low.Section 2 Individual Structural Members 1. 2004 . A member which is bent about its major axis may buckle laterally. Buckling of a plate or shell element that is a local part of a member 6 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . Synchronized bending and twisting. Torsional buckling. Lateral-torsional buckling.

Square or rectangular hollow section b = Flange width d = Web depth t = Thickness d 2b 2 d 2 t b+d Io = t(b + d)3/6 b d E . ≤ 1 . Iz = π[D4 – (D – 2t)4]/64 N/A Io = π [D4 – (D – 2t)4]/32 K = π (D – t)3t/4 y t 1. Tubular member D = Outer diameter t = Thickness D E ≤ t 9σ 0 Individual Structural Members D Γ=0 A = 2(b + d)t Iy = d2t(3b + d)/6 Iz = b2t(b + 3d)/6 Major y-y Minor z-z K= t z y 2.5 t t σ0 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .Section TABLE 1 Geometries. Properties and Compact Limits of Structural Members Geometrical Parameters Axis Properties* Compact Limits 2 Geometry Sectional Shape z A = π[D2 – (D – 2t)2]/4 Iy. 2004 b Γ= b 2 d 2 t ( d − b) 2 b+d 24 7 .

5 tw σ0 b E ≤ 0 .8 2 Section TABLE 1 (continued) Geometries.5 t f tw σ0 b2 E ≤ 0 . Properties and Compact Limits of Structural Members Geometrical Parameters Axis A = 2(btf + dtw) Iy = d2(3btf + dtw)/6 Iz = b2(btf + 3dtw)/6 Major y-y Minor z-z K= d = Web depth tw = Web thickness Properties* Compact Limits Geometry Sectional Shape z tw 3.8 tf σ0 tf ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . W-shape b = Flange width tf = Flange thickness d tw d = Web depth tw = Web thickness d E ≤ 1 . 2004 b Γ = d2b3tf/24 . ≤ 1.4 tf σ0 Individual Structural Members b ⎛ a ⎜ + d ⎜ t f tw ⎝ Io = Iy + Iz Γ= 24(b 3 d 2 t f + a 2 d 3t w ) (b 3d 2 t f − a 2 d 3t w ) 2 z y A = 2btf + dtw Iy = d2(6btf + dtw)/12 Major y-y Minor z-z Iz = b tf/6 K = (2btf3 + dtw3)/3 Io = Iy + Iz 3 4. Welded box shape y b2 d a 2a 2 d 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ tf b = Flange width tf = Flange thickness b2 = Outstand a d E .

4 σ0 tw b E ≤ 0 . Properties and Compact Limits of Structural Members Geometrical Parameters Axis Properties* Compact Limits A = 2btf + dtw d = Web depth tw = Web thickness Iy = d2(6btf + dtw)/12 Iz = d3tw(btf + 2dtw)/3A Major y-y Minor z-z K = (2btf3 + dtw3)/3 2 Io = Iy + Iz + A d cs Section 2 Geometry Sectional Shape z tf 5. Channel y d t w b = Flange width tf = Flange thickness dcs = Distance of shear center to centroid d E ≤ 1 .4 σ0 tf A = btf + dtw Iy = d3tw(4btf + dtw)/12A Major y-y Minor z-z z y d = Web depth tw = Web thickness b = Flange width tf = Flange thickness dcs = Distance of shear center to centroid 6.TABLE 1 (continued) Geometries. T-bar d tw Iz = b tf/12 K = (btf3 + dtw3)/3 2 Io = Iy + Iz + A d cs 3 d E ≤ 0. 2004 tf b Γ = (b3tf3 + 4d3tw3)/144 9 .8 σ0 tf ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .5 σ0 tw b Individual Structural Members Γ= 12(6bt f + dt w ) d 2 b 3 t f (3bt f + 2dt w ) b E ≤ 0.

cm4 (in4) Iz = moment of inertia about z-axis. Double angles d d E ≤ 0. thickness is relatively small) where: A = cross sectional area. cm4 (in4) ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . cm4 (in4) K = St. cm2 (in2) Iy = moment of inertia about y-axis.10 2 TABLE 1 (continued) Geometries. cm4 (in4) I0 = polar moment of inertia of the member.4 σ0 tf Γ = (b3tf3 + 4d3tw3)/18 * The formulations for the properties are derived assuming that the section is thin-walled (i.e.4 σ0 tw tf b = Flange width tf = Flange thickness Major y-y Minor z-z Individual Structural Members b dcs = Distance of shear center to centroid b E ≤ 0. cm6 (in6) .. Venant torsion constant for the member. 2004 Γ = warping constant. Properties and Compact Limits of Structural Members Section Geometry Sectional Shape Geometrical Parameters Axis Properties* Compact Limits A = 2(btf + dtw) Iy = d3tw(4btf + dtw)/3A Iz = 2b tf/3 K = 2(btf3 + dtw3)/3 2 Io = Iy + Iz + A d cs 3 z d = Web depth tw = Web thickness y tw 7.

lbf/in2) specified minimum yield point.0 For axial compression (column buckling or torsional buckling) [to establishη1 below]: ψ = 0. A cross section is compact if all compressed components comply with the limits in Section 2.55σ0 if σCi > 0. η. the local buckling (plate buckling and shell buckling) can be disregarded because yielding precedes buckling. and σCθ for hydrostatic pressure.6 for steel specified minimum yield point. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. defined in Subsection 1/11. as defined in 2/3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. as specified in 2/9. lbf/in2) = ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . For a compact section. the local buckling (plate or shell buckling) is to be taken into account. 2004 11 . which may be taken as 0. lbf/in2) proportional linear elastic limit of the structure. ii) 1.55σ0 σCi σ0 = critical local buckling stress.13 Pr σ 0 / σ EA where if σEA ≤ Prσ0 if σEA > Prσ0 σEA = Pr = = elastic buckling stress. the adjustment factor is to take the following values: For axial tension and bending [to establish η2 below]: ψ = 1.Section 2 Individual Structural Members 1. Non-Compact.371σCi/σ0 where if σCi ≤ 0.9 Adjustment Factor For the maximum allowable strength utilization factors.7 Cross Section Classification The cross section may be classified as: i) Compact. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.3. A cross section is non-compact if any compressed component does not comply with the limits in Section 2. Table 1. Table 1. lbf/in2) σ0 For compression (local buckling of tubular members) [to establish ηx and ηθ below]: ψ = 0. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.87 = 1 − 0. representing σCi for axial compression.629 + 0.833 = 0.1. as specified in 2/9. For a non-compact section.5.

The buckling limit state is defined by the following equation: σA/η1σCA ≤ 1 where σA P = = = axial compressive stress.6 for steel specified minimum yield point for a compact section local buckling stress for a non-compact section from Subsection 2/9 σF σEA = elastic buckling stress. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 2004 . N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) P/A specified minimum yield point. lbf) cross sectional area.3 Axial Compression Members subjected to axial compressive forces may fail by flexural or torsional buckling. lbf/in2) I0 2 2 (σ EA − σ Eη )(σ EA − σ ET ) − σ EA d cs = 0 A σEη = = Euler buckling stress about minor axis. lbf/in2) –P/A axial force. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1. N (kgf. σ EA ≤ Pr σ F σ EA > Pr σ F proportional linear elastic limit of the structure. which is the lesser of the solutions of the following quadratic equation.9 η2 3. lbf/in2) π2E/(kL/rη)2 12 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . lbf) critical buckling stress.1 Members Subjected to a Single Action Axial Tension Members subjected to axial tensile forces are to satisfy the following equation: σt/η2σ0 ≤ 1 where σt σ0 P A = = = = = = axial tensile stress. lbf/in2) axial force. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. which may be taken as 0. N (kgf.Section 2 Individual Structural Members 3 3. cm2 (in2) allowable strength utilization factor for tension and bending. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. σCx. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) σCA = = Pr = = = σ EA if ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ σF ⎤ ⎨σ 1 − P (1 − P ) ⎥ if r r ⎪ F⎢ σ EA ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ σ0.

06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1. The values of G for each end (A and B) of the column are determined: G= 2 Γ dcs L k ∑ Lcc ∑ Lg is the total for columns meeting at the joint considered and I Ig ∑ Lcc I ∑ Lg Ig is the total for restraining beams meeting at the joint considered. unless the footing was designed as a frictionless pin. the moment of inertia of the support would be ∞. there is some movement and G may be taken as 1. in practice. 2. cm4 (in4) St. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel cross sectional area.) member’s length. cm (in. 2004 13 . lbf/in2) EK ⎛ π ⎞ EΓ +⎜ ⎟ 2. cm4 (in4) warping constant. For a column end that is supported. and the resulting value of G of this end of the column would be zero. However. Figure 2 may be used.9 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . cm2 (in2) moment of inertia about minor axis. the moment of inertia of the support is zero. If the restraining beam is either pinned (G = ∞) or fixed (G = 0) at its far end. cm6 (in6) difference of centroid and shear center coordinates along major axis.Section 2 Individual Structural Members σET = = rη = = E A Iη K I0 = = = = = = = = = ideal elastic torsional buckling stress. the nomograph shown in Section 2. as specified in Section 2. However.0.6 I 0 ⎝ kL ⎠ I 0 radius of gyration about minor axis. cm (in. Table 2. Venant torsion constant for the member. this value of G would be taken as 10.5 Far end of beam fixed = 2.) Iη / A modulus of elasticity. but not fixed.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.5 Sidesway permitted Far end of beam pinned = 0. cm4 (in4) polar moment of inertia of the member. in practice. refinements may be made by multiplying the stiffness (Ig/Lg) of the beam by the following factors: Sidesway prevented Far end of beam pinned = 1.) effective length factor. If the column end is fixed. and the resulting value of G for this end of the column would be ∞. cm (in.0 η1 = allowable strength utilization factor for axial compression (column buckling). When it is difficult to clarify the end conditions. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.

1 2.50 0. Translation fixed Rotation fixed. Translation free FIGURE 2 Effective Length Factor GA k GB GA k GB Sidesway Prevented Sidesway Permittted 14 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .0 1.0 2.70 0. 2004 . Translation fixed End condition notation Rotation free.0 2.0 2.80 1.2 1.0 Rotation fixed.65 0. Translation free Rotation free.Section 2 Individual Structural Members TABLE 2 Effective Length Factor Buckled shape of column shown by dashed line Theoretical value Recommended k value when ideal conditions are approximated 0.0 1.

For a rolled or fabricated-plate section. No significant axial compression force exists in the restraining beams.5 Bending Moment A member subjected to bending moment may fail by local buckling or lateral-torsional buckling. the critical bending strength is determined by the critical lateral-torsional buckling stress. cm3 (in3) allowable strength utilization factor for tension and bending critical bending strength.6 for steel ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . For columns in frames with sidesway prevented. The buckling state limit is defined by the following equation: σb/η2σCB ≤ 1 where σb M = = = stress due to bending moment M/SMe bending moment. All joints are rigid. All members have constant cross section.Section 2 Individual Structural Members FIGURE 2 (continued) Effective Length Factor Note: These alignment charts or nomographs are based on the following assumptions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Behavior is purely elastic. 2004 15 . producing reverse curvature bending The stiffness parameter L(P/EI)1/2 of all columns is equal. Commentary C2. as follows: SMe = η2 = σCB = i) ii) For a tubular member. N-cm (kgf-cm. For columns in frames with sidesway permitted. All columns buckle simultaneously. producing single curvature bending. which may be taken as 0.3. rotations at opposite ends of the restraining beams are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Reference is made to ANSI/AISC 360-05. 3. Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns. The critical lateral-torsional buckling stress is to be obtained from the following equation: σC(LT) = Pr = σ E ( LT ) if ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ ⎨σ 1 − P (1 − P ) σ F ⎤ if ⎥ r r ⎪ F⎢ σ E ( LT ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎢ σ E ( LT ) ≤ Pr σ F σ E ( LT ) > Pr σ F proportional linear elastic limit of the structure. lbf-in) elastic section modulus. Adjustments are required when these assumptions are violated and the alignment charts are still to be used. rotations at opposite ends of the restraining beams are equal in magnitude and direction. the critical bending strength is to be obtained from the equation given in 2/9.

Venant torsion constant for the member. as specified in 2/9. cm4 (in4) distance from major neutral axis to compressed flange.3 Γ L k 5 5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. σCx.) effective length factor. as defined in Section 2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 2. cm3 (in3) SMe = = Iξ ξc moment of inertia about major axis. lbf/in2) bending stress from 2/3.) Iξ = = = = = = ξc C E Γ Iη + K ( kL) 2 Iη 2.5 about member y-axis.1 Members Subjected to Combined Loads Axial Tension and Bending Moment Members subjected to combined axial tension and bending moment are to satisfy the following equations at all cross-sections along their length: For tubular members: σt 1 + η 2σ 0 η 2 ⎡⎛ σ ⎢⎜ by ⎢⎜ σ CBy ⎣⎝ ⎞ ⎟ + ⎛ σ bz ⎜ ⎜σ ⎟ ⎝ CBz ⎠ 2 2⎤ ⎞ ⎥ ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ 0.7 K = = = = St. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. as defined in Section 2. cm4 (in4) section modulus of compressive flange. cm6 (in6) member’s length. cm (in.6π 2 modulus of elasticity. cm4 (in4) warping constant.Section 2 Individual Structural Members σE(LT) = = elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. Table 1.1. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel σF σ0. as defined in 2/3. Table 1. 2004 .1 × 106 kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) 16 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .5 ≤1 For rolled or fabricated-plate sections: σ by σt σ bz + + ≤1 η 2σ 0 η 2σ CBy η 2σ CBz where σt σby = = axial tensile stress from 2/3. specified minimum yield point for a compact section local buckling stress for a non-compact section. cm (in. lbf/in2) C π 2 EIη SM c (kL) 2 Iη = moment of inertia about minor axis.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.

lbf/in2) critical axial compressive strength from 2/3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.Section 2 Individual Structural Members σbz = bending stress from 2/3.3.3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.15: σ by σa σ bz + + ≤1 η1σ CA η 2σ CBy η 2σ CBz where σa σby σbz = = = axial compressive stress from 2/3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.15: C myσ by C mz σ bz σa 1 1 + + ≤1 η1σ CA η 2σ CBy 1 − σ a /(η1σ Ey ) η 2σ CBz 1 − σ a /(η1σ Ez ) When σa/σCA ≤ 0.5 ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ ≤1 When σa/σCA ≤ 0.5 about member z-axis. lbf/in2) critical bending strength corresponding to member y-axis from 2/3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 2004 17 . as defined in 1/11 and 2/1.9 σCBy = σCBz = η2 = 5. lbf/in2) allowable strength utilization factor for tension and bending.5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5 about member y-axis.5 about member z-axis.3 Axial Compression and Bending Moment Members subjected to combined axial compression and bending moment are to satisfy the following equation at all cross sections along their length: For tubular members: When σa/σCA > 0.5 ≤1 For rolled or fabricated-plate sections: When σa/σCA > 0. lbf/in2) critical bending strength corresponding to member’s z-axis from 2/3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) critical bending strength corresponding to member’s y-axis from 2/3.15: ⎧ ⎤ C myσ by ⎡ 1 ⎤ C mz σ bz σa 1 ⎪⎡ 1 + ⎥ +⎢ ⎨⎢ ⎥ η1σ CA η 2 ⎪⎢ σ CBy 1 − σ a /(η1σ Ey ) ⎥ ⎣ σ CBz 1 − σ a /(η1σ Ez ) ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ 2 2⎫ 0. lbf/in2) bending stress from 2/3. lbf/in2) critical bending strength corresponding to member z-axis from 2/3.15: σa 1 + η1σ CA η 2 ⎡⎛ σ ⎢⎜ by ⎢⎜ σ CBy ⎣⎝ ⎞ ⎟ + ⎛ σ bz ⎜ ⎜σ ⎟ ⎝ CBz ⎠ 2 2⎤ ⎞ ⎥ ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ 0. lbf/in2) σCA = σCBy = σCBz = ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . lbf/in2) bending stress from 2/3.5.

4M1/M2 but not less than 0. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1.3 moment factors corresponding to the member y.4 and limited to 0.85.9 18 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 2004 .85 For members whose ends are unrestrained: Cm = 1. For members whose ends are restrained: Cm = 0. cm (in. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 2. lbf/in2) π2E/(kzL/rz)2 modulus of elasticity.and z-axes. kz = Cmy. lbf/in2) π2E/(kyL/ry)2 Euler buckling stress corresponding to member z-axis.Section 2 Individual Structural Members σEy σEz = = = = Euler buckling stress corresponding to member y-axis.and z-axes. the value of Cm may be determined by rational analysis. However.0 η1 η2 = = allowable strength utilization factor for axial compression (column buckling). as defined in 1/11 and 2/1.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. negative when bent in single curvature. in lieu of such analysis.85 ii) For restrained compression members in frames braced against joint translation (sidesway) and with no transverse loading between their supports: Cm = 0. the following values may be used. Cmz = i) For compression members in frames subjected to joint translation (sidesway): Cm = 0. rz = ky.) effective length factors corresponding to member y.6 – 0. as follows: E = ry. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. iii) For compression members in frames braced against joint translation in the plane of loading and subject to transverse loading between their supports.9 allowable strength utilization factor for tension and bending. M1/M2 is positive when the member is bent in reverse curvature. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel radius of gyration corresponding to the member y. where M1/M2 is the ratio of smaller to larger moments at the ends of that portion of the member unbraced in the plane of bending under consideration.and z-axes from 2/3.

N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) Cqσ0 bending strength in the presence of hydrostatic pressure. Bending Moment and Hydrostatic Pressure The following equation is to be satisfied for tubular members subjected to combined axial tension. lbf/in2) critical hoop buckling strength from 2/9.9 allowable strength utilization factor for local buckling in the presence of hydrostatic pressure. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. It should be noted that the equations in this Subsection do not apply unless the criteria of 2/9.5. 7. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1.9 ξ σθ σ0 η2 ηθ σCθ = = = = ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .3B ] σCB = Cq B = = = = σθ/(ηθσCθ) 5 – 4σCθ/σ0 hoop stress due to hydrostatic pressure from 2/9.5 are satisfied first. bending moment and hydrostatic pressure: 2 2 σ by + σ bz σ tc + η 2σ Tθ η 2σ CBθ ≤1 where σtc σTθ = = = calculated axial tensile stress due to forces from actions that include the cappedend actions due to hydrostatic pressure.1 Axial Tension.5.09 B 2 − B 2ξ − 0.Section 2 Individual Structural Members 7 Tubular Members Subjected to Combined Loads with Hydrostatic Pressure Appropriate consideration is to be given to the capped-end actions on a structural member subjected to hydrostatic pressure. lbf/in2) specified minimum yield point. lbf/in2) σCBθ = = CqσCB critical bending strength excluding hydrostatic pressure from 2/3.5 [ 1 + 0. 2004 19 . N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) axial tensile strength in the presence of hydrostatic pressure. lbf/in2) allowable strength utilization factor for tension and bending. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.

2004 .5σ θ 1 + η1σ CAθ η 2σ CBθ When σac/σCAθ ≤ 0. lbf/in2) moment factors corresponding to the member y.15: ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 2⎫ 0.5 ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ ≤1 σa 1 + η1σ CAθ η 2 where ⎡⎛ σ ⎢⎜ by ⎢⎜ σ CBθ ⎣⎝ ⎞ ⎛ σ ⎟ + ⎜ bz ⎜σ ⎟ ⎝ CBθ ⎠ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2⎤ 0.Section 2 Individual Structural Members 7. σCx. lbf/in2) (ζ + ζ 2 + 4ω ) / 2 1 – Pr(1 – Pr)σF/σEA – σθ/σF 0. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5σθ/σF) Euler buckling stress corresponding to member y-axis from 2/5.6 for steel modulus of elasticity. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5σ θ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1− η σ 1 Ez ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 σ ac − 0.1. bending moment and external pressure are to satisfy the following equations at all cross sections along their length.3 proportional linear elastic limit of the structure.and z-axes from 2/5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. lbf/in2) hoop stress due to hydrostatic pressure from 2/9.7 20 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . lbf/in2) Euler buckling stress corresponding to member z-axis from 2/5. specified minimum yield point for the compact section local buckling stress for the non-compact section from 2/9.5σθ: ⎧⎡ ⎪⎢ C my σ by ⎪⎢ ⎨⎢ ⎪⎢ 1 − σ ac − 0. which may be taken as 0.15 and σac > 0. 2.5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.3.5 ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ≤1 σac σθ = = calculated compressive axial stress due to axial compression that includes the capped-end actions due to hydrostatic pressure. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel ζ ω σEy σEz = = = = Cmy.3. lbf/in2) axial compressive strength in the presence of hydrostatic pressure ⎧ σ EA if ⎨ ⎩σ F Λ if σCBθ = σCAθ = = σ EA ≤ Pr σ F (1 − σ θ / σ F ) σ EA > Pr σ F (1 − σ θ / σ F ) σEA = Λ = elastic buckling stress in the absence of hydrostatic pressure from 2/3.5(σθ/σF)(1 – 0.5σ θ ⎪⎢ η1σ Ey ⎩⎣ ⎤ ⎡ ⎥ ⎢ C mz σ bz ⎥ +⎢ ⎥ σ ac − 0. Cmz = Pr E = = = = σF σ0. When σac/σCAθ > 0. lbf/in2) critical bending strength in the presence of hydrostatic pressure from 2/7.3 Axial Compression.3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. Bending Moment and Hydrostatic Pressure Tubular members subjected to combined compression.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.

lbf/in2) critical hoop buckling stress from 2/9. lbf/in2) moment factors corresponding to the member y.and z-axes. Such behavior is characterized by local distortion of the cross section of the member. Cmz = ηx ηθ = = 9 Local Buckling For a member with a non-compact section. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. the following equation is to also be satisfied: ⎡ σθ ⎤ σ x − 0. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1. lbf/in2) = σac + σb calculated compressive axial stress due to axial compression from actions that include the capped-end actions due to hydrostatic pressure. 9. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1 Tubular Members Subjected to Axial Compression Local buckling stress of tubular members with D/t ≤ E/(4.5ηθσCθ.9 allowable strength utilization factor for tension and bending.5ηθσCθ and ηxσx > 0.9 σac σb σCx = = = σCθ = Cmy. When a detailed analysis is not available. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. which includes the capped-end actions due to the hydrostatic pressure. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) stress due to bending moment from 2/3.5σ0) subjected to axial compression may be obtained from the following equation: σ Ex if ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ σ0 ⎤ σCx = ⎨ σ 1 − Pr (1 − Pr ) ⎥ if ⎪ 0⎢ σ Ex ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ where Pr σ Ex ≤ Pr σ 0 σ Ex > Pr σ 0 = = proportional linear elastic limit of the structure.1. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1. as defined in 2/5.6 for steel specified minimum yield point. lbf/in2) critical axial buckling stress from 2/9.5ηθ σ Cθ ⎣ηθ σ Cθ ⎦ where 2 ≤1 σx = maximum compressive axial stress from axial compression and bending moment. lbf/in2) 21 σ0 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .9 When σx > 0.5ηθ σ Cθ +⎢ ⎥ η xσ Cx − 0.9 maximum allowable strength utilization factor for hydrodynamic pressure (local buckling).Section 2 Individual Structural Members η1 η2 = = allowable strength utilization factor for axial compression (column buckling). the equations given below may be used to evaluate the local buckling stress of a member with a noncompact section. which may be taken as 0.5. 2004 . local buckling may occur before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield point of the material is reached.5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.3 maximum allowable strength utilization factor for axial compression (local buckling).

1 × 106 kgf/cm2.73σ 0 D /( Et )](SM p / SM e )σ 0 ⎩ where SMe = = SMp = = D t E = = = = elastic section modulus.038 − 1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) 0. cm (in.Section 2 Individual Structural Members σEx D t = = = = elastic buckling stress.) For tubular members with D/t > E/(4. 2004 .3 Tubular Members Subjected to Bending Moment Critical bending strength of tubular members with D/t ≤ E/(4. 2.5σ0). cm3 (in3) (π/64)[D4 – (D – 2t)4]/(D/2) plastic section modulus.90σ 0 D /( Et )](SM p / SM e )σ 0 ⎪ ⎪[0. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.10 modulus of elasticity.02 < σ 0 D ( Et ) ≤ 0. cm3 (in3) (1/6)[D3 – (D – 2t)3] outer diameter. cm (in.5 Tubular Members Subjected to Hydrostatic Pressure Tubular members with D/t ≤ E/(4. 9.) thickness.6Et/D outer diameter. lbf/in2) ΦσBθ σCθ = = 22 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . cm (in.5σ0) subjected to external pressure are to satisfy the following equation: σθ/ηθσCθ ≤ 1 where σθ q = = = hoop stress due to hydrostatic pressure qD/(2t) external pressure critical hoop buckling strength.) for σ 0 D ( Et ) ≤ 0. 9.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.) thickness. cm (in.5σ0) subjected to bending moment may be obtained from the following equation: ⎧( SM p / SM e )σ 0 ⎪ ⎪ σCB = ⎨[1. the local buckling stress is to be determined from 4/3.10 for σ 0 D ( Et ) > 0. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel specified minimum yield point σ0 For tubular members with D/t > E/(4.02 for 0.3.921 − 0.3. the local buckling stress is to be determined from 4/3.5σ0).

80 geometric parameter l / D 2D / t length of tubular member between stiffening rings.3 is to be applied.7 Plate Elements Subjected to Compression and Bending Moment The critical local buckling of a member with rolled or fabricated plate section may be taken as the smallest local buckling stress of the plate elements comprising the section.825D/t ≤ μ < 1.5 ≤ μ < 0.44t/D + 0. the state limit in 4/3. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel specified minimum yield point maximum allowable strength utilization factor for local buckling in the presence of hydrostatic pressure.55 Δ + 0.737/(μ – 0.5σ0). 9.6D/t for 0.6D/t for 1.18 for 0.6 for 1.31 1 + 1.825D/t for μ <1.9 for μ ≥ 1.45 for Δ ≤ 0.25 1.5 μ = = l = = = = = = D t E σ0 ηθ For tubular members with D/t > E/(4. 2004 23 .25 for Δ ≥ 6.6 < Δ < 6.21(D/t)3/μ4 0.44t/D 0.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. 2. The local buckling stress of an element is to be obtained from the following equation with respect to uniaxial compression and in-plane bending moment: if σ Ex ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ σ ⎤ σCx = ⎨ σ 1 − Pr (1 − Pr ) 0 ⎥ if ⎪ 0⎢ σ Ex ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ σ Ex ≤ Pr σ 0 σ Ex > Pr σ 0 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .579) 0. diaphragms or end connections outer diameter thickness modulus of elasticity.55 < Δ ≤ 1.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. as defined in 1/11 and 2/1.Section 2 Individual Structural Members Φ = = = = = plasticity reduction factor 1 0.15Δ 1/Δ Δ σEθ Cθ = = = = = = = = σEθ/σ0 elastic hoop buckling stress 2CθEt/D buckling coefficient 0.

N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. Figure 3 σamin/σamax For a plate element with other boundary conditions. the buckling coefficient is to be obtained from following equation: ⎧ 8 .Section 2 Individual Structural Members where Pr = = = = proportional linear elastic limit of the structure.6 − 6. Table 3 FIGURE 3 Definition of Edge Stresses σamax Plate Element σamax σamin σamin 24 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .4 ⎪ ks = ⎨ κ + 1.6 for steel specified minimum yield point. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) elastic buckling stress. 2004 . as follows: i) For a plate element with all four edges simply supported. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio. which may be taken as 0.1 ⎪7. the buckling coefficient is obtained from Section 2.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.4κ + 10κ 2 ⎩ where for 0 ≤ κ ≤ 1 for − 1 ≤ κ < 0 ν s t ks κ ii) = = ratio of edge stresses. 2.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.3 for steel depth of unsupported plate element thickness of plate element buckling coefficient. as defined in Section 2. 0. lbf/in2) σ0 σEx ks π 2E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 12(1 − ν 2 ) ⎝ s ⎠ 2 E = = = = = modulus of elasticity.

57 1. 2004 25 .Section 2 Individual Structural Members TABLE 3 Minimum Buckling Coefficients under Compression and Bending Moment. ks * Top Edge Free Loading Bottom Edge Simply Supported Bottom Edge Fixed Bottom Edge Free Top Edge Simply Supported Top Edge Fixed σamin/σamax = 1 (Uniform compression) 0. ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .33 σamin/σamax = –1 (Pure Bending) ⎯ ⎯ 0.42 1.33 0.70 5.42 1.93 * Note: ks for intermediate value of σamin/σamax may be obtained by linear interpolation.85 2.15 σamin/σamax = 0 0.61 1.

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CSDUs and FPIs of the TLP and SPAR types. 2004 27 . The given criteria apply to a variety of stiffener profiles. such as flat-bar. built up inverted angle profiles and symmetric and non-symmetric bulb profiles. SEDUs. SPMs. The section dimensions of a stiffener are defined in Section 3. The former is based on buckling and the latter is related to collapse. see Chapter 4. Stiffened Panel and Corrugated Panels Flat rectangular plates and stiffened panels are depicted in Section 3.Section 3: Plates. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels 1 General The formulations provided in this Section are to be used to assess the Buckling and Ultimate Strength Limits of plates. Figure 2. When a detailed analysis is not available. The design criteria apply also to stiffened panels for which the moment of inertia for the transverse girders is greater than the moment of inertia of the longitudinal stiffeners. Stiffeners in the stiffened panels are usually installed equally spaced. parallel or perpendicular to panel edges in the direction of dominant load and are supported by heavier and more widely-spaced ‘deep supporting members’ (i. Section 2 of the FPI Guide. 1. ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . built up T-profiles.e. stiffened panels or corrugated panels may be determined based on either appropriate. the buckling and ultimate strength of plates. stiffened panels and corrugated panels. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels SECTION 3 Plates. Alternatively. the equations provided in this section shall be used to assess the buckling strength. The criteria provided in this Section apply to Offshore Structures. well-documented experimental data or on a calibrated analytical approach. Two State Limits for Buckling and Ultimate Strength are normally considered in structural design.1 Geometry of Plate. In this latter case. and it is not in the scope of this Guide to use the criteria with ship-type FPIs. The stiffeners may have strength properties different from those of the plate. girders).. It is not in the scope of this Guide to use the criteria for orthotropically stiffened plate panels. Figure 1.

2004 .Section 3 Plates. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels FIGURE 1 Typical Stiffened Panel Longitudinal Girder Bracket Girder Stiffener Transverse Girder s s s y z x s s l Plate Longitudinal Stiffener FIGURE 2 Sectional Dimensions of a Stiffened Panel z bf tf b2 y0 Centroid of Stiffener z0 t y se dw tw b1 28 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .

The dimensions of corrugated panels are defined in Section 3. The buckling strength criteria for corrugated panels given in Subsection 3/11 are applicable to corrugated panels with corrugation angle. The symbols for each of these loads are shown in Section 3. • • • • • Uniform in-plane compression. when connected with fasteners. they are employed as corrugated shear diaphragms. σby Edge shear. are self-stiffened and are usually corrugated in one direction. Figure 5. φ. supported by stools at the two ends across the corrugation direction. They may act as watertight bulkheads or. * Note: ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels Corrugated panels. it may be set equal to zero. q Combinations of the above If uniform stress σax or σay is tensile rather than compressive. τ Lateral loads. as depicted in Section 3. 2004 29 . FIGURE 3 Typical Corrugated Panel z y x L B FIGURE 4 Sectional Dimensions of a Corrugated Panel a t d φ c t b s Centroid z0 y z 1. between 57 and 90 degrees. σbx. Figure 3.3 Load Application The plate and stiffened panel criteria account for the following load and load effects. Figure 4.Section 3 Plates. σax. σay * In-plane bending.

Figure 6. given in 3/9. the structure may not fail immediately as long as the girders can support the extra load shed from the stiffeners.7).1. the plate level. the stiffened panel level and the entire grillage level. • • For plates and stiffened panels that do not satisfy these limits. Webs of girders and stiffeners are proportioned such that local instability is prevented (see 3/9.e. given in 3/9. tripping (e. torsional/flexural instability) is to be prevented if tripping brackets are provided. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels FIGURE 5 Primary Loads and Load Effects on Plate and Stiffened Panel Edge Shear σxmax τ s y σxmin x σxmax = σax + σbx σymin q l Lateral Pressure σymax σxmin = σax − σbx σymax = σay + σby σymin = σay − σby In-plane Compression and Bending 1. Even if the stiffeners collapse..5.9).5 Buckling Control Concepts The failure of plates and stiffened panels can be sorted into three levels.Section 3 Plates.g. Stiffeners with their associated effective plating are to have moments of inertia not less than i0. • • • The buckling strength of each stiffener is generally greater than that of the plate panel it supports.. The buckling strength criteria for plates and stiffened panels are based on the following assumptions and limits with respect to buckling control in the design of stiffened panels. which are depicted in Section 3. namely. girders) with their associated effective plating are to have moments of inertia not less than Is.. In addition. a well designed structure does not collapse when a plate fails as long as the stiffeners can resist the extra load they experience from the plate failure). which are in compliance with ABS recommended practices. a detailed analysis of buckling strength using an acceptable method should be submitted for review.e. as specified in 3/7. 30 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . The deep supporting members (i. 2004 . Faceplates and flanges of girders and stiffeners are proportioned such that local instability is prevented (see 3/9.7. An offshore structure is to be designed in such a way that the buckling and ultimate strength of each level is greater than its preceding level (i.

A buckling check of plate panels is necessary when establishing the attached plating width for stiffened panels. the buckling control concept used in this Subsection is that the buckling and ultimate strength of each level is greater than its preceding level in order to avoid the collapse of the entire structure. 1. corrugated panels will collapse immediately upon reaching any one of these three buckling levels.5 of the structure satisfies the specified criteria. From a reliability point of view.5 Adjustment Factor For the maximum allowable strength utilization factors. Offshore practice demonstrates that only an ultimate strength check is required for plate panels. no individual collapse mode can be 100 percent prevented. Figure 6 illustrates the collapse shape for each level of failure mode. 3. 2004 31 .1 Buckling State Limit For the Buckling State Limit of plates subjected to in-plane and lateral pressure loads. In contrast to stiffened panels. buckling is acceptable. the full width is to be used. the effective width is to be applied if the plating buckles but does not fail. defined in 1/11. the adjustment factor is to take the following value: ψ = 1. Therefore. η. the following strength criterion is to be satisfied: ⎛ σ x max ⎜ ⎜ ησ Cx ⎝ 2 ⎛ σ y max ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ησ Cy ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ +⎛ τ ⎞ ≤1 ⎜ ⎜ ητ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ C⎠ ⎠ 2 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . If the plating does not buckle. The failure (‘levels’) modes of a corrugated panel can be categorized as the face/web plate buckling level.Section 3 Plates. provided that the ultimate strength given in 3/3. Otherwise. the unit corrugation buckling level and the entire corrugation buckling level. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels FIGURE 6 Failure Modes (‘Levels’) of Stiffened Panel Plate Level Stiffened Panel Level Deep Supporting Member Level Section 3.0 3 Plate Panels For rectangular plate panels between stiffeners.

1 Critical Buckling Stress for Edge Shear The critical buckling stress for edge shear. may be taken as: ⎧ for τ E ≤ Prτ 0 ⎪τ E ⎪ τC = ⎨ ⎪τ ⎡1 − P (1 − P ) τ 0 ⎤ for τ > P τ ⎥ r r E r 0 ⎪ 0⎢ τE ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ where Pr = = = proportional linear elastic limit of the structure. 2004 .0⎜ ⎟ + 5.34⎥C1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎝l⎠ ⎦ ⎣ modulus of elasticity. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) σ0 τE = = = ks π 2E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 12 1 − ν 2 ⎝ s ⎠ 2 ( ) ks = = boundary dependent constant ⎤ ⎡ ⎛ s ⎞2 ⎢4.1.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.6 for steel shear strength of plate. 3. lbf/in2) τ0 σ0 3 specified minimum yield point of plate.7 The critical buckling stresses are specified below. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for uniaxial compression in the longitudinal direction. which may be taken as 0. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 0.) E = = = = ν l s 32 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .3 for steel length of long plate edge. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) maximum allowable strength utilization factor. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for uniaxial compression in the transverse direction. lbf/in2) maximum compressive stress in the transverse direction. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for edge shear. as defined in 1/11 and 3/1. cm (in. lbf/in2) edge shear stress. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels where σxmax = σymax = τ σCx σCy τC η = = = = = maximum compressive stress in the longitudinal direction. τC. cm (in. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 2.) length of short plate edge.Section 3 Plates. lbf/in2) elastic shear buckling stress.

6 for steel elastic buckling stress.2 Critical Buckling Stress for Uniaxial Compression and In-plane Bending The critical buckling stress.0875⋅ ⎜1+ 2 ⎟ − 9 ⎥ ⋅ (1+ κ ) +12 3 α⎥ α ⎝ α ⎠ ⎪⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪ 2 1 ⎪⎛1+ 1 ⎞ (1.0875⋅ ⎛1+ ⎞ −18 ⎥ ⋅ (1+ κ ) + 24 for κ < and 1 ≤ α ≤ 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 2 3 α ⎥ α ⎪⎢ ⎝ α ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪ 2 1⎤ 1 1 ⎪⎡ ⎛ 1⎞ for κ < and α > 2 C2 ⎨⎢1.0 for plate elements.1 for plate panels between angles or tee stiffeners. 2004 33 . Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels t C1 = = thickness of plating. 1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1.0 for plate panels between flat bars or bulb plates.6 − 6. for plates subjected to combined uniaxial compression and in-plane bending may be taken as: σCi = ⎧ for σ Ei ≤ Pr σ 0 ⎪σ Ei ⎪ ⎨ ⎪σ ⎡1 − P (1 − P ) σ 0 ⎤ for σ > P σ ⎥ r r Ei r 0 ⎪ 0⎢ σ Ei ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ proportional linear elastic limit of the structure. cm (in.675 ) for κ ≥ κ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎪⎝ α ⎠ 3 ⎩ ks = where α = = aspect ratio l/s ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . σCi (i = x or y).4 ⎪ C1 ⎨ κ + 1. lbf/in2) ks where Pr = = = σEi π 2E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 12 1 − ν 2 ⎝ s ⎠ 2 ( ) For loading applied along the short edge of the plating (long plate): ks = ⎧ 8. which may be taken as 0. web plate of stiffeners and local plate of corrugated panels 3. 1.4κ + 10κ 2 ⎩ for 0 ≤ κ ≤ 1 for − 1 ≤ κ < 0 For loading applied along the long edge of the plating (wide plate): 2 ⎧⎡ 1 1⎤ 1 1 ⎪⎢1.) 1.Section 3 Plates.1 ⎪7.675− 0.

then σimax = σbi and σimin = –σbi. provided edge shear is zero. σimax = σimin = σi. y) >0 (compressive) and in-plane bending stress σbi (i = x. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. y) ≠ 0. σ0 E = = = = = = = specified minimum yield point of plate. cm (in.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.) thickness of plating. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. y) ≠ 0. cm (in.) 1. 1.0 for plate elements and web plates ν l s t C1 C2 = 3. 1. then κ = 1. cm (in. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.0 for plate elements.3 Ultimate Strength under Combined In-plane Stresses The ultimate strength for a plate between stiffeners subjected to combined in-plane stresses is to satisfy the following equation: ⎛ σ x max ⎜ ⎜ ησ Ux ⎝ where ⎞ ⎛σ ⎟ − ϕ ⎜ x max ⎟ ⎜ ησ Ux ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎞⎛ σ y max ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ησ Uy ⎠⎝ ⎞ ⎛ σ y max ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ησ Uy ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ +⎛ τ ⎜ ⎜ ητ ⎟ ⎝ U ⎠ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎠ 2 σxmax = σymax = τ ϕ = = = maximum compressive stress in the longitudinal direction. web plate of stiffeners and local plate of corrugated panels 1. lbf/in2) edge shear stress. 2004 . lbf/in2) Cxσo ≥ σCx σUx = = 34 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .0 for plate panels between flat bars or bulb plates.3 for steel length of long plate edge. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio. κ: • • • • If uniform stress σai (i = x. y) > 0 (compressive) and in-plane bending stress σbi (i = x.1 for plate panels between flat bars or bulb plates. lbf/in2) modulus of elasticity. 1. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels κ = = ratio of edge stresses.0-β /2 ultimate strength with respect to uniaxial stress in the longitudinal direction. y) = 0.) length of short plate edge. 1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) maximum compressive stress in the transverse direction.Section 3 Plates. If uniform stress σai (i = x. If uniform stress σai (i = x. y) = 0. 0. If uniform stress σai (i = x. σimax = σai + σbi. as defined in Section 3.2 for plate panels between angles or tee stiffeners. buckling check is not necessary. 2. σimin = σai – σbi then –1 < κ < 1. y) < 0 (tensile) and in-plane bending stress σbi (i = x.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. so that κ = –1. Figure 5* σimin/σimax * Note: There are several cases in the calculation of ratio of edge stresses.1 for plate panels between angles or tee stiffeners. y) < 0 (tensile) and in-plane stress σbi (i = x. lbf/in2) coefficient to reflect interaction between longitudinal and transverse stresses (negative values are acceptable) 1.

cm (in.2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.0 ⎩ for β > 1 for β ≤1 σUy = = Cy = = = ultimate strength with respect to uniaxial stress in the transverse direction. the ultimate strength of a panel between stiffeners subjected to uniform lateral pressure alone or combined with in-plane stresses is to also satisfy the following equation: 2 ⎛σ ⎞ 1 ⎞ ⎛t⎞ ⎛ qu ≤ η 4. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for uniaxial compression in the transverse direction.1⎜1 − ⎟ 1 + 1 / β 2 l ⎝ l⎠ ( ) 2 ≤1 τU ultimate strength with respect to edge shear. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. se and le are as defined in 3/3.1. lbf/in2) length of long plate edge.7.5 σ 0 − 3τ C / 1 + α + α 2 ( )( ) 1/ 2 ≥τC σCx σCy τC β = = = = = critical buckling stress for uniaxial compression in the longitudinal direction. as specified in 3/3.1. σCy.1. specified in 3/3. cm (in. lbf/in2) Cyσ0 ≥ σCy Cx ⋅ s s⎞ ⎛ + 0.5 Uniform Lateral Pressure In addition to the buckling/ultimate strength criteria in 3/3.) length of short plate edge. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.3. cm (in. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels Cx = ⎧2 / β − 1 / β 2 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪1.) aspect ratio l/s α = length of long plate edge. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for edge shear. lbf/in2) maximum allowable strength utilization factor. τC and α are as defined in 3/3.) 35 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . σCx.) thickness of plating.1 through 3/3.) yield point of plate. cm (in.1.3. E l = = = = = = s t σ0 η β. lbf/in2) τ C + 0. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1 slenderness ratio s σ0 t E modulus of elasticity. cm (in.2. 3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.0σ 0 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ 1 − ⎜ e ⎟ ⎜σ ⎟ ⎝s⎠ ⎝ α ⎠ ⎝ 0⎠ 2 where t = = = l plate thickness. as defined in 1/11 and 3/1.Section 3 Plates. σ0. 2004 . specified in 3/3.

5. lbf/in2) P/A total compressive load on stiffener using full width of associated plating. Buckling state limits for a stiffened panel are considered its ultimate state limits. torsion and flexural buckling of stiffeners and local buckling of stiffener web and faceplate.Section 3 Plates. N (kgf. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm (in. lbf/in2) equivalent stress according to von Mises. 2004 . cm2 (in2) As + st sectional area of the longitudinal. lbf/in2) edge shear maximum allowable strength utilization factor. which may be taken as 0. cm2 (in2) As = 36 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .7 5 Stiffened Panels The failure modes of stiffened panels include beam-column buckling.1 Beam-Column Buckling State Limit The beam-column buckling state limit may be determined as follows: ησ CA ( Ae / A) where σa + C mσ b ≤1 ησ 0 [1 − σ a /(ησ E (C ) ) σa P = = = nominal calculated compressive stress. lbf/in2) σCA = = = σE(C) σ 0 ⎢1 − Pr (1 − Pr ) ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ for σE(C) ≤ Prσ0 σ E (C ) ⎥ ⎦ σ0 ⎤ ⎥ for σE(C) > Prσ0 Pr = proportional linear elastic limit of the structure. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels s = = = = length of short plate edge. excluding the associated plating. as defined in 1/11 and 3/1. lbf/in2) maximum compressive stress in the transverse direction. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf) critical buckling stress.1 through 3/5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 5.) specified minimum yield point of plate. lbf/in2) 2 σ x max − σ x maxσ y max + σ y max 2 + 3τ 2 σ0 σe σxmax = σymax = τ η = = maximum compressive stress in the longitudinal direction.6 for steel Euler’s buckling stress σE(C) = = A = = π 2 Ere 2 l2 total sectional area. The stiffened panel strength against these failure modes is to be checked with the criteria provided in 3/5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.

1 is not satisfied for β > 1 for Cx = β ≤1 Cy = ⎛ σ y max 0. as specified in 3/3. Ae. lbf/in2) M/SMw σ0 σb M = = = = maximum bending moment induced by lateral loads. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel specified minimum yield point of the longitudinal or stiffener under consideration. The buckling check for stiffeners is not to be performed until the attached plate panels satisfy the ultimate strength criteria. lbf/in2) ultimate strength with respect to uniaxial stress in the transverse direction. lbf-in) qsl2/12 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .5ϕ ⎜ ⎜ σ Uy ⎝ * Note: ⎞ ⎟ + 1 − 1 − 0. accounting for the effective width. se. the yield point resulting from the weighting of areas is to be used. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. σymax = σUy = maximum compressive stress in the transverse direction. cm2 (in2) As + set effective width. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.0 ⎩ when the buckling state limit of the associated plating from 3/3. 2004 37 . If there is a large difference between the yield points of a longitudinal or stiffener and the plating.) s CxCyCxys ⎧ ⎪2 / β − 1 / β 2 ⎨ ⎪1.3. N-cm (kgf-cm.Section 3 Plates. lbf/in2) ⎛τ 1− ⎜ ⎜τ ⎝ 0 1.) Ie Ae Ie E = = = moment of inertia of longitudinal or stiffener.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. cm (in.0 – β/2 s σ0 t E Cxy = = = = = ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 ϕ β re radius of gyration of area. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels Ae se = = = = = effective sectional area. lbf/in2) bending stress. 2.1 is satisfied when the buckling state limit of the associated plating from 3/3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm (in.25ϕ 2 ⎟ ⎠ ( ) ⎛ σ y max ⎜ ⎜ σ Uy ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 * A limit for Cy is that the transverse loading should be less than the transverse ultimate strength of the plate panels. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm4 (in4) modulus of elasticity.

lbf/in2) spacing of the longitudinal. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels Cm q s l = = = = moment adjustment coefficient. which may be taken as 0.) maximum allowable strength utilization factor. Figure 7 effective section modulus of the longitudinal at flange.) unsupported span of the longitudinal or stiffener.Section 3 Plates. as defined in Section 3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. accounting for the effective breadth. as defined in 1/11 and 3/1. cm (in. Figure 8. cm (in. cm3 (in3) effective breadth. as specified in Section 3. 2004 .75 lateral pressure for the region considered.). sw. cm (in.7 SMw = sw = = η 38 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .

flat bar stiffeners and brackets Transverse ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .Section 3 Plates. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels FIGURE 7 Unsupported Span of Longitudinal l Transverse a) Supported by transverses Transverse Flat Bar Flat Bar l Transverse b) Supported by transverses and flat bar stiffeners Transverse Flat Bar Flat Bar l dw/2 dw Transverse c) Supported by transverses. 2004 39 .

6 for steel 40 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . the flexural-torsional buckling state limit of stiffeners or longitudinals is to satisfy the ultimate state limit given below: σa ≤1 ησ CT where σa = nominal axial compressive stress of stiffener and its associated plating.73 2.5 and greater 1.3 Flexural-Torsional Buckling State Limit In general. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels FIGURE 8 Effective Breadth of Plating sw l Longitudinal Bending Moment cl cl/s sw/s 1. which may be taken as 0.Section 3 Plates. which may be obtained from the following equations: if σ ET ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ σ0 ⎤ ⎨σ 1 − P (1 − P ) r r ⎥ if ⎪ 0⎢ σ ET ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ σCT = σ ET ≤ Pr σ 0 σ ET > Pr σ 0 = Pr = proportional linear elastic limit of the structure.5 0.0 5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. including its associated plating.98 4.90 3.58 2 0. lbf/in2) critical torsional/flexural buckling stress with respect to axial compression of a stiffener.5 0.5 0.83 3 0.95 4 0. 2004 .

2004 41 .1 w ⎜ bf ⎝ 1− 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ I0 = = Iy. Iz = m = u y0 z0 dw tw bf b1 tf C0 = = = = = = = = = ≅ ≅ b1 . lbf/in2) C0 ⎛ l ⎞ K ⎛ nπ ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ Γ + ⎜ ⎟ E ⎝ nπ ⎠ 2. cm (in.) smaller outstand dimension of flange/face plate with respect to web’s centerline. cm (in. cm (in.0 As 12 ⎜ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ . and web plate centerline (see Section 3. unsymmetrical factor bf horizontal distance between centroid of stiffener.6 ⎝ l ⎠ E 2 C0 ⎛ l ⎞ I0 + ⎜ ⎟ σ cL ⎝ nπ ⎠ 2 2 = K = St. Figure 2). N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.7 − 0. Figure 2).) vertical distance between centroid of stiffener. Venant torsion constant for the stiffener cross section. excluding the plating (x-axis perpendicular to the y-z plane shown in Section 3. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels σET = elastic flexural-torsional-buckling stress with respect to the axial compression of a stiffener.Section 3 Plates. As. Figure 2).) Et 3 3s warping constant. including its associated plating. cm4 (in4) ⎟ ⎠ ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . respectively. cm (in. and its toe (see Section 3. cm4 (in4) Iy + mIz + As(y02 + z02) moment of inertia of the stiffener about the y.) thickness of the web.) thickness of the flange/face. As.) depth of the web.0 − u ⎜ 0.) total width of the flange/face plate. cm4 (in4) ⎛ d 1. cm4 (in4) 3 b f t 3 + d wt w f = 3 polar moment of inertia of the stiffener. excluding the associated plating (considered at the intersection of the web and plate). cm (in. cm (in. through the centroid of the longitudinal.0 + 3.and z-axis. excluding the associated plating. cm (in. cm6 (in6) 2 mI zf d w + 3 3 d wt w 36 Γ Ixf = t f b3 ⎛ u 2 d wt w f ⎜ 1.

N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.3. cm (in.3 for steel specified minimum yield point of the material. and taking: ks = 0. Flange and Face Plate The local buckling of stiffeners is to be assessed if the proportions of stiffeners specified in Subsection 3/9 are not satisfied.44 42 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels σcL = critical buckling stress for associated plating corresponding to n-half waves.7 ν σ0 s As t l η 5. cm (in. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio. lbf/in2) π 2 E⎜ = ⎛n α⎞ ⎛t⎞ + ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝α n ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ 12 1 − ν 2 2 2 ( ) α n E = = = = = = = = = = l s number of half-waves that yield the smallest σET modulus of elasticity. excluding the associated plating.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. 2.1 by replacing s with the web depth and l with the unsupported span. and taking: ks = 4Cs where Cs = = = 5.2 1.) maximum allowable strength utilization factor.3.5 Local Buckling of Web.) sectional area of the longitudinal or stiffener. 5. cm (in.0 0.1 Web Critical buckling stress can be obtained from 3/3. 0. Figure 2).) unsupported span of the longitudinal or stiffener. cm2 (in2) thickness of the plating.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.33 0.1 by replacing s with the larger outstanding dimension of flange.Section 3 Plates. as defined in 1/11 and 3/1. lbf/in2) spacing of longitudinal/stiffeners. b2 (see Section 3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. and l with the unsupported span. 2004 .11 for angle or tee bar for bulb plates for flat bar Flange and Face Plate Critical buckling stress can be obtained from 3/3.

7).1 Web Plate The buckling limit state for a web plate is considered as the ultimate state limit and is given in 3/3.3 Face Plate and Flange The breadth to thickness ratio of faceplate and flange is to satisfy the limits given in 3/9. FIGURE 9 Large Brackets and Sloping Webs Sloping Plate Large Bracket Sloping Web ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . In this case. and thus subject to axial compression. 2004 43 .5 Large Brackets and Sloping Webs The buckling strength is to satisfy the limits specified in 3/3. the effects of the cutouts on the reduction of the critical buckling stresses should be considered (See 3/7. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels 7 Girders and Webs In general. considering the combined effects of the compressive and bending stresses in the web.1. are to also satisfy 3/3. 7. as applicable.3. girders are to be designed as stocky so that lateral buckling may be disregarded and torsional buckling also may be disregarded if tripping brackets are provided (See 3/7. the stiffness of web stiffeners fitted to the depth of web plating is to be in compliance with 3/9.1.5. When cutouts are present in the web plate.Section 3 Plates.1 through 3/3. 7. In general. Web stiffeners that are oriented parallel to the face plate. 7. the unsupported span of these parallel stiffeners may be taken as the distance between tripping brackets.7.9). The buckling strength of the web plate between stiffeners and flange/face plate is to satisfy the limits specified in 3/3. the girder is to be checked according to Subsection 3/5.1 for the web plate. If this is not the case.

Section 3 Plates. P.02σcl(bf tf + where 1 dw bw) 3 σcl = = = critical lateral buckling stress with respect to axial compression between tripping brackets. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. tw are defined in Section 3. FIGURE 10 Tripping Brackets P TRIPPING BRACKET The design of tripping brackets may be based on the force. lbf/in2) σ0 bf. which may be taken as 0.9 Effects of Cutouts The depth of a cutout. lbf/in2) σce σ0 [1 − Pr(1 − Pr) σ0/σce ] for σce ≤ Prσ0 for σce > Prσ0 σce Pr E = = = = 0. 44 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . tripping brackets are to be installed with spacing generally not greater than 3 meters (9.1 Reinforced by Stiffeners around Boundaries of Cut-outs When reinforcement is made by installing straight stiffeners along boundaries of a cutout. acting on the flange. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel specified minimum yield point of the material.6 for steel modulus of elasticity. 2004 . tf. 7. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. is to be not greater than dw /3. and the calculated stresses in the area are to account for the local increase due to the cutout.7 Tripping Brackets To prevent tripping of deep girders and webs with wide flanges.5. 2. inplane bending and shear may be obtained from 3/3.6E[(bf /tf)(tw /dw)3]. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. the critical buckling stresses of the web plate between stiffeners with respect to compression.1.84 ft). Figure 2. lbf/in2) proportional linear elastic limit of the structure. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels 7. in general.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. dw. 7.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. as given by the following equation: P = 0.

supporting elements of plate panels and stiffeners are to satisfy the following requirements for stiffness and proportion in highly stressed regions. where tw is the thickness of the web plate.3 for steel cross sectional area of the stiffener (excluding plating). is not to be less than that given by the following equation: i0 = where 12 1 − ν 2 = = = = = = = = ( st 3 )γ 0 γ0 δ α s t (2. i0. cm (in. without reduction. 0.Section 3 Plates.17lt3(l/s)3 Ie = 0. the moment of inertia of a stiffener. cm (in. cm (in. 9. the buckling strength of the web plate surrounding the cutout may be treated as a strip of plate with one edge free and the other edge simply supported.33l. cm (in. of a web stiffener. with the effective breadth of plating not exceeding s or 0.4α – 13. provided that the cross sectional area of the face plate is not less than 8tw2.0 for l/s > 2.34lt3(l/s)2 where l for l/s ≤ 2. Ie. is not to be less than the value obtained from the following equations: Ie = 0.) 45 t s ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .) Poisson’s ratio. whichever is less. where dw is the depth of the web.2α1/2 As/(st) l/s spacing of longitudinal. cm (in. cm (in) ν As l 9. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels 7.0δ)α2 + 12.2 Reinforced by Face Plates around Contour of Cut-outs When reinforcement is made by adding face plates along the contour of a cut-out.44 9 Stiffness and Proportions To fully develop the intended buckling strength of assemblies of structural members and panels.) spacing of stiffeners.3 ks = 0.1 Stiffness of Stiffeners In the plane perpendicular to the plating.) required thickness of web plating. and the depth of the cut-out is not greater than dw/3. the critical buckling stresses with respect to compression. No Reinforcement Provided When reinforcement is not provided.1.0 = = = length of stiffener between effective supports.5.3 Stiffness of Web Stiffeners The moment of inertia.6 + 4. 2004 . with an effective breadth of plating. cm2 (in2) unsupported span of the stiffener.) thickness of plating supported by the longitudinal.5. bending and shear may be obtained from 3/3. 7.

85(E/σ0)1/2 dw/tw ≤ 0. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels 9. cm (in. cm4 (in4) moment of inertia of the stiffeners. lbf/in2) modulus of elasticity. Figure 7 9.) thickness of flange/face plate.) unsupported span of the stiffener. Figure 2.5(E/σ0)1/2 dw/tw ≤ 0.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.5 Stiffness of Supporting Girders The moment of inertia of a supporting member is not to be less than that obtained from the following equation: IG/i0 ≥ 0. cm4 (in4) unsupported span of the supporting girders.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.).2(B/l)3(B/s) where IG i0 B l = = = = moment of inertia of the supporting girders. as defined in Section 3. Figure 2).4(E/σ0)1/2 where b2 tf = = = = larger outstand dimension of flange (See Section 3. cm (in.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. dw/tw ≤ 1.Section 3 Plates. 2004 . 2. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel dw and tw are as defined in Section 3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm (in. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.4(E/σ0)1/2 where for angles and tee bars for bulb plates for flat bars σ0 E = = specified minimum yield point of plate. 46 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .7 Proportions of Flanges and Faceplates The breadth to thickness ratio of flanges and faceplates of stiffeners and girders is to satisfy the limits given below. cm (in. including the effective plating.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. including the effective plating. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel σ0 E 9.) specified minimum yield point of plate. lbf/in2) modulus of elasticity. b2/tf ≤ 0. 2.9 Proportions of Webs of Stiffeners The depth to thickness ratio of webs of stiffeners is to satisfy the limits given below.

3 Unit Corrugation Any unit corrugation of the corrugated panel may be treated as a beam column and is to satisfy the following state limit: σa C mσ b + ≤1 ησ CA ησ CB [1 − σ a /(ησ E (C ) )] where σa σb = = = maximum compressive stress in the corrugation direction. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress in corrugation direction from 3/3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf-in) ⎛ qu + q l ⎞ 2 ⎜ ⎟ sL / 12 2 ⎠ ⎝ critical buckling stress. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for edge shear from 3/3. 2004 47 . N-cm (kgf-cm. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1. lbf/in2) Mb/SM maximum bending moment induced by lateral pressure. lbf/in2) maximum allowable strength utilization factor. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels 11 Corrugated Panels This Subsection includes criteria for the buckling and ultimate strength for corrugated panels. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress in transverse direction from 3/3. lbf/in2) in-plane shear stress. lbf/in2) Mb = = σCa = = = σE(C) σ o ⎢1 − Pr (1 − Pr ) ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ for σE(C) ≤ Prσ0 σ E (C ) ⎥ ⎦ σ0 ⎤ ⎥ for σE(C) > Prσ0 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .Section 3 Plates. as defined in 1/11 and 3/1. 11. lbf/in2) maximum bending stress along the length due to lateral pressure.1 Local Plate Panels The buckling strength of the flange and web plate panels is to satisfy the following state limit: ⎛ σ x max ⎜ ⎜ ησ Cx ⎝ where 2 ⎛ σ y max ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ησ Cy ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ +⎛ τ ⎜ ⎜ ητ ⎟ ⎝ C ⎠ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎠ 2 σxmax = σymax = τ σCx σCy τC η = = = = = maximum compressive stress in corrugation direction. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) maximum compressive stress in transverse direction.1.1.7 11.

as defined in Section 3. c t L = = = = = q u.3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm (in. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel critical bending buckling stress σCB = = = σE(B) σ 0 ⎢1 − Pr (1 − Pr ) ⎢ ⎣ ⎡ for σE(B) ≤ Prσ0 σ E ( B) ⎥ ⎦ σ0 ⎤ ⎥ for σE(B) > Prσ0 σE(B) = = kc Cm = = = elastic buckling stress of unit corrugation kc ⎛t⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 12(1 − ν ) ⎝ a ⎠ E 2 coefficient [7. 2004 . Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels σE(C) = = r = = E = elastic buckling stress.7 A.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.) lateral pressure at the two ends of the corrugation.26(c/a)2]2 bending moment factor determined by rational analysis.3 sectional modulus of unit corrugation.) Iy A modulus of elasticity. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. as defined in 1/11 and 3/1. cm3 (in3) width of unit corrugation. cm (in. which may be taken as 1. lbf/in2) π 2 Er 2 L2 radius of gyration of area A. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio.65 – 0. cm (in.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.6 for steel modulus of elasticity. as specified in 3/13. 2. lbf/in2) maximum allowable strength utilization factor. respectively.3 for steel specified minimum yield point. as specified in 3/13. lbf/in2) proportional linear elastic limit of the structure.) length of corrugated panel. which may be taken as 0.3 width of the compressed flange and web plating.Section 3 Plates. as defined in Section 3.5 for a panel whose ends are simply supported area and moment of inertia of unit corrugation.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. Figure 4 thickness of the unit corrugation. Figure 4 and specified in 3/13. Iy = SM s a. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 0. q l = Pr E = = = = = ν σ0 η 48 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .1 × 106 kgf/cm2. 2.

N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) kSπ2Dx3/4Dy1/4/(tL2) 4 1 φ2 x + φ2 x for L/B ≥ 0.5176(Dx/Dy)1/4 σEx σEy τE = = = = = = kx = = ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels 11. lbf/in2) in-plane shear stress. 2004 49 . lbf/in2) calculated average compressive stress in the transverse direction. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) if σ Ey ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ ⎨σ 1 − P (1 − P ) σ 0 ⎤ if ⎥ r r ⎪ 0⎢ σ Ey ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎢ σ Ey ≤ Pr σ 0 σ Ey > Pr σ 0 = τG = = critical buckling stress for shear stress. lbf/in2) if σ Ex ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ σ0 ⎤ ⎨σ 1 − P (1 − P ) ⎥ if r r ⎪ 0⎢ σ Ex ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ σGx = σ Ex ≤ Pr σ 0 σ Ex > Pr σ 0 = σGy = critical buckling stress for uniaxial compression in the transverse direction. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) kxπ2(DxDy)1/2/(txB2) elastic buckling stress in the transverse direction. lbf/in2) kyπ2(DxDy)1/2/(tL2) elastic shear buckling stress. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for uniaxial compression in the corrugation direction. lbf/in2) τE if τ E ≤ Prτ 0 ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ ⎨τ 1 − P (1 − P ) τ 0 ⎤ if τ > P τ r r E r 0 ⎥ ⎪ 0⎢ τE ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ elastic buckling stress in the corrugation direction.Section 3 Plates.5176(Dx/Dy)1/4 for L/B < 0.5 Overall Buckling The overall buckling strength of the entire corrugated panels is to satisfy the following equation with respect to the biaxial compression and edge shear: ⎛ σx ⎜ ⎜ ησ ⎝ Gx where 2 ⎛ σy ⎞ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ησ Gy ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ +⎛ τ ⎜ ⎜ ητ ⎟ ⎝ G ⎠ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎠ 2 σx σy τ = = = calculated average compressive stress in the corrugation direction. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.

can be obtained from 3/5. b. se. 13. cm (in.1 and Section 3.5t + dw + 0. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels ky = = 4 1 for B/L ≥ 0.7 a.1 Stiffened Panels 13.) modulus of elasticity. as defined in Section 3. The effective width. as defined in 1/11 and 3/1.1 Beam-Column Buckling bf = 0 for flat-bar for flat-bar for angle bar tf b1 As Ae zep = 0 = 0. as defined in Section 3. respectively. c = s E = = = = = ν σ0 η 13 Geometric Properties This Subsection includes the formulations for the geometric properties of stiffened panels and corrugated panels. respectively.) thickness of the corrugation. cm (in.1.) (L/B)(Dy/Dx)1/4 (B/L)(Dx/Dy)1/4 EIy/s s 12(1 − ν ) a + b + 2c 2 L. Figure 4. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. sw. lbf/in2) maximum allowable strength utilization factor.3.Section 3 Plates. Table 1. B = Et 3 moment of inertia of a corrugation with spacing s width of the flanges and web plating.5tf)bftf]/Ae 50 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .) width of the unit corrugation.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.5(t + dw)dwtw + (0. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio.5176(Dy/Dx)1/4 kS tx t φx φy Dx Dy Iy = = = = = = = = 3.65 length and width of corrugated panel equivalent thickness of the corrugation in the corrugation direction.5 tw = = = dwtw + bftf set + As [0. cm (in. cm (in. Figure 4.3 for steel specified minimum yield point of the material. as specified in 3/13. 0.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. 2.5176(Dy/Dx)1/4 + φ2 y φ2 y for B/L < 0. and effective breadth. 2004 .

5t + dw + 0. tf.5dw2tw + (dw +0. b. dw. y0 and z0 are defined in Section 3.25(t + dw)2dwtw + bftf(0. 13. Figure 2. tw are defined in Section 3. φ and z0 are defined in Section 3. tw. Figure 4. 2004 51 .5b f 12 12 ( )2 − As z 02 bf.5t f 12 12 ( )2 − As z 02 = 3 3 twd w b f t f + + b f t f b1 − 0.5tf)bftf]/As 3 3 d wt w t f b f 3 + + 0. c. tf. Figure 2.3 Corrugated Panels The following formulations of geometrical properties are derived. d.25d w t w + b f t f d w + 0.5(t + dw)dwtw + (0.5t + dw + tf)2 – Awzwp2 + 12 12 12 SMw = Iw (0.5tf)2 – Aezep2 12 12 12 I e / Ae swt + As = = = [0. provided that the section is thinwalled and the thickness is small.5t + d w + t f ) − z wp t. 13. Stiffened Panels and Corrugated Panels Ie re Aw zwp Iw = = t 3 se p 3 3 d wt w t f b f + + + 0. t.Section 3 Plates.1.25(t + dw)2dwtw + bftf(0.5tf)bftf]/Aw t 3 se p + 3 3 d wt w t f b f + 0. b1. b1. dw. s tx A Asx zo Iy SM = = = = = = = a + b + 2c cos φ (st + Asx)/s (a + b)t + 2ct 2ct sin φ dt(a + c)/A (a + b)t 3 2 2 + ad 2 t + cd 2 t − Az 0 12 3 Iy/z0 or Iy/(d – z0).5t + dw + 0.2 Torsional/Flexural Buckling As = dwtw + bftf y0 z0 Iy Iz = = = (b1 – 0. ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .5bf)bftf/As [0. which is the less a. bf.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank .

and/or stringer-stiffened shells are applicable for offshore structures with the diameter to thickness ratio in the range of E/(4. radial pressure or a combination of these loads. General types of stiffener profiles.5σ0) to 1000. The buckling limit state of a stiffened cylindrical shell is to be determined based on the formulations provided below. ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . The dimensions and properties of a ring or stringer stiffener are described in Section 4. as depicted in Section 4.and/or stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells subjected to axial loading. and have identical material and geometric properties. r.1 Geometry of Cylindrical Shells The criteria given below apply to ring. respectively. may be used. 2004 53 . FIGURE 1 Ring and Stringer-stiffened Cylindrical Shell θ r l x L l Stringer Stiffener s l Ring Stiffener The formulations given for ring. θ) denote the longitudinal. either well-documented experimental data or a verified analytical approach may be employed. radial and circumferential directions.Section 4: Cylindrical Shells SECTION 4 Cylindrical Shells 1 General This Section presents criteria for calculating the buckling limit state of ring. angle and bulb plate. Alternatively. Figure 1.and/or stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells. 1. Figure 2. T-bar. such as flat bar. Stiffeners in a given direction are to be equally spaced. where coordinates (x. bending moment. The material properties of the stiffeners may be different from those of the shell plating. parallel and perpendiculars to panel edges.

it may be set equal to zero.e. ring or stringer.5 Buckling Control Concepts The probable buckling modes of ring. The shell remains undeformed.e.e. torsional/flexural buckling of stiffeners. Local stiffener buckling (i.. Column buckling (i. Figure 3. σa.3 Load Application This Section includes the buckling state limit criteria for the following loads and load effects. is tensile rather than compressive. 2004 .. buckling of the shell between adjacent stiffeners). p Combinations of the above If uniform stress.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells FIGURE 2 Dimensions of Stiffeners bf tf b2 y0 Centroid r b1 rR rF tf bf b2 b1 y0 r tw dw z0 Centroid t z0 tw dw t Sem Section of Stringers leo Section of Rings 1. The stringers remain straight and the ring stiffeners remain round.. The ring stiffeners and the ends of the cylindrical shells remain round. buckling of one or more ring stiffeners together with the attached shell plus stringers. σa * Bending of the overall cylinder. * Note: 1.. if present.e. between adjacent ring stiffeners). General buckling. or local buckling of the web and flange). if present). (i..e.and/or stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells can be sorted as follows: • • • • • Local shell or curved panel buckling (i. The first three failure modes for ring and stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells are illustrated in Section 4. σb External pressure. • • • • Uniform compression in the longitudinal direction. 54 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . buckling of the shell plating together with the stringers. Bay buckling (i. buckling of cylindrical shell as a column).

Section

4

Cylindrical Shells

FIGURE 3 Typical Buckling Modes of Ring and Stringer Cylindrical Shells

Local Shell Buckling

Bay Buckling

General Buckling

A stiffened cylindrical shell is to be designed such that a general buckling failure is preceded by bay instability, and local shell buckling precedes bay instability. The buckling strength criteria presented below are based on the following assumptions and limitations:

• • • •

Ring stiffeners with their associated effective shell plating are to have moments of inertia not less than ir, as given in 4/15.1. Stringer stiffeners with their associated effective shell plating are to have moments of inertia not less than is, as given in 4/15.3. Faceplates and flanges of stiffener are proportioned such that local instability is prevented, as given in 4/15.7. Webs of stiffeners are proportioned such that local instability is prevented, as given in 4/15.5.

For stiffened cylindrical shells that do not satisfy these assumptions, a detailed analysis of buckling strength using an acceptable method should be pursued.

1.7

Adjustment Factor

For the maximum allowable strength utilization factor, η, defined in Subsection 1/11, the adjustment factor is to take the following value:

For shell buckling: * ψ = 0.833

if σCij ≤ 0.55σ0 if σCij > 0.55σ0

= 0.629 + 0.371σCij/σ0 where

σCij = σ0

* Note:

N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) =

critical buckling stress of cylindrical shell, representing σCxR, σCθR, σCxP, σCθP, σCxB or σCθB, which are specified in Subsections 4/3, 4/5 and 4/7, respectively, specified minimum yield point, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2)

The maximum allowable strength factor for shell buckling should be based on the critical buckling stress, which implies that it may be different for axial compression and external pressure in local shell or bay buckling. The smallest maximum allowable strength factor should be used in the corresponding buckling state limit.

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Section

4

Cylindrical Shells

For column buckling:

ψ = 0.87

= 1 − 0.13 Pr σ 0 / σ E (C )

if σE(C) ≤ Prσ0 if σE(C) > Prσ0

where

σE(C) =

Pr

Euler’s buckling stress, as specified in Subsection 4/11, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) proportional linear elastic limit of the structure, which may be taken as 0.6 for steel specified minimum yield point, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2)

= =

σ0

For tripping of stringer stiffeners: ψ = 1.0

3

3.1

**Unstiffened or Ring-stiffened Cylinders
**

Bay Buckling Limit State

For the buckling limit state of unstiffened or ring-stiffened cylindrical shells between adjacent ring stiffeners subjected to axial compression, bending moment and external pressure, the following strength criterion is to be satisfied:

⎛ σx ⎜ ⎜ ησ ⎝ CxR ⎞ ⎛ σx ⎟ − ϕR ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ησ ⎠ ⎝ CxR

2

⎞⎛ σ θ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ησ ⎠⎝ CθR

⎞ ⎛ σθ ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ησ ⎠ ⎝ CθR

⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎠

2

where

σx σθ

= =

compressive stress in longitudinal direction from 4/13.1, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) compressive hoop stress from 4/13.3, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for axial compression or bending moment from 4/3.3, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for external pressure from 4/3.5, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) coefficient to reflect interaction between longitudinal and hoop stresses (negative values are acceptable)

σCxR = σCθR = ϕR

= =

σ CxR + σ CθR – 1.0 σ0

specified minimum yield point, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) maximum allowable strength utilization factor of shell buckling, as specified in 1/11 and 4/1.7, for ring-stiffened cylindrical shells subjected to axial compression or external pressure, whichever is less.

σ0 η

= =

56

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Section

4

Cylindrical Shells

3.3

**Critical Buckling Stress for Axial Compression or Bending Moment
**

The critical buckling stress of unstiffened or ring-stiffened cylindrical shell subjected to axial compression or bending moment may be taken as:

⎧ for σ ExR ≤ Pr σ 0 ⎪σ ExR ⎪ σCxR = ⎨ ⎪σ ⎡1 − P (1 − P ) σ 0 ⎤ for σ ⎥ r r ExR > Pr σ 0 ⎪ 0⎢ σ ExR ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ where Pr = proportional linear elastic limit of the structure, which may be taken as 0.6 for steel elastic compressive buckling stress for an imperfect cylindrical shell, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2)

σExR =

=

ρxRCσCExR

classical compressive buckling stress for a perfect cylindrical shell, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2)

0.605 Et r

σCExR =

= C = =

length dependant coefficient for ⎧1.0 ⎨ ⎩1.425 / z + 0.175 z for z ≥ 2.85 z < 2.85

ρxR

=

**nominal or lower bound knock-down factor to allow for shape imperfections
**

⎧ r ⎞ ⎛ for z < 1 ⎪0.75 + 0.003 z⎜1 − 300t ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ r ⎞ ⎪ ⎛ 0.4 ⎟ for 1 ≤ z < 20 ⎨0.75 − 0.142(z − 1) + 0.003 z ⎜1 − ⎝ 300t ⎠ ⎪ r ⎪ for 20 ≤ z ⎪0.35 − 0.0002 t ⎩ Batdorf parameter

=

z

= =

l2 1 −ν 2 rt

length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported) mean radius of cylindrical shell, cm (in.) thickness of cylindrical shell, cm (in.) modulus of elasticity, 2.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.1 × 106 kgf/cm2, 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio, 0.3 for steel specified minimum yield point, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2)

l

r t E

= = = = = =

ν σ0

ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 2004

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55 < Δ ≤ 1.92 E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ AL ⎝ r ⎠ ⎨ 3 ⎪0.31 1 + 1.25 Δ = σEθR/σ0 elastic hoop buckling stress for an imperfect cylindrical shell. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5t ) Kθ t ρθR Kθ = = = nominal or lower bound knock-down factor to allow for shape imperfections 0.18 for for for 1.208 r r for 0. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. as determined from 4/13.275 E ⎜ ⎟ ⎝r⎠ ⎪ ⎩ z (1 − ν 2 )1 4 AL/(r/t) 0 0.208 < AL ≤ 2.25 Δ + 0.27 E ⎛ t ⎞ 2 ⎪ 1.8 coefficient to account for the effect of ring stiffener. 2004 .85 t t r for 2.5 < AL ≤ 0.068k for lateral pressure for hydrostatic pressure Batdorf parameter l2 1 −ν 2 rt 58 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .5 r t for 2.3 elastic buckling pressure.061 E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ p ⎪ ⎝r⎠ ⎪ 3 ⎪ ⎛t⎞ ⎪0.6 1.5 Critical Buckling Stress for External Pressure The critical buckling stress for an unstiffened or ring-stiffened cylindrical shell subjected to external pressure may be taken as: σCθR = ΦσEθR where Φ = = = = = plasticity reduction factor 1 0.85 < AL t AL Cp k z = = = = = = − 1.45 for Δ ≤ 0.17 + 1.5 ⎝ r ⎠ ⎪ AL 2 ⎪ ⎪ 0.5 for AL ≤ 2.55 0.15Δ 1/Δ Δ ≥ 6. lbf/in2) qCEθR = = ⎧ 1.18 ⎜ ⎟ + 0 . lbf/in2) σEθR = = ρθR qCEθR (r + 0.836C −1.6 < Δ < 6.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells 3.

3. lbf/in2) compressive hoop stress from 4/13. lbf/in2) maximum allowable strength utilization factor of shell buckling. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for external pressure from 4/5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1 Buckling State Limit The buckling state limit of curved panels between adjacent stiffeners can be defined by the following equation: ⎛ σx ⎜ ⎜ ησ ⎝ CxP where ⎛ σx ⎞ ⎟ − ϕP ⎜ ⎜ ησ ⎟ ⎝ CxP ⎠ 2 ⎞⎛ σ θ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ησ ⎠⎝ CθP ⎞ ⎛ σθ ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ησ ⎠ ⎝ CθP ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎠ 2 σx σθ = = compressive stress in the longitudinal direction from 4/13.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells l r t E = = = = = = length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported) mean radius of cylindrical shell.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.) modulus of elasticity. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio. as specified in 1/11 and 4/1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.7 for curved panels in axial compression or external pressure.1.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for axial compression or bending moment from 4/5. The ring stiffeners are to be proportioned in accordance with Subsection 4/15 to exclude the general buckling failure mode. whichever is the lesser ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . in accordance with serviceability requirements. knowledge of local buckling behavior is necessary in order to control local deflections.3 for steel specified minimum yield point. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. as stresses can be redistributed to the remaining effective section associated with the stringer.5. 2. cm (in. 5 Curved Panels Local curved panel buckling of ring and stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells will not necessarily lead to complete failure of the shell.3. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.4(σ CxP + σ CθP ) σCxP = σCθP = ϕP = = σ0 − 0 . 5.) thickness of cylindrical shell. 2004 59 . 0.7 General Buckling The general buckling of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell involves the collapse of one or more ring stiffeners together with the shell plating and is to be avoided due to its catastrophic consequences. lbf/in2) coefficient to reflect interaction between longitudinal and hoop stresses (negative values are acceptable). lbf/in2) ν σ0 3. and to determine the effective width to be associated with the stringer when determining buckling strength of the stringerstiffened shells.8 σ0 η = = specified minimum yield point. 0. However. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm (in.

4 for zs > 11. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.0024 z s ⎜1 − ⎟ s ⎝ 300t ⎠ for zs ≤ 11.6 for steel elastic buckling stress for an imperfect curved panel. 2004 .5 27 r ⎞ ⎛ + 2 + 0.) modulus of elasticity.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells 5. cm (in.15 ⎨ ⎩1 + 0.008 z s ⎜1 − ⎟ zs zs ⎝ 300t ⎠ BxP = = factor compensating for the lower bound nature of ρxP ⎧1.25 + 0.702zs ρxP = = = nominal or lower bound knock-down factor to allow for shape imperfections r ⎞ ⎛ 1 − 0.27 + 1. lbf/in2) ν σ0 60 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.) thickness of cylindrical shell. lbf/in2) BxPρxPσCExP classical buckling stress for a perfect curved panel between adjacent stringer stiffeners. which may be taken as 0.4 for zs > 11. cm (in.) mean radius of cylindrical shell.15λ n for λ n > 1 for λ n ≤ 1 λn zs s r t E = σ0 ρ xPσ CExP 1 −ν 2 s2 rt = = = = = = = spacing of stringer stiffeners. 0.4 0.3 for steel specified minimum yield point. cm (in.3 Critical Buckling Stress for Axial Compression or Bending Moment The critical buckling stress for curved panels bounded by adjacent pairs of ring and stringer stiffeners subjected to axial compression or bending moment may be taken as: ⎧ for σ ExP ≤ Pr σ 0 ⎪σ ExP ⎪ σCxP = ⎨ ⎪σ ⎡1 − P (1 − P ) σ 0 ⎤ for σ ⎥ r r ExP > Pr σ 0 ⎪ 0⎢ σ ExP ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ where Pr = = proportional linear elastic limit of the structure.019 z 1. lbf/in2) K xP 4+ σExP = σCExP = = π 2E ⎛ t ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 12(1 − ν 2 ) ⎝ s ⎠ 2 KxP = = 2 3z s π4 for zs ≤ 11.4 0. 2. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel Poisson’s ratio.

15Δ 1/Δ Δ ≥ 6.5 for lateral pressure for hydrostatic pressure l r t E Ns length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported) mean radius of cylindrical shell.6 1.45 for Δ ≤ 0. 2004 61 .6 < Δ < 6. lbf/in2) q CEθP (r + 0.31 1 + 1.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.5Ns and increasing until a minimum value of qCEθP is attained α k πr l 0 0. lbf/in2) Et ⎡ n2 + α 2 −1 2 r ⎢ n 2 + kα 2 − 1 ⎢ 12 1 − ν 2 ⎣ σEθP = = Kθ = qCEθP = = n = = = = = = = = = ( ( ) ) α4 ⎛t⎞ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝r⎠ n2 + α 2 2 ( ) ⎤ ⎥ 2⎥ ⎦ Circumferential wave number starting at 0.55 0.18 for for for 1.3 elastic buckling pressure.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells 5.) thickness of cylindrical shell.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5 Critical Buckling Stress under External Pressure The critical buckling stress for curved panels bounded by adjacent pairs of ring and stringer stiffeners subjected to external pressure may be taken as: σCθP = ΦσEθP where Φ = = = = = plasticity reduction factor 1 0.55 < Δ ≤ 1. cm (in.5t ) Kθ t coefficient to account for the strengthening effect of ring stiffener from 4/13.25 Δ = σEθP/σ0 elastic hoop buckling stress of imperfect curved panel. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel number of stringers ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . cm (in. 2.25 Δ + 0.) modulus of elasticity.

2004 .05 0.3. lbf/in2) compressive hoop stress from 4/13. cm2 (in2) As + st cross sectional area of stringer stiffener. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. for ring and stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells in axial compression or external pressure. lbf/in2) coefficient to reflect interaction between longitudinal and hoop stresses (negative values are acceptable) 1. cm2 (in2) thickness of cylindrical shell.53 λm = = modified reduced slenderness ratio σ CxB σ ExP elastic buckling stress for imperfect curved panel between adjacent stringer stiffeners subjected to axial compression from 4/5. bending moment and external pressure. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5. lbf/in2) specified minimum yield point.5(σ CxB + σ CθB ) σCxB = σCθB = ϕB = = Ae A As t s sem σ0 − 2 . lbf/in2) maximum allowable strength utilization factor of shell buckling. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm (in.1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.0 = = = = = = = = = = effective cross sectional area. the following strength criteria is to be satisfied: ⎞⎛ σ θ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ σx σx ⎟⎜ ⎟ −ϕB ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎜ ησ ⎟ ⎜ ησ ⎝ CxB Ae A ⎠⎝ ησ CθB ⎝ CxB Ae A ⎠ where 2 ⎞ ⎛ σθ ⎟+⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ησ ⎠ ⎝ CθB ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎠ 2 σx σθ = = compressive stress in longitudinal direction from 4/13.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells 7 7. as specified in 1/11 and 4/1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.3.) spacing of stringers modified effective shell plate width ⎛ 1. cm2 (in2) As + semt total cross sectional area.53 for λm ≤ 0.1 Ring and Stringer-stiffened Shells Bay Buckling Limit State For the buckling limit state of ring and stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells between adjacent ring stiffeners subjected to axial compression. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. whichever is the lesser σExP = σ0 η = = 62 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .7. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for axial compression or bending moment from 4/7.3.28 ⎞ ⎜ − 2 ⎟s ⎜ λm λm ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ s for λm > 0. lbf/in2) critical buckling stress for external pressure from 4/7.

N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells 7. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm4 (in4) Is + Aszst2 se t s t3 + e 12 As + s e t π 2 EI se Ise = = Is zst As se = = = = = = moment of inertia of stringer stiffener about its own centroid axis. cm2 (in2) reduced effective width of shell.3 Critical Buckling Stress for Axial Compression or Bending Moment The critical buckling stress of ring and stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells subjected to axial compression or bending may be taken as: ⎧ for σ ExB ≤ Pr σ 0 ⎪σ ExB ⎪ σCxB = ⎨ ⎪σ ⎡1 − P (1 − P ) σ 0 ⎤ for σ ⎥ r r ExB > Pr σ 0 ⎪ 0⎢ σ ExB ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ where Pr = proportional linear elastic limit of the structure.) 0.75 ρxB σc = = = elastic buckling stress of column.) cross sectional area of stringer stiffener.53 for λxP ≤ 0. lbf/in2) σExB = = σc + σs elastic compressive buckling stress of stringer-stiffened shell. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.6 for steel elastic compressive buckling stress of imperfect stringer-stiffened shell. cm4 (in4) distance from centerline of shell to the centroid of stringer stiffener. cm (in.) ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .605 Ε ⎜ ⎟ ⎝r⎠ A 1+ s st σs = = ρ xB 0. lbf/in2) ⎛t⎞ 0. cm (in.53 λ xP s s for λxP > 0. which may be taken as 0. 2004 63 . cm (in.53 s = shell plate width between adjacent stringers. lbf/in2) l 2 ( As + s e t ) moment of inertia of stringer stiffener plus associated effective shell plate width.

lbf/in2) σExP = l r t E = = = = = σ0 7.3 collapse pressure of a stringer stiffener plus its associated shell plating.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells λxP = = reduced shell slenderness ratio σ0 σ ExP elastic compressive buckling stress for imperfect curved panel between adjacent stringer stiffeners from 4/5. lbf/in2) q s ( r + 0. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5.3. cm (in. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.25 + 1. lbf/in2) collapse hoop stress for a stringer stiffener plus its associated shell plating. cm (in. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm (in.) thickness of cylindrical shell.5t ) Kθ t = = = coefficient to account for the strengthening effect of ring stiffener from 4/13. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm2 (in2) effective pressure correction factor 0.10 geometrical parameter 2π l 2 As NsIs 0. lbf/in2) 16 sl 2 As z st σ 0 zst As Kp = = = = = distance from centerline of shell to the centroid of stringer stiffener. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel specified minimum yield point. 2. 2004 .) cross sectional area of stringer stiffener. lbf/in2) length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported).1 × 106 kgf/cm2.) modulus of elasticity. cm (in.85 g 500 for g ≤ 500 for g > 500 g = = Is = sectional moment area of inertia of stringer stiffener.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. cm4 (in4) 64 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .) mean radius of cylindrical shell.5 Critical Buckling Stress for External Pressure The critical buckling stress for ring and stringer-stiffened cylindrical shells subjected to external pressure may be taken as σCθB = (σCθR + σsp)Kp ≤ σ0 where σCθR = σsp = = Kθ qs critical hoop buckling stress for the unstiffened shell from 4/3.

The buckled stiffener sheds load to the shell. in accordance with 4/15. cm (in. should be suppressed.3. lbf/in2) flexural-torsional buckling stress with respect to axial compression of a stiffener. including its associated shell plating. the stiffeners can suffer torsional-flexural buckling (tripping) at a stress level lower than that resulting in local or bay buckling. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. and therefore. lbf/in2) proportional linear elastic limit of the structure. 9 9. to exclude the general buckling failure mode.7 General Buckling The general buckling of a ring and stringer-stiffened cylindrical shell involves the collapse of one or more ring stiffeners together with shell plating plus stringer stiffeners and should be avoided due to its catastrophic consequences. The ring and stringer stiffeners are to be proportioned. When the stiffener buckles. it loses a large part of its effectiveness to maintain the initial shape of the shell. The flexural-torsional buckling limit state of stringer stiffeners is to satisfy the ultimate state limit given below: σx ≤1 ησ CT where σx = compressive stress in the longitudinal direction from 4/13. cm (in.) specified minimum yield point.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells Ns l = = = = = number of stringer stiffeners length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported). 2004 65 . cm (in.1 Local Buckling Limit State for Ring and Stringer Stiffeners Flexural-Torsional Buckling When the torsional stiffness of the stiffeners is low and the slenderness ratio of the curved panels is relatively high. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. which may be taken as 0.) thickness of cylindrical shell.) mean radius of cylindrical shell.6 for steel ideal elastic flexural-torsional buckling stress. lbf/in2) r t σ0 7. lbf/in2) C0 ⎛ l ⎞ K ⎛ nπ ⎞ +⎜ ⎟ Γ + ⎜ ⎟ E ⎝ nπ ⎠ 2 . N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.6 ⎝ l ⎠ E 2 C0 ⎛ l ⎞ I0 + ⎜ ⎟ σ CL ⎝ nπ ⎠ 2 2 σET = = ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .1. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1 and 4/15. may be obtained from the following equations: if σ ET ⎧ ⎪ ⎡ σ0 ⎤ ⎨σ 1 − P (1 − P ) ⎥ if r r ⎪ 0⎢ σ ET ⎦ ⎩ ⎣ σCT = σ ET ≤ Pr σ 0 σ ET > Pr σ 0 = σ0 Pr = = specified minimum yield point of the stringer under consideration.

) vertical distance between centroid of stiffener and its toe (see Section 4. cm (in. lbf/in2) ⎛n α⎞ ⎛t⎞ π E⎜ + ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝α n ⎠ ⎝ s ⎠ 12 1 − υ 2 2 2 2 = ( ) 66 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .) thickness of the flange or face plate.) total width of the flange/face plate. Figure 2). cm (in. cm4 (in4) ⎛ d 1. excluding the associated shell plating. cm (in.1 w ⎜ bf ⎝ b1 bf m u = = = ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ non-symmetry factor 1− 2 y0 z0 dw tw bf b1 tf C0 = = = = = = = = ≅ ≅ horizontal distance between centroid of stiffener and web plate centerline (see Section 4. cm4 (in4) ⎟ ⎠ σCL = critical buckling stress for associated shell plating corresponding to n-half waves. cm4 (in4) Iy + mIz + As(y02 + z02) = = Iy. cm (in.0 u d w t w 12 ⎜ As ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ .) smaller outstanding dimension of flange or face plate with respect to web's centerline.and z-axis. excluding the shell plating (y-axis perpendicular to the web. Iz = moment of inertia of the stiffener about the y. cm4 (in4) 3 b f t 3 + d wt w f = I0 3 polar moment of inertia of the stiffener.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells K = St. Figure 2). N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. excluding the associated shell plating.0 + 3.0 − u ⎜ 0. Figure 2). see Section 4. through the centroid of the longitudinal.) depth of the web. cm (in. 2004 . cm (in. respectively. Venant torsion constant for the stiffener cross-section.7 − 0.) Et 3 3s Γ warping constant. cm (in.) thickness of the web. cm6 (in6) 2 mI zf d w + 3 3 d wt w 36 Ixf = 2 t f b3 ⎛ f ⎜1.

5. excluding the associated shell plating. 2. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5 Faceplate and Flange Buckling The breadth to thickness ratio of the faceplate or flange is to satisfy the limit given in 4/15. is to be designed to resist beam-column buckling.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells α n = = = = = = = = = l/s number of half-waves which yields the smallest σE specified minimum yield point of the material. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) σE(C) = = ri π2Eri2/(kL)2 radius of gyration of the cross section of the cylindrical shell IT AT = = IT AT kL E = = = = moment of inertia of the cross section of the cylindrical shell. cm2 (in2) effective length of the cylinder. if the cross section is variable along the length. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel spacing of stringer stiffeners. with or without external pressure. as specified in 1/11 and 4/1.7.3 modulus of elasticity.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.7.) maximum allowable strength utilization factor.) length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported). for tripping of stringer stiffeners σ0 E s As t l η 9.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. Beam-column buckling is to be assessed if: λxE ≥ 0. cm4 (in4) cross sectional area of the cylindrical shell. if the cross section is variable along the length. 9. cm (in. 2004 67 . 2. cm (in. cm (in. or bending moment or both. cm2 (in2) thickness of shell plating. as defined in 2/3.) sectional area of stringer stiffener. the minimum value is to be used.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2.3 Web Plate Buckling The depth to thickness ratio of the web plate is to satisfy the limit given in 4/15. the minimum value is to be used.50 where λxE = = slenderness ratio of cylindrical shell σ 0 / σ E (C ) Euler buckling stress. lbf/in2) modulus of elasticity. 11 Beam-Column Buckling A cylindrical shell subjected to axial compression.

3. for column buckling η σCxR. lbf/in2) if σ E (C ) ⎧ ⎪ ⎨σ ⎡1 − P (1 − P ) σ Cx ⎤ if ⎥ r r ⎪ Cx ⎢ σ E (C ) ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ σCa = = σ E (C ) ≤ Pr σ Cx σ E (C ) > Pr σ Cx σCx = critical axial or bending buckling stress of bay for ring-stiffened cylindrical shell = ⎡ ⎛ σ σ CxR ⎢0. 13 13. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1 Stress Calculations Longitudinal Stress The longitudinal stress in accordance with beam theory may be taken as: σx = σa + ba where σa = = stress due to axial force. as specified in 1/11 and 4/1. lbf/in2) P 2πrt (1 + δ ) 68 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .25ϕ R )⎜ θ ⎜σ ⎟ ⎝ CθR ⎠ 2⎤ ⎞ ⎥ ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ for ring and stringer-stiffened cylindrical shell = ⎡ ⎛ σ Ae σ CxB ⎢0. lbf/in2) critical compressive buckling stress. σCθR. is to satisfy the following criteria at all cross-sections along its length: σa σb + ≤1 ησ Ca ησ Cx [1 − σ a /(ησ E (C ) )] where σa σb = = calculated axial normal compressive stress from 4/13. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.5ϕ R ⎜ θ ⎜σ ⎢ ⎝ CθR ⎢ ⎣ ⎞ 2 ⎛ σ ⎟ + 1 − (1 − 0.7.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells The beam-column buckling limit state of a cylindrical shell subjected to axial compresion. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1 maximum allowable strength utilization factor. 2004 . or bending or both. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.1.5ϕ B ⎜ θ ⎜σ ⎢ A ⎝ CθB ⎢ ⎣ ⎞ 2 ⎛ σ ⎟ + 1 − (1 − 0. with or without external pressure. σCxB. ϕR. lbf/in2) cross sectional area as defined in 4/7. lbf/in2) calculated bending stress from 4/13. σCθB and ϕB are as defined in Subsections 4/3 and 4/7. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.25ϕ R )⎜ θ ⎜σ ⎟ ⎝ CθB ⎠ 2⎤ ⎞ ⎥ ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎥ ⎦ σθ A Ae = = = = calculated hoop stress from 4/13.1 effective cross sectional area as defined in 4/7.1.

cm2 (in2) ⎟ ⎠ 2 AR = = = = = = ϖ α Gα k cosh 2α − cos 2α ≥0 α (sinh 2α + sin 2α ) l 1.) mean radius of cylindrical shell.56 rt 2 sinh α cos α + cosh α sin α ≥0 sinh 2α + sin 2α for lateral pressure for hydrostatic pressure Nx/Nθ Nx/Nθ + 0. lbf/in2) M πr t (1 + δ ) axial force. lbf-in) Ast st 2 P M = = = = = = = δ Ast s r t cross sectional area of stringer stiffener. cm2 (in2) shell plate width between adjacent stringer stiffeners. lbf) bending moment..3 Hoop Stress The hoop stress may be taken as At midway of shell between adjacent ring stiffeners: q (r + 0.5t ) Kθ t q (r + 0. 2004 .5t ) r K θR t rF 1 − kν Gα 1 + t (t w + lϖ ) AR σθ = At inner face of ring flange. cm2 (in2) 69 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .e.5 AR = cross sectional area of ring stiffener. N (kgf.) thickness of cylindrical shell. N-cm (kgf-cm.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells σb = = stress due to bending moment. (i. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. radius rF in Section 4. cm (in. cm (in.) 13. cm (in. Figure 2): σθR = where Kθ KθR = = 1− 1 − kν 1 + AR [t (t w + lϖ )] ⎛ r AR ⎜ ⎜r ⎝ R ⎞ ⎟ .

1 Stiffness of Ring Stiffeners The moment of inertia of the ring stiffeners. together with the effective length of shell plating.) radius to centroid of ring stiffener.56 rt ≤ l re ze Kθ radius to the centroid of ring stiffener.3. cm (in. accounting for the effective length of shell plating. cm (in. Figure 2.) distance from inner face of ring flange to centroid of ring stiffener. lbf/in) circumferential load per unit length. lbf/in2) As/st moment of inertia of the ring stiffeners with associated effective shell length. accounting for the effective length of shell plating.) Poisson’s ratio ν r. should not be less than that given by the following equation: ir = σ x (1 + δ ) tre4 500 El = = = = = = = = = = + σ θ re2 lt ⎛ 2 EK θ z E ⎜1 + e ⎜ 100r ησ − σ 0 θR ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ where σx σθ σθR δ ir leo compressive stress in longitudinal direction from 4/13. lbf/in2) axial load per unit length. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. excluding the capped-end actions due to hydrostatic pressure. as defined in Section 4. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) compressive hoop stress at outer edge of ring flange from 4/13.) radius to inner face of ring flange.3. cm (in. Figure 2. Figure 2. 2004 .) length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported). N/cm (kg/cm.) coefficient from 4/13.1. ring and stringer stiffeners are to satisfy the following requirements for stiffness and proportions. cm (in. cm (in.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells q Nx Nθ r rR rF t tw l = = = = = = = = = = external pressure. leo. lbf/in2) compressive hoop stress midway between adjacent ring stiffeners from 4/13. ir. 15. cm (in.3 specified minimum yield point. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N/cm (kg/cm. lbf/in2) σ0 70 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . cm (in. leo 1. as defined in Section 4. rR and rF are described in Section 4. lbf/in) mean radius of cylindrical shell. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.) thickness of cylindrical shell. cm (in. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 15 Stiffness and Proportions To fully develop the intended buckling strength of the assemblies of a stiffened cylindrical shell.) stiffener web thickness.

cm (in. cm (in.5 Proportions of Webs of Stiffeners The depth to thickness ratio of webs of stiffeners is to satisfy the applicable limit given below.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. 2004 71 .4α – 13. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. Figure 2. with effective breadth of shell plating. lbf/in2) modulus of elasticity.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. cm (in. is. cm (in.Section 4 Cylindrical Shells E s As t l = = = = = = modulus of elasticity.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. is not to be less than: io = 12 1 − ν 2 ( st 3 )γ 0 where γ0 δ α s t = = = = = = = = (2.3 Stiffness of Stringer Stiffeners The moment of inertia of the stringer stiffeners.4(E/σ0)1/2 for angles and tee bars for bulb plates for flat bars where σ0 E = = specified minimum yield point. cm (in. sem.1 × 106 kgf/cm2.85(E/σ0)1/2 dw/tw ≤ 0. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel spacing of stringer stiffeners.) length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported).) ν As l 15. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel dw and tw are as defined in Section 4. dw/tw ≤ 1. cm2 (in2) length between adjacent ring stiffeners (unsupported).5(E/σ0)1/2 dw/tw ≤ 0.) maximum allowable strength utilization factor for stiffened cylindrical shells subjected to external pressure η 15.0δ)α2 + 12. ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . cm (in.) thickness of shell plate.) cross sectional area of stringer.) Poisson’s ratio cross sectional area of stringer stiffener.6 + 4.2α1/2 As/(st) l/s spacing of stringer stiffeners. 2. cm2 (in2) thickness of shell plating. 2.

Section 4 Cylindrical Shells 15.1 × 106 kgf/cm2. lbf/in2) modulus of elasticity. cm (in. 30 × 106 lbf/in2) for steel σ0 E 72 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 2.4(E/σ0)1/2 where b2 tf = = = = larger outstanding dimension of the flange/faceplate.) specified minimum yield point.) thickness of flange/face plate. cm (in.7 Proportions of Flanges and Faceplates The breadth to thickness ratio of flanges and faceplates of stiffeners is to satisfy the limit given below.06 × 107 N/cm2 (2. b2/tf ≤ 0. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. 2004 .

00 10 ≤ γ ≤ 50 −0. Each joint should be considered as being comprised of a number of independent chord/brace intersections.Section 5: Tubular Joints SECTION 5 Tubular Joints 1 General This Section provides ultimate strength criteria for tubular joints. 2004 73 . For a multi-planar joint. 1. Alternatively. Figure 1. each plane should be subjected to separate consideration and categorization.5 ≤ g/D ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . the ultimate strength of a tubular joint may be determined based on either welldocumented experimental data or a verified analytical approach. and the ultimate strength limit state of each intersection is to be checked against the design requirement.20 ≤ β ≤ 1.20 0. FIGURE 1 Geometry of Tubular Joints PB MOPB MIPB d g t MIPC PC MOPC θ D CAN CHORD T The formulations in this Section are applicable for the strength assessment of tubular joints in the following geometric ranges: τ ≤ 1.1 Geometry of Tubular Joints The geometry of a simple joint is depicted in Section 5. The formulations provided in this Section may be used to assess the ultimate strength limit of tubular joints.

joint geometry and loading condition.3 Loading Application The ultimate strength criteria are provided for the following loads and load effects: • • • • • • • Axial load in a brace member. MIPB Out-of-plane bending moment in a brace member. Local buckling in compression areas of the chord. 74 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . MOPC Combinations of the above mentioned loads and load effects. These modes include: Local failure of the chord: • • • • • • Plastic failure of the chord wall in the vicinity of the brace. cm (in. MIPC Out-of-plane bending moment in a chord member. Global failure of the chord: In addition. Beam bending failure.Section 5 Tubular Joints where τ β γ g = = = = = = = ratio of brace wall thickness to chord wall thickness t /T ratio of brace outer diameter to chord outer diameter d /D ratio of chord outer diameter to two times of chord wall thickness D/(2T) gap. Beam shear failure between adjacent braces. These failure modes can be established following the approach described in Section 2 for tubular members. MOPB Axial load in a chord member. a member can fail away from the brace-chord joint due to chord or brace overloading. Cracking leading to rupture of the brace from the chord. PC In-plane bending moment in a chord member.) 1.5 Failure Modes The mode of failure of a tubular joint depends on the joint configuration. PB In-plane bending moment in a brace member. 2004 . Ovalization of the chord cross-section. 1.

9 ≤ P1sinθ1/P3sinθ3 ≤ 1. the joint is to be categorized (downgraded) as a T&Y.1 0.9 ≤ P1/P2 ≤ 1.1 P1 K P2 0.9 ≤ (P1sinθ1 + P3sinθ3)/P2 ≤ 1. even an X classification may be too optimistic due to the increased ovalization effect.1 P1 K P2 0. If the resultant shear on the chord member is balanced or algebraically around zero. If the shear balance check is not met. the joint is to be categorized as a K. The procedure for interpolation in such cases is to be specially agreed upon with the Bureau. according to their configuration and load pattern for each load case. In contrast.1 θ1 θ3 K P3 0. 2004 75 .1 P1 X P3 P2 K θ1 θ3 K 0.1 P1 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . Classification in these cases is to be specially agreed with the Bureau. Figure 2.9 ≤ P1sinθ/P2 ≤ 1. 50% T&Y θ P2 K T θ P2 K θ 0. For multi-brace joints with braces on either side of the chord. as shown in Section 5. For example. as shown in Section 5.1 P1 K θ θ X P2 K θ θ K P2 K P2 0.9 ≤ P1sinθ/2P2 ≤ 1. care is to be taken in assigning the appropriate category. interpolation is to be used based on the proportion of each joint. K or X. the classification is dependent on the equilibrium of the axial load components in the brace members.9 ≤ P1sinθ/P2 ≤ 1.Section 5 Tubular Joints 1.7 Classfication of Tubular Joints Each chord/brace intersection is to be classified as T/Y. • FIGURE 2 Examples of Tubular Joint Categoriztion P1 K P1 T&Y P1 50% K. a K classification would be valid if the net shear across the chord is balanced or algebraically zero. The following guidelines are to be used to classify tubular joints: • For two or three brace members on one side of a chord. Figure 2. if the loads in all of the braces are tensile. for braces that carry part of their load as K joints and part as Y or X joints.9 ≤ P1sinθ/P2 ≤ 1. However.

0 3 3. lbf/in2) σOPC = = 76 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .021 D/(2T) Mu = where Pu Mu θ Qu Qf λ = = = = for brace axial load for brace in-plane bending moment for brace out-of-plane bending moment γ A = = = = ratio of chord outer radius to chord wall thickness chord utilization ratio 2 2 2 σ AC + σ IPC + σ OPC ησ oc σAC σIPC σ0c = = nominal axial stress in the chord member.Section 5 Tubular Joints 1. lbf/in2) nominal out-of-plane bending stress in the chord member. Figure 1 strength factor depending on the joint loading and classification. defined in 1/11. lbf/in2) nominal in-plane bending stress in the chord member. N (kgf.9 Adjustment Factor For the maximum allowable strength utilization factor. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2.030 0.045 0.1 Simple Tubular Joints Joint Capacity The strength of a simple joint without overlap of braces and having no gussets. 2004 . as defined in Section 5. the adjustment factor is to take the following value: ψ = 1. lbf) critical joint bending moment strength for in-plane and out-of plane bending. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. as determined in Section 5. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. N-cm (kgf-cm. Table 1 chord load factor 1 – λγA2 chord slenderness parameter 0. lbf/in2) specified minimum yield point of the chord member. grout or stiffeners is to be calculated based on the following: Pu = σ 0c T 2 Qu Q f sin θ σ 0c T 2 d Qu Q f sin θ = = = = = = critical joint axial strength. N/cm2 (kgf/cm2. lbf-in) brace angle measured from chord. η.

plus the brace diameter (see Section 5.2 Qβ0.2 Qβ0. X and Y joints should take a weighted average of Pu depending on the proportion of each load. TABLE 1 Strength Factor.5β²) 3.85 exp (-4g/D) gap.3/[β(1 – 0. cm (in.0 1 + 0.Section 5 Tubular Joints D T d = = = = chord outer diameter.3+16β) Qβ for β > 0.5β)γ0.9 η Axially loaded braces based on a combination of K.6 for g/D ≥ 0. Qu Joint Classification Brace Load Effects Axial Compression Axial Tension In-plane Bending Out-of-plane Bending K T/Y X where Qβ Qg g (0.2γ(0. cm (in.5+12β)γ0.5 (3. cm (in.5 5.833β)] 1. 2004 77 .0 4.) chord thickness.) brace outer diameter.5 3.5βγ0. ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .5βγ0.5β²) 0.2γ(0.) β γ = = = = ratio of brace outer diameter to chord outer diameter d /D ratio of chord outer diameter to two times of chord wall thickness D/(2T) 3. as defined in 1/11 and 5/1. cm (in.5 Qg (0.6 for β ≤ 0.2 Qβ0.65+15.0βγ0.5 Qg (0.2γ(0.0+14. This only applies if the effective can length of each brace is at least twice the distance from the brace toe to the nearest transition from the can to the main member.2 Qβ0.5β)γ0.5 (3.5+12β)γ0.5β²) 3.) maximum allowable strength utilization factor.3 Joint Cans The advantage of a thicker chord may be taken for axially-loaded T/Y and X joints.65+15.5β) Qβ = = = = (0.5 4. Figure 3).

Section

5

Tubular Joints

**FIGURE 3 Examples of Effective Can Length
**

d1 d2 Brace 1 Brace 2

c1 D c3

c2

Chord

Chord-can Brace 3 d3

Tc

T Brace 1 2 3

Effective Can Length 2c1 + d1 2c2 + d2 2c3 + d3

For K joints, the joint strength, Pu′, considering the additional effect of the can is to be calculated based on the following equation:

Pu′ = [C + (1 – C)(T/Tc)2]Pu

where

Pu Tc C

= = = = =

basic strength of the joint based on the can dimensions, N (kgf, lbf) can thickness, cm (in.) coefficient, which may not be taken greater than 1

Lc/(2.5D)

for β ≤ 0.9 for β > 0.9

(4β – 3)Lc/(1.5D)

d /D

β

D T Lc

= = = = =

ratio of brace outer diameter to chord outer diameter chord outer diameter, cm (in.) chord wall thickness, cm (in.) effective length of can, cm (in.)

3.5

**Strength State Limit
**

The strength of a tubular joint subjected to combined axial and bending loads is to satisfy the following state limit:

⎛ M IPB PD +⎜ ηPu ⎜ ηM uIPB ⎝ ⎞ M OPB ⎟ + ≤1 ⎟ ηM uOPB ⎠

2

where

78

ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 2004

Section

5

Tubular Joints

PD

=

axial load in the brace member, N (kgf, lbf) in-plane bending moment in the brace member, N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in) out-of-plane bending moment in the brace member, N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in) tubular joint strength for brace axial load from 5/3.1 or 5/3.3, N (kgf, lbf) tubular joint strength for brace in-plane bending moment from 5/3.1, N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in) tubular joint strength for brace out-of-plane bending moment from 5/3.1, N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in) maximum allowable strength utilization factor, as specified in 1/11 and 5/1.9

MIPB = MOPB = Pu

=

MuIPB = MuOPB =

η

=

5

5.1

Other Joints

Multiplanar Joints

The interaction between out-of-plane braces can be ignored, except for overlapping braces. It is recognized that for some load cases, particularly where braces lying in two perpendicular planes are loaded in the opposite sense (e.g., tension and compression), as shown in Section 5, Figure 4, joint strength can be significantly reduced. This strength reduction is primarily due to the additional ovalization occurring in the chord member. The design should account for this effect and is to consider applying a reduced allowable utilization factor, especially for critical, highly stressed, non-redundant joints. As required, the design of multiplanar joints loaded in opposite directions is to be based on suitable experimental data or nonlinear finite element analysis. Nonlinear finite element analysis is well-suited to investigate the effects of individual parameters such as load ratio, load sequence and interaction of out-of-plane braces.

**FIGURE 4 Multiplanar Joints
**

P1

Brace 1 Brace 2 Chord P2

5.3

Overlapping Joints

Joints with braces that overlap in plane are to be checked using the same formula as for nonoverlapping braces given in Subsection 5/3. However, an additional check is to be performed for the region of the overlap by considering the through brace as the chord member and the overlapping brace as the brace member.

ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 2004

79

Section

5

Tubular Joints

**The Qg term for overlapped joints is to be based on the following equation:
**

⎛σ Qg = 0.13 + 0.65⎜ 0b ⎜σ ⎝ 0c ⎞ 0.5 ⎟ τγ ⎟ ⎠

–0.50 ≤ g/D ≤ –0.05

where

σ0b σ0c τ γ

g

= = = = = = = =

specified minimum yield point of the brace member, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) specified minimum yield point of the chord member, N/cm2 (kgf/cm2, lbf/in2) ratio of brace thickness to chord thickness

t /T

**ratio of chord outer radius to chord wall thickness
**

D/(2T)

gap, cm (in.) chord outer diameter, cm (in.)

D

For -0.5 < g/D < 0.0, the value of Qg should be estimated by linear interpolation between the value of Qg calculated from the above expression and 1.85, the Qg factor at g/D = 0.0. Joints that overlap out-of-plane should be treated as simple joints and checked in accordance with Subsection 5/3. However, an additional check should be performed for the region of overlap by considering the through brace as the chord member and the overlapping brace as the brace member. The joint will be considered as a T/Y joint in this instance. The combined out-of-plane bending moment between these offset members is equivalent to an in-plane bending moment as defined for a simple T/Y joint. Similarly, the combined in-plane bending moment is equivalent to an out-of-plane bending moment, as defined for a simple T/Y joint.

5.5

Grouted Joints

Grouted joints can be classified into two types: i) those with a fully grouted chord member and ii) those with an inner steel sleeve with a grout filling the annulus between the two concentric tubular members. Under axial compression, significant increases in joint strength have been recorded through test programs. Under axial tension, only modest strength enhancement is noted, which results primarily from the reduction in chord ovalization that occurs for the grouted specimen. It is recommended that no benefit is taken from grouting or insertion of an inner sleeve under axial tension and bending in the strength assessment of a grouted joint. However, under axial compression, an enhancement in chord thickness may be available and an effective chord thickness may be obtained from the following equation.

Te = T + Tp + Tg/18

where

T Tp Tg

= = = =

**chord thickness, cm (in.) thickness of the inner tube, cm (in.) thickness of the grout-filled section, cm (in.)
**

D/2 – (T + Tp), if fully grout-filled tube

D

=

outer diameter, cm (in.)

Tp and Tg are depicted in Section 5, Figure 5.

80

ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 2004

In the absence of such evidence. and verifying that realistic. assistance from qualified specialists is to be sought. it should be recognized that the performance of cast joints beyond first yield may not be similar to that achieved in welded joints.9 Cast Joints Where the use of cast joints is considered. the strength of all elements is sufficient to resist the applied loading). In addition. Nonlinear finite element analysis is also to be performed. welds in shear and surfaces subjected to punching shear).Section 5 Tubular Joints FIGURE 5 Grouted Joints P Brace Tg Chord Tp Grout Inner Sleeve 5. individual members and separate elements of the joint (e. diaphragms. stress-strain relationships and casting defects. This is particularly relevant for optimized cast joints where unusually demanding design criteria are proposed. Nonlinear finite element analysis is ideally suited for sensitivity studies. stiffeners. which investigate the effects of individual parameters such as the geometry. this check is to be performed by cutting sections that isolate groups of members. an appropriate analytical check is to be pursued. the design of a ring-stiffened tubular joint is also to be based on suitable experimental data or nonlinear finite element analysis.g. 5.7 Ring-Stiffened Joints As in the case of grouted joints.g. rings enhance the joint stiffness substantially. As recommended by API RP WSD 2A. giving particular consideration to the geometric and material characteristics of cast joints.. ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . location and number of stiffeners. 2004 81 . As needed. including the effects of casting geometry. The post-yield behavior of cast joints should be investigated to ensure that the reserve strength and ductility against total collapse are comparable to those of welded joints.. gussets. A ring-stiffened joint should be designed based on appropriate experimental or in-service evidence. assumed stress distributions satisfy equilibrium without exceeding the allowable stress of the material (e.

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the determination of the loads and boundary conditions. The model should include the main features of the physical structure related to buckling behavior and capture all relevant failure modes. If appropriate documentation is presented. Material nonlinearity may need to be considered in some circumstances. it is crucial that the modeling process is undertaken correctly. as well as boundary conditions.Appendix 1: Review of Buckling Analysis by Finite Element Method (FEM) APPENDIX 1 Review of Buckling Analysis by Finite Element Method (FEM) 1 General This Appendix. provides guidance on the review of buckling analysis-using FEM. the imperfections should be included. particularly in order to account for the effects of residual stresses. fabrication-induced residual stresses. proven numerical methods to establish the buckling strength of structural components subjected to various loads and their combinations are accepted as an alternative to the formulations presented in the previous Sections of this Guide. This Appendix emphasizes some important aspects that should be satisfied in determining the buckling strength by FEM analysis. Boundary conditions are the constraints applied to the model. which allows the designer to model the geometry. One widely-accepted method relies on the use of FEM analysis. development of the mathematical model. especially those involving novel structural designs and loading situations. Loads. design of the mesh. Geometry. material properties. For this reason. solution procedures and verification and validation. Key issues in an FEM analysis include the selection of the computer program. since the FEM analysis cannot improve on a poor engineering model. All possible loads and their combinations are to be considered. The use of a full model is preferred in the FEM buckling analysis. Material properties. choice of element types. imperfections (such as out-of-roundness). ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES . 3 Engineering Model The engineering model for buckling analysis is a simplification and idealization of an actual physical structural component. misalignment and corrosion defects. Numerous decisions are to be made during this analysis process. Imperfections. The boundary conditions should suitably reflect the constraint relationship between the structural component and its surroundings. reliance on such analytical methods are to be pursued to provide added assurance of a proposed design’s adequacy. if appropriate. in conjunction with API Bulletin 2V. Boundary conditions. Hence. The rationale for the following aspects is to be appropriately described and justified: • • • • • • Extent of the model. In some cases. Imperfections may remarkably reduce the buckling strength of structural components. 2004 83 . Symmetric conditions may be utilized to reduce the size of finite element model.

The following parameters need to be considered in designing the layout of elements: mesh density. the arc-length method. eigenvalue buckling analysis and nonlinear buckling analysis). gravity loads). mesh transitions and the stiffness ratio of adjacent elements.g. The analysis may be extended into the post-buckling range by activating. pressure) and the entire model (e. Typical structural loads and load effects in finite element models are forces. imperfections and nonlinearities prevent most real structures from achieving their theoretical elastic buckling strength. The choice of element types should be best suited to the problem. rather than uniform. Boundary conditions. If the mesh is graded.Appendix 1 Review of Buckling Analysis by Finite Element Method (FEM) 5 FEM Analysis Model The FEM analysis model is translated from the engineering model.. The performance of elements degrades as they become more skewed. pressure load. • • 7 Solution Procedures Two types of solution procedures are usually employed in buckling analysis (e. Loads. Generally.. Mesh design.g. the support condition is usually somewhere in between. distributed line loads. The discretization of a structure into a number of finite elements is one of the most critical tasks in finite element modeling and often a difficult one. eigenvalue buckling analysis often yields unconservative results and should generally not be used in actual structural design. Finite element types are specialized and can only simulate a limited number of response types.. The nonlinear buckling analysis employs a nonlinear static analysis with gradually increasing loads to seek the load level at which the structure becomes unstable. The loads and load effects may be applied or translated to nodes (e. As a general guidance. element edges or faces (e. In reality. Eigenvalue buckling analysis predicts the theoretical buckling strength (the bifurcation point) of an ideal linear elastic structure. for example. Use this feature to trace the load-deflection curve through regions of “snap-through” and “snap-back” response. several tests should be performed to make sure that the results represent the worst case scenario. 84 ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .g. prescribed displacements and temperatures. The rationale for the following items should be appropriately described and justified: • • Element types.. Thus. 2004 . If the sequence is unknown. The basic approach in a nonlinear buckling analysis is to constantly apply incremental loads until the solution begins to diverge. gravity. The sequence of applied loads may influence the results. body forces. the grading should be done in a way that minimizes the difference in size between adjacent elements.g. the support condition assumed for the degree of freedom concerned is idealized as completely rigid or completely free. nodal forces and body forces). The load increments should be sufficiently fine to ensure the accuracy of the prediction. a finer mesh should be used in areas of high stress gradient. However.

etc. A statement confirming that all quality assessment checks. • Results and acceptance criteria The results should be presented so that they can be easily compared with the design/acceptance criteria and validated based on appropriate experimental or in-service evidence. should be reviewed. etc. • Analysis model In case of discrepancies in the results. load sequence. • Strength assessment In the modeling process. types of loads and load combination. appropriate allowances should also be made for factors that were not included or fully considered.. and solution options. • Accuracy assessment In assessing the accuracy of the results. In making an assessment of the buckling strength of a structural component based on the results of an FEM analysis. several assumptions are made which may or may not be conservative. ABS GUIDE FOR BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH ASSESSMENT FOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES .Appendix 1 Review of Buckling Analysis by Finite Element Method (FEM) 9 Verification and Validation It is necessary to perform verification and validation for the FEM analysis results to ensure that the loading. In reducing the model’s complexity. factors to be considered include model complexity and behavior. the model and loading applied to the model should be reviewed as part of the investigation into the source of the problem. The limitations of the element types used should also be assessed with respect to their capacity to model the required behavior. The appropriateness of the model. The effect of these factors on the results should be assessed. boundary conditions. the analysts would necessarily have omitted some elements of the structure. 2004 85 . buckling strength and acceptance criteria are suitably considered. as required to confirm that a buckling analysis has been executed satisfactorily. mesh refinement. should be included. An assessment of the conservatism should be made particularly with regard to the underlying assumptions implicit in the design criteria that are being applied.

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