You are on page 1of 28

CI/SfB

Xt6
June 2003

Staifix Shear Load Connectors


for the Construction Industr y

DSD/
DSDQ
Design
Program ailable
av
now
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

ANCON CONTENTS STAIFIX SHEAR LOAD CONNECTORS


BUILDING
Concrete Construction 2 The Staifix range of shear connectors offers
PRODUCTS
Staifix Range of Shear Connectors 3 significant advantages over conventional single
Ancon Building Products Conventional Joints 4 dowels. The two part construction means that the
designs and manufactures a Staifix Solution to Joints 5 sleeve component can be simply nailed to the
wide range of structural Staifix DSD Shear Connectors 6 formwork, drilling of either formwork or concrete is
components. At its head not required. The dowel unit can then be inserted into
Staifix DSDQ Shear Connectors 7
office in Sheffield the the sleeve. The engineered nature of the two
Staifix ESD & ESDQ Shear Connectors 8
company operates four components ensures alignment, vital where
Staifix ED Shear Connectors 9
sales divisions: movement is required. Our comprehensive range
Staisil Acoustic Dowels 9
provides solutions for all shear connections in
Construction Installation of Shear Connectors 10
concrete. Staifix double dowel shear connectors are
Building Applications for Staifix
Distributor Sales Shear Connectors 11 - 13
particularly effective for all but the thinnest slabs.

Rebar Couplers Civil Engineering Applications for


Staifix Shear Connectors 14 - 18
Export Design Requirements 19
Technical Information for Staifix
Each division is dedicated
Shear Connectors 20 - 25
to providing a full range of
Stainless Steel Reinforcement 26
services to its particular
Other Ancon Products 27
market.

CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION
Our Specification
Services Team liaise with Reinforced concrete is an important construction
material, it has strength, durability and can be formed
construction professionals
into a variety of shapes. Careful design is essential to
on a daily basis offering
ensure correct performance of the structure.
advice on the correct
Reinforced concrete must be designed and
selection of fixings and
constructed to accommodate the inevitable
most appropriate system
movements which will take place:
design. Design details
and cost estimates are
provided for specifiers
and users of the
companys products.

From advanced TECHNICAL ADVICE

manufacturing facilities in Ancon will provide technical assistance on the


Sheffield and Greenfield, selection of Staifix Shear Load Connectors. Our
North Wales, the company Specification Services Team will be pleased to
supplies volume and discuss individual applications.
one-off orders to exacting
quality standards.
Shrinkage - DESIGN SERVICE
Initially rapid, less severe as the concrete ages.
Details are produced on the latest parametric
Ancon has a large network
Creep- design software and all products are scheduled for
A phenomenon which causes a redistribution of
of distributors worldwide delivery to suit your requirements.
stress away from points of intensity.
and offices in:
Thermal movement - QUALITY ASSURANCE
Australia Expansion and contraction of the structure with
All Shear Load Connectors
temperature changes.
Switzerland Structures are designed with expansion and
are designed and manufactured

UAE contraction joints at appropriate places to allow this


to the quality requirements of
BS EN ISO 9001:1994
movement to take place. The design of the joint is BS EN ISO 9001 : 1994
important for the overall design to function correctly. FM12226

2
STAIFIX SHEAR LOAD CONNECTORS

Staifix DSD
The Staifix DSD is the original two-part, double
dowel, shear load connector. The dowel component
can move longitudinally within the sleeve to
accommodate movement. The connector is available in
ten standard sizes and can transfer loads from around
20kN to over 450kN. The larger connectors can be Patent No.
EP 0 127 631 B1
used in joints up to 60mm wide.
Staifix DSD

Staifix DSDQ
The Staifix DSDQ shear load connector uses the
same dowel component as the Staifix DSD, but the
cylindrical sleeve is contained within a rectangular
box section to allow lateral movement in addition to
the longitudinal movement. Nine standard sizes can
be used to transfer loads from around 30kN to over
450kN.

Staifix DSDQ

Staifix ESD
This single dowel shear connector is available in
three sizes with each size available in two lengths.
Staifix ESD shear connectors are used where the
slab or wall is too thin for Staifix DSD, and where
loads are small.

Staifix ESD
Staifix ESDQ
The Staifix ESDQ shear load connector uses the
same dowel as the Staifix ESD, but the cylindrical
sleeve is contained within a rectangular box section
to allow lateral movement in addition to longitudinal
movement. Staifix ESDQ shear connectors are used
where the slab or wall is too thin for Staifix DSDQ, and
where loads are small.
Staifix ESDQ

Staifix ED
The Staifix ED is a low cost dowel connector for
use in floor slabs where alignment is important but
loads are small. The single dowel shear connector
is available in three sizes with each size available in
two lengths.

Staifix ED

Staisil Acoustic Dowel


The Staisil Acoustic Dowel is designed to transfer
shear loads and limit sound transmission across
joints in concrete. The sleeve contains sound
absorbing material between two stainless steel
tubes.
Staisil Acoustic Dowel

3
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

CONVENTIONAL DOWELLED JOINTS

Dowels are used to transfer shear across


construction and movement joints in concrete. They
are usually either cast or drilled into the concrete. A
Dowel bar
single row of short thick dowels provides reasonable
shear transfer but suffer from deformation. This Compressible
can lead to stress concentrations, resulting in joint filler

subsequent spalling of the concrete.


Where dowels are used across expansion and
contraction joints, half the length of the bar is
debonded to allow movement to take place.

End cap to allow


DIFFICULTIES WITH Debonding
dowel movement
sleeve
CONVENTIONAL JOINTS

Dowelled Joints
Dowelled joints either require formwork to be
drilled for the dowels to pass through, or concrete to
be drilled for dowels to be resin fixed in one side.
Where dowels are used at movement joints the
dowels will need to be accurately aligned in both
directions to ensure movement can actually take
place, otherwise cracking is likely to occur.
Single dowels are not very effective when used
across joints wider than 10mm.

Misaligned Dowels Restrict Movement and can


Result in Cracking

Keyed Joints
Keyed joints require complicated formwork to
create the tongue and groove. If the joint is not
formed correctly, differential movement can take
place. Load is transferred through the locally
reduced section of the joint which can at times result
in cracking.

Cracking of Concrete Away from Expansion Joint

Keyed Joints Allow Differential Movement and


can Result in Cracking

4
STAIFIX SOLUTION TO JOINTS

In most cases conventional dowelled or keyed


joints can be replaced by joints incorporating Staifix
Staifix DSD sleeve
shear connectors. These are more effective at
transferring load and allowing movement to take
place, easier to fix on site and a far more cost
effective solution. They can be used for movement
joints in floor slabs, suspended slabs, and for
replacing double columns and beams at structural
movement joints. Applications in civil engineering
include joints in bridge parapets, bridge abutments
and diaphragm wall construction.
Staifix DSD
dowel component

CONVENTIONAL JOINTS STAIFIX SOLUTIONS

Floor Slab

Dowel Bar Staifix DSD

Wall

Keyed Joint Staifix DSD

Structural Movement Joint

Double Columns Staifix DSD

Floor to Wall Connection

Corbel Support Staifix DSD


5
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

STAIFIX DSD SHEAR CONNECTORS

The Staifix DSD range of double dowel shear


connectors offers many advantages over single dowels
including proven performance, high strength, easy and
accurate installation, and a cost effective solution.

Long Term Integrity


All stainless steel construction ensures a high
degree of corrosion resistance with no requirement
for additional protection.

Performance
For a given cross sectional area, a Staifix DSD can
transfer many times the load feasible for a single
dowel. The web plate separating each pair of dowels
increases rigidity so that the cross section has a much
greater moment of inertia than that of the two individual
dowels. The web plate reduces stress concentrations
in the critical regions near the faces of the joint. Dowel
Bars are manufactured from Duplex stainless steel
grade 1.4462 to provide a high load capacity. Other
components are grade 1.4301 (304) stainless steel.
End cap
Rapid Installation
Dowel sleeve flange plates enable rapid and
accurate installation. Simple nailing of the sleeve
component to the formwork ensures subsequent
alignment with the dowel assembly.
Web plate

Dowel bars Effective Movement


The stainless steel dowel bars, coated in graphite
Guide tube grease and coupled with tight tolerance dowel
sleeves, ensure effective movement.
Cross dowels
Fully Tested and Quality Assured
End plate with
nail holes Staifix DSD shear connectors have been
Longitudinal independently tested. All Staifix shear connectors are
movement
manufactured to the quality requirements of ISO 9001.

Comparison of Performance with Conventional


Single Dowels Cost and Material Savings
Grade C30 Concrete & One Staifix Six 32mm Dia
Joint Width of 20mm DSD130 Dowel bars
Use of Staifix DSD connectors reduces site
costs by simplifying the formwork and can in
Dowel Diameter mm 2 @ 35 32
many cases eliminate the need for expensive
Area of Dowel mm2 1924 4825
Serviceability Load kN 145 138 details such as corbels and double columns at
For full technical details see pages 19 to 23 structural movement joints.

6 Dowel Bars 32mm Diameter Serviceability


1 Staifix DSD 130 Serviceability Load 145KN Load 138KN

6
STAIFIX DSDQ SHEAR CONNECTORS

Incorporating all the advantages of the Staifix


DSD connectors, the DSDQ range of shear
connectors allows a small lateral movement to be
accommodated. The dowel component is identical to
that of the corresponding DSD unit. The sleeve
component is different, having an additional
rectangular box section around the standard
cylindrical sleeve. Lateral movement or rotation can
take place within the rectangular sleeve box.
Concrete ground slabs with bays of irregular or
different sizes will require dowels at expansion and
contraction joints, these will accommodate movement
in two directions while still transferring load across the
joint. Connections between sections of parapets on
bridges may also need to allow rotation as well as
longitudinal movement to take place.

Sleeve component

Lateral movement
or rotation

Dowel
component

Longitudinal Staifix DSDQ Sleeve Fixed to Formwork


movement

Staifix DSDQ Shear Connectors allowing


Staifix DSDQ Shear Connectors allowing rotation movement in two directions

Staifix DSDQ
Shear Connectors

Slab movement will be


in opposite directions in
this area

Plan
For full technical details see pages 19 to 23

7
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

STAIFIX ESD SHEAR CONNECTORS

Staifix ESD shear connectors are used to transfer


shear across movement or contraction joints in slabs
not thick enough to accommodate the double dowel
Staifix shear connectors. They share all the
advantages of the DSD range but without the high load
transfer capacity. The dowel component is made
from Duplex stainless steel bar. The cylindrical sleeve
component is made from grade 1.4301 (304) stainless
steel.
A grade 1.4301 (304) stainless steel flange plate is
welded on to the sleeve component in order to enable
a rapid and accurate installation. Simple nailing of the
sleeve component to the formwork ensures
subsequent alignment with the dowel assembly.

Sleeve

Dowel

Staifix ESD Shear Connectors Used for Longitudinal


Supporting a Suspended Floor Slab movement

STAIFIX ESDQ SHEAR CONNECTORS

Based on the Staifix ESD shear connector, the


ESDQ range has an additional rectangular box section
around the cylindrical sleeve. Lateral movement or
rotation can take place within the rectangular sleeve.
The grades of stainless steel used for the Staifix
ESDQ shear connectors are as shown above for the
ESD range.
For further technical details see page 24.

Sleeve
Lateral
movement

Dowel

Longitudinal
movement

Diagram Shows Lateral Movement


8
STAIFIX ED SHEAR CONNECTOR

The Staifix ED single dowel is the ideal choice for


movement joints where alignment is critical but loads
are small. The sleeve component is made from a
durable plastic and is provided with an integral
flange plate to enable simple and accurate
installation to the formwork.
The dowel component is made from Duplex
stainless steel bar.
For further technical details see page 25.

Plastic sleeve

Dowel

Longitudinal
movement
Staifix ED Shear Connectors in
Ground Slab
STAISIL ACOUSTIC DOWELS

Many buildings will benefit from reducing noise


transmission from stairs and landings. The Staisil
Acoustic dowel, transfers the shear load but absorbs
sound and provides heat insulation. The Staisil
sleeve has Elastomer sound absorbing material
sandwiched between two stainless steel tubes. The
end plate has four nail holes to allow easy and
accurate fixing to the formwork.
For further technical details see page 25.

Sound Transmission Properties


The sound transmission properties of Staisil
Acoustic Dowels are generally unaffected by either
joint width or service load.
Tests in the frequency range of 100 - 3150 Hz have
shown a reduction in sound transmission of 20db. When
the standard solid dowel was replaced by an anti-
vibration dowel a reduction of 25db was recorded.
Inner sleeve Fixing plate Dowel
Sound absorbing
sleeve

Dowel

Sound absorbing Outer sleeve


Longitudinal
material
movement
9
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE


Direction
of load INSTALLATION OF STAIFIX SHEAR
LOAD CONNECTORS

The two part design of all Staifix shear connectors


removes the need for drilling formwork on site,
supporting dowel bars and fitting debonding sleeves
and end caps. The installation is a fast and accurate
process.
1 1 Nail the sleeve component of the Staifix Shear
Connector to the shuttering ensuring that the
sleeve is correctly orientated for the direction of the
load. Check that the minimum spacings and edge
distances are not exceeded. The label prevents
debris from entering into the sleeve aperture and
should not be removed at this stage.
2
2 Fix the local reinforcement in position around the
sleeve component together with any other
reinforcement that is required, ensuring that the The concrete must be able to sustain the load

correct cover to the reinforcement is maintained. transferred by the Staifix dowels when the shuttering is

Pour the concrete to complete the installation of struck. The following table may be used to estimate the

the sleeve component. number of days after which supporting formwork could be
3 removed. For example, if the self weight of a suspended
3 When the concrete has achieved sufficient
slab represents one half of its total design load, enter the
strength, strike the shuttering. Peel off or puncture
Table with a factor of 0.5. From this it can be seen that
the Staifix label to reveal the holes for the dowels.
Grade 15 concrete would attain enough strength in
Where Staifix DSDQ or ESDQ are being used, the
28 days to support the self weight of the slab. The
label should only be punctured enough to allow the
strength/time relationship of Grade 30 concrete will show
dowels into the cylindrical sleeve.
the number of days needed to achieve a strength of
4 4 Position the compressible joint filler of the 15N/mm2 (typically less than seven). The supporting
appropriate width for applications where formwork could therefore be safely removed after that
movement is expected between the two sections number of days. A qualified structural engineer should
of concrete. advise.
5 Push the dowel component through the joint filler Load Reduction Factors
(if applicable) until it is fully located in the sleeve Concrete Strength N/mm2 15 20 25 30
component. It may be necessary to tap the dowel Reduction Factor 0.5 0.66 0.83 1.00
5
component to overcome the dimple in the sleeve
which pinch holds the dowel in the sleeve and
prevents dislocation when the concrete is
vibrated.
6 Fix the local reinforcement in position around the
dowel component together with any other
6 reinforcement that is required, ensuring that the
correct cover to the reinforcement is maintained.
Pour the concrete to complete the installation of
the Staifix shear connector.
Note:-
(i) Although installation is shown for Staifix DSD, the
procedure is the same for all Staifix shear
connectors.
(ii) Where deep concrete pours are proposed, the
installation will require further consideration. More
robust fixing of the sleeve and dowel components
will be necessary, to avoid displacement during
placing of the concrete.

10
APPLICATIONS FOR STAIFIX SHEAR
LOAD CONNECTORS

There are many applications for Staifix shear


connectors in all types of construction using
reinforced concrete in both building and civil
engineering contracts.

BUILDING APPLICATIONS

Ground Floor Slabs


Movement joints are usually required to divide a
reinforced concrete ground slab into bays. Staifix
DSD shear connectors are used to transfer shear
load from slab to slab and to prevent differential
settlement. Where adjoining bays are different sizes
movement in two directions will occur, Staifix DSDQ
Beam to Wall or Slab Connections
shear connectors should be used in this situation.
Corbel and half lap joints are a problem to design
and difficult and expensive to construct. The use of
Staifix DSD shear connectors simplifies design and
construction, producing a better detail.

Suspended Floor Slabs


In suspended slabs, connectors should be
placed at points of contraflecture where there is little
or no bending moment and maximum shear force.

Structural Movement Joints in Frames


A common requirement in framed buildings is a
structural movement joint to isolate one part of the
building from another. Traditional practice is to
provide a line of double columns. The use of Staifix
shear connectors reduces costs, speeds construction
and increases floor area.

11
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

BUILDING APPLICATIONS

Powergen Head Office Coventry

Staifix DSD Shear Connectors were used to


transfer shear across the movement joints in the
coffered floor slabs of this cast in-situ reinforced
concrete framed building. This ensured architectural
continuity and overcame the need for additional
columns and drop beams at the joints. The quick and
simple installation of the Staifix DSD units was
appreciated by the contractor on this multi-million
pound project.

Client Powergen plc


15mm
movement Design & Build John Laing Construction
joint Contractor
Structural Engineer Curtins Consulting Engineers

Staifix DSD 75
Shear Connector

Pomona Street Sheffield

Staifix DSD 50 shear connectors were used to


transfer shear loads from floor beams to columns in
groups of four. Staifix ESDs were incorporated in the
floor slabs to beam connections.

Client Norwich Union


Design & Build J.F. Finnegan Ltd
Contractor
Architect & Hadfield, Cawkwell, Davidson
Structural Engineer & Partners

Staifix DSD 50 Shear Connectors

12
Manchester United FC Stadium
Staifix DSDs were used during the redevelopment
of Old Trafford to form the beam to slab connection
across the movement joints in the all-seat Stretford
End. They were chosen as a cost effective, simple
and proven alternative to double frames or the use of
a corbelled column.

Staifix DSD 100


Staifix Shear Connector
DSD 100
Shear
Connectors

Section A-A

Client Manchester United plc


15mm Architect Atherden Fuller
movement joint
Structural Engineer Campbell Reith Hill
Part Plan at First Floor Level Local Contractor Alfred McAlpine
to Movement Joint

Movement joint
Multi-storey Car Park Manchester Airport
The car park at Manchester Airports Terminal 2 is a
multi span, 3-4 storey, reinforced concrete portal frame,
divided into three sections by two transverse movement
joints. Staifix DSD Shear Connectors were used to
Staifix DSD 25
connect the waffle slab to the portal frame adjacent to Shear Connectors
the movement joints. This removed the requirement for
costly and architecturally obtrusive additional frames
and maximised usable floor area within the structure.

Joint Detail

Client
Manchester Airport plc
Architect
Smith and Way
Structural Engineer
Hill Cannon Partnership
Contractor
Norwest Holst

13
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

CIVIL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS Diaphragm Wall/Slab Connections

Movement Joints in Carriageways Connecting road slabs to diaphragm walls can be


a difficult and expensive operation. Forming
Staifix DSD shear connectors are used in
recesses, or using post fixed dowels into site drilled
carriageway joints to transfer high shear loads
holes presents many problems on site. Staifix DSD
caused by traffic loading and for eliminating
shear connectors provide a cost effective solution.
differential settlement.
The sleeve components are nailed to plywood
formwork which is rigidly fixed to the reinforcement
cage. After excavation the plywood is removed to
reveal the faces of the sleeves. The dowel
components can now be inserted ready to support
the slab.

Bridge Abutments
Staifix DSD shear connectors are used vertically
at bridge abutments to fix the bridge deck to the
abutment. In addition to ease of installation, the use
of Staifix DSD shear connectors allows for the bridge
deck to be jacked up for bearings to be replaced.

Contiguous Piled Wall/Slab Connections


Similar in application to diaphragm wall
construction, Staifix DSD shear connectors are used
to transfer shear load from slab to pile.

Joints in Parapets
The use of Staifix shear connectors in the vertical
joints in parapets is a simple and cost effective way
of connecting the sections. The Staifix DSDQ
facilitates significant rotation at the joint without
reducing the horizontal shear capacity.

Small diameter
bars welded to
DSD sleeve and
reinforcement

14
A57 Irlam and Cadisham By-Pass
Staifix DSDs were used as shear connectors at
transverse movement joints between consecutive
piled road slabs. High shear loads were expected
due to traffic loading and differential settlement of the
structure.

Staifix DSD 75 Shear Connector

Client Salford City Council


Consulting Engineer Salford City Council
Contractor Birse

Channel Tunnel Terminal


Staifix DSD shear connectors were used between
the in-situ bearing walls and the precast ramp slab
units. The ramps transfer vehicles from overbridges
to the tunnel shuttle trains.

Staifix DSD 75 Shear Connector

Client Eurotunnel
Consulting Engineer Mott MacDonald
Contractor Norwest Holst

15
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

CIVIL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

Bridge Parapets A650 Keighley


Two Staifix DSDQ 50 shear connectors were used
in the P6 high containment parapets where the A650
crosses a railway line and canal adjacent to Bingley
railway station.

Two Staifix DSDQ 50


Shear Connectors

Bridge Parapets M6 Preston


A combination of Staifix DSDQ 50 and Staifix
ESDQ 20 shear connectors was used to connect P1
parapets on the northbound carriageway of the M6
near Preston. The Staifix ESDQ was chosen for its
suitability in slender sections and was installed
Staifix ESDQ 20 without problem into the narrow gap between the
Shear Connector
vertical reinforcing bars.

Staifix DSDQ 50
Shear Connector

Precast Parapets
Staifix DSD shear connectors are used in many
precast applications including parapets. The sleeve
components are cast into one end of each parapet
section and a pocket left for installing the dowel
component at site.

Precast Parapet with Staifix DSD 50 Sleeves

16
Bute Town Link Cardiff
1
Several options were considered for the
connection between the road base slab and the
diaphragm wall in the cut and cover tunnel in Cardiff.
Staifix DSD 150s were selected as the most cost
effective way of transferring the very high shear loads
due to hydrostatic pressure on the road base to the
diaphragm wall.

1 Diaphragm wall reinforcement cage.


2
2 Sleeve component of Staifix DSD nailed to a
plywood form which was rigidly fixed to the
cage by means of J bolts. The anchor bars of
the DSD sleeves were omitted and lengths of
reinforcing bar fixed through the holes in the web
plate.

3 View of tunnel with face plates of DSD sleeves


exposed after removal of the plywood form.

4 Staifix DSD dowels inserted into the sleeves prior 3


to fixing slab reinforcement and casting of the
concrete.

Staifix DSD 150 Shear Connectors

25m Client
South Glamorgan County
Made ground Council
Consulting Engineer
Silt/clay South Glamorgan County
Council Engineering
10.7m Consultancy

Staifix DSD Contractor


Average connection DMD/Cogefarimpresit
22m Joint Venture
Sand/gravel

Mudstone

Diaphragm wall

Section through tunnel

17
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

CIVIL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

Jubilee Line Extension


Staifix Shear Connectors have been used on
many of the stations on the extension to the Jubilee
Line in London. Canary Wharf, Westminster,
Bermondsey and Canning Town stations have all
been built using Staifix Shear Connectors. At
Bermondsey station, special Staifix DSD 740s were
used to transfer shear load from a beam to a wall.
The DSD 740s had two 74mm dowels and a service
load in excess of 450kN.

Two Staifix DSD 740 Shear Connectors Used


at Bermondsey Station Shown Alongside DSD
100 and DSD 25

Eight Staifix DSD 740 Shear Connectors were


Used in the Connection of a 3 Metre Deep
Beam to a Wall

A50 Blyth Bridge to Queensway


Staifix Shear Connectors were used at the
expansion joints in the walls and base of the concrete
road trough. They provided a highly cost-effective
alternative to single dowel bars.

Client Department of Transport


Consulting Staffordshire County Council
Engineers Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick
Contractors Birse Construction (Phase 1A)
Kier/Christiani (Phase 1B)

18
DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

The selection of the correct Staifix shear


connector is a straightforward process. The tables on
pages 20 to 25 provide all the necessary information.

Loadings
Serviceability loads are shown for grade C30
concrete. Concrete failure load is typically 2.4 times
greater than the serviceability load, steel failure at
least 1.84 times greater. For serviceability loads for
other grades of concrete please contact Ancon
Building Products.

Design Joint Widths


To allow for site variations, the designer should
Slab Thickness & Spacings consider increasing the calculated joint width by a
The minimum slab and beam thicknesses are factor of up to 1.3 to obtain the design joint width,
shown for each type of Staifix shear connector. which is a maximum.
Spacings should be equal to or greater than the Joint width
minimum shown for each type. For deeper slabs,
when using DSD and DSDQ shear connectors, the
closer centres shown for beams can be adopted.

Slab
thickness
Local Reinforcement & Cover
As high tensile stresses are generated at dowel
End
distance Centres locations, sufficient local reinforcement needs to be
included to ensure full design capacity is achieved.
Beam Formulae for calculating minimum areas of local
thickness reinforcement are included on pages 22 and 23.
It is important that the correct cover to local
reinforcement around each Staifix DSD dowel is
End
distance achieved. Minimum cover is to the recommendations
of BS 8110 Part 1 : 1997. Maximum cover is as shown
on page 23.

Centres

Cover

19
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

PERFORMANCE OF STAIFIX DSD & Joint widths


DSDQ SHEAR CONNECTORS

The load tables below show values for


serviceability and ultimate load. The ultimate loads
include a load factor of 1.6, and material factors of 1.5
for concrete and 1.15 for steel. These provide global
safety factors against failure of 2.4 for concrete and
1.84 for steel.
For specific applications where other load factors
may be appropriate, please contact Ancon Building
Products.
Ref Serviceability Loads (kN) for Various Design Joint Widths 30N/mm2 Concrete
DSD
DSDQ 0 10mm 20mm 30mm 40mm 50mm 60mm
25* 25.5 21.6 19.2 17.5 16.8 - -
30 39.2 36.2 33.7 31.5 24.8 - -
50 46.8 43.4 40.5 38.0 34.7 28.5 -
65 61.4 57.6 54.3 51.3 46.9 38.7 -
75 74.9 70.6 66.8 63.4 60.4 50.9 -
100 126.6 120.8 115.5 110.6 106.2 92.7 80.5
130 158.7 151.8 145.5 139.7 134.3 129.4 123.6
150 211.5 203.3 195.7 188.7 182.1 176.0 170.2
400 319.0 308.7 299.1 290.1 275.2 249.7 226.5
450 453.3 440.2 427.9 416.2 405.1 394.6 384.6
Note: Serviceability loads provide a minimum global factor of safety against failure of 2.4 for concrete and 1.84 for steel.
* DSD only
Ref
Ultimate Failure Loads (kN) for Various Design Joint Widths 30N/mm2 Concrete
DSD
DSDQ 0 10mm 20mm 30mm 40mm 50mm 60mm
25* 61.2 52.0 46.0 39.0 30.9 - -
30 93.9 86.9 78.9 58.2 45.6 - -
50 112.0 104.2 97.2 81.1 64.0 52.5 -
65 147.5 138.4 130.3 108.4 86.4 71.2 -
75 179.8 169.6 160.4 140.5 113.0 93.8 -
100 303.8 289.8 277.2 235.7 199.4 170.4 148.2
130 380.9 364.3 349.2 335.3 298.4 259.2 227.5
150 507.8 488.0 469.8 452.9 430.3 381.3 339.5
400 643.7 631.7 599.2 554.7 506.4 459.2 416.7
450 1005.8 993.6 959.6 909.9 851.8 791.2 732.2
Note: Figures shown in normal type are concrete failure values. Figures shown in green italic are steel failure values.
* DSD only

Serviceability Loads (kN) 30N/mm2 Concrete


KEY
DSD450

400kN DSD400

DSD150

300kN DSD130

DSD100

DSD75
200kN
DSD65

DSD50
100kN
DSD30

DSD25

0kN
0mm 10mm 20mm 30mm 40mm 50mm 60mm
Design Joint Width
20
DIMENSIONS

Dowel Component DSD Sleeve DSDQ Sleeve


Dowel bar Anchor bar Anchor bar Anchor bar
diameter position position position

Centres

Projection
Sleeve length Sleeve length
Dowel length

Maximum
lateral
movement

Anchor bar Anchor bar Anchor bar


lengths lengths length

Ref Dowel Component DSD Sleeve DSDQ Sleeve


DSD Overall Dowel Dowel Dowel Anchor Bar Anchor Bar Overall Anchor Bar Anchor Bar Overall Anchor Bar Anchor Bar Lateral
DSDQ Length Dia Centres Projection Position Lengths Length Position Lengths Length Position Length Movnt
25* 250 14 40 120 31 80/140 120 28 80/140 - - - -
30 260 16 48 120 31 80/140 120 28 80/140 140 33 100 26
50 280 18 50 130 31 80/160 135 28 80/160 160 33 100 25
65 300 20 65 150 31 80/160 155 29 80/160 175 33 150 21
75 340 22 75 150 33 100/180 155 31 100/180 175 33 150 20
100 400 30 100 210 34 100/200 210 36 100/200 235 54 200 41
130 470 35 105 260 34 100/200 265 36 100/200 275 59 200 36
150 550 42 120 270 54 100/240 275 41 100/240 305 54 210 21
400 660 52 160 330 70 150/300 335 70 150/300 350 64 350 27
450 690 65 180 360 80 180/350 370 80 180/350 400 89 350 54
* DSD only

SPACINGS, SLAB & BEAM THICKNESSES Beam thickness


= =
Staifix DSD and DSDQ should be positioned in
slabs and beams within the minimum dimensions
End
shown in the table below to ensure full load transfer. distance
=
For information on reduced spacings or edge Slab
thickness
distances please contact Ancon. =

For slabs or beams with thickness greater than End Centres


distance Centres
the standard, the values for standard thickness apply.
For slabs and beams with thicknesses between the
minimum and standard, use the formula shown.

Staifix DSD and DSDQ Spacings and Minimum Concrete Thicknesses

Ref Minimum Thickness Standard Thickness


DSD Minimum Slab/ Minimum Minimum End Standard Slab/ Minimum Minimum End
DSDQ Beam Thickness Centres Distance Beam Thickness Centres Distance
25* 160 240 120 240 160 80
30 180 270 135 270 180 90
50 180 270 135 270 180 90
65 200 300 150 300 200 100
75 240 360 180 360 240 120
100 320 480 240 480 320 160
130 360 540 270 540 360 180
150 450 675 337 675 450 225
400 600 900 450 900 600 300
450 650 975 487 975 650 325
* DSD only
Minimum Centres = (2.5 x Min. Slab/Beam Thickness) Actual Thickness Example: Staifix DSD100 used in 350mm thick slab
End Distance = 0.5 x Minimum Centres Minimum Centres = (2.5 x 320) - 350 = 450mm
End Distance = 0.5 x 450 = 225mm

21
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

Reinforcement Arrangement 1 LOCAL REINFORCEMENT


Staifix DSD25 - DSD150
Local reinforcement is required around each DSD
0
10 dowel and sleeve component to bridge any fine
10
0 cracks that develop in the concrete as the dowels

0
transfer load. Correct detailing in accordance with
10
10 BS 8110 and the recommendations provided here,
0
10
will ensure the Staifix DSD and DSDQ shear
0
connectors attain their full capacity.

SLAB REINFORCEMENT

Serviceability load
Cover
Joint
width Bar diameter

=
Slab
thickness
Typical Layout =

Vertical Reinforcement
Cross Sectional Area (CSA) is calculated as follows:-

CSA = 2.4 x Serviceability Load x (Joint Width + Slab Thickness) x 103


Reinforcement Arrangement 2 0.87 x fy x (Slab Thickness - (2 x Cover) - Bar Diameter)
Staifix DSD130 - DSD450
Example DSD100 used in 400mm thick slab
10
0 Actual serviceability load = 100kN Joint width = 20mm
Bar diameter = 16mm fy = 500N/mm2 Cover = 40mm

2.4 x 100 x (20 + 400) x 103


CSA = = 762mm2
0.87 x 500 x (400 - 80 - 16)

Use 4 - T16 U-Bars (actual area - 804mm2)

(130 for
DSD 400
Top and Bottom Reinforcement
and above)

CSA = Area of Vertical Reinforcement



From the example above
CSA = 762
= 243mm2

Use 6 - T8 (actual area - 301mm2)

Typical Layout
Other U-bars
top and bottom
reinforcement
not shown.

22
Width
BEAM REINFORCEMENT Direction = =
A of load
The main consideration for beams is usually the
design reinforcement to carry the shear load. This is
provided in accordance with well established
procedures set out in international codes, and will
require shear links local to the Staifix DSD units. Typical
shape
In addition to this reinforcement, particularly in 38 bar 75mm max
thin beams, reinforcement must be added to prevent Typical shape
Typical
vertical splitting of the concrete. The reinforcement shape 38 bar
60 bar Typical shape
should be located as shown in the diagrams opposite.
60 bar
Cross Sectional Normal Normal
= 2.4 x Serviceability Load x 10
3
Area of Local reinforcement reinforcement
Reinforcement x 0.87 x fy

Example: Staifix DSD100 in 350mm wide beam Section A-A


Actual serviceability load = 100kN
A
fy of reinforcement = 500N/mm2

Cross Sectional 2.4 x 100 x 103


= 176mm2
Area of Local = x 0.87 x 500
Reinforcement MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Use 2 - T12 U-Bars (actual area - 226mm )
2
Material Specification of Staifix DSD Shear
Connectors
For further details of beam reinforcement, or for
Component Specification
specific applications, please contact Ancon Building
Dowel bar 1.4462
Products. Plate 1.4301
Cross dowels 1.4301
COVER

Minimum cover to local reinforcement is to the Material Strengths of Staifix DSD/Q Dowel Bars
recommendations of BS 8110 Part 1 : 1997. Maximum Ref 0.2% Tensile Elongation
DSD Proof Stress Strength at Rupture
cover is as shown below:- DSDQ 2 2
N/mm (Rp) N/mm (Rm) % (A10)
Ref 25* 780 850 15
DSD 30 780 850 15
DSDQ Max Cover to Face
50 780 850 15
25* 30 65 780 850 15
30 30 75 780 850 15
50 30 100 550 700 20
65 40 130 550 700 20
75 50 150 500 650 20
100 50 400 350 650 25
130 50 450 350 650 25
150 50
* DSD only
400 60
450 60
Chemical Composition of Staifix DSD Dowel Bars
* DSD only
Chemical Plates and Dowel Bars
Element Anchor Bars Duplex
1.4301 1.4462
MIN % MAX % MIN % MAX %
Carbon 0.06 0.03
Silicon 1.0 1.0
Manganese 2.0 2.0
Nickel 8.0 11.0 4.5 6.5
Cover Chromium 17.5 19.0 21.0 23.0
Molybdenum 2.5 3.5
Sulphur 0.030 0.01
Phosphorous 0.045 0.035
Where a sleeve component Nitrogen 0.17
is cast into a wall the
thickness of the wall should
be at least 50mm more than
the length of the sleeve.

50mm min

23
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

PERFORMANCE & DIMENSIONS OF Joint width


ESD & ESDQ SHEAR LOAD CONNECTORS

The serviceability loads are based on full scale


tests and are suitable for the majority of building
applications. These loads provide a global safety
factor against ultimate failure of either 2.4 for
concrete or 1.84 for steel. For specific applications
where other load factors may be appropriate, please
contact Ancon Building Products.
Performance
Ref Serviceability Loads (kN) for Various Design Joint Widths 30N/mm2 Concrete
ESD
ESDQ 0 10mm 20mm 30mm 40mm
10 300 12.7 10.8 9.3 8.3 -
10 400 12.7 10.8 9.3 8.3 -
15 300 15.0 12.8 11.2 10.0 -
15 400 15.0 12.8 11.2 10.0 -
20 300 25.8 22.8 20.4 18.5 16.9
20 400 25.8 22.8 20.4 18.5 16.9
25 350 33.7 30.2 27.3 25.0 23.0
25 470 33.7 30.2 27.3 25.0 23.0
Note: Example Ref ESD10 300 Maximum lateral
movement
Internal diameter Internal diameter

Dowel
diameter

Dowel length Sleeve length Sleeve length


ESD10/15 76 ESD10/15 76
ESD20/25 100 ESD20/25 110
Dimensions
Dowel Component ESD Sleeve ESDQ Sleeve
Ref
ESD Dowel Dowel Internal Sleeve Internal Sleeve Max. Lateral
ESDQ Diameter Length Diameter Length Diameter Length Movement
10 300 20 300 21 175 21 175 20
10 400 20 400 21 225 21 225 20
15 300 22 300 23 175 23 175 20
15 400 22 400 23 225 23 225 20
20 300 30 300 31 175 31 175 41
20 400 30 400 31 225 31 225 41
25 350 35 350 36 200 36 200 36
25 470 35 470 36 260 36 260 36
Note: Example Ref ESD10 300
Slab Depths and Spacings
SLAB THICKNESSES
Ref
ESD
Staifix ESD and ESDQ should be positioned ESDQ Min Slab Min Spacing
centrally in slabs of the minimum dimensions shown 10 300 180 250
in the table. For use in other thickness slabs and 10 400 180 250
15 300 180 250
for different grades of concrete please contact Ancon
15 400 180 250
Building Products. 20 300 240 250
20 400 240 250
25 350 300 300
LOCAL REINFORCEMENT
25 470 300 300
Local reinforcement should be calculated using Slab thickness may be reduced by 70% if a reduction factor of 0.7 is applied
to the serviceability load.
the same formulae for Staifix DSD shown on page 22.
Note: Example Ref ESD10 300

180mm

Dowel: Minimum centres 250mm


150mm min
24
PERFORMANCE AND DIMENSIONS OF
STAIFIX ED SHEAR CONNECTORS

Dowel
Diameter

Dowel Length 80 Sleeve Length

Performance and Dimensions


Design Joint Widths 0-20mm
Dimensions Spacings Service Load
Ref Dowel Dowel Sleeve Min Min
ED Diameter Length Length Slab Centres (kN)
10 300 20 300 170 125 250 6.5
10 400 20 400 220 125 250 6.5
15 300 22 300 170 125 250 7.5
15 400 22 400 220 125 250 7.5
20 300 30 300 170 170 250 10.5
20 400 30 400 220 170 250 10.5
25 350 35 350 195 210 300 13.5
25 400 35 400 220 210 300 13.5
Note: Example Ref ED10 300

PERFORMANCE AND DIMENSIONS OF


STAIFIX ACOUSTIC DOWELS

Dowel Sleeve
diameter diameter

Dowel length 100 Sleeve length

Performance and Dimensions


Dowel Dowel Sleeve Sleeve Min Min Serviceability Load (kN)
Diameter Length Diameter Length Slab Spacings 0-10mm 20mm 30mm 40mm
35 300 63.5 126.5 160 250 22 20 18 16

Joint width
SINGLE DOWELS

The table below shows the serviceability loads for


dowels ranging from 25mm to 60mm diameter in
grade C30 concrete for joint widths of up to 60mm.

Dowel Diameter Serviceability Loads (kN) for Various Design Joint Widths
0mm 10mm 20mm 30mm 40mm 50mm 60mm
25 18.7 16.3 14.4 12.9 11.7
32 28.8 25.6 23.1 21.0 19.2 17.8 16.5
40 42.6 38.5 35.2 32.4 30.0 27.9 26.1
50 63.0 57.8 53.4 49.7 46.4 43.5 41.0
60 86.6 80.4 75.0 70.2 66.1 62.4 59.0

REFERENCES

BS 4449 : 1997 BS 8110 : Part 1 : 1997


Specification for Carbon Steel Bars for the Reinforcement of Structural Use of Concrete Part 1 : Code of Practice for
Concrete. Design and Construction.
BS 8666 : 2000 BS EN 10088
Specification for Scheduling, Dimensioning, Bending and Stainless Steels.
Cutting of Steel Reinforcement for Concrete.

25
Staifix Shear Load Connectors

STAINLESS STEEL REINFORCING BAR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Ancon supplies stainless steel plain and ribbed Extended Temperature Performance
reinforcing bar direct from stock. Grade 304 stainless Stainless steels are high temperature alloys and
steel is readily available. Other grades, including Staibar, Stairib and Staifix Hiproof have excellent
high proof strength material, can be obtained mechanical performance at elevated temperature.
on request. Tests show that on tensile testing at room
temperature after exposure to a heating regime of
Bars are stocked to a maximum length of
600C for 2 hours the bar show a negligible reduction
6 metres throughout the size range and can
in tensile stress whilst that for conventional carbon
be supplied cut to length, bent and threaded to
steel shows a significant drop in value over the same
suit requirements.
temperature cycle. Austenitic stainless steels do not
Bar Dia. Grade 304 Grade 304 undergo the ductile to brittle condition change of
(mm) Plain Bar Ribbed Bar conventional carbon steel as temperature falls.
6 Impact tests on notched bars show a ductile
8
10 mode of failure at temperatures as low as -196C.
12
16 Austenitic stainless steel bars are therefore
20 suitable for use in cryogenic and high temperature
25 applications.
32
The table shows which diameters are normally Low Magnetic Permeability
in stock, but other diameters can be obtained Austenitic grades of stainless steel have
on request. extremely low magnetic permeability characteristics
and are virtually non-magnetic. This property can be
very helpful to the designer of structures housing
equipment such as electric arc furnaces, magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) units or other sensitive
electronic equipment where a neutral magnetic
environment is a requirement.

FATIGUE

Stainless steel bar has fatigue properties equal to


that of carbon steel when tested in air and because
of its excellent corrosion resistance has enhanced
corrosion fatigue properties.

TYING WIRE

Stainless steel tying wire is required in critical


Stainless Steel Bar & Tying Wire
reinforcement applications. The Highways Agency
specifies that stainless steel tying wire of
1.2mm diameter should be used throughout bridge
decks, abutments and other applications with
exposed surfaces.
Ancon's 1.2mm diameter tying wire is supplied in
25kg catchment coils and is manufactured from
grade 304 stainless steel.

26
OTHER ANCON PRODUCTS Channels and Bolts for Fixings to Concrete

Ancon has an extensive range of products for Cast-in channels are used for fixing masonry
the construction industry. support systems to the edges of concrete floors and
beams. Channels are available in different sizes
Masonry Support Systems ranging from simple self anchoring channels for
Masonry cladding on steel or concrete framed restraints, to large capacity channels with integral
buildings is normally supported from stainless anchors. A selection of channels can also be
steel masonry support systems. Ancon has supplied plain-backed for surface fixing. Expansion
developed the most comprehensive range of bolts, resin anchors and set screws in stainless steel
stainless steel support systems and restraints in complete the range of fixings.
the UK. A full design and drawing service
accompanies our bespoke support systems. Wall Ties and Restraint Fixings
In addition to standard cavity wall ties, Ancon
manufactures ties in a variety of lengths and types
for restraining brickwork, blockwork and stonework.
These ties can be fixed to concrete and structural
steelwork, as well as any type of masonry. Many of
our wall ties and restraint fixings can be delivered
within 24 hours of our acceptance of an order.

Reinforcing Bar Couplers


The use of reinforcing bar couplers can provide
significant advantages over lapped joints. Design
Windposts and Parapet Posts and construction of the concrete can be simplified
Large panels of masonry or panels with and the amount of reinforcement required can be
openings can often be difficult to justify structurally. reduced. Because the strength of a mechanical
Ancon Windposts are designed to provide additional splice is independent of the concrete in which it is
lateral support for panels of brickwork. The range is located, the joint can also remain unaffected by any
manufactured from stainless steel and includes loss of cover. The Ancon range includes threaded,
Windposts which can be installed into the inner leaf mechanically bolted and grouted couplers.
of blockwork and Windposts for installation into the
cavity, which leave the blockwork undisturbed. Flooring and Formed Sections

Parapet Posts are used as vertical support for Ancons Stainless Steel Floorplate and Open

brickwork in either parapet or spandrel panels. Grid Flooring are ideal for environments where
corrosion resistance, hygiene, durability, slip
resistance, or low maintenance are essential. Cold
Formed Sections can be offered with a range
of ancillary operations such as punching, curving
and profiling.

Special Fabrications
Ancon has a wealth of experience of working
with stainless steel and can produce special
fabrications to suit individual customer requirements.
Ancon supplies industries such as civil and marine
engineering, water, petrochemical, mining and food
handling and maintains large stocks of stainless steel
in order to meet urgent delivery requirements.

27
Ancon Building Products
President Way, President Park, Sheffield S4 7UR
Tel: +44 (0) 114 275 5224
Fax: +44 (0) 114 276 8543
Email: info@ancon.co.uk
Visit: www.ancon.co.uk
ROI Technical Helpline
Tel/Fax: 01 460 1888
Ancon Building Products 2000

BS EN ISO 9001 : 1994


FM12226

The construction applications and details provided in this literature are


indicative only. In every case, project working details should be entrusted
to appropriately qualified and experienced persons.

Whilst every care has been exercised in the preparation of this document
to ensure that any advice, recommendations or information is accurate,
no liability or responsibility of any kind is accepted in respect of
Ancon Building Products.

With a policy of continuous product development Ancon Building Products


reserves the right to modify product design and specification without due notice.