POWER TRANSMISSION

The Beginning
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Driver

Pedal

Driver pushes on Pedal to move vehicle He is more concern about smooth cruising i.e.. Best g output
Er. Satya Narayan Shah 12 January 2010

Where Does the Force Come From?
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Engine produces some torque, at a speed g p q , p
Power- the rate at which work is done:
Power is Force times Velocity (linear)

Power = (Force)(Velocity ) = (F)(V )

Power is Torque times Rotational Speed (rotary) q p ( y)

Power = (Torque )(RotationalSpeed ) = (T )(ω)
Er. Satya Narayan Shah 12 January 2010

Where Does the Force Come From?
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Power is conserved: owe s co se ved:

Pengine = Ptrans = Paxle = Pvehicle

POWER IS ABSOLUTE
Torque is relative (depends on gear ratio)
Ignoring Losses, of Course

Er. Satya Narayan Shah

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WHAT IS POWERTRAIN MATCHING ?
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Selecting the right engine and gearing for a given application g g g g g g pp Not just performance, but giving the driver the expected response to pedal inputs Transmission shift schedules as fuel economy heavily impacted in automotive applications. Powertrain Matching makes best use of your engine potential Torque & Power shaping can give optimal performance for a given set of gearing Optimal gearing can make your car faster for no changes in engine performance
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DRIVE TRAIN
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POWER TRAIN SYSTEM
(1) Front driveshaft (2) Output transfer gearbox (3) Transmission (4) Upper driveshaft (5) Torque converter updrive transfer gears (6) Torque converter (7) Engine (8) Front differential (9) Front final drives (10) Centre bearing (11) Centre driveshaft (12) Rear driveshaft (13) Rear differential (14) Rear final drives

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Clutches
Connects /disconnects Engine crankshaft to the transmission (gear box) Change of gears can not be smooth when the engine i di h h h i is directly l connected with the transmission. Transmits the power to the road T it th t th d wheels smoothly

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Clutches
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Friction clutches are design to absorb energy during slippage. Virtually all vehicle clutches are springloaded friction disks disks.
The torque transmission capacity of a clutch can be estimated as,

Tc = fFc rm ns
where, Tc is the torque capacity, f is the friction coefficient Fc is clamping force of coefficient, clutch, rm is the mean radius of the clutch, and ns is the number of friction surfaces.
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Clutch should
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Consume minimum physical effort Be free from slip Wearing surface should have long life Be provided a suitable mechanism for damping of vibration and elimination of noise Main parts of clutch Pressure plate:- It presses the driven plate against the p p p g flywheel Driven plate:- Is provided with annular facings and spring cushioned hub
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Types of clutch
The mostly used clutch is the friction type of following types Cone clutch: is only used in the synchromesh units of gear  boxes and sometimes in epicyclical  gear boxes p y g Single plate clutch:‐ Mostly used in cars and trucks Multi‐plate clutch:‐ Mostly used in motorcycles, tractors and  mostly construction equipment. This type of clutch is mostly  mostly construction equipment. This type of clutch is mostly used where high torque to be transmitted and limited space  available Centrifugal clutch g Free wheel clutch or one way clutch Band type clutch  Overrunning Clutch Overrunning Clutch Electrical clutch Jump Clutch
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Hydrodynamics drive system
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Hydrodynamic drive system includes fluid coupling or Torque converter. This system possesses low pressure and high velocity of hydraulic flow. Fluid coupling:coupling: It is a hydraulic unit that replaces clutch in a semi or fully automatic system and transmits engine torque to transmission system t It consists of driving unit called impeller and driven unit called turbine. Power flows through liquid instead of mechanical device . Maximum efficiency is unity Fluid coupling always slips by about 2 to 4 % when transmitting u oad full load
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Advantages of fluid coupling
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Smoothen transmission of power from engine to transmission Elimination f l h l Eli i i of clutch plate Damping of the torsional vibration of the crankshaft During braking or down hill, the transmission shocks are absorbed by the fluid
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Torque Convertor
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Torque Convertor q
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Torque converter basic operation
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Coupling stage:- Turbine is rotating at 90 % of the impeller speed d Fluid from the turbine strikes the convex side of the stator blade causing it to overrun Coupling stage will be high when acceleration is not required and the equipment is cruising At this point the torque converter is acting like a fluid clutch p q g The impeller is rotating at engine speed, the turbine is stationary and the stator is locked against rotation As engine speed increases impeller speed accelerates increasing vertex flow The vertex flow strikes the turbine blades and diverted around the curvature and strikes to the concave side of the stator
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Advantages of torque converter
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Torque converter is the fluid clutch used in the automatic transmission of the construction equipment It multiplies the torque Smoothes out the transfer of engine torque to the transmission Acts as cushion between the engine and transmission Dampens vibrations D ib ti Virtually wear free
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Types of Transmissions yp
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Sliding Gear Co s a Mes Constant-Mesh Synchromesh Powershift Hydrokinetic H d ki i
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Mechanical transmission
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The Th engine power is t i i transmitted t th wheels of itt d to the h l f equipment through mechanical arrangements. It is achieved by gear mechanisms in manual gearbox Mostly this system is found in vehicles, trucks and light construction equipment
Depending on the no. of gear for forward speeds and reverse gear, power flows takes place in manual transmission system Types of gear boxe T f b 1. Sliding mesh type 2. Constant mesh type 3. Synchromesh type
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Mechanical transmission
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Sliding mesh type:- is oldest and simplest, meshing of gears takes place by sliding of gears on each other. Consists of main shaft, countershaft and idler gear shaft for reverse speed Constant mesh type :- In this gearbox all the gears mesh with yp g g each other all the time. Gear changing is made easier by helical gear. The primary shaft which carries the clutch is splined and carries a gear that mesh with gears on the p g g layshaft gear Synchromesh gearbox:- Use synchromesh gear devices on the principle of engagement of two matting gears in motion and equalizes their speed with readily and smoothly and the devices used is synchronizer ring.
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Gear Design g
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Spur or helical gears are meshed between parallel shafts. Spur gears have teeth that are parallel to the shafts, while helical gear teeth are angled with respect to the shafts. g g p Helical gears continually transfer the load from one gear to the other. Gear teeth typically have a tooth profile that is “involute” (generated by unwrapping a string from a cylinder). Constant involute profiles generate constant angular velocities.
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The Planetary Gear combinations provide 5 b i operations basic i
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Gear Reduction
Position-I Sun P iti I S gear i held; Ring gear -input is h ld Ri i t Position-II Ring gear is held; Sun gear -input

Overdrive
Position-I Ring P i i I Ri gear is held; Carrier-input i h ld C i i Position-II Sun gear is held; Carrier-input

Reverse
Position-I Carrier is held; Ring gear-input Position-II Carrier is held; Sun gear-input

Direct Drive
Entire planetary unit works as single unit At a time Two units –input; one out put

Neutral
When no unit is held
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Powershift Transmissions
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Can be shifted with virtually no interruption in power. Types of powershift transmissions: a) countershaft, and b) planetary. Hydraulic pressure is utilized to actuate the clutches.

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Fig. 12.10a Countershaft Powershift Transmission (Hi/Lo Shift) / f
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Hi/Lo Powershift /
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When neither clutch is engaged, transmission is in neutral. When left clutch is engaged, output shaft turns slower than input. When right clutch is engaged, output shaft turns the same speed as the input. When both clutches are engaged, transmission is in ‘Park.”
Er. Satya Narayan Shah 12 January 2010

Fig. 12.10b Countershaft Powershift Transmission (Reverser)
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Reverser Powershift
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When i h l h is Wh neither clutch i engaged, transmission i d i i is in neutral. When left clutch is engaged, output shaft turns engaged opposite direction of the input. When right clutch is engaged, output shaft turns the same direction as the input. When both clutches are engaged, transmission g g is in ‘Park.”

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Compound Planetary Transmissions
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Contains two set of different size planets, one meshing with the sun and the second meshing with the ring gear. gg May also include two sun and/or two ring gears.

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Hydrostatic transmission system
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Basic power train of hydrostatic system p y y
Actuator Engine Hydraulic pump Control valve Travel motor

Basic power flow in hydrostatic drive system p y y Like in hydraulic excavator

Swing motor

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