5.1. Introduction
A gas consists of an extremely large number of widely separated minute particles, called
molecules, which are in a state of continuous motion. They rush about in all directions, and in all sorts
of manner, and frequently collide with each other. Due to repeated collisions of the molecules their
velocities and directions get changed at random, as a result of which a molecular change prevails
within the gas. The kinetic theory of gases covers the behaviour of gases under various physical
conditions.
5.2. Assumptions in the Kinetic Theory of Cases
The kinetic theory of gases is based on the following assumptions
I. The volume of a gas consists of a large number of minute particles called molecules. It
has been experimentally found that there are about 26.8 x lOts molecules in * I ml. of gas
at N.T.P.
2. The molecules are mere mass points. In other words, the size of a molecule is assumed
to be negligible, as compared to the distance between the molecules.
3. The gas molecules are perfectly elastic spheres and exert negligible force of attraction or
repulsion on one another, oron the walls of the containing vessel. Hence in a direct impact,
the molecules rebound with the same velocity after each collision.
4. The molecules are continuously colliding against each other, and with the walls of the
containing vessel. Between two collisions, a molecule moves in a straight line. This
distance is called the free path of the molecule.
5. The time during which a collision takes place is negligible as compared to the time
required to transverse the free path, i.e. collisions are instantaneous. 
26.SX
I in ol my .'a.s at NT.!'. will contain . 1011 26< 10 11 minlecuks.
SIUCC tIne soluitte 11 1 he nnnmulcculc II any nas at Ni.!'. is 22.4 in'. IlicrcFnnre
I Lu molecule s,Fniiv ya, will contain 26.8 X ll)' . 22.4 0.)12 < ll)' nnnniIscsmIc
140
Kinetic I heor of Gases 141
6. The molecules are continuously in motion. They have velocities in all directions ranging
from zero to infinity. The velocity of molecules increases with the increase in temperature.
For simplicity, it is assumed that onethird of the molecules move parallel to the Xaxis,
onethird parallel to Yaxis and onethird parallel to Zaxis.
5.3. Velocity of a Molecule
We have already discussed that molecules of a gas move in an haphazard manner in all
directions and have different velocities. The following three velocities are important from the subject
point of view
I. Mean or average velocity, 2. Root mean square velocity, and 3. Most probable velocity.
These velocities are obtained as discussed below:
1.Ak?!,! rn average velocity
Consider a gas containing n molecules, and having actual velocities of individual molecules
as C1 , C2, C3 ......
Mean or average velocity
=
Cl+CZ+C+...+C
=\ j' = i.595 \J
2. Root mean square (ims.) velocity
The root mean square velocity.
=
C
The value of r.m.s. velocity may also be obtained from the following relations
U) c...\JiTi= l.732\J
(ii) 4i= M
1.732'\J'
In
Since the velocity of a molecule changes with temperature, (he root meal, square velocity of
the inoleeilcv , e,00,n.v constant vi, long as the temperature remains vo,lvta?I!.
3. filo.vt probable velocity
The Maxwell's distribution of molecular velocities and
percentage of molecules is shown in Fig. 5.1. 2
We see that the maximum percentage of molecules (AR)
at any temperature move with a velocity of OA. This velocity is E
known as mosi probable velocity. 0
U,
The most probable velocity may, therefore, be defined as
the i,h'citv with ,iiiii/, the largest fleleentage ofnioleciles in a
gas at e /otuid I1 move at (111% giVen teflIJ!Cratttre.
Velocity 
Note,: l. The value of riost probable velocity is given by:
Fig. 5 I. Most probable velocity.
= 1.414
Ill M
Nv .. \tt St
**
., \!I S I.
142 A Text Book of Thermal Engineering
where k Boltzmann's constant, Its value is same for all gases and may betaken as 1.38x 10 26k3/K,
T = Absolute temperature, and
m Mass of one molecule.
2. Due to the nonsymmetrical shape of the curve, the mean velocity is larger than the most probable
velocity, and the r.ms. velocity is a little larger than either one of them.
3. From above, we see that
Mean or average velocity = 0.9209 x r.m.s. velocity
and most probable velocity = 0.8164 x r.m.s. velocity
5.4. Pressure Exerted by an Ideal Gas
The pressure exerted by a gas is due to the continuous bombardment on the walls of the
containing vessel by the rapidly moving gas mole
cules. 
Consider a hollow cubical vessel of each
side equal to , having perfectly elastic walls as
shown in Fig. 5.2. Let it Contain a perfect gas having
a large number of molecules, say. n. Out of these,
n13 molecules are travelling back and forth parallel
to each of the coordinate axis, i.e. Xaxis, Yaxis
and Zaxis with a velocity C (r.m.s. value).
Let us first consider the pressure exerted by
one molecule, travelling back and forth parallel to z
Xaxis. The molecule strikes the face ABCD of the
containing vessel and rebounds with the same ve Fig. 5.2. hcsure exerted by an ideal gas.
locity in the reverse direction, since the collision is
perfectly elastic.
Let C = Velocity of molecule before collision, and
Hence, the kinetir ene,gv per k9 ,,I(,h'(itle of (WV go , at (ibsoittlO tclPl/'elttltirc / iU eqiwl ID
3X R,,T.
pXC or pv=xMC2
In other words, the kinetic energy of translation of a molecule is proportional to the absolute
temperature. This is known as kinetic interpretation of temperature 
Notes: I. The K.E. of translation of a molecule at a given absolute temperature is same for all the gases.
= fiii
in N )
= 43RT...(... inN =M and = Ri.. .(ii,)
145
Kinetic Theory of Gases
Solution. Given: T=0 C = 0+273 = 273K; R = 8.314 Id/kg K ;M4
We know that number of molecules in 1 kg of helium
N N
M4
and K.E. per molecule = kT
K.E. of the molecules in 1kg of helium
= K.E. per molecule x No. of molecules
3
= kTx =
N 3
Since C depends on T( Co 'if), therefore, when Tis constant, the right hand side of the
above expression is also constant.
p V = Constant (when Tis constant)
2.Charles law
We know that the pressure exerted by a perfect gas,
u T or  = Constant
3.GayLussac law
We have already seen in the above equation that
ptocT
When V is kept constant, then
p c T or = Constant
5.Avogadros law
It states, "Equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure,
contain the same number of molecules.'
Let ,n 1 , n 1 and C1 represent the mass per molecule, number of molecules per M3 and root mean
square velocity respectively for one gas and m2, n2 and C2 the corresponding values for the other gas.
If the two gases exert the same pressure p, then
 p = m1 n t C 2 = m2 n2 C . . .(i)
If th' two gases are also at the same temperature, then the mean kinetic energy per molecule
in the two gases is equal. In other words
147
Kinetic Thcoiy of Gases
= .m2C22
Example 5.5. Az what temperature will the velocity (root mean square velocity) of hydrogen
be double of its value at N.T.P., if the pressure remains constant?
Solution. Gi 'efl: T0 = 00 C = 0 + 273 = 273 K
Example 5.6. Calculate the temperature at which root mean square velocity of a gas
molecule is same as that ofa molecule of another gas at 470 C. The molecular mass offirs: and second
gases ore 64 and 32 respectively.
Solution. Given : T2 = 47C = 47 + 273 = 320 K M 1 = 64 M2 = 32
Let T1 = Temperature . of the first gas, and
C = Root mean square velocity.
MCI
or T = 3R = Constant
M1CM2C22
or = 
T2 T 1'2
Example 5.7. The root mean square velocity of the molecules ofa fixed mass ofa gas is 895
,'ils. Calculate the root mean square velocity of the molecules when the gas is compressed adiabati
cally to half of its original volume. The ratio of specific heals at constant pressure to that of constant
volume is 1.4.
Soljtlon. Given: C 1 = 895 m/s;v 2 0.5 V 1 ;y=l.4
Let C2 = Root mean square velocity of the molecules when the gas is com
pressed,
= Initial temperature of the gas, and
= Final temperature of the gas.
We know that for adiabatic compression.
T (v
= = (0.5) 0.4= 0.758
V1
= Iv1 
2
148 A Text look at Thermal
Since C ff or C2 T, therefore
C12 T C12
=  or  = 0.758 . . . [ From equation (i)]
C 2 I 2 C.22
C, = 0.758
1028 itt/s Ans.
5.8. Degrees of Freedom
In order to describe completely the motion of a particle in one plane, only two quantities must
be known, say its two rectangular components. Similarly, for a particle moving in space, three
independent quantities must be known to describe its. motion. A molecule in a rigid body can have
three motions of vibration along any of the three coordinate axes in addition to its three motions of
translation. It is thus obvious that in order to completely describe the state of motion ofa particle, six
independent quantities must be known.
In general, the total number of independent qfta,tilie.c, which mmiv! /1 knai,, far mien ribing
eoniplctelv the slate otimumlion mm/i, /,,nf,, are maileil it, degrees Ifeedan,.
Now we shall consider the degrees of freedom for the following cases:
I. Mo,,oatomic gas. A molecule of a nionoatomic gas has only one atom. This molecule can
rotate about its polar axis, and can also move bodily in the three perpendicular planes as shown in
Fig. 5.3. Hence such a rnclecule will have three translational degrees offreedom and one rotational.
Molecule
:t
Z.
This law was item ked by Ni txwcl t in 1859 for translational degrees at trccdani. But EIvIttJ mflaflhl cm tended
it further to rotatimmial and vibrational c:ieries
o
k,,zeiic Theoi.v f
This energy is equally distributed among the three translational degrees of freedom.
Energy per molecule per degree of freedom
= xkT = 2T
Hence, the law of equipartition of energy may be stated as follows
"l'l'e total r,:e,iv of nor ,o,,,ioil system in thernial equiliNiunt is divided equall y among
a/I its fleg,ee, aid the eutelV tissot a tied iii F/i eat/I th'g ree offreedom is k T.
If the temperature of the gas is raised by I K, then total energy per kgmolecule at (T+ I) K
=R(T+ I)
It may be noted that tne increase in total energy per kgmolecule per degree rise in temperature
is equal to the heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg molecule through I. This is known as
molar specific heat at constant volume, i.e. c1,,,,.
Molar specific heat at a constant volume.
3 3 3
c = R(T+I)R,T= R
= c01,, + R = R + = R,
Ratio of molar specific heats,
5
 1.67
c
R '
2
2. Diatomic gas. We know that the molecule of a diatomic gas has five degrees of freedom.
Total energy per kgmolecule at temperature TK
=RT
A Text Book of Thermal Engineering
and total energy per kgmolecule at (T+ 1) K
= R,(T+l)
= c0, + R = R + R = R
Ratio of molar specific heats,
CP . .
1 = c.c
 =  = 1.4
2
5.11. Vander %Vaals' Equation of a Real Gas
Practically there is no real gas which obeys the gas laws perfectly. The deviation is small at
ordinary temperatures and pressures, but it is large at high pressures and low temperatures. In deriving
the perfect gas laws on the basis of kinetic theory of gases, the following assumptions were made
which do not hold true for the real gases:
I. The molecules of a gas are mere masspoints occupying no space ; and
2. There is no attraction or repulsion between the molecules.
In actual practice, the molecules of all actual or real gases do occupy sonic space and do attract
each other. Hence no real gas conforms to the perfect gas equation p v = RT. The Dutch physicist
J.D. Van der Waals was the first scientist to correct this equation
by applying coPrections for the above two factors.
(i) Correction for the size of molecules. Consider some
quantity ofa gas containedin a vessel. We know that the molecules
of a gas have a finite size, therefore the space available for the
molecules to move about is less than the volume of the gas.
Let v= Volume of the gas ; and
b = Volume occupied by all the molecules.
Space actually available or the effective volume ofihe gas Fig. 5.5. Correction for the size
of molecules.
= vb
Note: In has been experimentally found that 'b' is four times the total volume of the molecules and not equal
to th volume occupied by the molecules.
(ii) correction for the mutual attraction of molecules. Consider a gas molecule A well within
the body of the gas inside the vessel. It is attracted by other
molecules in all directions with the same force and the net
force on it is zero. But when it strikes the wall of the vessel,
it is pulled back by other molecules Its velocity and hence
the momentum, with which it strikes the wall would be less ::..
than the moment um with which It will strike in the absence A
of the force of attraction It is obvious that when the pressure
of the gas drops, the momentum of the mo!ecu1s also de
creases: It is due to this fact, that the decrease ii: pressure is
Fig. 5.6. Correction for the mutual altrac
proportional to: tion of molecules.
Kinetic Theory ofGascs 151
e
I. The number of attracting molecules per unit volum , and
2. The number of attracting molecules striking a unit area of the walls of the containing
vessel per unit time.
Each of these factors are proportional to the number of molecules per m 3 or the density of the gas.
Decrease in pressure.
(density of the gas)2 V2 or = V2
= RT
V, )
QUESTIONS
1. How many molecules are in one m 3 of air?
2. What are the assumptions made in kinetic theory of gases?
3. Define the following:
(a) Mean velocity, (b) Root mean square velocity, and (c) Most probable velocity.
4. Derive an expression for the pressure exerted by a gas.
5. Show that the pressure of a gas in equal to twothirds of the K.E. of translation per unit
volume.
6. Write an expression for the r.m.s. velocity of a molecule in terms of:
(a) Gas pressure and density,
(b) Universal gas constant, absolute temperature and molecular mass of the gas,
152 A Text Book of Thermal Engineering
(c) Boltzmann's constant, absolute temperature and mass of a gas molecu!e,
(d) Characteristic gas constant and absolute temperature of the gas.
7. Derive an expression for the average kinetic energy possessed by a gas molecule.
8. Derive the following gas laws as per kinetic theory of gases:
(a) Boyle's law, (b) Charles' law. (c) GayLussac law, () Perfect gas equation, and
(e) Avogadro's law.
9. What is meant by degrees of freedom possessed by a body?
10. State the law of equipartition of energy. What is the amount of energy associated with
each degree of freedom?
ANSWERS
1. (a) 2(c) 3(b) 4(c) 5.(d)
Thermodynamic Air Cycles
6.1. Introduction
A thermodynamic cycle or a cyclic PtOCCSS Consists of a series of thermodynamic operations
(processes), which take place in a certain order, and the initial conditions are restored at the end of
the processes. When the operations or processes of cycle are
plotted onpvdiagram, they form a closed figure,each operation
2
being represented by its own curve. Since the area under each I1 One cycle
curve gives the work done to some scale, during each operation,
it therefore follows that the net work done during one cycle will
be given by the enclosed area of the diagram as shown, shaded 3
1. Air in the cylinder is heated with the help ofsome external source. It increases temperature
and pressure of the enclosed air.
2. The air expands due to higher pressure and temperature. As a result of this, some work
is done by the air.
3. The air then rejects some heat to the external source. Thus the air comes back to the
original conditions.
4. The air is then compressed in the cylinder. As a result of this, some work is done on the
air.
Note : The scientists, working on the research and development of the engines, have focussed their attention
'lainly on the process of heating the enclosed air. Thus the various engines are classified according to the process
f heat addition.
6.9. Important Terms used in Thermodynamic Cycles
Though there are many terms used in thermodynamic cycles, yet the following are important
from the subject point of view
1.Cylinder bore. The inner diameter of the cylinder, in which the piston moves, is known as
cylinder bore.
2. Stroke length. The piston moves in the cylinder due to rotation of the crank. Its extreme
positions are known as top dead centre (TDC) and bottom dead centre (BDC) respectively as shown
in Fig. 6.3. The distance between these tWo extreme positions is known as stroke length or stroke.
3. Clearance volume. The volume occupied by the working fluid, when piston reaches the top
dead centre, is known as clearance volume. It is generally denoted by (vt).
'.14. Swept volume. The volume swept by the piston, when it moves, between the two extreme
positions is known as swept volume or displacement volume or stroke volume. Mathematically, swept
volume,
7. Mean effective pressure. As a matter of fact, pressure in the cylinder keeps on changing
with the position of the piston. For all sorts of calculations, we need the mean effective pressure,
which may be defined as the constant pressure acting on the piston during the working stroke. It will
be able to do the same amount of work, as done by the actual varying pressure, produced during the
cycle. It is ratio of work done to the stroke volume or piston displacement volume. Mathematically,
mean effective pressure,
 Work done
P. Stroke volume
1herrnodynamic Air Cycles 157
P,
2
P2
P,
3 !!
Pa
.
I y
V1 V4 V2
Volume Entropy
(a) p v diagram. (b) TSdiagram.
1iL
El
Fig. 6.4. Carnot cycle.
This cycle was devised by *Car flot , who was the first scientist to analyse the problem of the
efficiency of a heat engine, disregarding its mechanical details. He focussed his attention on the basic
features of a heat engine. In a Carnot cycle, the working substance is subjected to a cyclic operation
consisting of two isothermal and two reversible adiabatic or isentropic operations. The pv and TS
diagrams of this cycle are shown in Fig. 6.4 (a) and (b).
*NicolasL,,)n5Id SaW Cwtiet Was a French engineer. lie devised this cycle In hiN earl y age.
159 A Text Book of Thermal Engineering
The engine imagined by Carnot has air (which is supposed to behave like a perfect gas) as its
working substance enclosed in a cylinder, in which a frictionless piston A moves. The walls of the
cylinder and piston are perfect nonconductor of heat. However, the bottom B of the cylinder can be
covered, at will, by an insulating cap (IC.). The engine is assumed to work between two sources of
infinite heat capacity, one at a higher temperature and the other at a lower temperature.
Now, let us consider the four stages of the Carnot's cycle. Let the engine cylinder contain in
kg of air at its original condition represented by point I on the pv and TS diagrams. At this point,
let p 1 , T1 and v, be the pressure, temperature and volume of the air, respectively.
I. First stage (Isothermal espansion). The source (hot body, H.B.) at a higher temperature is
brought in contact with the bottom B of the cylinder. The air expands, practically at constant
temperature T , from v 1 to v2 . It means that the temperature T2 at point 2 is equal to the temperature
T1 . This isothermal expansion is represented by curve 12 on pv and TS diagrams in Fig. 6.4 (a) and
(b). It may be noted that the heat supplied by the hot body is fully absorbed by the air, and is utilised
in doing external work.
Heat supplied = *Work done by the air during isothermal expansion
Since the tcrnperatuc i consLuti. therefore there is no change in internal energy of the air. i.e. dU = O.
According to the first law of thermodynamics.
Q. = dli t tv or = W1.
lhetinro/ynamic Air cycles 159
where r *Compression ratio = v11v4
4. Fourth .stoe (Rcreiibh' adiabatic or ise,Itropic compression). Now again the insuiat
cap I.C. is brought in contact with the bottom 01 the cylinder B, and the air is allowed tobecornpressxi
reversibly and adiabatically. The reversible adiabatic compression is represented by the curve 41 on
pv and TS diagrams. The temperature of the air increases from T4 to T1 . Since no heat is absoubeJ
or rejected by the air, therefore
Increase in internal energy = Work done on the air during adiabatic compression
p1 v1 p4 V4 ,nRT1mRT4
.,.(:pv=inRl)
 y1 
 ,nR (TI T3)
71
(We see from the above discussion that the decrease in internal energy during reversible
adiabatic expansion 23 is equal to the increase in internal energy during reversible adiabatic
compression 4I. Hence their net effect during the whole cycle is zeroWe know that
W = Heat supplied  Heat rejected
Work done,
= 2.3n,RT 1 log r2.3rnRT3 log r = 2,3,nRlogr(TT3)
T1 73 T
  it
TIiccxp.nsion and cotnprCSi(n ratios (r) must he equal, othcrvie the cycle would not close.
We know dot for teversibic adiabatic or isentropic expansion process 23,
T1 ( t v, 1,
or
T1 v4 04 T"
=  or = I . .. (ii)
14  v i' T4
Alternative Proof.
leat srpplicd during isothernial expansion 12,
= T1 (S1 S) ... (; 8Q=US)
and heat tcjccled during isothermal compression 34.
J(S.S 1 ) 7S1 S 1 ) T4 = T3)
\Vorkdon (T1T,)(S,S1) T1 T, T3
..l.titcicriv. 11 = j:il T
Cd T, (52 S)
A Text Rook of Thermal Eoginee,ing
The expression for the efficiency of a Carrot cycle may also be written as discussed below:
We know that for reversible adiabatic or isentropic expansion 23,
/
'2 Vl T1 (03
or 
TI=
J V2
T1 v4 '1
04 I
o( (: T4 =
= ) T4 V1
= ) ...
From equations (i) and (ii),
0 3 04 V2 V3
= or  =  = r
V2 V I 01 V4
T (iit
= i = l_) =
Notes : I. From the above equation, we see that the efficiency of Carnot's cycle increases as T1 is increased or
7' is decreased. in other words, the heat should be taken in at as high a temperature as possible, and rejected at
as low a temperature as possible. it may be noted that 100% efficiency can be achieved, only, if T5 reaches
absolute zero, though it is impossible to achieve in practice.
2. In the above theoiy, we have taken temperature at points 1,2, 3 and 4 as T1 T2, 7' and T4 respectively
in order to keep similarity between Camot cycle and other cycles. But some authors take it T1 (for points I and
2) and T2 (for points 3 and 4). In that case, (hey obtain the relation for efficiency as,
T1 T2 T2
3. It maybe noted that it is impossible to make an engine working on Carrot's cycle. The simple reason
for the same is that the isothermal expansion 12 will have to be carried out extremely slow to ensure that the air
is always at temperature T1 . Similarly, the isothermal compression 34 will have lobe carried out extremely slow.
But reversible adiabatic expansion 23 and reversible adiabatic compression 4I should be carried out as quickly
as possible, in order to approach ideal adiabatic conditions. We know that sudden changes in the speed of an
engine are not possible in actual practice. Moreover, it is impossible to completely eliminate friction between
the various moving parts of the engine, and also heat losses due to conduction, radiation, etc. it is thus obvious,
that it is impossible to realise Carnot's engine in actual practice. However, such an imaginary engine is used as
the ultimate standard of comparison of all heat engines.
Example 6.1. A Carnol engine, working between 650 Kand 310 K, produces 150 Id of work.
Find thermal efficiency and heat added during the process.
Solution. T1 650K; T3 = 310K; W= ISO kJ
7'/iernma/ efjiciencv
We know that thermal efficiency,
T1 T3
1 650310 = 0.523 or 523% Ans.
T1 = 650
161
Thermodynamic Air Cycles
Heat added during the process
We know that heat added during the process,
=.= = 286.8 kJ Ans.
1 and T1.
Example 6.2. A Carnot engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures T
The work output of the engine is 0.6 times the heat rejected. The difference in temperatures between
the source and the sink is 200' C. Calculate the thermal efficiency, source temperature and the sink
temperature.
= 200 C
Solution. Given: W = 0.6 x Heat rejected = 0.6 Q; T  T
Thermal efficiency
We know that the thermal efficiency,
Work done Work done
TI  Heat supplied Work done + Heat rejected
0.6Q 06
=  = = 0.375 or 37.5% Ans.
0.6Q3 +Q3 _ 4 1.6
Source and sink temperatures
Let T1 = Source temperature, and
T3 Sink temperature.
We know that thermal efficiency (ii),
T1 T3 = 200
0.375
l t =1 2
OF! P4
j/i
Pa 3
V2 V3
V1 111
 Eniropy
Volume.
(a)p. z'dagram. (h) T.Sdiagrarn.
Fig. 6.5
,4ljoin,u,,z temperature in the cycle
Let T4 (or T3) = Minimum temperature in the cycle.
The cycle on pv and TSdiagrarns is shown in Fig. 6.5 (a) and (b) respectively. First of all,
let us consider the isenuopic compression process 4I. We know that
(v = ( 5)I.4 I = (
5)0.4 = 1.9036
= J
= T1 / 1.9036 = 550/ 1.9036 = 289 K = 16C Ans.
2.Thermal ef/ioenc y of the cycle
We know that thermal efficiency of the cycle,
11 T3  550 289 =
0.4745 or 47.45 % Ans.
550
... (:T3=T4)
3.1're.sare at all the salient points
Let p2,p3.p4 = Pressures at points 2.3 and 4 respectively.
First ofall, let us consider the isothermal expansion process 12. We know that man isothermal
expansion.
UI
po 1 =p 2 v2 or , = p1 x = 21x = 10.5 bar Ans.
( . v2 /v1 = 2)
7hermodyarnjc Air Cycles 163
Now consider the isentropic expansion process 23, we know that
p4 I
v =p VII or p4 = p1
j = 21 (5
21 (0.2)'
'$
v1v4
V2 V3
Let us now consider the four stages of the Striling cycle. Let the engine cylinder contain en kg
of air at its original position represented by point I. At this point, let p 1 , T . and v 1 be the pressure,
temperature and volume of the air respectively.
1.first cioi' (I.oi/ternial expansion). The air expands isothermally, practically, at constant
temperature (T1 or T2) from 7) 1 to rj,. It means that the temperature Ta (at point 2) is equal to
temperature l. This isothermal expansion is represented by the curve 12 in Fig. 6.6 (a) and (b). The
heat supplied by the external source is absorbed during this process.
Heat supplied = Work done during isothermal expansion
Q_4=pV3log, 
,nRT1 log , j
I ( 1)3 V3
4 ) i 4)
166 A i.'si look oJ !/u'r,na! Engineering
Similarly, in isothermal compression process 34,
P 3 7` 3 = fl4 04 or p4 = P3 x = 2 x 3 = 6 bar
Efficiency,
T1
67
= I
T, = I 1346 = 0.5 or 50% Arts.
Example 6.6. A Stirling air engine is fitted with a regenerator of efficiency 90%. It operates
between the temperature limits of 35(1' C and 5(1 C. Determine the efficiency of the engine, assuming
isothermal expansion ratio as 2. Take c, = 1.005 kJ/kg K and cr, = 0.712 k//kg K.
Solution. Given: flR = 90% = 0.9; T1 =350C = 350 + 273 = 623K; = 5(Y'C= 50 + 273
=323K:r=v2/v1=2
We know that gas constant,
R = = 1.0050.712 = 0.293 kJ/kg K
Efficiency of the engine.
2.3R log r(T1T1)
2.3RT 1 log r+c5 (T1  TO (I )
2.3 x 0.293 log 2(623 323)
2.3x0.293 x 623 log 2+a7l2(623 323) (I 0.9)

614. Ericsson Cycle
I
Z7
2
I i
I
T,  T.
1 4
4 V2 V3
VI V
Volume  Entropy
(a) pv diagram. (b) T5 diagram
Fig. 6.7. Ericsson cycle.
This cycle was invented by *Ericsson which consists of two isothermal and two constant
pressure processes. It is made thermodynamically reversible by the action of a regenerator. The pv
and TS diagrams of the cycle are shown in Fig. 6.7 (a) and (b). This cycle is used these days in the
manufacture of closedcycle type gas turbines.
J. Ericsson was an American engineer, who invented this engine in 1840. He used a hot air engine. working
on this cycle. br running a ship (known as Ericsson) in 1853.
llierrnodyna,nic Air cycles 167
rn kg of air
Now, let us consider the tour stages of the Ericsson cycle. Let the engine contain
diagrams. At this point, let p 1 . T1 and
at its original position represented by point I on pv and 7S
V1be the pressure, temperature and volume of the air.
The air is heated at constant pressure from initial
I First stonie (Constant j,ressni p e hearing).
temperature T1 to a temperature T, represented by the curve 12 in Fi..6.7 (a) and (b).
H eat supplied to the air.
= to c, (2 T1)
The air is alto cd to expand isothermally (i.e. at
2 Second .clagc (Isothermal cxpan.ciot).
constant temperature T, = 7) from initial volume v2 to v represented by the curve 23 in Fig. '6.7 (a)
and (It). We know that a part of the heat supplied iii the first stage is utilised for doing work in
isothermal expansion.
Heat utilised dnring isothe(mal expansion,
(0\
iriRT2 lo g, TJ .... (.pv =rnRT)
Q2 =p1v,lrg.
j=
= 2.3 on I? T logy
4. Fowl/i stage (isothernial compression). Finally, the air is compressed isothermatiy (i.e. at
constant temperature T4 = T) from initial volume V3 (004 represented by the curve 4tin Fig. 6.7 (a)
and (h). We know that some heat is rejected by the air for doing work on the air.
Heat rejected during isothermal compression,
Va
^14 ... (. pv mRT
Q1 = pv4 log = ;nRT4 In.'g,. 
= 2.3rnR1 log r
Notes 1. The efficiency of the Ericsson cycle is same as that of Carnot efficiency i.e.
= t
Highest temperature
2. If the regenerator efficiency is i, then heat taken in from the regenerator during process 41 will
be n1C (T,  T4) (I tiK) In that case,
2.3,nRlogr(T27)
2.3mRT2 log r+mc,,(T2 T4)(I i)
2.3 R log r (T2  T4)
2.3 R T2 log r+ c (T2 T4) (I R)
Example 6.7. Ai Ericsson regenerative engine works between the temperature limits of
450 Cand 230 C. If the ratio ofexpansi on is 2, determine:). Work done per kg of air, and 2. Lfficiency
of the cycle.
Assume R = 0.287 kJfkg K.
Solution, Given: T1 = T4 = 451C=45+273=3I8K;T2=73=230C=230+273
= 503 K r = 2 R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
I. Workdo,'e per kg of air
We know that workdone per kg of air,
= 2.3nsR log r(T2T4)
I
2
ple
T, 
PfP4II^ n
V, V1 V2 v3
 Volume   Entropy 
(a) pv diagram. (b) TS diagram.
Fig. 6.8. Joule's cycle.
Now, let us consider the four stages of the Joule's cycle. Let the engine cylinder contain m kg
of air at its original condition represented by point I on pv and TS diagram. At this point, let
p 5 . T1 and v1 be the pressure, temperature and volume of the air.
First
I. stage (Constant pressure heating). The air is heated at a constant pressure from initial
temperature ! to a temperature T2 represented by the curve 12 in Fig. 6.8 (a) and (b).
Heat supplied to the air,
Q 5 _2 = tnc,,(T2T1)
l/j
j
flfl0 VI$IflflIC Air c:ve!e.c I (i)
(i)
TTT
2 T [I
We know that for reversible adiabatic or isentropic expansion 23,
Li
7'3 (v2 ^Pl (ii)
T2 V3P2
TI ( L4 = ( iJi = (
0.2)02 = 0.6311
= ]
= T4 /0.6311 = 293/0.6311 = 464K
We know that heat supplied
= mc(T2 TI ) = lxi (773464) = 309 kJ
and heat rejected = nzc(T3 T4) I x (488 .293) = 195 k]
Workdone = Heat supplied  Heat rejected = 309  195 = 114 kJ Ans.
Idea! efficietcv
\Vc know that ideal efficiency,
Workdone =
Heat supplied 309 = 0.369 or 36.9% Ans.
Example 6.9. A hot air engine st'otkr on Brayton cycle with initial and final pressures of air
as 3 bar and I bar respectively. if the temperature before isn tropic compression and isentropic
17
flit itnodi,nowit fl/v Crc/cs
expansion are 298 K and 923 K, determine: I. heat supplied perks of air ; 2. heat rejected per kg
f air; 3. work done per kg of air; and 4. efficiency of the engine. Take c, as I kJ/kg K, and Cn =
0.7/5 kJ/kg K.
= p2 =3 bar ;p=p 4 I bar;T4 =298K;7 923K r I kJIkgK;
Soltition. Given :p 1
= 0.715 kJ/kg K
We know that the ratio of specific heats or isentropic index,
7 = cIc.., = 110.715 = 1.4
F hot suppli ed per kg of air
We know that in isentropic expansion process 4  I (Refer Fig. 6.8),
1.4i
Y
T, (3 (3)0286_ 135
74 '4 l)
= T4 x 1.35 = 298x1.35 402K
anti heat supplied per kg of air during constant pressure process 1.2,.
= mc, , (T2 T) = lxi (923402.) = 521 U Ans.
lhk cvcic was originall y k'uised by it Ftcnchrnafl HcaudeRs'ctias ill l62. The first successful ei1gIn
in 1876.
work lice on this cycle. was built by a Gerrnin engineer Nicliola. A. Otto
12
172 A Text hook of Thermal Engineering
body and an insulating cap, which are alternately brought in contact with the bottom of the cylinder
(i.e. a cylinder similar to that of Carnot).
The ideal Otto cycle consists of two constant volume and two reversible adiabatic or isentropic
')rocesses as shown on pv and TS diagrams in Fig. 6.9 (a) and (b).
P2 2
l4 V2_V3
VI
T2_T31J
T1 1'4 T1
11
T2(v (i
J J
where T = Expansion ratio = V2 / v1
Similarly, for reversible adiabatic or isentropic compression process 34,
yi
T^ ( V4
 v 3 J r)
 lr)  (r)'
( i
or 7'
4  T3
Notes: 1. We see from equation (iv) that the efficiency of Otto cycle depends on compression ratio (r) only.
2. The efficiency increases with the increase in compression ratio (r). In actual practice. r can not be
increased beyond a value of 7 or so.
Total cylinder volume
3. Compression ratio, r = Clearance volume
 Clearance volume + Stroke volume 
 Clearance volume 
Stroke volume V
Clearance volume, v = =
r1 r1
4. The relations between pressure and temperature or pressure and volume may be obtained from the
usual reversible adiabatic or isenlropic processes, i.e.
r, p ( I2v
iand =ior
T2 p2 ) p2 V v2
)
Example 6.10. In an Otto cycle, the temperature at the beginning and end of the ise,uropic
compression are 316 K and 596 K respectively. Determine the air standard efficiency and the
compression ratio. Take y = 1.4.
Solutk'i.Given : T =316K; T4 = 596K; y= 1.4
Compression ?U1I()
Let r = Compression ratio = V3 / V4
74 A Thxt Book of Thermal En'u,eeriw'
(r)= or r=()=6J4.s.sAns.
T
3 T3
316
II
 (r)  (4.885)'   1.886
= 1 0.53 = 0.47 or 47% Ans.
An engine; working on the Otto cycle, has a cylinder diameter of 150 mm
p'ExarnpIe 6.11.
and a stroke of 225 mm. The clearance volume is 1.25 x 10  mj. Find the air standard efficiency of
this engine. Take y = 1.4.
Solution. Given: d=ISOmrn=0.15rn;l=225mm=0.225m;vr=l,25x103m3;
y= 1.4
We know that swept volume
I.25x103+3.976x103
Compression ratio, r =  = 4.18
l.25xl03
We know that air standard efficiency
I I
V 3 P4 )^
or r=)=(7)0709=3.97Ans.
V4 P3 I
175
'liie,iitodynarnic Air Cycles
2. 1 'si peralure at the end of Co,n/IUeSSWfl
Let T4 = Temperature at the end of compression.
Y1 1 41  I
!'3 4 I = (0.257) = 0.568
We know that
= = ) =
T4 = T3 /0.568 = 343/0.568 = 604 K = 331C Ans.
v 3 (p4"
P, V13 or
V4 P3
= (P4 ) 1A
= (l5) = 6.914
Compression ratio, r =
= 
= Work clone404.4 2
Stroke volume = 0.7 119 = 568 kN/m = 5.68 har Ans.
Example 6.14. In an air standard Otto cycle, the compression ratio is 7 and the compression
begins at I bar and 3l3 K. The heat added is 2510 kJ/kg, Find: I. ma.rimum temnperatureandpressure
of the cycle; 2. workdone per kg of air; 3. cycle efficiency; and 4. mean effective pressure.
Take for air, c, = 0.713 k//kg K and R = 287 i/kg K.
Solution. Given:r=v 3 /v4 = V 2 17)1 =7;p3 = I bar=0.I xlcY5 N/m2 ;T3 = 313K;
= 25I0kJ/kg ; c,=0.7l3 kJ/kg K; R= 287 1/kg K =0.287 kJlkg K
Wc know that c,, c0 = R or c,, = R+c, = 0,287+0.713 = I kJ/kgK
and '1 c,, / c,, = I 10.713 = 1.4
I it/a rim u,, (e fll/e,aIU re and pi csswcol the rc ic
Let T1 = Maximum temperature, and
p 1 = Maximum pressure.
We know that for isentropic compression process 34 (Refer Fig. 6.9),
7 (v4(I '
(I i
T4 v1) r) i) 704 2.178
177
Thernodynamic Air Cycles
...(; rn = 1kg)
T1 682 = 2510/0.713 = 3520 or T, = 4202 K Ans.
p 1 T1 202
We also know thatP4 = j or = i4x = 15.24Xj = 93.9 bar Ans.
T4 T4 6L
I 
TV
f \7I N ' ?i\
7J '
'
72i78
VrV2V
 Volume  Entropy
(a) p.o diagram. (h) TS d iaer,rrn
big (r I I). I )iecl cycle.
Let the engine cylinder contain at kg of air at point I. At this point let, p 1 , T1 and v1 be tine
pressure, temperature and volume of the air. Following are four stages of an ideal diesel cycle.
I. bY,.ct stage (Constant pi essrae heating). The air is treated at constant pressure front initial
temperature T1 to a terirperarure T2 represented by the curve 12 in Fig. 6. It) (a) and (h).
lat supplied to tire air,
= nrc,, (T2  T1)
Note Si rice the supply of treat is cut otfin point 2, therefore it is known as cutoff point.
2 Second stage (Rere,.vihh adiabatic a, isen tropic expansion). 1 he air is expanded revesibIy
and adiabatically from temperature T, Ina temperature T as shown by the curve 2 .3 in Fig. 6. 10 (a)
and (b). In thk process, no treat is absorbed or rejected by the air.
3. 7/rj rI stage (C mar vim,! volume rating I The air is now cooled at constant volume from
telniperiture T to a tempv'r.iture 74 uS .showir by the curve 3 4 in Fig. (,. 10 (a) and (b).
Heat rejected by the air,
4 = In C,,, ( Ti T3)
CI, 7314 ^ TI Tt
= = U)
l
112
Cutoft' ratio, p =
VI
04 V
= = rX' =
V I 07 P P
We know for constant pressure heating process 12,
V I 02
= (Charles's law)
'I '2
= T, x I< P (ii)
T1=TJ=xP(j
= (r or T1 =
=
Substituting the value of T in equations (ii) and (iii),
T2 = T4 (r)''xp .(v)
T1 = T4 (r)' x = p vi)
and T4
p(]
180 A Text Book of Thermal Engineering
Now substituting the values ofT 1 , T2 and T3 in equation (i),
(Tp)T4
Y_ 1
I
= ... (vii)
I
y' l (f)
Notes:]. 'the efficiency of the ideal Diesel cycle is lower than that of Otto cycle, for the same compression
ratio. This is due to the lact that the cutoff ratio (p) is always greater than unity and hence the term within the
bracket of equation (vii) increases with the increase of cutoff ratio. Thus the negative term increases and the
efficiency is reduced.
2. The Diesel cycle efficiency increases with decrease in cutoff ratio and approaches maximum (equal
to Otto cycle efficiency) when the term within the bracket is unity,
 Example 6.15. In a diesel engine, the compression ratio is 13: / and the fuel is cut off at
8% of the stroke. Find the air standard efficiency of the engine. Take yfor air as 1.4.
Solution. Given : r=v 4 1 = 13 ;y= 1.4
Since the cutoff takes place at 8% of the stroke, therefore volume at cutoff,
= +8% of stroke volume = v1 +0.08(04el)
Let us assume that the clearance volume ( v i ) = I m3.
04 = 13m 3 ... (; v4 /t, 1 = 13)
and stroke volume, 04  zi, = 13  I = 12 in
Volume at cutoff
= V 1 +0.08(v p1 ) = I +0.08x 12 = 1.96 m"
We know that cutoff ratio,
P = = 1.9611 = 1.96
Air standard efficiency,
_1_' 1 ___ JL
( r)y(pl)j (l3)'[ 1.4(1.96I)
= I 0.4I7 = 0.583 or 58.3% Aits.
Example 6.16. In an ideal Diesel cycle, the temperatures at the beginning and end of
compression are 57 C and 603 C respectively. The temperatures at the beginning and end of
expansion are 19511' C and 8711' C respectively. Determine the ideal efficiency of the cycle. y = 1.4.
If she cornpressioPt ratio is 14 and the pressure at the beginning of the compression is 1 bar,
calculate the maximum pressure in the cycle.
Solution.Given T4 57 0 C r 57+273=330K;T1 r. 603 0 C=603+273=876K;T2 = I950C
=l95O+273=2223K;T3=870C=870+273lI43K;yl4rv/z,l4;p=Ibar
Ideal efficiency of the cycle
We know that ideal efficiency ofthe cycle,
I 11143330
'YtTl_TiJ'Nfl23_876
= 1 0.431 = 0.569 or 56.9% Ans.
iherniodynanje Air Cycles 181
Ma u,iiltin pressure in the cycle
Let p = Maximum pressure in the cycle.
We know that for reversible adiabatic compression,
p 1 vTp4 V 01 1) 1 =4[j
1(14) 14 0.23b3r Ans.
Example 6.17. An idea! Diesel engine has a diameter 150 mm and stroke 200 tam. The
clearance volume is JO per cent of the swept volume. Determine the compression ratio and the air
standard efficiency of the engine if the cut off takes place at 6 percent of
the stroke.
Solution. Given: d= ISO min =0.l5 in ; 1=200mm = 0.2 in; v, = 10% ofv =0.1 v
Compression ratio
We know that stroke volume.
TI
= xdxl = .(0.l5)0.2 = 353x103in'
1 1 [ Al.6)
T =I 
(r)  I[ y(p l)j (ll)'' l.4(1.6l)J
Example 6.18. The compression ratio of an ideal air standard Diesel cycle is 15. The heat
each process aM
transfer is 1465 kilkg of air. Find the pressure and temperature at the end of
determine the cycle efficiency,
What is the mean effective pressure of the cycle, if the inlet conditions are 300 K and 1 bar.
= I bar =0.1 x106
Solution. Given: r=v 4 /v = IS; Q 12 = 1465 kY/kg; T4 =300K ;p4
N/ni2
1',1'.s! t?'l' ((Ild teiiipeia!tire at the end of each process
The pv and TS diagram for the Diesel cycle is shown in Fig. 6.11.
= Pressures at points 1,2 and 3 respectively.
I.ct p, p 2 and p
1 2
PI= P
I
JP4
V 1 V2
V3 V4
Entropy
Volume
(u)/o IIgrIn1. (/) I . S liini.
Fig, (. IT
First of all, Consider the isentropic compression process 4I We know that
and
=( J =
(I5)' = (l5) 2.954
2 44.3 0.1523
We know that 1)2 p 111 or p = p2 ( _ = 3.92 bar Ans.
J
ie'!ey
C veIe dlli
We know that heat tejected per kg of air during the constant volume process 34,
= in (T1  1) = I x 0.712 (1175.6  300) = 623.4k)
(Taking for air = 0.712 k)/kg K)
= 11e dLleatrejected = 1465623.4
Cycle eItcicncy, 1465
H61 supplied
= 0.5745 or 57.45% Ans.
Meon ef/se(:ve /fleSsii IC
We know that workdone per kg of air during the cycle
= Heat supplied  Heat rejected = 1465 623.4 = 841.6 kJ
and stroke volume V1  = 0.861  0.0574 = 0.8036 m
Mean effective pressure
= .'
Wo 841,6
rkdone =   kN/m 2
= 1047.3
Stroke volume 0.8036
= 10.473 bar Ans.   . ('; I bar = IOOkN/m2)
Example 6.19. Find the air standard effi ciencies for the Otto and Diesel cycles on the basis
of equal compression ratio of 10 and equal heat rejection of 840 id/kg. The suction conditions are!
bar and 328K.
Solution. (5iven:r=v 1 /v4 = I0;Q2 2 =840kJ/kg;p 3 = I bar; T3=328K
_
Volume Entropy
(a) pv diagram.  (b) TS diagram.
Fig. 612
In the /,s, and TS diagrams as shown in Fig. 6.12 (a) and (b), the cycle 1234I represents
an Otto cycle and the cycle 4 1'23 . 4 represents a Diesel cycle.
184 A Texi Book of Thermal Engineering
First of all, let us consider isentropic compression process 34, which is common for both the
Cycles.
Let 1'4 and p4 Temperature and pressure at the end of isentropic compression.
( !1
We know that = = ( 1O j = 2.512
T3 = V4 ]
T4 = T3 x2.512 = 328x2.512 = 824K
We also know that
p3 v = pv or p4 = P 3 = ( I0)1.4 = 25.l2bar
Now consider the constant volume process 23 which is also common for both the cycles.
We know that heat rejected per kg of gas during this process (Q2_3),
840 = mc,(T2 T) = I xO.712(T2328)
(Takiog c for air = 0.712 kJ/kg K)
T2 328 = 840/0.712 = 1180 or T2 = 1180+ 328 = 1508 K
T. 1508 P P
and pressure at point 2. p 2 = p3 X = 1x = 4.6 bar ... =
T2 T3
Quo cycle
Consider the isentxopic expansion process 12.
Let T1 = Temperature at the beginning of isentropic expansion.
f
Tv
Weknowthat = I t
=(13 10= 1004 = 2.512
'2 '4)
V2 V3
i Volume ' __ Entropy
p1 = Maximum pressure.
We know that for isentropic expansion process 12,
= =
V, , ) 
T2  ( TIJ 1 
or  672
T2
700
Now for isentropic compression process 34,
'\'
T Iv
(r)' =( 6.72)1A I = 2.143
T1 04
=
T4 = T1 X 2.143 = 300x2.143= 643K
186 A Text Hook of Thermal Engineering
(1v3)
and pv or p4 = P3J = p 3 xr' = I (6.72)' = 14.4 bar
10 = I = = 10.467
=1(6fl'
= 0.533 or 53.3 % Ans.
Note. The efficiency may also be calculated as follows:
700300 = 10.467 = 0.533 or 53.3%
We know that = I  =
7 1 T4 tI
Now let us consider the Diesel cycle as shown in Fig. 6.14. In this case
T2=l500K;T3700K:T4300K;p4ibar
Let r = Compression ratio V4 / v, and
PI = p2 = Maximum pressure.
f
P f P2 1P
P3
3
.
Col.
V2
Volume 
'
 Entropy
(6) Ts dograrn.
Fig. (.l4. Diesel cycle.
We know that for isentropic expansion process 23,
, ,v = (700
= 0.1488
T2
=J V3
T1 v4 )y
i4 V1
y1 l41 04
or
v l
T1 =T4 I
V t )
=3001
V, )
=300 I)
v4
V
I
Thermodynamic Air Cycles 187
or T1 = T2 x  = 1500 x  (iii)
TI T2 V2
02 V4 V 2 04
We know that  =     X
0 1 V 0 4 01 03
= x0.I488 . . .(Fromequalion(OI
Vi
 ! T3  T4  ( 700300
' T3 T1   1.4k 1500818.6
= 10.419 = 0.581 or 58.1%
Ratio of compression ratios,
rforOttocycle  6.12 
0.546 Ans.
r for Diesel cycle  12.3 
Ratio of maximum pressures,
P, for Otto cycle  33.6 
I Ans.
p 1 for Diesel cycle  336
Ratio of efficiencies,
il for Otto cycle  0.533
= 0.917 Ans.
t for Diesel cycle  0.581
13
1 2 Constpr.u.
lP1c
P4 4
1
V . V 5 V2 V3 V4
 Volume  Entropy
(a) p.v diagram. (b) TS diagram.
Fig. 6.15. Dual combustion cycle.
Let the engine cylinder* contain in kg of airat point 1. At this point, letp 1 , T1 andv, be the pressure,
temperature and volume of the air. Following are the five stages of an ideal dual combustion cycle.
I. First stage (Constant pressure heating). The air is heated at constant pressure from initial
temperature T1 to a temperature T2 represented by the curve 12 in Fig. 6.15 (a) and (b).
Heat absorbed by the air, Q12 = in c, (T2  T1)
2 Second stage (Reveisible adiabatic or isentrapic expansion). The air is expanded reversibly
and adiabatically front temperature T, to a temperature 1'3 as shown by the curve 23 in Fig. 6.15 (a)
and (b). In this process, no heat is absorbed or rejected by the air.
3. Third stage (Constant volume cooling). The air is now cooled at constant volume from
temperature T3 to temperature T4 as shown by the curve 34 in Fig. 6.15 (a) and (b).
Heat rejected by the air, Q3..4 = in c (T3  7)
4. lou,ili stage (Reieraible adiabatic or isenrropk compression). The air is compressed
reversibly and adiabatically from temperature T4 to a temperature T. as shown by the curve 45 in
Fig. 6.15 (a) and (b). In this process, no heat is absorbed or rejected by the air.
5. Fifth stage (Coi.cia,n' volume heating). The air is finally heated at Constant volume from
temperature T5 to a temperature T1 as shown by the curve 51 in Fig. 6.15 (a) and (b).
Heat absorbed by the air, Q5_ 1 = m c (T1  T5)
We see that the air has been brought back to its original conditions of pressure, volume and
temperature, thus completing the cycle. We know that
Work done = Heat absorbed  Heat rejected
= [mc (T2 TI) + mc (T1 T5)]mc0(T3T4)
c(T3T4)
= 1
c(T2 T1 )+c(T1 T5)
T3T,
(i)
 y(T2 TI) +(T1T5)
Now, let compression ratio,
V4 V3
r== ... ('.' V 3 = v4 and v5 = v1)
V3 V1
V2 V2
Cutoff ratio, p  V=  ... (... V 1 = v)
V1 5
T3 = T2 () = TIP[) (iii)
LI = T5 a = T4 (r)'f 
= T5 x a (v)
190 A Text Book of Thermal Engineering
Substituting the value of T,in equations (ii) and (iii),
= T4(r)Tap
2 = Cutoff ratio,
1+0.1 p= ( I . ..(Dividingthsidcsbyv5)
,j
= 1+0.1(10I) = 1.9
We know that for isenropic compression process 45 (Refer Fig. 6.15),
1
159(19),
= 1 ___ 1(1.59 l)+ l.4x 1.59(1.9I)
(l0)'
5j$ j 3.9I 1
= I 0.446 = 0.554 or 55.4% Ans.
I 10.59
Example 622. In a 'compression ignition engine, working on a dual combustion cycle,
pressure and temperature at the start of compression are I bar and 300 K respectively. At the end of
compression, pressure reaches a value of 25 bar. 420 U of heat is supplied per kg of air during
constant volume heating and pressure becomes 2.8 bar at the end of isentropic expansion. Estimate
the ideal thermal efficiency. Take c1, = 1.005 U/kg K and c,, = 0.712 k//kg K.
;T4= 3oOK;p5 bar. Q_,42O kJ/kg P32.8bar
Solution. Given :p 4 =l bar
= 1.005 Id/kg K; c, = 0.712 kJ/kg K
We know that ratio of specific heats or isentropiC index,
y=cIc0 = 1.005/0.712=1.4
First of all, consider the isentropic compression process 45 (Refer Fig. 6.15).
We know that
P4 V14 VIS
Compression ratio.
i: () = =( 25)' = 9.96
= 0.138x9.96 = 1.37
We know that ideal thermal efficiency,
L_1 ctp1
1
(r)TtL((x_1)+ya(p_I)
= i 1.787 (I.37)' 1
(9.96)' 'L (1.787 I) + 1.4x 1.787 (1.37 I)
1 1 2.781 1
=I
 i[ 0.787+0.926 j = 10.414 = 0.586 or 58.6% Ans.
Example 6.23. An engine working on a dual combustion cycle has a pressure of] bar and sd'
C before compression. The air is then compressed isentropically to 1115th of its original volume. The
maximum pressure is twice the pressure at the end of isentropic compression. If the cutoff ratio is 2,
determine the temperature at the end of each process and the ideal efficiency of the cycle, y = 1.4.
Solution. Given: p4 = I bar; T4 50C=50+273=323K;v5 = v4115;p1=2p5;
P= V/ o 1 = 2 ; y = 1.4
We know that v5 v4 115
Compression ratio,
= 15
r = 04 /05
Temperature at the end of isentropic compression
Let T5 = Temperature at the end of isentropic compression.
We know that for isentropic compression process 45 (Refer Fig. 6.15),
\yI f
T5 iv I
= = ( 15)I.41 = 2.954
I
T4 vs)
T5 = T4 x2.954 = 323 x2.954 = 954K = 681C Ans.
Temperature at the end of conranl volume heating
Let T1 = Temperature at the end of constant volume heating.
(p2)
Temperature at the end of constant pressure heating
Let T2 = Temperature at the end of constant pressure heating.
Pressure ratio,
U = p 1 /p 5 = 70/48.5 = 1.44 Ans.
2. Curoff ratio
We know that compression ratio,
r = v4 /v 5 = 16 or V4 = I6?.' . . .(i)
and V4  = 10 1itres = 0.01 rn3 . . . (ii)
EXERCISES
1. An ideal engine is imagined to be working on Carnot's cycle. The working fluid receives heat all
temperature of 590 K and rejects at a temperature of 295 K. Find the theoretical efficiency of the cycle.
If the engine working on this cycle absorbs 35 kJls from the hot body, calculate the net work.done
pee second. [Aim 50%; 173 kJ/s]
2. In a carnot cycle engine the temperature of the source and sink are 700 C and 50 C. The heat
supply is 84 kIlt, Find the power developed by the engine.
If the temperature of source is 500 C and the heat supply and workdone are 420 U and 200 U
respectively, find the sink temperature. [Ans. 56.112 kW; 132C]
3. An inventor chums that his petrol engine operating between temperatures 2000C and 600C will
produce 0.735 kW consuming 0.12 kg per hour of petrol having 46000 kjikg calorific value. Check the validity
of the claim. [Ant. Inventor's claim is valid]
4. Determine the efficiency of the regenerative Stirling cycle working between the temperature limits
of 700 K and 350 K. The isothermal expansion or compression ratio is 4. (Ales. 50%)
5. A regenerative Stirling air engine works between the temperatures of 400C and 15C. The ratio
of isothermal expansion is 3. Find ideal efficiency of the cycle, if regenerator efficiency is 80%. Assume c1,
0.996 kJ/kg K, and c = 0.707 kJ/kg K. IAns.45.6%1
6. Ina Stirling engine working with a perfect regenerator, the lower limit of temperature is 538 C.
The maximum and minimum pressures are 12 bar and 2 bar. Determine the ideal efficiency, if the expansion
ratio is 3. [Ans. 50%)
7. An Ericsson engine having an expansion ratio 2works between the temperature ranges of 700K
and 298 K. Calculate the ideal efficiency when:
I. the engine is tiLted with a perfect regenerator. and 2. the efficiency of regenerator is 0.85:
Assume c = 0.996 kJ/kg K and c= 0.712 kJ/kg K fAns. 57.4%; 40%]
8. A gas turbine working on Joule's Cycle receives air at I bar and 15C. It is compressed iscntropicaily
to 5 bar and then heated at a constantpressulc till its temperature reaches 800 C. The hot air is then expanded
isentropically in the turbine back to its original pressure of I bar. Determine the work done kg of air supplied
and thermal efficiency of the turbine. Assume y = 1.4 and c,, = I kJ/kg K. tAns. 228 U; 37%]
9. The efficiency of an Otto cycle is 50% and y = 1.5. Find the compression ratio. (Ans. 4)
196 A Text Book of T/sennal Engineering
10. An engine working on ideal Otto cycle has temperature and pressure, at the beginning of isentropic
compression as 25C and 1.5 bar respectively. Find the compression ratio, if y= 1.4 and thermal efficiency of
the engine= 48%. Also find temperature and pressure at the end of compression.
[Ans. 5.13; MX)"C: 14.8 bar]
11. An engine working on constant volume cycle has aclearance volume of I litre and a stroke volume
of 6 litres. The suction pressure and temperature are I bar and 200 C respectively. The pressure at the end of heat
addition is 25 bar. Determine: I. pressure and volume at salient points of the cycle ; 2. thermal efficiency, and
3. workdone per cycle.
Take c during heat addition = 0.807 kJ/kg K ; c during heat rejection = 0.737 kJ/lg. K and
y = 1.4. JAns.P2= l.64 bar p= l5.24 bar, z'1 =o= I litre ;v2 =v3 l litre ;54.l%;i92kJilgJ
12. A fourcylinder petrol engine has a swept volume of2 x 10 3 m3 and theclearance volume in each
cylinder is 60 x 10 m3 . If the pressure and temperature at the beginning of compression are I.02tar and 24
C and the maximum cycle temperature is 14000 C. calculate I. the air standard efficiency, and 2. the mean
effective pressure. Assume for air, c,, = 1.005 kJ/kg K and c = 0.716 kJ/kg K. [Ans. 59.1% 5.3 bar]
13. An air standard Diesel cycle has a compression ratio of 14. The pressure at the beginning of
compression stroke is I bar and the temperature is 27 C. The maximum temperature of the cycle is 2500C.
Determine the efficiency of this engine. . [Ans. 53.6%)
14. A diesel engine has a bore of 250mm and a stroke of 400 mm. Thecutoff takes place a(5 percent
of the stroke. Estimate : I. Air standard efficiency, and 2. Mean effective pressure if the clearance volume and
the pressure at the end of suction stroke are 1.2 litres and I bar respectively. (Ans. 64.2% 5 .11 bar)
15. Estimate the loss in air standard efficiency for an engine of compression ratio of 15 and the cutoff
changes from 5 to 15% of the stroke. [Ans. 6.617,,!
16. An ideal Diesel cycle operates on I kg of standard air with initial pressure oft bar and a temperature
of 35 C. The pressure at the end of compression is 33 bar and the cutoff 6% of the stroke. Determine : I. the
compression ratio, 2. the percentage clearance, 3. the heat supplied, and 4. the heat rejected.
Take. y= 1.4 andc, = I kJ/kg K. tAns. 12.14; 8.98% of stroke; 559 ki :230 kJJ
17. An ideal Dieel cycle has compression ratio of 16 with lowest temperature and pressure as 27C
and I bar respectively. If heat added during the cycle is 500 kJ/kg of air. determine I. pressure and temperature
at each salient point, 2. work done in the cyclelkg, 3. thermal efficiency of the cycle, and 4. mean effective
pressure. [Ans,p1 = p 2 =48.5 bar, T1 =636C, T7 = 1136C.p5 = 1.87 bar,
T3 = 175 C; 394.3 kJ/kg :78.9%; 4.9 bar]
IS. Two engines are to operate on Otto and Diesel cycles with the following data:
Maximum temperature= 1500 K ;Exhaust temperature= 701) K; Ambient Condition I bar and
300K.
Find the compression ratios, maximum pressures and efficiencies.
[Ans. Otto cycle :6.72; 33.6 bar :53.3%; Diesel cycle: 12.3: 33.6 bar :58.1%]
19. An engine working on the dual combustion cycle has pressure ratio of 1.41. The diameter of engine
cylinder is 200mm ansI stroke 420 mm. If the compression ratio is 13.5 and cutoff occurs at 5% of the stroke,
determine the air standard efficiency of the engine. [Ans. (II 8%1
20. An oil engine operates on ideal dual combustion cycle as follows:
Pressure at the beginning of compression = 0.97 bar; Temperature at the beginning of compression
=55C; Pressure ratio= 1.5 ;Cutoffratio= l.6; Compression ratio= II ;Ra!ioofspccificheats,y= 1.4.
Determine the temperature at the end of each operatin and the efficiency of the engine.
tAns. T5 = 583C; = lOt IC: = l782'C T5 = 676C; 58.S%)
QUESTIONS
I. What is athermodynarnic cycle? Distinguish between a fourstroke cycle and a twostroke
cycle.
2. Explain reversible and irreversible processes. Is it possible to realise these processes?
Thermodynamic Air Cycles 197
3. What are the conditions of reversibility ? Prove that all reversible engines are equally
efficient between the same temperature limits.
4. Do you agree with the Statement that the conception of thermodynamic reversibility is
purely hypothetical ? Explain fully.
5. Prove that the efficiency of the Carnot engine working between the temperature limits
 T2
T1 and T2 is equal to f. ad show that no engine can be more efficient than this when working
198 A Text Book of Thermal E,igint'erinj
S. The air standard efficiency of an Otto cycle is given by
9. The efficiency of the dual combustion cycle, for the same compression ratio, is .... Diesel cycle.
(a) greater than (b) less than (c) equal to
10. For the same maximum pressure and temperature of Otto, Diesel and dual combustion
air standard cycles,
(a) the compression ratios will be same
(b) the heat supplied to the cycles will be same
(c) the alt standard efficiency will have the same value
(d) the heal rejected by the engine will be the same
ANSWERS
2.(b) 3.(d) 4.(c) 5.(b)
7.(b) 8.(a) 9.(o) 10. (d)
OA
7.1. Introduction
Steam is a vapour of water, and is invisible when pure and dry. it is used as the working
substance in the operation of steam engines and steam turbines. Steam does not obey laws of perfect
gases, until it is perfectly dry. It has already been discussed that when the dry vapour is heated further,
it becomes superheated vapour which behaves, more or less, like a perfect gas.
7.2. Formation of Steam at a Constant Pressure from Water
Cylinder
T Ki^
ateld v
1
Weights
2 . steam v
i Iv,
Wet
Piston
ea
r
0
^ 4e^tf^r f ,
____
I
m5 +m1 m
where in, = Mass of actual dry steam,
inf = Mass of water in suspension, and
m = Mass of wet steam = rn +
Note: The value of dryness fraction, in case of dry steam, is unity. At this stage, the mass of water in suspension
(ni1) is zero.
5. Sensible hear of water. It is the amount of heat absorbed by I kg of water, when heated a
a constant pressure, from the freezing point (00 C) to the temperature of formation of steam, i.e.
saturation temperature (t). The sensible heat is also known as liquid hear.
The specific heat of water at constant pressure is usually taken as 4.2 Id/kg K. Therefore heat
absorbed by I kg of water from 0C to :C or sensible heat
= Mass x Sp. heat x Rise in temperature
= I x4 .21(t+273) (0+273)] = 4.2t Id/kg
Thus the sensible heat of water in kJ/kg may be.obtained directly by multiplying the specific
heat of water and the saturation temperature (r) in C.
It may be noted that the sensible heat of water is taken equal to the * specific enthalpy (ie,
total heat) of water. It is, usually, denoted by h 1 in steam tables and its value may be determined for
any given pressure in Id/kg.
We know that specific enthalpy (i.e. enthalpy perkg) of water Specific internal energy + Flow work i.e.
work required in changing the volume against pressure p.
or h=u+pdv
Let v1 = Specific volume of water at 0C (i.e. volume of I kg of water at 0C).
When this water is heated from 0' C to I" C. there is a negligible change in volume. In other words, the
specific volume of water at zC is nearly the same i.e. v1.
Specific enthalpy of water at 0C,
k = U0+pv1 (i)
Similarly, specific enthalpy of water at ('C,
h1 = (ii)
Change in specific enthalpy of water (i.e. enthalpy of I kg of water when heated from 0'C to ('C),
/if _/In = UI_ UI, (iii)
Since the specific internal energy of water at 0' C is zero and the specific volume (u,) is negligible,
therefore h, 1 = 0. Now from equation (iii).
!Ij = u, i.e. specific internal energy at ('C or the heat absorbed by I kg of water
in raising its temperature from 0C to ('C
= Sensible heat
202 A Text Book of Thermal Engineering
6. *La tent heat of vaporisation. It is the amount of heat absorbed to evaporate I kg of water,
at its boiling point or saturation temperature without change of temperature. It is denoted by h15 and
its value depends upon the pressure. The heat of vaporisation of water or latent heat of steam is 2257
Id/kg at atmospheric pressure.
It has been experimentally found that the value of hj decreases as the pressure increases and
it is zero at critical pressure. If the steam is wet with a dryness fraction x, then the heat absorbed by
it during evaporation is x h,.
7. Enthalpy or total heat of stea,n. It is amount of heat absorbed by water from freezing point
to saturation temperature plus the heat absorbed during evaporation.
Enthalpy or total heat of steam
= Sensible heat + Latent heat
IL is denoted by h1 and its value for the dry saturated steam may be read directly from the steam
tables. The expressions for the enthalpy of wet steam, dry steam and superheated steam areas follows:
(I) Wet steam. The enthalpy of wet steam is given by:
h hj +Xhjg . .(i)
(ii) Dry 3/earn. We know that in case of dry steam, the mass of water in suspension is zero and
dryness fraction is unity. Therefore specific volume of dry steam
= v m31kg ... (ii)
(iii) Super/sealed3leanl. .Ve have already discussed that when the dry saturated steam isfurther
heated under a constant pre'ure, there is an increase in volume with the rise in temperature. The
superheated steam behaves more or less like a perfect gas. Therefore, according to Charles' law,
206 A Text Book of Thermal Engineering
Since the steam loses 21 kJ/kg of steam, therefore enthalpy of wet Steam at the engine end,
= 275121 = 2730 kJ
Let x2 = Dryness fractioti of steam at the engine end.
Since the pressure remains constant, therefore hand h1 is same. We know that
h2 =
VR
.. .(: pis constant)
=
* The work done by the superheated steam may also be found out as discussed bclow
Work done during superheating = 100 v kJ
Total work (lone = Work done during evaporation + Work done driving superheating
= 100P0+ lOOp(v,,,v) = lOOpv,,, ki
208 A Text hook of Thermal Engineering
Example 7.8. Find the external work done during evaporation per kg of steam at a pressure
of IS bar when the steam is (a) 90% dry and (b) dry saturated.
Solution. Given :p= 15 bar
From steam tables, corresponding to a pressure of 15 bar, we find that
= 0.1317m3/kg
(a)Workdone when the steam is 90% dry (i.e. x = 0.9)
We know that workdone,
w lOOpxv = 100x15x0.9x0.1317 = 177.8kJ/kg Ans.
(b) Vilorkdone when the steam is dry saturated
We know that workdone.
W IOOPV 100xI5x0.1317 197.5kJ/kg Ans.
7.9, Internal Energy of Steam
It is the actual heat energy stored in steam, above the freezing point of water. The internal
energy may be calculated by subtracting the external work done during evaporation from the enthalpy
or total heat of steam. Mathematically,
Internal energy of steam
= Enthallpy or total heat  External workdone during evaporation
The expressions of internal energy per kg of steam (u)for wet steam, dry saturated steam and
superheated steam are given below:
(a)For wet steam
u = hlOOpxv = hj +Xhjg_ IOOPXVg Id/kg
(b)For dry saturated steam
u h2 100pv8 = h1 +h1_ lOOpv Id/kg
(c)For superheated steam.
u = h,  lOOp v,,, = (h + Cr (r,,,,  t)]  100 v,, kJ/kg
Note: lithe steam of initial internal energy (u 1 ) is heated in a cylinder to a final internal energy (u 1), then change
in internal energy.
U =
Example 7.9. Calculate the internal energy of! kg of steam at a pressure of 10 bar when
the steam is: (a) 0.9 dry; and (b) dry saturated. The volume of water maybe neglected.
Solution. Given : p = 10 bar
From steam tables, corresponding to a pressure of 10 bar, we find that
hf = 762.6 kJlkg; h1 = 2013.6kJ/kg and v. = 0.1943m3/kg
(a) internal energy of 1 kg of steam when it is 0.9 dry (i.e. x = 0.9)
We know that internal energy for wet steam
u = h1+xh1lOOpxv
= 762.6+0.9x2013.6 lOOx lOxO.9x0.1943 kJ
= 2/4.8 174.8 = 2400 kJ Arts.
/ 'j ( 5/serf 5eV of Mtc liii
,Il,UIli III (511(1
209
Now neglecting the volumeof water in the wet steam (with dryness fraction of0.7), the volume
occupied by the steam will be equal to the volume of vessel.
210 A Te.0 Book of The, ma/ Engineering
0.48 = 2x0.7xv 2 .= or V.2 = 0.343rn31kg
1.4v52
From steam tables, corresponding to a specific volume of 0.343 m 3/kg, we find that
= lit +x2hi8_I0Op2x2v2
= 655.8 + 0.7 x 2095.9 100 x 5.5 x 0.7 x 0.343
= 2123132 = 1991 Id/kg
and heat rejected = u1 . u 2 2575.5 1991 584.5 kJ/kg
Heat rejected by 2 k of steam
= 2 x 584.5 = 1169 kJ Ans.
Exsnpie 7.12. Steam at 18 bar and dryness 0.9 is heated at constant pressure wail
dry and
saturated. Find the increase in volume, heat supplied and work done per kg of steam.
lithe volume is now kept consta nt,Jind how much heat must be extracted to reduce the pressure
to 14 bar.
Solution. Given :p= 18 bar x=0.9 ;p 1 =14 bar
From steam tables, corresponding to a pressure of 18 bar, we find that
= 884.5 id/kg; /ifg 1910.3 Id/kg; h = 2794.8 kJ/kg; and Vg = 0.1103 m3/kg
Increase in volume
We know that volume of wet steam,
V1 = X V = 0.9 x 0.1103 = 0.0993 m3/kg
Increase in volume
= 9 V1 = 0.1103  0.0993 0.011 m 3/kg Ans.
V
Heat supplied
We know that enthalpy or total heat of wet steam,
h = /,+xh1 884.5+0.9x 1910.3 = 2603.8 kJ/kg
Heat supplied = h g h= 2794.8 2603.8 191 kJ/kg Ans.
Work done
We know that workdone,
w= loop (vg_v,.)looxI8xo.0l1198kJ/kgAns.
1/eat eyJlae fed to ,educe the pressuie to 14 bar
We know that (luring constant volume process, no work is done and extraction of heat will
result in the reduction of internal energy of the steam. In oilier words, the steam is cooled, which
results in the reduction of dryness fraction.
From steam tables, corresponding to a pressure of 14 bar, we find that
hfl = 830.1 kJ/kg: h1 = 1957.7 kJ/kg; and V., = 0.1407 m3/kg
Let x1 = Dryness fraction of steam.
Since the volume is constant, therefore
v, = x i o 1 or x = V I Z^ , = 0.1103/O.1407 = 0.78
9
Formation rISIII I'roperUes o/.'tran: 2II
Now internal energy of steam at a pressure of 18 bar,
u = he IOO P Cg = 2794.8 100 !8x0.1 103 = 2596.3 kJ/kg
and internal energy of steam at a pressure of 14 bar,
u1 = hfl +x1 h151  lOOp1 X I VgI
Control valve
Thermometer
Steam pipe
g Cover
Calorimeter
III
  Insulation
Steam nozzles
Water.
Platform
Fo,,naljon and Properties of Stea,n  213
Example 7.14. Ina laboratory experiment, a sample of wet steam is allowed to passthrough
a separating calorimeter. At some instant, the water collected in the chamber was 0.1 kg whereas the
condensed steam was found to be]. 25 kg. Determine the dryness fraction of the steam entering the
calorimeter.
Solution. Given: in = 0.1 kg ;M= 1.25 kg
We know that dryness fraction of steam,
1.25
= = 0.926 Ans.
M+m 1.25+0.1
7.13. Throttling Calorimeter
A throttling calorimeter used to determine the dryness fraction of steam is shown in Fig. 7.5.
It consists of a separator A into which steam is admitted through a control valve from the steam main.
The pressure and temperature are measured by the pressure gauge and the thermometer T1 provided
in this section. It may be noted that temperature recorded by T1 is same as the saturation temperature
corresponding to the pressure of steam in calorimeter B. This steam is then throttled through a narrow
aperture of restricted valve openings, its total heat remaining constant. The steam is in the superheated
state after throttling at a Tower pressure than previous. The temperature and pressure of steam leaving
he calorimeter B is noted by the thermometer T 2 and manometer respectively.
Let p1 =
Pressure of steam beforeThermometer
throttling, i.e. pressure of Control
steam main, valve
/ gauge
P, = Pressure of steam after in
throttling,
steam Thermometer
hf,= Sensible heat of water at main (T2)
pressure p1,
. (From steam tables) Restricted Manometer
hja i = Latent heat of steam at V &ve
pressure p1,
(From steam tables)
hg2 = Total heat of dry steam at
pressure p2. essure
.(From steam tables) Steam
outlet
= Temperature of super.
heated steam after throt }:jg 7.5 Throttling calorimeter.
tling,
12 = Saturation temperature at pressure p2. .. . (From steam tables)
c = Specific heat of superheated steam, and
x = Drytiess fraction of steam before throttling.
Since the steam has undergone a throttling process, therefore
Total heat before throttling = Total heat after throttling
hfl +xh11 =
Example 7.15. In a throttling calorimeter, the steam is admitted at a pressure of 10 bar. If
it is discharged at atmospheric pressure and 1100 C after throttling, determine the dryness fra ciion'
of steam. Assume specific heat of steam as 2.2 kM.8 K.
Solution. Given :p 1 = TO bar ;p2 = 1.013 bar; = I l0 . 0 ; = 2.2 kJ/kg K
Let x = Dryness fraction of steam.
Front steam tables, corresponding to a pressure of TO bar, we find that
hJ1 = 762.6 kJ/kg; and h11 2013.6 kJ/kg
and corresponding to a pressure of 1.013 bar,
h 92 = 2676 kJ/kg; and t2  1000 C
We know that h + x h1 , 1 = + C1,
(i 12)
762.6+xx2013.6 = 2676+2.2(110100) = 2698
2698762.6
0.tX, I Ans.
x = o.i: .  =
7.14. Combined Separating and 'Throttling Calorimeter
A very successful method of measuring the dryness fraction of steam is by a combined
.separating and throttling calorimeter as shown in Fig. 7.6.
Formation and Propel lies (f Sr'ani 215
In this calorimeter, the wet steam is first collected in a perforated collecting pipe and then
passed through a separating calorimeter. A part of water is removed by the separating calorimeter
owing to quick change of direction of flow. The resulting semidry steam is throttled into a throttling
Pressure gauge
Thermometor
Control valve
Mercury
1^ Onhce1 F 1 manometer
r' Perforated
pipe
Sle.zf n main ,
Water
Separating
caIormvui calorimeter 4
Steam outlet
216 A Tesi Book of Thermal Engsizeeiing
Dryness fraction for separating calorimeter,
M, 34.2
x l = =  = 0.95
m 0 +m,, 36
From Steam tables, corresponding to a pressure of 12 bar, we find that
= 798.4 kJ/kg; and hjg1 = 1984.3 kJ/kg
and corresponding to a pressure of 1.013 bar,
hg2 2676 kJ/kg ; and t, = 100C
We know that h11 + x2 hj1 = h + c (  12)
798.4+x2 x 1984.3 = 2676+2.1(110 100) = 2697
2697  798.4
= 0.957
= 1 984.3
We also know that the actual dryness fraction of the steam entering the combined separating
and throttling calorimeter,
x = x 1 xx2 = 0.95 x 0.957 = 0.909 Ans.
be
Note: The value ofx may also obtained as follows
First of all, the.value toox2 is obtained as before, i.e. X2 = 0.957
Now mass of dry steam entering the throttling calorimeter
= Mass of dry steam leaving the separating calorimeter
= 34.2 x 0.957 = 32.73 kg
Dryness fraction of steam entering the separating calorimeter,
32.73
X = 16 0.909 Ans.
EXERCISES
1. k
5 of steam at a pressure of 5 bar is produced frUm water at 20'C. Determine the amount of heat
supplied, if the steam is 0.9 dry. [Ans. 12265 ki]
2. Find the amount of heat required to convert I kg of steam at a pressure of 0.5 bar and dryness
fraction 0.9 to dry saturated steam. [Ans. 230.5 kJ)
3. Find the mass of 0.50 m3 oiwet steam at a pressure of 4 bar and dryness fraction 0.8. Alsodetermine
the enthalpy oft m 3 of steam, [Ans. 1.35 kg 6240 kJJ
4. One kg of water at 47.8 C is heated under a constant pressure of 14 bar until it is converted into
steam with 1100 C of superheat. Determine the quantity of heal supplied during superheating and the total heat
of superheated steam. Assume c. = 2.1 kJ/kg K. [Ans. 201 ki :2818 kJ]
5. A certain amount of steam is produced at a pressure of 8 bar and a dryness fraction 0.8. Determine:
1. external workdone during evaporation and 2. internal talent heat of steam [Arts. 153.6 kJ 1483.6 Id]
6. Find the internal energy oft kg of steam at a pressure oil bar under the following conditions
I. when it is wet having dryness fraction 0.8; and 2. when it is dry saturated.
[Ans. 2196 kJ/kg :2571 kilkgl
7. Calculate the internal energy per kg of superheated steam it pressure of tO bar and a temperature
of 300' C. lithe steam is expanded to 1.4 bar and dryness fraction 0.8, find the change of internet energy.
lAn.s. lot kJ/kgj
8. Find the internal energy of I kg of steam at 20 bar in the following cases
I. when the stein is wet having dryness fraction 0.9, and 2. when the steam is superheated when its
temperature is 4(X) C.
Fake specific heat for s:sperhealed steam as 2.3 kJ/kg K. fAns. 2429.3 k.J/lg :2952.7 kJ/kcl
217
Forntation and I'ro;er!ie.' of Sic wit
9. Two boilers, one with a superhe.atcr and the other without a superheater are delivering equal
quantities of steam into a common mains. The pressure in the boiler and the mains is 14.7 bar. The temperature
of steam from the boiler with superheater is 325C and that of steam mains 250C. Estimate the quality of steam
supplied by the other boiler. [Arts. 0.971
10. Steam for a small boiler is discharged through a pipe into a barrel containing water and after a few
minutes, observations were taken of the mass and temperature of the water. From the collected data given below,
calculate the dryness fraction of the steam.
Mass of empty barrel 25 kg ; Mass of barrel + cold water 135 kg ; Mass of barrel + cold water
+ steam = 140 kg ; Initial temperature of water = 15 C ; Final temperature of water = 42 C ; Steam pressure
8 bar ; Specific heat of the material of barrel = 0.4 kJ/kg K IMes 0961
11. In an experiment, it was found that the steam enters a throttling calorimeter at a pressule of 12.25
bar. After throttling, the pressure and temperature was measured as 1.013 bar and 115C respectively. Estimate
the dryness fraction of steam. [Ans. 0961
12. Ina combined separating and throttling calorimeter, the following observations were made:
Total quantity of steam = 23.4 kg; Water drained from separator 1.2 kg ;Steam pressure before
throttling = 8.25 bar; Temperature of steam on leaving = 111.4C; Steam pressure on leaving = 1.013 bar.
Find the dryness fraction of steam on entry. Specific heat of superheated steam is 2 kJ/kg K.
[Ans. 092]
QUESTIONS
I. What is meant by saturation temperature and saturation pressure?
2. Explain how the Wet steam, dry saturated steam and superheated steam is produced.
3. Define the following terms:
(i) Sensible heat of water; (ii) Latent heat of vaporisation
(iii) Total heat of steam; (iv) Dryness fraction of steam; and
(v) Volume of superheated steam.
4. List Out the advantages of superheated steam.
5. Derive an expression for the external work done during evaporation:
(0 when the steam is wet; (ii) when the steam is dry ; and
(iii) when the steam is superheated.
6. What is meant by the internal energy of steam?
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Water at standard atmospheric conditions
(a) behaves as an ideal gas (b) is mostly liquid
(c) is far above its critical State (d) is far below its critical state
2. The locus of saturated liquid line and saturated vapour tine meats at
(a) boiling point (b) critical point (c) ice point (d) triple point
3. For steam
(a) the critical temperature is 221.2C and critical pressure is 374.15 bar
(b) the critical temperature is 374.15C and critical pressure is 221.2 bar
(c) the critical temperature is 221.2C and critical pressure is 221.2 bar
(d) the critical temperature is 374.15C and critical pressure is 374.15 bar
4. The laient heat of steam at atmospheric pressure is
(a) 1535 kilkg (b) 1875 kJ/kg (c) 2257 kJ/kg (d) 2685 kJ/kg
5. With the increase in pressure
(a) the boiling point of water decreases and enthalpy of evaporation increases
218 A TeA I Honk of lIu'i#na! Engineering
ANSWERS
1(d) 2(b) 3.(b) 4.(c) 5.(b)
6(a) 7.(c) 8(a) 9.(b) 10. (b)
Entropy of Steam
8.1. Introduction
We have already discussed, in detail, the entropy of perfect gases in chapter 4. The entropy
of steam is also an important property, which increases with the addition of heat, and decreases with
its removal.
The entropy of steam consists of:
I. Increase in entropy of water during heating from freezing point to boiling point corre
sponding to the pressure at which the water is being heated,
2. Increase in entropy during evaporation, and
3. Increase in entropy during superheating.
Notes :(a) Since the enthalpy or total heat o steam is reckoned from freezing point of water i.e. O C. therefore
entropy is also reckoned from O' C.
(b) The entropy of water at (1 C is regarded as zero.
(c) The absolute temperatures are used in entropy calculations.
8.2. Entropy of Water
00
Consider I kg of water being heated at a constant pressure from freezing temperature (i.e. C
or 273 K) to the boiling temperature. Now consider an instant, when the absolute temperature of water
is TK.
Let, for a small rise in temperature of dl'. the heat absorbed by I kg of water is 6q. Then
Bq = Mass x Sp. heat of water x Rise in temperature.
= LxcxdT=cdT
where = Specific heatof water.
The value of may be taken as 4.2 kJ/kg K.
We know that increase in entropy for rise in temperature dT,
oq c, 6T
219
15
220 A Text Book of Thernwl Engineering
The total increase in entropy of water from freezing point to boiling point, may be obtained
by integrating the above expression within the limits 273 K and T K.
, T
Jds=J
0 273
( id = log
Note: The value of .s1 may be directly seen from the steam tables.
8.3. Entropy Increase during Evaporation
When the water is completely evaporated into steam, it absorbs full latent heat (lift) at constant
temperature T. corresponding to the given pressure. We know that
 Heat absorbed
Entropy  Absolute temperature
Increase of entropy during evaporation,
i1
stir  T
If the steam is wet with dryness fraction x, the evaporation will be partial. In such a case, heat
absorbed
=x
Note: The entropy of dry steam is denoted by s. Its value may also be directly read from the steam tables.
8.5. Entropy of Superheated Steam
We know that during superheating, the heat is supplied at a constant pressure, and the
temperature of dry steam (7) increases to the temperature of superheated steam (7,,). For a small
rise in temperature dl', the heat absorbed,
q = cp dTper kg of steam
,dT
or !
T f'
c' ...( Dividing both sides by 1)
ds T
Example 8.1. Find the entropy of! kg of dry saturated steam as a pressure of 5.2 bar. The
boiling point of water at this pressure is given as /52.6 C and its total heal at this temperature is
2/JO kJ/kg.
Solution. Given :p=5.2bar T= 152.6C= 152.6+273 =425.6K;h1g=2110kJ/kg
We know that entropy of 1 kg of dry saturated steam,
St
= = 2.3c log( )+
222 A Text Book t' 1/wr,nal E,zgii'tre,ing
From steam tables, corresponding to a pressure of 20 bar, we find that
T = 212.4C = 212.4+273 = 485.4K; s = 6.337 kJ/kgK
We know that entropy per kg of superheated steam,
= + 2.3cr log(r) = 6.337+2.3 x2.2 log 4)
6.5 kJ/kg K Ans.
8.6. TemperatureEntropy (Ts) Diagram for Water and Steam
The temperatureentropy (briefly written as Ts) diagram is very useful in solving the problems
c.i adiabatic expansion and compression of steam. The abscissa of the diagram represents the entropy
of I kg of water and steam above the freezing point of water. The vertical ordinate shows the values
of temperature as shown , in Fig. 8.1.
Now consider I kg of water being heated at a constant pressure ( p). We know that when heat
is added to the water, its entropy will increase. If we plot a graph between temperature and entropy,
we shall find that the entropy increases along logarithmic curve with the increase in temperature, till
the boiling temperature (1') corresponding to the pressure (p) is reached. It is shown by the graph AR.
The corresponding increase in entropy (S) is given by the line Ab as shown in Fig. 8.1.
B
C,
Dry steam
/ line
273 K It c
4s, A. 0
 Entropy 
 Entropy
Fig. 8.1. T.sdiagrarn. Fig. 8 2. T.s graph for water and stm.
On further heating, we find that the water starts evaporating and receives heat at constant
temperature (1'). The entropy goes on increasing, till the entire latent heat required to evaporate 1 kg
of water has been supplied. The increase in entropy (sfl) during evaporation is given by the line bc in
Fig. 8.1.
If we draw a family of similar curves, at different pressures, and plot the points B,, B 2 and
Cl , C2 etc., then the line joining the points A. B, B, B2 etc. is called water line. Similarly, the line
joining the points C. C l , C2 etc. is callel dry steam line. The point, where the water line and dry steam
line meets (i.e. P) is called critical point, and it represents 374.15 C as shown in Fig. 8.2.
Now consider the line BC, which represents increase in entropy at constant temperature. We
see that dryness fraction increases with entropy from x = Oat B to x = I at C. The line BC is divided
into 10 pails, each representing dryness fraction from 0 to 1.0. Now draw similar lines B C l , B2 C2
etc. and mark the values of dryness fraction. The linejoining the same values of dryness fraction for
different pressures are known as constant dryness fraction lines. In Fig. 8.2, dryness fraction lines at
intervals of 0.2 have been drawn.
&itropv ofstrain 223
Notes: I. In actual practice, the Ts d!agram in not carded up to the critical point.
2. The advantage of Ts diagram over pv diagram is that area under the T5 diagram represents heat
absorbed or rejected during the process whereas area under the pv diagram represents the workdone.
8.7. isothermal lines on Ts Diagram
We know that there is no change of temperature during an isothermal, process. It is thus
obvious, that an isothermal process may be represented by a borizontal tine on the Ts diagram, as
shown in Fig. 8.3.
Consider a sample of 1 kg of wet steam at a temperature of 2500 C and dryness fraction of 0.2,
which may be shown by the point A on the Ts diagram. Let this sample be expanded isothermally, till
its dryness fraction is 0.8. Now mark this point B. This process may be represented by the line AD on the
Ts diagram. The ciange in entropy during this process may be found Out by the difference of readings
(sA and s) obtained by drawing vertical lines through A and B. In this, case, the reading at A is 3.45 and
that at B is 5.42. Thus increase in entropy during this process is 5.423.45 = 1.97 kJ/kg K.
I I
 Entropy Entropy
Fig . 8.3. lsntherrnal lines on T.sdiagTaln. Fig. 8.4. Isen tropic lines on Tsdiagrani.
S.$. Isentropic Lines on T.s Diagram
We know that there is no increase ordecrcase in the enthalpy or total heat during an isentropic
process. It is thus obvious, that there is no change in entropy also during the process. Therefore, the
isentropic process may be represented by a vertical line on the Ts diagram, as shown in Fig. 8.4.
Consider a sample of I kg of wet steam at a temperature of 310C and dryness fraction of 0.8,
which may be shown by the point A on the Ts diagram. Let this sample be expanded isentropicalty
till its dryness fraction is 0.6. Now mark this poirt B. This process may be represented by the lincAB
on the Ts diagram. The change of temperature during the process may be found out by the difference
between the initial tempe'.ture of 310C and the final temperature obtained by drawing horizontal
line through B. In this case, the final temperature is 40C. Thus fall in temperature during this process
is3lO40=270C.
8.9. Enthalpy .Fntropy (hs) Diagram for Water and Steam or Mother Chart
It is a graphical representation of the steam tables, in which the enthalpy (h) is plottedalong
the ordinate and the entropy (s) along abscissa. First of all, enthalpy and entropy of water and dry
saturated steam, for any particular pressure, are obtained from the steam tables. These values of
enthalpies and entropies are plotted and theji liquid line and dry saturated tine is obtained. Both these
lines meet at C, i.e. the critical point as shown in Fig. 8.5. The critical point correspnnds to theenthalpy
of liquid and dry saturated steam at 221.2 bar.
Thc ks"alioIi of polml A may h marked where the horizontal line timiough 2M1' C' and logarithmic line of
hyaess rlawuols td n 1. IYieet. slmidg tly, the location of point 8 may he marked where the horizontal line
through PO'(' i 4ld knriihmlt' line Ft$ryn Iraruon 0.8 meets
it u 1;. . ...
'[be enthalpyentropy chart, like temperatureentropy chart, is also very useful in solving the
problems on isentropic expansion and compression of steam. In actual diagram, abscissa of the
Constant
temperature lines
Constant / _,_/
pressure tines Superheated
Steam region
Liquid region
ne
;
Wet steam region
diagram represents the entropy of I kg of water and steam (i.e. specific entropy) above the freezing
point of water. The vertical ordinate shows the values of specific enthalpy (i.e. total heat) as shown
in Fig. 8.6. 1
The diagram is divided into two portions, by
a line termed as saturation line. In the lower (i.e. wet)
region, the temperature of steam remains Constant at
a given pressure. In the upper (i.e. super heat) region
the temperature of steam increases at the given pres
sure.
W
The Mother diagram has the following lines:
I. Dryness fraction lines,
2.Constant volume lines,
3. Constant pressure lines. Entropy (s) 
4. Isothermal lines,
5. Isentropic lines, and Fg, ' k c, 14o11er char(,
6.Throttling lines.
These lines are discussed, in detail, in the following pages.
Diagram
i't.lI). Dryness Fraction Lines on lis
The dryness fraction lines are drawn only below the Saturation litre (which represents dryness
fraction equal to 1.0). These lines represent the
condition of wet steam between various values of
enthalpy and entropy as shown in Fig. 8.7.
Now consider a sample of I kg of wet steam
of dryness fraction 0.9. In the initial stage, let the
sample have enthalpy of 2500 kJg which may be
Th
shown by the point A on the lis diagram, Let this Z
h8
sample be cooled at Constant dryness fraction to an
enthalpy of 2400 kJ/kg which may be shown by
S,
point B. Now the change of entropy during this
process may be found out by the difference of initial Entropy  (s)
and final entropies obtained by drawing vertical
hues through A and B. In this case, the entropies at I8 g 7. tJtynet,Sfrg CI.O(' on hr d,arzr,rrn
Entropv Of .S'tewn 225
A and B are 6.5 and 7.02 respectively. Thus increase in entropy during the process is 7.02  6.5 =
0.52 kJ/kg K.
8.11. Constant Volume Lines on hs Diagrini
The constant volume lines are drawn in both the wet steam region and superheated steam
region. These lines are straight in the wet steam region, but curved upwards above the saturation curve
i.e. superheated region as shown in Fig. 8.8.
Now consider a sample of wet steam of dry
ness faction 0.8 having enthalpy (total heat) of 2250
kJ/kg, which may be shown by point A on the hs
diagram. From the Moll ier diagram, we find that the
volume of this steam is 1.0 M3 /kg. Let this sample
be heated at constant volume of 1.0 M3 /kg till its
UI
EXERCISFS
I. Calculate the entropy oft kg of water at 90 C. (Ans. 1.195 kJ/kg KI
2. Calculate the entropy increase during evaporation of I kg of dry saturated steam at a pressure of 7
bar. (Ans.4.714 hi/kg KI
3. Determine the entropy of I kg of wet steam at a pressure of 10.5 bar and of dryness fraction 0.9.
[Ans.6.127 Id/kg K]
4. Determine the entropy oft kg of superheated steam at 14 bar and 300C. Assume c 2.1 ki/kg K.
[Ans. 6.89 hi/kg K!
5. Calculate the entropy of 1kg of superheated steam at a pressure of 15 bar and I ' C of superheat.
Assume c,, = 2.3 kJ/kg K. [Ans. 6.883 hi/kg K]
6. Dry saturated steam at a pressure of 10 bar is expanded isentropical ly to a pressureof 0.7 bar. Using
Mollier diagram, determine the enthalpy drop.
[Ans. 430 kJ/kg]
QUESTIONS
1. What is the arbitrarj temperature of zero entropy chosen for water?
2. Is the temperature used in calculations for entropy C or K?
3. Write the equation for the entropy increase during superheating.
4. Show the following processes on Ts diagram:
(i) heating of water front to boiling temperature;
(ii) evaporation of water; and
(iii) superheating of steam.
5. What is meant by constant dryness fraction lines? 110w these are plotted on Ts diagram?
6. Write a short note on the Mother chart and its construction.
7. Name the various uses of Mol tier chart.
8. Show the throttling and isentropic expansion of steam on Mother chart.
Entropy of Steam 229
2. When water is heated from the freezing point to the boiling point, then the increase in
entropy is given by
( T
(d) loge
(a) log (273) (b) log (1) (c) loge
J (9 J
where = Specific heat of water, and
T = Boiling temperature in K.
3. The entropy of dry steam (s) is given by
h, r h
T (b)s1 + (c)s, (d)s1