,.: ‘. :: :. :. :.




for public release;


is unlimited.


This publication and contingency

may be used by the US Army operations.

and US Air Force




FREDERICK M. FRANKS, JR General, USA Commanding General United States Army Training and Doctrine Command

MERRILL A. MCPEAK General, USAF Chief of Staff

-Field Manual No. 5-430-00- 1 Air Force Joint Pamphlet No. 32-8013. Vol I

*FM 5-430-00- 1 +AFJPAM 32-8013. Vol I Headquarters Department of the Army Department of the Air Force Washington, DC, 26 August 1994



Page PREFACE CHAPTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..v 1. GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l- 1 1- 1 1- 1 l-2 l-2 l-3

General Information ....................................................... Basic Planning Considerations in the Theater of Operations. ...................................................... Airfield Construction Road Construction ........................................................ ........................................................ EngineeringStudy CHAPTER2. SITESELECTIONANDRECONNAISSANCE......


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-l 1 2-5 2- 11 2-14 2- 14 . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . , , . . . . . a . . . . 3-l 3- 1 -3-3 3-19

LocationFactors..........................................................2Reconnaissance ........................................................... ........................................... Route and Road Reconnaissance. ................................................. Engineer Reconnaissance. ................................................... Airfield Reconnaissance CHAPTER 3. SURVEYS AND EARTHWORK OPERATIONS

Construction Surveys, ..................................................... .................................................... ConstructionStakes.. ....................................................... TheMassDiagram




for public release:


is unlimited.

*This publication together with FM 5-430-00-YAFJPAM 32-8013, Vol II, 29 September 1994 supersedes FM 5-165/AFR 86-13, 29 August 1975, FM 5-335,2 December 1985 and TM 5-33O/AFM 83-6, Vol 1, 8 September 1968.

FM 5-430-OO-l/AFJPAM


Vol I

.......,...:..:.:.:.: ...... ‘. : ..:‘.:’ . .... :







. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-l 4-l 4-2 4-4 4-6 d

................................... Forest Types and Environmental Conditions Preparation .............................................................. ................................................... Clearing Considerations. ................................................... Performance Techniques CHAPTER 5. SUBGRADES AND BASE COURSES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-l 5- 1 5-4 5-8 5-10

..................................................... Design Considerations Subgrades ............................................................... ....................................... Select Materials and Subbase Courses. BaseCourse ............................................................ CHAPI-ERG. SECTION DRAINAGE......................................................6-1 I. Construction Drainage

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-l 6- 1 6-4 6-9 6- 11 6- 11 6-22

..................................................... Preliminary Measures. ....................................................... Drainage Hydrology .......................................................... The Hydrograph Drainage-System Design .................................................. ....................................................... Design Procedures ................................ Estimating Runoff Using the Rational Method. SECTION Design Design Design II. Open-Channel Design

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-38 6-38 6-45 6-46 -

........................................................ Factors.. .................................................... Considerations ....................................................... Techniques III. Culverts.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 6-59 6-59 6-84 6-89 6-92 Regions. . . . . . . . . . . 6-102 6-107 6-114 6-l 15 6-124

................................................ Culvert Types and Designs ........................................................... PondingAreas ................................................. Drop Inlets and Gratings. Subsurface Drainage ..................................................... SECTION IV. Surface Drainage Design in Arctic and Subarctic

Fords, Dips, Causeways, and Bridges. ...................................... ........................................................ ErosionControl ......................................... Nonuse Areas and Open Channels ......................................................... Culvert Outlets CHAPTER 7. SOILS TRAFFICABILITY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-3 7-5 7- 11 J

Basic Trafficability Factors ................................................. Critical Layer ............................................................ ...................................... Instruments and Tests for Trafficability. ................................................... Measuring Trafficability. Application of Trafficability Procedures in Fine-Grained Soils and Remoldable Sands. .............................................


FM 5-430-OO-l/AFJPAM





Self-Propelled, Tracked Vehicles and All-Wheel-Drive Vehicles Negotiating Slopes. .............................................. Operation in Coarse-Grained Soils .......................................... Trafficability Data. ....................................................... Soil-Trafficability Classification. ............................................ CHAPTER 8. MAINTENANCE, ROADS, AIRFIELDS, AND

7- 11 7-26 7-27 7-36

REPAIR, AND REHABILITATION OF HELIPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-l 8- 1 8-2 8-9 8- 17

Maintenance and Repair Considerations. ...................................... Maintenance and Repair Operations. ......................................... Road Maintenance ........................................................ Airfield and Heliport Maintenance. .......................................... CHAPTER 9. ROAD DESIGN

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-l 9-l 9-18 9-27 9-30 9-36 9-41 9-49 9-58

Geometric Design ......................................................... VerticalAlignment ....................................................... Structural Design. ....................................................... Spray Applications and Expedient-Surfaced Roads ............................. Use of Polymer Cells (Sand Grid) to Build Roads in Sandy Soils ................................................... Surface Treatments ..................................................... Construction Methods ................................................... General Road Structural Design ...........................................

Volume II
CHAPTER 10. PRELIMINARY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . lo- 1 10-l 10-5 10-8 DESIGN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 l-l 1 l- 1 11-l . ..:*I:!~ y 11-50

Mission Assignment ...................................................... Classlficatton ............................................................ ............................................................ Construction CI-IAPI’ER 11. AIRCRAFT CHARACTERISTICS AND AIRFIELD

Aircraft Characteristics ................................................... Correlation of Army and Air Force Terminology. ............................... Airfield Design ........................................................................................................ AidstoNavigation.. ........................................................ SpecialAirffelds CHAPTER 12. AIRFIELD PAVEMENT DESIGN.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1 12-1 : : : : 12-8 12-22 12-35 12-43 12-50 12-61


Airfield Structure Type. Expedient-Surfaced Airfields .......................................................................................... Aggregate-Surfaced Airfields .............................................. Flexible-Pavement Airfields ............................................... Special Design Considerations. ............................................ Evaluation of Airfield Pavements ........................................... Pavement and Airfield Classification Numbers ................................


.. .



Vol I

., .,., ,,_, ,.:....,., ,~,.: ..(.. .... . I. :‘:“‘:’.,.... ../,....:.::::::::::: ..._.... ,,,,,.,...,.. .:.:_; ,.,.,. :.:.,.:.:.,... ,’:‘::‘:‘::‘:‘ ‘.‘.‘.‘.‘.:i.‘.:.:.:.~.:.:.:.:.:.:~.;.;.:.~:~.:::~::~::~::~:::::~;:;::~::::::~ :”. :‘.: . :::c’:“;y:; ”..,...,.... ,.,., ““..,;:,:,....‘.‘.. ,,, ,,,,,,,(,_(,,,, ,.,., .:->..:.:.:... .....:. ::.: .../...,,









13-1 13-1 13-1 13- 15 13- 15 13-21 13-23 13-27 13-27 13-32 14- 1 14- 1 14-48 A-l B-l C-l D- 1 E-l F-l G-l H-l &

Types of Helicopters. ..................................................... Heliport vpes, Design Criteria, and Layout. .................................. Design of Heliport and Helipad Surfaces .................................... Design of Unsurfaced Heliports. ........................................... Mat- and Membrane-Surfaced Heliports and Helipads. ......................... .............................................. Thickness Design Procedure ............................................ Special Design Considerations. Marking and Lighting of Heliports and Helipads .............................. Helipads in Heavily Forested Areas ......................................... CHAPTER 14. FORTIFICATIONS FOR PARKED ARMY AIRCRAFT ....................

Aircraft Fortifications ..................................................... ................................... Maintenance. Repairs. and Improvements APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. METRIC CONVERSION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . TABLES AND CURVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .





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TEST SET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FOR ROADS , . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



. . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



. . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-l DYNAMIC CONE


. . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , , . . . . . K-l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . , . L- 1 AND HELIPORTS . , . . , , . . M-l . N-l



. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..,....,,..... NUMBER GRAPHS


. . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O-l

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-l

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . Glossary-l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . , . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . References- 1 ii


. . ,::.:...,....., . . ...../... ......... . ... ... . ..::: .: .: ..:.:. ::j.j,::.,., ,.:,. . ... ,,:,.:..:,:..:.:.:. .

i :::.






,.:.:.::.,,:.. ...

FM 5-430-OO-l/AFJPAM


Vol I

Field Manual (FM) 5-430 is intended for use as a training guide and reference text for engineer personnel responsible for planning, designing, and constructing roads, airfields, and heliports in the theater of operations (To). FM 5-430 is divided into two separate volumes to make it more user-fiend@. FM 5430-00-1 /AFPAM 328013, Vol 1, Road Design, encompasses Chapters 1 through 9 and Appendices A through H. FM 5-430-002/AFJPAM 32-8013, Vol II, Airfield and Heliport Design, encompasses Chapters 10 through 14 and Appendices I through P. FM 5-430-00-l/AFPAM 32-8013, Vol 1 is a stand-alone volume for the design of TO roads. This volume also serves as a detailed description of fnformation common to both roads and an-fields, such as site selection, survey and earthwork, clearing and grubbing, base and subbase courses, and drainage. FM 5-430-00-2/AFJPAM 328013, Vol II serves as the basis for airfield and heliport design. It discusses the complete process of airfield and heliport construction from the preliminary investigations, through design criteria, to the final project layout and construction techniques. It is not a standalone volume. FM 5-430-00- 1 /AFPAM 328013, Vol 1 contains much of the information required to design the substructure of an airfield or a heliport. The material in this manual applies to all levels of engineer involvement in the TO. The manual is intended to be used by United States (US) Army Corps of Engineers personnel. The provisions of this publication are the subject of the following international agreements:

dardization Program, Parked Aircrajt. .


North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 3 158 Airfield Markfng and Lighting (AML) (Edition 4). Day Marking of Airjleld Runways and Taxiways. STANAG STANAG 2929, AirJieZd Damage

. . .


and Lighting of Airjeld

3346 AML (Edition 4). Marking Obstructions.

STANAG 3601 Air Transport (TN) (Edition 3). Criteria for Selection and Marking of Landing Zones for Fixed Wing Transport Aircraft. STANAG 3619 AML (Edition ment 2). Helipad Marking. 2) (Amend-

. .

STANAG 3652 AML (Amendment 3). Helipad fighting, VisuaZ Meteorological Condi tions (VMC). STANAG 3685 AML, Air-eld



This publication applies to the Air National Guard (ANG) when published in the National Guard Regulation (NGR) (AF) O-2. This publication, together with FM 5-430-002/AFJPAM 32-8013, Vol II: Airfield and Heliport Design (to be published), will supersede TM 5-330/AFM 86-3, Volume II, 8 September 1968 and FM 5-165/AFP 86-13. 29 August 1975. The proponent for this publication is the US Army Engineer School (USAES). Send comments and recommendations on Department of the Army (DA) Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly toCommandant US Army Engineer School ATSE-TDM Fort Leonard Wood, MO 65473-5000. Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

Quadripartlte Standardization Agreement (QSTAG) 306. American-BritishCanadian-Australian Armies Stan-





. . . . . . ,. .. . .

. :

FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM


Vol 1


Army engineers plan, design, and construct airfields, heliports, and roads in the TO. To ensure these facilities meet proposed requirements, the responsible engineer officer must coordinate closely with all appropriate ground and air commanders. The engineer depends on the appropriate commanders for information on the weight and trancfrequency of using aircraft, facility life, geographic boundaries governing site selection, and the time availablefor construction as dictated by the operation plan. Detailed planning, reconnaissance, and site investigations are often limited by lack of time and by the tactical sttuation. However, when time and security permit, the engineer should conduct normal ground reconnaissance and on-site investigations. If this is not possible, the engineer should obtain photographs of the area.

Army engineers should guides in the TO:



use the following

Keep designs simple. Simple designs require minimum skilled labor and spccialized materials. Use local materials whenever possible. This helps eliminate construction delays associated with a long communications and logistics line. Use existing facilities whenever possible. This helps avoid unnecessary construction. Remember that safety factors in design are drastically reduced in the TO because of time constraints and the inhercnt risks of war.

Build one of two types of structures in the TO: initial or temporary. Initial design life is up to six months; temporary design life is up to two years. Whenever possible, phase construction to permit the early use of the facility while further construction and improvements continue. Generally avoid sites with dense brush, timberland, and rolling terrain that require heavy clearing or grading. Take care to prevent destruction of natural drainage channels, culverts, and roads. Repairs require time and labor far exceeding that needed to prevcn t damage.







General lnforma tion

1- 1

FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1



The Army construction will provide the following support to the Air Force: troop

The plannfng and construction of Air Force bases in the TO is a joint responsibility of Army and Air Force personnel as outlined in Army Regulation (AR) 415-30/Air Force Regulation (AFR) 93-10. A summary of each service’s responsibilities follows:

Development of engineering designs, standard plans, and material to meet Air Force requirements.

The Air Force


the following

support: air

Emergency bases.

repair of war-damaged

Reconnaissance, survey, design, construction, or improvement of airfields, roads, utilities, and structures.


Force bed down of Air Force units and weapon systems. excluding Army basedevelopment responsibilities.

Rehabilitation of Air Force bases and facilities beyond the immediate emergency recovery requirements of the Air Force.


Construction management of emergency repair of war damage and force beddown.

Supply of materials and equipment to perform Army engineering missions.


Operation and maintenance facilities and installations.

of Air Force

Construction of temporary base facilities.




Crash rescue

and fire suppression.


Supply of material and equipment to perform Air Force engineering missions.

Repair management of war damage and base development, including supervision of Army personnel. The Air Force base commander will set the work priorities.

Road and an-field construction.

Engineer construction units, under the appropriate Army command, have the following responsibilities:
l l

Construct and install signs and other route-marking materials. Regulate traffic at locations where engineer work is being performed. Assist vehicles to keep traffic moving on main supply routes regardless of weather, enemy activity, or other difficulties.



roads and bridges.






General Information

anti hclipor(s have town dclcrmlr~cri. airfields. To obtain Lhcsc facililics quickly. In most casts.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. General Information l-3 . 111cnccrt is critical bccausc Lhc accomplishrncn 1 of a mission dcpcnds on STUDY using certain airfields and roads. Vol 1 ENGINEERING ACLU.lllc specific rcqllirctllcnts for roads. cliginccrs should I)rcparc tlir facililics for use as soon as possible. an adcqllaLc invc*sLigation of each silt and a careful study 0r Llic design dclails arc csscnlial. This is cxplaincd in grcalcr dclail in Chapter 2 of this nianual.


and design of military roads and airfields. pastures. high-performance aircraft. Lines of communication (LOCI must bc built to accomplish a specific mission in the most direct and efficient manner possible. LOCATION FACTORS Construction of a road or airfield initially consists of providing a prepared subgrade and base course according to design criteria. Extensive roadnets of varying quality and capacity already exist in most areas of the Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-1 . Helicopters and light planes can often operate from existing roads. All location factors must be evaluated to support the mission. expansion and rehabilitation of existing facilities is adequate for mission accomplishment. with minimum rehabilitation these airfields can usually be made adequate to accommodatc them.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Consider the future needs of military units EXISTING FACILITIES 1 Use all existing facilities. LOCATION AND DESIGN To the greatest extent possible. use these roadnets to the fullest extent. However. The wartime missions of engineer troops are so extensive and the demand for their services so great that new construction should be avoided. Engineers should USC the factors listed below to locate and lay out all construction projects. - MISSION The most important factor in selecting a site is to ensure it will fulfill mission requirements. Throughout the preconstruction phase. They may serve as the nucleus for larger fields that meet the requirements of high-performance aircraft. The first steps in constructing a road or airfieid are determining the best location for the facility and formulating the essential areas and construction features. Although the governing criteria and dimensions for roads and airfields differ. Where possible. or athlctlc fields. existing airfields are seldom adequate to handle modern. Try to construct airfields in an area that will serve existing and future requirements. Alternative road and airfield plans can be evaluated. from the standpoint of total earthwork and drainage structure requirements. world. to reduce construction effort. Except in highly developed areas. problems can be avoided by a well-planned site selection. the location and design for a facility must provide the best response to all requirements. In many cases. Airfield runways require more transverse areas than roads. the basic approach to their location and layout is the same. layout. Vol 1 SITE SELECTION AND RECONNAISSANCE This chapter outlines the location.

rock formations. water must be diverted completely around the field or long drainage structures that are difficult to maintain must be constructed..:.:.. such as depots and hospitals.:.:....FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.:.:.. In sedimentary rocks it is best to align road cuts perpendicular to the strike. .:..(..:.:.::::::...~.:. the water tables must be lowered during construction to reduce the adverse effect of water on the strength of the supporting subgrade and base course.:.~..:..>:.:.:. use the safe-slope ratios shown in Figure 2.:.. A given road segment to be constructed or improved should be considered in view of its contribution to the overall network..:.:):. Sizeable quantities of rock anywhere along a construction project will cause a large removal problem..).:(‘::...:. Refer to FM 5-4 10 for soils information and FM 5-530 for soil survey procedures..:.(.. and facilities.:. :..:~::~::::::::::::::::::::::::::~:::::::::::...:.:.:. Drainage is a more critical factor in locating airfields than roads.. Although it is possible to construct subsurface structures that will remove part of this moisture....y.:. : .. ::. 2-2 Site Selection and Reconnaissance . :...: .:(. Vol 1 .:. .:..:. when locating roads. Soil type and incumbent pavement structure requirements...:. Because of the wide areas involved in airfield installations.:.. Engineer troop units require special equipment and training to excavate rock. ...(....:.:. slow construction. This may result in a longer route.. Determine the structural orientation of the rock mass to properly design road cuts and ensure rock-slope stability.\:.:... avoid excessive grades and steep hills when locating these routes...~. Similarly.~:. . GEOLOGY Before locating any lines of communication.:. : .:. gentle slopes because of the relative ease of diverting water around the finished installation. : >:. Many airfields are constructed across long.~ ..:+:( . If this is not possible. due to the flood hazard....:.. ..1. The subgrade should be compacted under conditions allowing it to support the design loads.. They offer flat expanses that are above the river floodplain and are normally protected from flooding. Conduct a basic soils investigation prior to construction to provide data needed to ensure good construction decisions.: . This topic is further discussed in Chapter 6 of this manual.:....: . and increase the construction effort.:. take enough borings to determine the location of the rock. DRAINAGE Locate roads in areas that are easily drained and where drainage structures are minimized. ......:.:.: :..~.. If steep hills must be negotiated. :~ ::1. Avoid constructing facilities in areas of high water tables.:.:.:(.. . : . maintaining routes through these areas presents a continual problem.. Identify the type of rock material for evaluation as a suitable construction aggregate..: :. but it is generally more economical and avoids excessive grades.C .v:(. If it is impossible to avoid constructing a road or airfield in this type of terrain.... TOPOGRAPHY Construct all roads and airfields within maximum grade specifications.\. The specifications depend upon the facility’s construction standard... Thus. Avoid construction on unprotected floodplains and alluvial fans... if possible....: :.:. In areas where the preliminary design indicates that cutting is required to reach final grade..... and vegetation should also be considered in locating roads.:. SOIL CHARACTERISTICS Locate all roads and airfields on terrain having the best possible subgrade soil conditions...I. Alluvial terraces are often ideal locations for airfields.. carefully analyze the geology of the area.... Avoid the low points of valleys or other depressed areas because they are focal points for water collection.:.:.:. Rock outcroppings are more common in hilly terrain than in flat or rolling country...>:((.j::‘.:. This will decrease construction effort and result in a better facility. ... the route should run along the side of the hill rather than going directly over it..:. an airfield should be evaluated for its ability to enhance an airfield network.

avoiding excessive grades. is time-consuming and requires materials that may be in short supply. Align runways in the direction of the prevailing wind bccausc aircraft usually land and take off into the wind. Locating long tangents is influenced primarily by the terrain and limited by the following principles of efficient location: minimizing earthwork. This balancing must be within the haul capabilities of the available equipment. When possible. BRIDGE APPROACHES When locating routes. carefully evaluate construction rcquirctnents for approaches to obstacles.18’ I Ia“35” I 35” .7. even gentle curves decrease traffic capacity. when cutting and filling on a project. Approach conditions may be the prime faclor in obstacle crossing and - Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-3 . Generally.75” I 7Y . a ravine. All vehicles have difficully in negotiating sharp curves. it may be more practical lo open a nearby borrow pit or establish spoil areas.9o” Then slope ratio should be (horizontakvertical) Figure 2. Use existing structures to decrease total work requirements. the road should not cross a particular obstacle more than once. Vol 1 -When dip toward road is 0” . or a canal. if the haul distance becomes excessive. such as a river. Construction. and Whenever a route crosses a major obstacle. Even though earthwork should be balanced throughout a project. This tnay require only the strcngthcning of an existing bridge or no bridging work at all. ALIGNMENT Keep the number of curves and grades at a minitnum for efficient traffic flow over roads. Construction of approaches over marshes or floodplain arcas can cause greater requirements than the obstacle crossing itself. _- OBSTACLE CROSSINGS where the excavated material is not acccptable for USC in an embankment.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. bridges or other structures are required. Any step that simplifies earthwork operations will decrcasc required work and increase job efficiency. Lay all routes with minitnum curves by making the tangent lines as long as possible. Balancing cannot be done obtaining suitable fill malerial. It will be advantageous to forego many of the other location principles lo dccreasc the number of obstacle crossings. earth handling is reduced by using the material excavated to construct required embankments. Safe-slope ratio EARTHWORK The largest single work item during construction of LOC is earthwork operations. Avoid these obstacles whenever possible.

Precede all earthwork by stripping unsuitable material.. Obtain suitable base-course materials from existing pits and quarries whenever possible because much planning and effort are required to open a new quarry. Locating new airfields near existing utility systems can avoid the construction of new facilities or long transmission lines. water. A nearby railhead will help the construction effort. Consider the quality and availability of construction materials when locating a facility.. When this is the case. lateral areas. This results in the construction of a complex network of taxiways and service roads. If this is not possible. .. gas. may dictate route location. the airfield must be spread over a large section to obtain the required area. Advance location and layout will avoid cramping necessary facilities. : . ACCESSIBILITY TO MATERIALS AND UTILITIES The efficient operation of airfields requires the use of electricity. : :. REQUIRED AREAS Airfields need large areas of relatively flat land to efficiently accomplish their mission.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 : . Frequently. GROUND COVER All routes should avoid heavily wooded areas that requirc extensive clearing. The quality 2-4 Site Selection and Reconnaissance .: . the route should pass through areas having the least vegetation.. Roads built on rolling or flat terrain seldom require large. keep in mind the ability to construct this connecting network to appropriate specifications. This usually restricts the number of sites that can be considered for airfield construction. . Consider the approach with the obstacle when establishing the optimum route. Roads constructed in deep cuts or fills require proportionately greater lateral areas to account for slopes. and sewer systems..

Prevailing winds will carry snow. dis- - RECONNAISSANCE Reconnaissance operations vary with the operational environment. Locate all roads in a defilade position on the reverse side of a hill or ravine to avoid enemy observation and to provide cover from direct artillery or mortar fire. if the orientation of the road Is undesirable. When the reconnaissance mission is complete. TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS Frequently. consider the following tactical factors: Defilade. Airfields in forward areas are prime targets for enemy air and ground attacks. map. Improvement and expansion are a continuing job on all military construction. Defense. The reconnaissance report. when locating roads.7: FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. and composition of the reconnaissance element. it is necessary to construct temporary roads or heliports or to improve landing strips to move personnel and materials. the assigned mission: and the size. and to obtain the data needed to determine a completion date and detailed construction schedules. engineer troops are often required to modify and expand previously completed construction. rain. must be complete. An aerial. The final construction plans and schedules are made with regard to the tactical and logistical situation and the construction time available. Try not to construct a road or airfield in a restricted area where there is no possibility of expansion. which requires broader engineering judgment than any other engineer Even a qualified civil reconnaissance. The quality of the reconnaissance is directly related to the abilities of the party accomplishing it. - Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-5 . to recommend a general layout and construction plan. When designing the airfield. FUTURE EXPANSION Due to the unpredictability of military operations. to estimate the work required to construct the facility. type. CamoufIage. AirfIelds built for small aircraft with a limited evacuation mission may have to be modified to meet more stringent design criteria for accommodation of high-performance aircraft. Protective snow or sand fences should be oriented to take into account the prevailing winds. and sand onto the roadway. This is especially true in airfield reconnaissance. take advantage of all natural camouflage and concealment. the reconnaissance report serves as the basis for tactical plans and construction schedules. Vol 1 -. and experienced personnel. The ability to expand an existing route or facility will conserve personnel and material and permit rapid completion of future projects. Design basic facilities so that they can be used as part of the expanded facilities. RECONNAISSANCE-PARTY CAPABILITIES Thorough reconnaissance requires qualified. and sufficiently detailed to permit careful analysis. It may be necessary to use ground troops in defensive positions against enemy ground action. The road that is adequate for today’s maneuvers may be inadequate for tomorrow’s operations. MISSION The primary mission of a reconnaissance party is to find a site meeting most requirements. perse the facilities to minimize the effects of bombing or strafing attacks. When constructing a road or airfield in an exposed area. or ground reconnaissance is necessary to determine the best existing or best possible location for a future road or airfIeld. submitted by personnel conducting the investigation. When this is the case. comprehensive. trained.

the attitude of the civilian population. It involves the coordination of reconnaissance efforts by appropriate headquarters. Vol 1 . The party must also know the type of facility for which it is reconnoitering.:. mobility. Details concerning the time or methods of reporting the information will be included in the briefing. and what information the party is expected to obtain.) The anticipated vehicle traffic and number of aircraft and personnel to be initially accommodated at the proposed facility. If an analyst is not available. The nature of the proposed facility: the types of vehicles or aircraft scheduled to use it. figures are often given in terms of the number and type of aviation units to be assigned to the installation. and good communication. If available. the assignment of must include. the party must be informed. They are usually familiar to the reconnaissance officer but should be kept for reference. This is a responsibility of the engineer brigade.) STEPS IN RECONNAISSANCE Reconnaissance low. personnel to the party must provide for its overall efficiency as a unit. and the amount of enemy resistance the party may expect. The following information is necessary for a full understanding of a particular reconnaissance mission and should be covered in the briefing: The general area to be covered. Reconnaissance missions are based on user requirements as governed by ground forces. The success of the mission depends on proper personnel and equipment. the group.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. the general nature of the terrain. the prevalence of land mines. if an area reconnaissance is to be conducted: or the exact location of the site or facility to be investigated. or the b a tt a li on. if such an expert is not able to accompany the party. The equipment should include all items necessary for soil and topographic surveys. the estimation of needs. security. and the minimum requirements concerning dimensions. Otherwise. what is already known about the area or site. grades. brief the reconnaissance party. Strength and equipment figures should also be available for reference. and the assignment of a reconnaissance mission. Factors to be considered include the roadnet. engineer with civilian or military experience requires special training for this activity. Maintain close liaison with all headquarters to achieve proper coordination. if a specific reconnaissance is to be done. Planning Planning is concerned with the formation of a reconnaissance mission. (When dealing with airfields. If a site has been tentatively selected or if some information has already been determined from a preliminary study. If available. aerial photos should be used in the briefing. not the individual reconnaissance party. These factors also influence the equipment assigned to the party. Improper coordination results in duplication of effort in some areas and inadequate reconnaissance in other areas. the weather. (These items are covered by reference to the applicable standard layout and specifications published by the joint force commander in the theater. Both ground and aerial methods should be integrated. and clearances. involves the steps that fol- 2-6 Site Selection and Reconnaissance . It is unusual for one person to be proficient in all the items a thorough reconnaissance Therefore. One without the other will not accomplish the needed results. time and effort will bc A soils or terrain analyst should wasted. The party must be selected with regard to the conditions it may confront. Briefing The briefing tells the reconnaissance party exactly which site or area is to be reconnoitered. the length of time such use is anticipated. a soils or terrain analyst is a valuable member of the reconnaissance party. obtain soil samples for later analysis.

.. or telephone. : . These dossiers are the result of previous reconnaissance or reconnaissance plans and can usually be obtained if adequate coordination is maintained with higher headquarters and other units engaged in reconnaissance.:. and soil maps. for example.: j y .‘.‘: : : y: .‘. and special requirements needed. the following additional instructions are necessary: l Friendly-force situation. when. Vol 1 l The minimum amount of aircraft service. conducting a map reconnaissance of the area involved. and planning and preparing for the actual reconnaissance.. The form of communications to be arranged. as well as data on the climate and groundwater tables.. situation. Sources of information that may be useful in the preliminary planning of reconnaissance missions and in the preliminary study of a specific mission are discussed below. repair facilities. i. Strategic and technical reports. and equipment replacements can be drawn. construction The location where rations. assembling other available preliminary information. The service facility where vehicle maintenance can be obtained. reports of aerial reconnaissance that were conducted in anticipation of later ground reconnaissance may be available from adjacent or higher units. Similarly. The expected new facility. . When the reconnaissance party is to be away from its parent unit for a lengthy.:: . future expansion of the l Alternative structions. delineating soil boundaries. studies.t : . * l Known enemy-force Location of adjacent The following instructions are applicable only to parties engaged in air reconnaissance: Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-7 .. Study l The expected construction time available for building support facilities. radio. clothing.:. continued reconnaissance. aviation petroleum * Location of the forward flying line.. Topographic. . These reports may contain information on water supply.:. and lubricants (POLI supplies can be drawn. and to whom the report should be made. friendly units. about Preliminary l l The essential details concerning the report and how.:j’j. and summaries on specific areas of actual or potential military importance are prepared by the Office of the Chief of Engineers and subordinate agencies.j..j : . are usually included.I ..: . oils.. and emergency-landing in- * l Location of available supplies. Information previously obtained the proposed project. messenger.:. The source from which petroleum. studying aerial photos..j .i:y > FM 5-4309OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.::: ‘.: . These reports provide the best data available at the time they were printed. Such information must be verified by ground reconnaissance.‘: t. geologic. Intelligence dossiers that provide planning data and other information on a particular airfield site or route that may already exist. l l l When ground reconnaissance Is ordered ahead of forward ground-force elements. the following additional instructions must be covered in the briefing: l The preliminary study consists of studying the information obtained during the briefing.

the presence of flying hazards (for airfields). drainage. and access routes should be visualized. Vol 1 . and interrogation of local inhabitants. soil. records. They simplify each party’s work in preparing reports.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. from the air. and cloud cover which will affect construction and future operations. the total area and extent of promising sites. but it cannot be solely relied on for positive information. Maps showing the suitability of terrain for various military purposes may be of considerable value in planning roads and airfields. and time of submitting reconnaissance reports should be included in the instructions given to the reconnaissance party. prevailing winds. A radio report should be followed by a detailed written report. Road.:y:. l and special physi- Air Reconnaissance Air reconnaissance involves a general study of the topography. Reconnaissance reports can be submitted in writing or by radio. and the area and local drainage conditions. A continuing air reconnaissance may be interspersed with specific ground reconnaissance. cal phenomena. l l l l 2-8 Site Selection and Reconnaissance . They ensure full coverage of needed information and allow a comparative evaluation of two or more sites. . topographic maps should be prepared from aerial photographs. Full details on the method. Ground Reconnaissance While air reconnaissance can effectively reduce the amount of ground reconnaissance. areas that need investigating and by determining what questions need answering. and geologic maps published by friendly or enemy governments and agencies are sources of information. it cannot replace ground reconnaissance. Reports are submitted for all sites investigated. Aerial photographs show the approximate amount of gradlng and excavation required.. vegetation. reliable sources of information.. The construction problems. reports. tactical data. and vegetation of the area. but periodic intelligence reports are field-prepared reports of all-around force elements. Intelligence reports are used to prepare strategic and technical reports.. Weather reports published by governmental agencies and the Air Force Air Weather Service are used to determine critical factors for runoff determination. even if the reconnaissance party considers the site unsuitable. Indigenous governmental agencies may provide valuable information on a great diversity of subjects. l l REPORTING The reconnaissance party must always submit its report on time. Standard formats are helpful in comparing sites which have been reconnoitered by different parties. materials. They include facts learned by prisoner-of-war interrogations. the extent of necessary clearing. place. vegetation. Aeronautical reports and charts provide an overview to help plan aerial reconnaissance. Usually the specific ground-reconnaissance procedure is planned by selecting. If time and facilities are available. Intelligence reports are usually prepared in the interior zone. topographic. Air reconnaissance can provide valuable negative information by eliminating unsuitable sites. Often ground and air reconnaissance are not separate missions. Army and Air Force periodic intelligence reports are important. Standard reconnaissance reports are preferred. It is on the ground that most queslions are answered or that questions tentatively answered from the air are verified. camouflage possibilities.

Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-9 . and the prevalence of mines in the area to be reconnoitered.. Ground reconnaissance should determine the following information: l should provide Estimated grades to be encountered. fixed-wing ah-craft or two-place helicopters are suitable for most air-reconnaissance missions.: . . All personnel involved should be trained in ground reconnaissance. .: . The pilot can also assess the site and make the appropriate recommendations.. This includes trees. All equipment needed to carry out the assigned tasks should be taken.:.. of LOC. the United States. surface.: .. ::.. The composition depends upon the probability of contact with the enemy.: : . Vol 1 - Military roads and road networks are defined according to location and use. the Canadian and Australian Armies Nonmaterial Standardization Program.... The equipment varies as the composition of the party varies.. page 2-10. of available sources of l Supply evaluation of construction materials in the area of operations.. Two-place. In some l Assessment of suitability of the area for various types of construction.. tree stumps. A typical list of equipment suitable for the party is listed in Table 2-2. Consideration of debris generated during clearing operations. Determination Description Evaluation of terrain features. Discussion of cover and concealment... buildings and concrete foundations are included. and obstructions.. :.. page 2-10.. Time is saved and errors of omission are minimized when a report from the engineer observer to the officer in charge of the ground-reconnaissance party is not necessary except as a matter of record.i’ . they only reduce the amount of ground effort required.: :: .. . the attitude of the civilian population. Map and air studies are not substitutes for ground reconnaissance... symbols. l identification water. FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. l l Estimated amount of clearing involved.. the United Kingdom..:.:. Terms and formulas approved by the member nations of the NATO... They are classified according to width... . provides a list of personnel suitable for an airfield reconnaissance.. l GROUND RECONNAISSANCE AIR RECONNAISSANCE An air -reconnaissance team generally consists of only two members: the pilot and the engineer observer. Having the officer in charge of the ground-reconnaissance party act as the engineer observer is advantageous and should be arranged when possible.. the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).:::: . Abbreviations. The list can be modified to meet the particular needs of the situation. .. and notations used in route reconnaissance (described in FM 536) may also be used in airfield reconnaissance. Effective air reconnaissance the following information: l The composition of the ground-reconnaissance party depends on the scope and extent of the tnission and the nature of the terrain it must traverse. Reconnaissance of enemy-occupied ah-fields is best accomplished with modified tactical aircraft. Table 2-1.:. . and Sometimes objects such as boulders. and other treaty nations are covered in FM 5-36. Information given in road reconnaissance reports is useful in reporting on access roads to airfield and heliport sites. l l of obstacles. It is important that the person in charge and the assistant be well versed in all aspects of reconnaissance..

Suggested equipment list for airfield ground-reconnaissance party Hem Truck. 7. :j:$g. . textile) compass areas 1 of mechanized when operating forces or in northern 2-10 Site Selection and Reconnaissance . MOPP chemical agent detector.FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. *Carrier.. armored mm Quantity 2 2 2 2 2 Clinometer Panel marking Pioneer Towing to& chain sets Item Quantity 1 2 1 set/vehicle 2 Machine gun. sun.i Table 2-1. mounted in truck Flashlight Camera *Desirable (Polaroid) with film in support Adequate map and aerial photo coverage Tracing Lensatic tape (tape. gear 1 1 book As required 1 4 1 FM 5-34 Reconnaissance report forms and formats I 1 As required As required As required 2 Radio set. 7.. chemical agent.62 mm machine gun mounted 7 x 50 Material for marking. sites fording.: . 1 l/4 ton personnel. and swimming As required Goggles.. Radiacmeter. AN-M256 MB II Paper. Binocular. Vol 1 . Detector pneumatic reconnaissance first-aid kit boat 1 2 kit. plastic IM-WUD IM-174/PD 6 1 2 1 Improvised Measuring Three-man Vehicular means of measuring tape water depths 1 2 Radiacmeter.62 Pedestal.: : . Typical airfield ground-reconnaissance party Grade w 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Officer Sr NC0 EM EM EM EM EM EM Pr lmary Command Second Technical Plane-table Duty Party Secondary Duty General reconnaissance in command Engineer man analyst Machine gunner Machine gunner Rodman Soils analyst Assistant machine gunner mechanic Terrain intelligence Airphoto Interpreter DriverlRTO Driver/RTO I Wheel-vehicle Table 2-2.

pages 2-12 and 2-13. including repair or demolition procedures. and sketches are mation. . can be obtained only by ground reconnaissance. DA Form 1248. shown in Figure 2-2.. Errors or discrepancies on the maps from which the site was tentatively selected and the effects of such errors on the selection. Reconnaissance to che&k exfsting roads is road reconnaissance.. asphalt culvert pipe. and indications of high water levels. .. field determination of gradation. ROAD RECONNAISSANCE Road reconnaissance is conducted to determine the traffic capabilities of existing roads and to provide more detailed information than is needed for route classification. and the necessity for long hauls of earth material. Vol 1 cases. Nature of soil encountered. width. cement. overlays. Aerial reconnaissance provides valuable information. . however.. the trees removed may be used in the construction operation. ROUTE AND ROAD RECONNAISSANCE -. Details of clearing operations are discussed in Chapter 4 of this manual. - Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-11 . It may include enough information to develop work estimates for improving the road to certain standards of trafficability. It provides the data necessary for a thorough analysis and classification of significant features along a route. if required. : : . . Thorough reconnaissance is essential in the selection of roads. used as necessary. .. Detailed information. Information or observations the final facility location.. A deliberate route reconnaissance is detailed. An overlay is used to point out exact map locations. . with the local population. It may be adequately recorded on a map overlay or sketch and be supplemented by reports about various aspects of the terrain. . and supplies in military operations. waterways. tar. :. . and lumber. A hasty route reconnaissance is conducted to determine the immediate trafficability of a specified route and is limited to critical terrain data. equipment. and enclosures are attached to the overlay. Local rainfall data and other pertinent information about seasons and weather obtained through local inhabitants or other sources. percentage of fine-gradient materials. . is used to record this inforMaps. The enclosures are DA Reconnaissance Report forms that provide a permanent record and ensure enough detail is recorded.:::. Conditions of streams at crossing sites. Reconnaissance performed in connection with military LOC is route reconnaissance. and natural terrain features that may affect the movement of troops. and plasticity characteristics. Route reconnaissance may be hasty or deliberate.. tunnels. including possible sources of sand.:. Reconnaissance to determine the location for a new road is location reconnaissance. Relationship which affect . : FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. the approximate balance between cut and fill. depth. It starts with a study of available maps and aerial photographs. ROUTE RECONNAISSANCE Route reconnaissance includes gathering information about roads. fords.. . gravel. The use of these forms is explained in FM 5-36. . bridges.. Local construction capabilities and labor conditions are included. and velocity of the stream: condition of the banks and streambed. Presence or absence of local construction materials. Estimated amount of earthwork necessary. .

Vol 1 29 SECTION II DETAILED ( ou5 . DA Form 1248 J 2-12 Site Selection and Reconnaissance .W~n.1 JUL 60 I I PREVIOUS EDITION IS OSSOLETE I Figure 2-2. Sample Road Reconnaissance Report.xc ROAD INFORMATION 1 DA FORM 1248.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

Vol 1 r .I m- :oa)Bu~tt-up area[wostfehf)I- Bd 749. Sample Road Reconnaissance Report.0 bs) BCGO (+p) 6.7/S.3 m kb (08) a00) Constrrc+~On .FM 50430-OO-i/AFPAM 32-8013.+ - 6. 1 JUL 60 Figure 2-2. DA Form 1248 (continued) Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-13 . 7m Kb (00) Constrxfion 5hdmp Curve !weep Grede 8*nu ALL MEASUREMENTS IN METERS REVERSE OF DA FORM 1248.

as specified in FM 5-36. Engineer reconnaissance is often conducted in conjunction with deliberate route reconnaissance to determine route conditions (including work estimates] and to locate construction materials to improve or maintain It is either a general or special the route. Periodic road reconnaissance is conducted to obtain information about the road situation in a specific area. For an undeveloped potential site. If it is a captured enemy airfield. in the scope of information. resources. PLANNING AIRFIELD RECONNAISSANCE Tentative airfield sites are selected within enemy territory using map and aerial 2-14 Site Selection and Reconnaissance . Maintenance based on periodic reconnaissance must be coordinated with the agencies using the roads to ensure proper standards of maintenance and to avoid work on roads no longer needed. machine-hours. Existing roads should be surveyed at the earliest opportunity to determine their condition and capacity. described in FM 5-36. and the results of Periodic reconnaissance is important during wet or unusually dry weather to determine the effects of these conditions. ENGINEER RECONNAISSANCE materials. The main objective of a location reconnaissance is to locate a new road that will withstand anticipated traffic and provide the best possible operating conditions. This requires reconnaissance of all possible routes to ensure selection of the best route. the need for maintenance work. terrain features. and troop requirements for the construction planned. Time is saved by improving an existing road rather than a new one. Vol 1 The most construction. the density of traffic. Reconnaissance should begin as soon as possible. Airfield reconnaissance differs from roadlocation reconnaissance. Special engineer reconnaissance obtains detailed information regarding an investigation of a specific site or evaluates the potential use of an undeveloped facility such as an airport or heliport. and material than a road project. A situation map is prepared and kept current to show the condition of roads. the object of the reconnaissance is to verify or amend tentative selections and layouts and to estimate the material. developed potential sites or operating enemy installations. An airfield project involves more personnel. and facilities that have engineer implications. Consequently. the first step is the location reconnaissance. reconnaissance. General engineering reconnaissance gathers engineering information of a broad nature within the operational area to locate and evaluate construction AIRFIELD RECONNAISSANCE photograph reconnaissance.FM 5-430-OOWAFPAM 32-8013. supplementing data from reports of aerial observers or inThese sites may be untelligence sources. DA Form 1711-R is a required enclosure to the route reconnaissance. LOCATION RECONNAISSANCE When a new road is necessary. equipment. Air traffic imposes more severe limitations on its traffic facilities than vehicular traffic. the site selected must be the best site available.

. .: :... ... ~:. Prepared templates can measure distances in feet.. ... A pilot who is familiar with operational requirements and the performance characteristics of tactical aircraft is more valuable than one who is not....:..: .. This template can be drawn on acetate or heavy cellophane for use on any map to meet specifications for flight way.j. .:: :.::. . the pilot considers approaches. :.. .:.: ...:: j :/:.:. New airfields added to an area in which our aircraft are already operating can be developed in the following manner: l angle... Immunity to airsickness. +... FM 5-430-001l/AFP ... . .. .. horizontal approach.::. . Any tendency of the engineer observer to become airsick is greatly enhanced by the continual concentration on a particular site and by l Site Se/e&ion and Reconnaissance 2-15 . Vo12.. ...: ..: :.:::.:.:..i.....:::::.. . and physical obstructions related to tactical aircraft that may use the proposed installation..: .. ... . ..: ::. Besides chauffeuring the engineer officer. miles..:.: .:... mental hazards. ..: .. :x :.:. SELECTING RUNWAY LOCATION A convenient way of selecting a runway location at a site that meets glide-angle requirements is to prepare and use the airfield-siting template illustrated in Figure 2-3.. :..... :. . and accessibility to routes of communication.::::... The engineer observer assesses possible construction problems at a potential site. rail and road accesses to the site.. .. Vol I - a decision is needed on whether to use the captured field or develop a completely new site.:. PROCEDURES FOR AIRFIELD AIR RECONNAISSANCE The general procedure for an air reconnaissance follows: En route to a particular site or a general area..: ~ .. ...::)j. .:. Locate and shade all similar obstructions on the map. :.. ..: .. An airsick officer cannot effectively accomplish air reconnaissance. . . electric transmission lines and shade a 2-milewide strip centered on these lines. Confine the study for potential airfields to the unshaded parts of the map. This runway location is unsuitable according to the specifications. Look for sites of sufficient area. . ....:.:...:. Assault or hasty airfield selection is discussed in Chapter 10 of FM 5-430-OO-2/Air Force Pamphlet [AFPAM) 32-8013. the template shows land forms and natural or manufactured obstacles that are in or above the plane of the glide angle.. .:::::::.. Assign the most likely sites to reconnaissance parties for appropriate air and ground investigation...::.:...:: . . The engineer receives the pilot’s suggestions concerning the flying-related characteristics of the sites investigated and modifies estimates according to these recommendations. and kilometers by placing gradations along their edges. . . When placed on the map. the officer should possess the following qualifications: l . :. .. ::. . yards.:/ . ..:.: .. Note all high-tension.. :.::.:. The template is useful to the reconnaissance officer and to the preliminary planning group.::..: :: :& :.. .:. . and errors on maps that have been studied.:...:.. preferably flat with good natural drainage.:. .:.: ...:.. :+: :. . .. To be effective as an engineer observer.::. .. and glide angle.. . .:.>:.:.::.. : :.... .::: :.:. :::. large stockpiles of construction material... The pilot plays an important role on the reconnaissance team. .: . page 2-16. . any hill within the approach zone at a distance of 8.: ...:..:..:.. Draw a 5-mile-diameter circle around existing airfields and shade them..::::.... Estimates of the engineering effort necessary to restore the airfield may also be required . :.. 93-4. The engineer selects tentative sites and directs questions to the ground reconnaissance party.. .:..:.:.. .: . ...:. .:. :. ..... is in a 5O:l glide Knowledge of road and airfield requirements and construction procedures and experience in airfield work.:. : i. : .. . In Figure 2-3.:.: . . .000 feet from the end of the overrun and having an elevation of more than 160 feet above that of the end of the proposed runway. Select the best available map of the area in which the new airfields are to be located. unobstructed air approaches. the engineer notes open borrow pits..

2O:l q 3O:l = 4O:l = 5O:l = 6O:l = 2"52 l"55' lo26 1009 O"57 Figure 2-3.IRFIEI. The pilot begins to formulate an estimate of the flying-related characteristics of the field. :. Figurer shown in rp roach zones Indicate permlsrlbk he P ghts of obstructions ab?ye runway for glide angels of 4O:l and r’@rotmctor lndlcatw direct reading of runway bearing taken from Notih-South grid llnes on map. obstructions.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. A second pass in the opposite direction is flown on the other side of the centerline. essen- made on the map.. . c+ NOTES: 1. Sample airfield-siting template the steep turns tial to continued l and maneuvers observation. NOTE: The length usually is overestimated when flying at low air speeds if a strong wind is blowing along the centerline. Both of these flights should be made at a constant air speed so the runway length can be estimated by multiplying the air speed by the average flight time. Pinpoints for the ends of the runway are 2-16 Site Selection and Reconnaissance . Vol 1 . an initial low pass is made at about 50 yards to one side of the proposed centerline. This can be decreased if the distances obtained by two passes in opposite Similar second and third passes are flown. Sometimes a site tentatively selected during an area search can be eliminated during this circuit or the next few passes. but additional should be flown across the area. 3. sary. 0:‘ Runway length 6.: . Glide angles are measured from outer end of overrun.‘. main slopes. Nothing more than orientation can be accomplished in this circuit.L I I \ OL O*’ .. After the runway has been selected. Upon approaching a designated or tentatively selected site lor reconnaissance. trips if neces- Proficiency in map reading. and general features are noted.000ft = Overrunlengths 500 ft = Horizontal approach= 45 ft Height obstacle of above Runway = tangent vertical angle x distance 0. During these circuits. the normal altitude for the first circuit is approximately 300 feet.O POR MAPS TEMPLATE OF OESIRED SCALE .

PROCEDURES FOR AIRFIELD RECONNAISSANCE The general procedure sance follows: GROUND for ground reconnais- The ground-reconnaissance phase is preceded by map and air reconnaissance to discover what specific sites and questions warrant ground investigation. In departing. An area reconnaissance then proceeds by similar inspection of other possible sites. a reinvestigation of the final site selected and any selected alternative sites may sometimes be necessary. pits. An air reconnaissance report similar to Figure 2-4. the most likely locations for a runway must be investigated. The survey sergeant of the reconnaissance party stakes out the centerline of the runway and runs a ground profile of it at the centerline and at each shoulder line. The type of soil is noted and observations of a few samples are made. a detailed search must be made on foot. During this trip. When the site to be surveyed is reached. Stakes are driven at each end of the runway and prominent features are properly referenced to later expedite the location of the selected runway by construction unit surveyors. accompanied by necessary personnel. The reconnaissance officer. and directions are determined with a magnetic compass. The best runway location is selected by considering these centerline investigations with prevailing wind direction. the location of usable or repairable railheads. such as gullies. En route to the site or sites to be investigated on the ground. Lengths are paced. Vol 1 - directions along the centerline are averaged (assuming the wind is constant). Once the selection of a potential runway is made. glide angles. and the potential water points.FM 514301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. and stockpiles must be prepared. as well as the suitability of railheads and sidings for use in construction. If the country is rough and is not sufficiently open to permit a quick selection of runway locations. page 2-18. and swampy areas. and the pilot completes the appraisal of the field’s flying suitability. rock outcrops. these locations may be quickly determined. When reconnaissance of a definite site is involved. The reconnaissance officer notes on a large-scale map or sketch all obstacles that cannot readily be eliminated. A final circuit is then flown at approximatcly 200 feet. the locally available materials and equipment. Locations for runways are traversed by vehicle or on foot. Additional passes over the site are made if questions arise as a result of this last check. Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-17 . and earthwork. grubbing. a negative report on the site is submitted. critical slopes are measured with a clinometer. and features that might hinder the movement of construction equipment to the site. A check must be made of bridge capacities. discharge areas for collected runoff. air approaches. a careful and detailed walk of the centerline of each runway is made to recheck its suitability. A rough survey of each selected runway is carried out immediately. A detailed report of the quantity and quality of materials available at quarries. overhead clearances. the observer reviews dispersal areas and again checks access roads. Examination of the results discloses the possible runway locations. groundwater conditions. A preliminary check of a possible runway can be made in 15 minutes. If the terrain is open enough to permit good observation. Complete notes must be kept to avoid reviewing sites already checked: however. If a suitable runway does not exist. the ends and centerline of the runway are given a final check. clearing. a more detailed observation of the access route should be made. if the country is reasonably clear and open. the reconnaissance party should properly record the general condition of roads and bridges. Levels are taken at 500-foot intervals and -. may be used. follows the centerline of the area for the runway and dispersal areas.

this interval may be increased to as much as 1.000 feet. Aurcraft D~rpersal Inadequate Unlimtted Adequate ~ 11 Access Roads J Good Adequate Inadequate Figure 2-4. Information must be weighed carefully with regard for the credibility of each person questioned. Questions should be phrased to provide the best comparison of answers. A suggested mat is shown in Figure 2-5. The reconnaissance of a designated site should be accomplished in one day. Errors. if time permits. Refer to Chapter 7 of this manual for more information about soil conditions. Natural ~ Surlace Good __/ FM _ Poor - Relect’ Dramage. In flat country. Air Reconnaissance Report at intermediate breaks or slope changes. Previously acquired information is checked at the site for accuracy. Flymg Approaches. including discrepancies on maps and mistakes in aerial photograph interpretations. Several opinions should be obtained. Clearing: c/ Light Moderale E tcesslve 10. local inhabitants are interviewed to check information already obtained and to obtain more information. report for- When possible. Poor Excellent Good d Fair 8.FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. J Excsllent Average POW 9. The soils analyst conducts a field investigation of the soil conditions at the site. If an alternative runway is selected. unless 2-18 Site Selection and Reconnaissance . Vol 1 : Excellent 7. are in- cluded in the report. a similar survey is conducted for that runway.

Vol 1 -_ .FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

.‘. and Figure 26. . :.FM 5_43()_(-)()_1/AFPAM 324013.. are suggested for written reports... The formats illustrated in Figure 2-4.. The reports should include the same items of information shown on these forms. Vol 1 . Use organic radio equipment and the suggested message format in Figure 2-7.i:~.. : ::..:. .:. A complete.. The specific information needed is indicated on the suggested form for reconnaissance reports of captured enemy airfields shown in Figure 2-6.i..: . When the reconnaissance parties are operating at a considerable distance from the headquarters directing the reconnaissance. ..:c>.. Figure 2-8.. page 2-19. ..“. . Suitable sketches should be attached to all written reconnaissance reports. .:T. page 223. written report should follow the radio report.:. The tactical situation may dictate the amount of information transmitted.I. Unit standing operating procedures (SOPS) should indicate what information is critical for radio reports....: .18. A specific reconnaissance of a captured enemy airfield is somewhat different from that outlined above... Figure 2-5. ::..~<. page 2-22. hostile forces delay the work. page 2.:. 1 2-20 Site Selection and Reconnaissance .. is a typical sketch. Detailed information about the existing facilities and their condition is desired.:. it is imperative that an initial report reach headquarters without delay.

’ :.... Ground Reconnaissance Report ...:: :. FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.::‘j’y: :.: : :. ‘.:::.: .: ‘ji.::. :... ‘.. ‘.>:.: .. .:.::... . . : ..Captured Enemy Airfield Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-21 . Vol 1 RECONNAISSANCE CAPTURE0 ENEMY REPoAr AIRFIELD -- Figure 2-6...

.i~.:.....:.. in houn. ...:.: . ....... .... areas by serial number.....: :::::::y:. ... >..... AIRLANDINGAREA REPORT I I Air landing Sites letter daicnath A B C 0 Date and time of collectinn of infermalion location (grrd nlercncesl Runwry Ill Bclnng (21 lenfith and width ~ (31 Gradrnls exceeding dandrrds (4) Rough appraisal d earth work (Q fcas4brJily of runway extension Drainage Mw obstacles to flymg (11Witha the approach zone (21 Oubde Ihe approach zone but within lrpe of soll 5 miles I ” J Whether surtabfe area for dispersk LOCJ resources can be found I I Airstn~s (Runways) Letter da..::‘:’:: ‘:::::........::..... ....... .. .. ........~..>...: ..:...~........... . .............. to make the wrstnp sewiceab!e t sustained or limited opcrahows letter designation reported........‘.....:::::r..... : ..:....:.:.~..‘:::’:’::~~~ :. 1:...............:. :y: .....:........::.......:::: :..~...........~.......::>:....: ..::.....:......: ..~.....:..:......: .....:.... vd 1 . The appropriate must precede each category of information Figure 2-7.....:.:. i:~~::l.anabon A Approach roads bplanatron 1 Maoshctc(sl I 8 Cl I Dateand bme of cd~ct1011 of information I L Oimcnaons I I Report air landing Any othrc mformatmn such as work rquired....:. : :‘.. .:...:..:I. :::: .: :.......~.:.. :.::::...:. :.~.‘::..~)~: ..~.. ... ....... Air Landing Area Report 2-22 Site Selection and Reconnaissance ...~:::..................~.. .:.....? :.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013....:: ... .. .

.:. . :. ..I:. : ..: .. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. ::...: .: : .: . . ::. Vol 1 / -_ i Figure 2-8.. ... : ..’ ..y >... Typical sketch to accompany airfield reconnaissance report Site Selection and Reconnaissance 2-23 . :...


The quality and efficiency of construction is directly proportional to the number and extent of surveys and other preplanning activities. Earthwork operations are one of the most important construction aspects in road and airfield construction. The reconnaissance and preliminary surveys are used to determine the best localion. Earthwork requires the greatest amount of engineering effortfrom the standpoint of personnel and equipment. The number and extent of surveys conducted is governed by the time available. These surveys reveal the kinds of stakes to be used. However. final location. preliminary. In the combat zone. After completing a thorough construction survey. CONSTRUCTION Construction surveying is the orderly process of obtaining data for various phases of construction activity. provide data for earthwork estimation. including which method of estimation to use. extensive surveys may be con- SURVEYS ducted for a deliberate project in the communications zone. Vol 1 SURVEYS AND EARTHWORK OPERATIONS CHAPTER Construction surveys are initiated when new construction is necessary. The purpose of construction surveys is to control construction activities. It includes the following surveys: reconnaissance. Mark the stakes so that the construction will conform to the planned line and grade of the road or airfield and the information on the stakes wlll be properly interpreted by construction crews. and construction layout. and supervision of earthwork operations are important in obtaining an efliciently operated construction project. The remaining surveys are conducted after a location has been established. and the availability of personnel and materials. and provide information for use on the mass diagram. These stakes are the guides and reference markers for earthwork operations. Thefmished survey books should befiled with the construction project records of the Operations and Training Ofiicer (US Army) (53).FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. transfer the design information from paper to the field by construction stakes. The principles and techniques of field surveying are discussed in detail in technical manual (TM) 5-232 and FM 5-233. the standard of construction desired. roads and airfields are constructed with only minimum preplanning and construction control activities. - Surveys and Earth work Operations 3-l . scheduling. the planning. Therefore.

station. ermost control-point stake. if such a system has been established. On a large facility. Vol 1 RECONNAISSANCE The SURVEY reconnaissance survey provides the basis for selecting acceptable sites and routes and furnishes information for use on subsequent surveys. Take the datum of the bench mark system from a known elevation or barometer reading or make an arbitrary assumption. it may bc necessary to conduct several preliminary surveys if the reconnaissancc party has investigated more than one suitable route.) If the best available route has not been chosen. The airfield survey consists of establishing controls. and investigating drainage patterns and approaches. resulting in the elevation of the points. with corrections. Locate the target board just beyond the out- PRELIMINARY SURVEY The preliminary survey is a detailed study of a location tentatively selected on the basis of reconnaissance. As the taxiways and other facilities are laid out. about 3/4 inch by 3 inches. well-marked points for horizontal control and reference them at the site before construction begins. line of the runway and other important sections of the airfield. driven flush with the ground. the hub is stake used. and profile lhc route centerline with horizontal and vcrlical control points set. In laying out the centerline. If the location cannot bc selected on the basis of this work. if they are disturbed or lost. It provides alignments. establish and reference new control points. establish a level reference surface or datum from a known bench mark. Vertical Control Vertical control methods determine the difference in elevation between points. If available. FINAL LOCATION SURVEY When 11mc permits. making soil profiles. Hubs are CONSTRUCTION LAYOUT SURVEY The construction layout survey is the final preconstruction operation. Tie the network into the military grid system in the particular area. and plotting results. grades. select it at this time. Differences in elevation. (Sometimes cross sections may be taken during the reconnaissance survey if the conditions warrant. place control points beyond the These points define the centerclear zone. 2 inches by 2 inches and the guards are flat stakes. The hub location is indicated by a flat guard stake extcndcd above the ground and driven at a slope so its top is over the hub. and recommendations. conduct a final location Establish permanent bench marks survey for vertical control and well-marked points for horizontal control. recording topography. For roads. are subtracted from or added to this assigned value. Accurately establish the final ccn Lcrline during the survey. Establish permanent. establish a grid network and use it for this control. survey information. Reference control stakes to ensure replacement. It consists of running a traverse along a proposed route. place target boards at each end of the runway so the instrument person can make frequent checks on alignment while the line is being staked out. Horizontal Control The purpose of horizontal control is to accurately determine points for the various facilities of an engineering project.FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. The survey includes determining exact placement of the 3-2 Surveys and Earthwork Operations . it must be determined by the preliminary surVIZS’. noting terrain features. Target boards may be set up on any line that requires precision alignment. Take crosssection readings to allow rough calculations of the earthwork involved. measuring glide-angle clearance. and locations that guide construction operations. square On most surveys. On an airfield. These points are called hubs because of the short. and a tack in its top marks the exact point for angular and linear measurements. Establish.

FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM 32-8013. point of intersection (PI). These stakes are used as reference points in locating the remaining stakes. sledgehammer. setting all remaining stakes. and intermediate stakes and for temporary bench marks. Points two and three are the construction limits of the cut and fill at right angles to the ten terline..1. ditch. reference. The height of cut or fill from the existing ground surface to the top of the subgrade for centerline stakes or to the shoulder grade for shoulder or slope stakes. grades. survey until construction is five-person crew equipped with transit. ax. The primary functions of construction stakes are to indicate facility alignment. and direction. centerline. If the stake is located at a critical point such as a point of curvature (PC). Finished grade stakes and temporary bench marks are 2 inches by 2 inches by 12 inches. use small trees or branches blazed on both sides and cut to length. The stakes should be approximately 1 inch by 3 inches by 2 feet. Centerline stakes are placed at lOOfoot (or 30-meter) intervals. or point of tangency (PTl of a curve. Use a uniform system so the information on the stakes can be properly interprctcd by the construction crew. and performing other work reContinue this quired to begin construction. A typical set of construction stakes consists of a centerline stake and two slope stakes and is referred to as a three-point system. shown in Figure 3. shoulder. guide equipment operators. Mark and place construction stakes to conform to the planned line and grade of the proposed facility. laying out culvert sites. and machete. CENTERLINE OR ALIGNMENT STAKES - The centerline or alignment (hub) stakes. If it is no1 possible to USC finished lumber. location. and shoulders: staking out necessary structures. tape. and eliminate unnecessary work. CONSTRUCTION Use construction stakes for centerline. slope. note this on the stake. Construction * l STAKES The horizontal distance from the centerline to the stake location.. Figure Front Back l 3-1. Centerline stakes Surveys and Earth work Operations 3-3 . On rough ground or sharp horizontal and vertical stakes indicate- The stationing or location of any part of the facility in relation to its starting point. culvert. are placed on the centerline of a road or airfield and indicate its alignmenl. Use colored marking crayons to mark the stakes. The number and location of stakes used differ bctwccn roads and airfields. control elevations. . level. offset. Point one is the centerline of the facility. Use finished lumber when possible. Place stakes using a three. They also determine the width of clearing required by indicating the limits of the cut and fill at right angles to the centerline of a road. rod. ratio used on slope * The side-slope stakes. They are the first stakes placed and must be located accurately. laying out curves. Vol 1 -. grade.

A cut is marked C. also stake the point of vertical curvature (PVC!). if used. page 3-3. if applicable. PI. Mark the front of the stake with aq for centerline and. as shown in Figure 3.1. or PT. Facing the direction of increasing stations. Whenever a sharp break in the original ground profile occurs. On vertical curves. Stakes at points of zero cut or fill are placed sloping outward from the ten terline. place the stakes kI 16. The decimal part is written smaller. Sloping the stakes outward allows the equipment to work to the stake without removing it. it should be staked. Stations are used in locating sections of construction and in preparing reports. would be placed and shown as indicated in Figure 3-1. Also mark on the front the distance from zero or the starting point in lOO-foot stations and the fractional part of a station. On this side of the stake. a fill. at points where the cut and fill slopes intersect the natural ground surface. To prevent misinterpretation of the amount of cut or fill.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. When facing either side of the centerline. raised. they can be used as guides in 3-4 Surveys and Earth work Operations . The slope indicates the direction of the centerline of the road and enables the equipment operators to read the stakes more easily. F. Place the amount of cut or fill required at the station on the reverse side of the stake. Vol 1 . shown in Figure 3-2. the point of vertical tangency (PVT).::: closer together. and PT. When used in read work. curves. and the low point (LPI or high point (HP) of the curve. A centerline stake. Place slope stakes at lOO-foot intervals on tangents and at 50-foot intervals on horizontal or vertical curves. PI. define the limits of grading work. For example. the point of vertical intersection (PVI).0 feet to bring this station up to the final grade line.. Place centerline stakes with the broad sides perpendicular to the centerline. The area to be cleared usually extends 6 feet beyond the slope stakes. The side of the stake that faces the starting point is the front. Marking and placement stakes of slope determining the width of clearing necessary. The front of a slope stake is the side facing the centerline. mark the difference in elevation between the natural ground clevalion at this point and the finished grade at the cdgc of the SLOPE STAKES Slope stakes.22 feet from the origin of the facility and is known as the station of this point. also stake the PC. 6 + 54= marked on a stake indicates it is 654. mark decimal parts of a foot. PC. A point on the stake is seldom used as the line of reference to the final grade.0 - I I Front Back Figure 3-2. and underlined. On horizontal curves. the centerline forms the dividing line between the right and left sides of the area to be graded. The amount of cut or fill indicates the difference between the final grade line and the ground line where the stake is emplaced. it is customary to refer to the areas as the right or left side. placed at station 78 t 00 and requiring a fill of 6. Set slope stakes on lines perpendicular to the centerline (one on each side).

Surveys and Earthwork Operations 3-5 . Place offset stakes beyond construction limits to avoid resurveying portions of the road to relocate these stakes.FM 5430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. 2 inches by 2 inches. To prevent loss of man-hours and repetition of survey work.-_ FINISH-GRADE STAKES Use wooden stakes. place another figure that indicates the horizontal distance from the centerline of the road to the slope stake. the slope stakes can easily be located.I’. They are used when the grade is within a short distance of the final elevation. it may be impractical to use guards with each stake. for finishgrade stakes. 2 :. Figure 3-3 shows offset stakes used to relocate the original stakes. with tops colored red or blue. . caution construction crews to protect grade stakes whenever possible. as decided upon by the surveyor and construction foreman. Front Figure 3-3. There are no markings on finish-grade stakes other than the color on the top.:. These stakes may be set for use with the top of the stake exactly at the finished grade or with the top of the stake above the finished grade. Under this figure. indicate the appropriate slope ratio. Blue or red tops. An offset stake placed a horizontal distance of 10 feet from and 1 foot above the right slope stake would be placed and marked as shown in Figure 3-3. OFFSET STAKES Equipment used on a cut or fill section may destroy or remove many of the grade (centerline. Place the station number on the other side of this stake. Below the station number. shoulder. After relocating a slope stake. the cut or fill value must be incrcascd or decreased by the difference in elevation. Mark the offset distance on the front of the stake and circle it to indicate it is an offset reference. If the offset stake is at a different elevation from the slope stake. An offset stake contains all the information given on the original slope stake plus the difference in elevation and horizontal distance from the original slope stake to the offset stake. Coordination between the surveyor and grade supervisor concerning the meaning of the markings is most important regardless of the type of marking used. relocate the centerline stake by measuring toward the centerline of the road the horizontal distance indicated on the slope stake and placing the new centerline stake there. Vol 1 - shoulders. From these. Place offset stakes on a line at right angles to the centerline of the facility. Figure 3-2 shows the proper markings for a slope stake in a typical situation. indicate the actual finished elevation of the final grade to which the completed facility is to be constructed. Marking and placement stakes of offset . On large projects. Do not use these stakes in combat road construction except in areas with steep slopes. or slope) stakes. This type of stake normally requires a guard stake to protect it and indicate its location. as they are called.

To be of most value in replacing a missing station or point. These stakes usually are approximately 2 Inches by 2 inches by 18 inches. however. The TBMs are set before setting the centerline stakes because vertical control must be established before construction begins. place these stakes along the centerline. Usually. measurements are made to nearby permanent or semipermanent objects. From these bench marks. when a transit is not available. The method of using two known distances can be used. The point of intersection of the two tapes at the respective distances gives the location of the point in question. : . known as bench marks. reference points serve as TBMs. On many 300-meter) intervals and are placed off the limits of construction. a manhole cover. or a pipe driven into the ground may also be used. As an aid in relocating a point which may become hidden by vegetation. and the station number. They must be replaced. the construction supervisor can place the pipe accurately by using batter boards. To do this. and indicate their location by blazing trees or additional stakes. the location of the reference stakes can be obtained from the surveyor’s notebook. the balancing of cuts 3-6 Surveys and Earthwork Operations .. Vol 1 :. A point can be referenced by a known distance and a known angle or by two known distances. sect at approximately right angles. a nail driven into a tree. Obtain elevations from permanent monuments.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. With the stakes set and marked at a predetermined distance above the finished grade. Frequently. However. solidly emplaced in the ground. :. In such cases. points of known elevation must bc established. TBMs are placed at 500. On an airfield layout. tion in combat areas. :. or as a means of replacing points which may have been destroyed. the determination of final grades... stretch a string between two stakes across the work and use a graduated ruler or stick to check the elevation.:... the reference stakes or witnesses will be less than 100 feet from the point and. Normally. shoulder lines. The information required on the culvert stakes includes the distance from the stake to the centerline. run a line of lcvcls and set temporary bench marks (TBMsl. :. intermediate lines. may be used for this purpose. This process is known as referencing or wftnessIng a point. the original point or stake. permanent objects may not be available as l. For road work. There are no markings on a reference stake. if possible. often more than once. place stakes along the centerline and the edge of the shoulder: they may or may not be placed on the slopes. On small projects the TBMs frequently are set by runnlng the levels from a point of assumed This is especially true of construcelevation.. Hold the zero end of one tape on one reference point and the zero end of the other tape on the other reference point. Once the survey crew has finished staking out the culvert. additional stakes may be driven. and ditch slopes. before construction is completed. Place two points at measured distances from the point ‘Use two tapes to relocate to be referenced. . CULVERT STAKES Culvert stakes are located on a line parallel to and offset a few feet from the centerline. Stakes 2 inches by 2 inches.. Place them outside the construction limits. EARTHWORK ESTIMATION Earthwork computations involve the calculation of earthwork volumes.OOOfoot (or 150. the vertical distance to the invert. established by geodetic surveys. REFERENCE STAKES Many hubs marking the location of highways and airfields are uprooted or covered during construction. the arcs should inter- BENCH MARKS Vertical control of a road or airfield must be maintained during construction. edge of pavement. A transit must be used in the first case and may be used to advantage in the second. :: .

but the results are accurate. the quantity of earthwork and the soil and haul conditions must be known so the most cfficicnt type and quantity of earthmoving equipment can be chosen and the appropriate time allotted. Typical fill cross section FUNDAMENTAL VOLUME DETERMINATION The volume of a rectangular object may be determined by multiplying the area of one end by the length of the object. page 3-8) in order to divide the cross section into two triangles and two trapezoids. - Plot ground elevations from the surveyor’s Make a sectional template of the notes. only the trapezoidal. subgrade that shows the finished subgrade and slopes plotted to the same scale as the cross sections. then determine the volume. the assumption is within the accuracy normally required. Surveys and Earthwork Operations 3-7 . When time is critical.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The trapezoidal method is widely used to determine end areas. higher construction standards are possible and earthwork quantities are estimated and controlled by more precise methods. The end arcas of the cross sections must bc computed before volumes can be calculated. To plan a schedule. The method chosen will depend upon the time available. Of the several satisfactory methods of measuring the end areas. draw only the appropriate lines of each template. and the engineer’s prefercncc. Figure 3-4. computing the area of each part separately. Where the ground surface is regular. which in turn arc controlled by the time available and the type of construction involved. the accuracy desired. The computations are tedious. A crosssectional view of the land is plotted from these measurements. they must be taken at intermediate points as determined by the surveyor. In using the trapezoidal method. stripper. Trapezoidal Method METHODS OF END-AREA DETERMINATION When the centerline of the construction has been located. Trace the template and extend the side slopes to intersect the original ground. cross sections are taken at every full station (100 feet). Where the ground is irregular. double-meridian (triangular). This relationship can be applied to the dctermination of earthwork by considering road cross sections at the stations along the road as the end areas and the horizontal distance between cross sections as the lengths. A typical cross section is shown in Figure 3-4. the area of any cross section is obtained by dividing the cross section into triangles and trapezoids. While this is not usually correct. and the planning of the most economical haul of material. When the sections are completed. Superimpose the template on the cross section and adjust it to the correct centerline elevation. begin the end-area measurements. The cross sections are taken on vertical planes at right angles to the centerline. Vol 1 - and fills. measurements are taken in the field from which the required quantities of cut or fill can be computed. the aids at hand. When time is not critical. and planimeter methods will be described in this manual. The exactness with which earthwork computations are made depends upon the extent and accuracy of field measurements. If the section involves both cut and fill. the earthwork quantities are estimated either very roughly or not at all. Make the assumption that the ground is perfectly straight between these selected points on the ground line. and taking the total area of the verticals to the ground line (‘Figure 3-5.

If the two parallel 3-8 Surveys and Earthwork Operations . The figure above the line indicates the ground elevation of that point. from one of the vertices of a triangle perpendicular to the side or base (b) opposite this vertex. the distance between the two bases along this perpendicular line is the altitude (h) of the trapezoid. j : . ..: . . The figure below the line indicates the horizontal distance from the centerline to that point on the ground.. verticals Cross section in cut with drawn at critical points Basic Formulas.. as shown in Figurc 3-6. Triangle dimension base and height locations A trapezoid is a four-sided figure having two sides parallel but not equal in length. Y-l A = v2bh To determine the appropriate dimensions. If a line is drawn. Points on the grade line of the proposed road are written in a similar manner and are obtained by computations from the final grade line to be established. Thus. The arca of any triangle can be expressed as the product of one-half the base multiplied by the altitude.0/21 indicates a point that is at elevation 32. as shown in Figure 3-8.. . The area of any trapezoid can be expressed as the average length of the bases multiplied by the altitude.. :. The first step in computing areas by the trapezoidal method is to break the cross-sectional area into triangles and trapezoids by drawing verticals.0 and 2 1 feet from the centerline of the road. . This relationship can be expressed by the formula: * _ (bl + b2) /-I 2 Figure 3-5.. as shown in Figure 3-5. j: sides of the bases (bl and bz) are crossed by a line perpendicular to each. The cross-section notes taken in the field are in fractional form. Before the area of the cross section can be computed. .FM 5_43&0&1/AFpAM 32-8013. the notes taken by the surveyors must be known.:. Trapezoid base and height dimension locations Computation of Areas. the basic formulas for the computation of the areas of triangles and trapezoids must be understood. Then determine the area of these small figures by the appropriate formula. .:: . Vol 1 : :. the note 32.:. . the line formed represents the altitude (h) of the triangle.: : . as shown in Figure 3-7. If Figure 3-6. This relationship is expressed by the formula: /m Figure 3-7.

0 2 . In rough terrain the vertical lines should be closer together to ensure greater accuracy.0 square Find the areas of the remaining and triangle in the same way. but it must be constant throughout the cross-section area.0)(27-21) = l/2(6.0)(6) = 18. multiplied by the value of w.01(21) = 105.0 square feet Rcfcrring to Figure 3-8. Lay the strip along each vertical line in such a manner as to add each in turn to the total. Stripper Method The stripper method is a variation of the trapezoidal method. Cross-section cut showing distances and elevations Figure 3-9. All vertical bases are found by subtracting elevations.0 . area a2.FM 5. Examples: Rcfcrring stituting angle: CL1 = If vertical lines are drawn at equal distances apart. This figure.29. obtain notes for the centerline. Fill cross section arranged show the stripper method Example: to To solve the triangles and trapezoids formed. w. measure (graphically) each length (b) and multiply the sum by the width (w) (constant). Vol 1 . The distance between vertical lines.29.- the cross section is divided into triangles and trapezoids by erecting verticals. and end of slopes to solve for the area. A. may be any value.4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The strip will show the sum of all vertical lines in the same scale that the cross section is plotted. One of the easiest and most convenient ways to measure the vertical lines (b) is with a strip of paper or plastic.0 bzjh . then by the trapezoidal formula. consider the bases of these figures to be vertical and the altitudes to be horizontal. consider a section such as that shown in Figure 3-9.30. and all horizontal altitudes are found by subtracting horizontal distances from the closest vertical in the direction of the centerline. and substituting in the formula for the area of a trapezoid: First. To use this method. the end area. trapezoid Surveys and Earthwork Operations 3-9 . will give the area of the cross section. and subin the formula for the area of a tri- terms: + 2b4 + 2bs) A = Vzw(2bl A = wQbj + 2b3 ‘/2bh = (35. Figure 3-8. area al. a2 = V2(b1 + = (35.0) + (34.0 t 4.01 (21-O) feet = l/2(6. shoulders. will be given by the following computation: A = Mblw t l/z (bl + b2jw + + Vz(b3 + b4)w + 1/2(b4 t b5)w t Vitb5w in and combine + 2bz l/2 (bz t b3)w Factor to Figure 3-8.

7 1 Strippk upon completion 140 I 8.. = 21. Applying these figures to the formula. However. add the multiplied results and list plus and minus quantities.. it involves more time. and heights equal to their differences in elevation. precise value for a cross-section area than the stripper method. . . ... Inaccuracies result when either a triangle or trapezoid falls within the limits of w or when the area is curved. . However.. With this method. These trapezoids have bases equal to the horizontal distance of the respective points from the centerline. shown in Figure 3-1 1. ::...: : ..7 x 10 = 217 square feet tsq ft) I 21. .8 1 4.. the area is subdivided into two series of trapezoids using the elevations of adjacent points and their projections on the centerline (the distances).FM 5-4309OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. the area of the trapezoid is minus. Where the difference in elevation is plus. the area obtained is double the true area and must be divided by 2.7 feet: w is given as 10 feet. The component areas are added algebraically..10 shows a typical cross section with a strlpper marked to show the total length of all vertical lines and the value of w.:..:. where the difference is minus. The computation is simple arithmetic: subtract adjoining elevations. and divide by 2. . multiply by the distance from the centerlfne.. Vol 1 :. The stripper indicates that the sum of all vertical lines is 21. the method is rapid. . Cross-section area by the double-meridian method 3-l 0 Surveys and Earthwork Operations . thenA = (Cbjw Double-Meridian Triangle Method The double-meridian method explained in Chapter 1’3 of TM 5-232 gives a more.. Because this procedure uses the sum of the bases of the trapezoid. add these quantities. .... and the accuracy is adequate under urgent conditions.: ::.: .2 I 0 I Figure 3-10. Figure 3. Cross section with the sum of all vertical lines added on the stripper -- Figure 3-l 1. the area of the trapezoid is plus.

.:::~.~::~:~:~:~:~~:.:‘:“>.5 = -12. 031.63.0 Total of plus quantities Minus quantities: (B) to (C) (63.t j: .0 = -39... In sections having both cut and fill. (G).11 .3 . 3.~::.. (H).5 .:‘i:. .0 1. Vol 1 - The steps for completing the procedure for the double-meridian triangle method follow (refer to Figure 3.: ii::..11)...4 (66..64.:.:~:~:~~~.63.66.8 x 15 Total of minus quantities Algebraic sum = 424.:‘.5 0.2 (67.:::.5 102. (I). whichever is higher (F)..~. .3) x (34 t 20) = 1. ..i :_. Working from point to point. FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.A:.: j’..:~..::.: :.2 (67.65. Place plus quantities in one column and minus quantities in another.39. Point (F) to point (A) is not considered because the sum of their distances from the centerline is zero. Start at the centerline ground or grade elevation.~ ..9 1..6 64.6 45.~:.66.8 1. multiply the difference in elevation between each adjacent pair of points by the sum of their dis- tance from the centerline.1 x 5 .: . .j ..: .0 Area of section = 385.4) x (20 t 5) = 1. 1.:. (F). : . Work from the centerline in a clockwise direction to the left (A). and counterclockwise to the right (A).7 . while going from a higher to a lower elevation gives a minus quantity. : .3) x ( 5 + 0) = 0.2) x .64.5 sq ft = 424.. (E).0 45. Example: The area of the cross section shown below is computed as follows: Plus quantities: (Al (C) (D) (E) (G) (H) (I) to to to to to to to (81 (D) (E) (F) (H) (I) (F) (64.5 . (D).4 (65.7 (64. to the centerline ground or grade elevation..5) x . whichever is lower (A).2) x (30 t 34) ( 0 + 30) (37 t 15) (30 t 37) ( 0 t 30) = = = = = 1..~:~:.::~.: .:+..5 x x x x x 64 30 52 67 30 = = = = = = = 0.i’ . Divide the algebraic sum of the plus and minus quantities by 2 to obtain the area of the cross section in square feet (sq ft)..:.2 (66..l::.2) x .l’i:::i:i”.1 x 25 (A) to (G) (63.: ::j:::: .0 46.5 = 385.8 120. (F)..5 = -27. ‘y :. (C).0 divided by 2 = 192.. Going from a lower to a higher elevation gives a plus quantity.4) x . treat each part as a separate section.3) x (15 + 0) = 0.64.~.9 x 54 .~.64. 2.5 Surveys and Earth work Operations 3..‘.:.

drum. and vernier. set the anchor point of the adjusted planimeter at a convenient position outside the plotted area. D. and vernier. determine the scale of the plot and set the adjustable arm of the planimctcr according to the chart in the planimeter case.FM 5-4301000l/AFPAM 32-8013. Before measuring a specific area. P. Cheek the setting by carefully tracing a known area. the drum. The planimeter. When the tracing point closes on the initial point. I NOTE: Always measure cut and fill areas separately.12. F. and verifying the reading on the disk. The difference between the initial reading and the final reading gives a value proportional to the area being measured. A simple method of testing its consistency is to trace an area of 1 square inch with the arm set for a 1: 1 ratio. A. revolve. Take an initial reading from the disk. This adjustment provides a direct ratio between the area traced by the tracing point and the revolutions of the roller. keeping the tracing point carefully on the lines being followed. R.000 for this area. touches the paper at three points: the anchor point. Continue by tracing the perimeter clockwise. The disk records the revolutions of the roller in units of tenths. Polar planimeter in use 3-12 Surveys and Earthwork Operations . and the disk. The adjustable arm. T. in hundredths. in thousandths. the drum. and vernier. Check the accuracy of the planimeter as a measuring device to avoid errors from temperature changes and other noncompensating factors. drum. such as five large squares on the crosssection paper. and vernier combined should read 1. Place the tracing point on a selected point on the perimeter of the cross section. take a reading again from the disk. As the tracing point is moved over the paper. Vol 1 Planimeter Method A polar planimetcr is an instrument used to mcasurc the area of a plotted figure by tracing its perimeter. The disk. readjust the arm settings until a satisfactory reading is obtained. and the roller. the tracing point. drum. and the vernier. is graduated to permit adjustment to the scale of the plot. Figure 3-12. To measure an area. If the reading is inconsistent with the known area. shown in Figure 3. drum. V.

The first is performed as discussed above. in cubic yards (cy) (1 cy = 27 cubic feet (co). V=. Vol 1 - Make two independent measurements to ensure accurate results. whcrcV is the volume. Use the formula: Determine Am by averaging the corresponding linear dimensions of Ai and A2 and then determining its area. The accuracy of this method depends on the care given to establishing the centerline profile. Surveys and Earthwork Operations 3. V = 1. separated by a distance of L feet.14. Estimate the average depth of cut or fill between lOO-foot stations and obtain the volume of material from Table 3. The greater the difference in shape between the two end sections. the formula is only accurate when Al and A2 are approximately the same shape. divide the area into scclions and measure each section separately. the mean of which is more accurate than either. The second mcasurcment is made with the anchor point again placed outside the area being measured but on the opposite side of the area from its position in the first measurement. -. the method is consistent with field methods in general.(A1+4A. may bc found by the formula: Average-Depth-of-Cut-or-Fill Method With only the centerline profile and final grade established. requires more time than the average-endarea method and gives greater accuracy than is required for most road and airfield construction. in square feet. In most cases.+A& where= volume = distance Al and Am = area of Ai and V L (cy) between end sections A2 section midway between A2 Average-End-Area Method The average-end-arca method is most commonly used to determine the volume bound ing two cross sections or end areas. as outlined above. If cross sections are taken at full lOO-foot stations. the area calculated.85 (Al + AZ) In either form. However. the instruments used.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. To measure plotted areas larger than the capacity of the planimeter. points plotted into the computer and.1. rather than averaging the areas of A1 and AP. grid. This procedure gives two compensating readings.13 . the time required for a more accurate method is not justified. earthwork can be estimated with the average-depth-of-cut-or-fill method. prismoidal formula. and the accuracy of field reconnaissance. average-depth-of-cut-or-fill. The prismoidal method is used where either the end areas differ widely in shape or a more exact method of computing volume is Its use is very limited because it needed. with one command. Cross sections can be placed on a digitizing pad. The prismoidal formula is- METHODS - OF VOLUME DETERMINATION An engineer can accomplish the necessary earthwork computations by using the following methods: average-end-area. Prismoidal-Formula Method Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Very accurate measurements can be made if cross sections arc digitized using CAD. the greater the possibility of error. of the prismoid between cross sections having areas in square feet of A 1 and A2. the volume in cubic yards between successive cross sections AI + A2. or con tour. page 3.

b. NOTE: The final answer obtalned from the table is for a section 100 feet long. Determine 3-l: l the following before using Table Average amount of cut or fill. multiply by 0. Average Cut section Fill section amount . including ditches. To use this table you must know the following: 1. the ccnlcrline profile may be misleading as to the typical conditions across the entire Lransvcrsc width at that point. by this for most The ccntcrline profile of a road is typical of the cntirc transverse section because of the narrow widths. the volumes obtained method are generally adequate military construction.the width of the top of the fill. (For an W-foot section. 2. Column 2 gives the correct amount of earthwork when the side slopes are 1:l. an adjustment must be made. 3. Earthwork average cut or fill section of cut or fill having This table shows the number of cubic yards of earthwork that are in a lOO-foot-long a known average depth. Because of the greater width required on an airfield runway.) Width of the base oft However. in the absence of sufficient time. lf the actual length of the cut or fill Is not 100 feet.14 Surveys and Earth work Operations .FM 5-430-000l/AFPAM 32-8013.85. Width. Vol 1 Table 3-1. Therefore. an adjustment must be made (see column 4). and so on. earthwork quantities for airfields should be estimated mainly from cross sections.the width of the base of the cut. the average-cut-or -fill method is better than none at all. multiply by 0. When the 3. Slope ratio.50. of cut or fill. slope ratio is other than l:l. for a 50-foot section. a. . However.

The 1 I I I I Figure 3-13. Follow these steps to use the table: 1. FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. locate borrow pits at some other area. b’. 2. 3. the anticipated roughness of the final surface. if the width of the base or top of the fill is an odd number of feet. Within that line. Rougher terrain requires smaller dimensions to get accurate results. where this is not possible.15 . Figure 3. To identify the various intersecting points.16. If the length is not 100 feet between the points considered. Vol 1 l Width of the base of the cut or the top of the fill in 2-foot increments between 26 feet and 44 feet. By taking elevation readings at the stakes before and after excavation. and d’ are on the final ground line. Read horizontally to the right and obtain the figure under the appropriate base of the cut or top of the fill in column 2. Label the points on one square. In this method. The grid method is a convenfent method of computing the borrow material available in a given borrow pit. exist between the corners of the square or between the edges of the excavation and the nearest interior corner.5: 1 or 2: 1. The most convenient method is to widen the cuts adjacent to the fills where the material is needed. data is obtained to compute the volume of borrow taken from the pit.. Computation grid system for a borrow pit 2. cl. Compute the volume by extending the cross sections. Points a. while al.13 shows a borrow pit over which 25 squares were staked. Grid Method When the quantity of material within the limits of the cut sections is not enough to balance the fill sections. determfne the volume of excavation for each square in the following manner: 1. c. . if they apply. as l NOTE: The table is based upon a length of 100 feet between cross sections and a slope ratio of 1: 1. The volume of the Surveys and Earth work Operations 3. Quantity to be added to the figure in column 2. l squares must be of such size that no significant breaks. Thus the intersection of lines C and 3 would be labeled C3. Make corrections to this figure from columns 3 and 4. The dimensions of these squares depend on the roughness of the original terrain. .. Outlfne squares falling completely within the excavation with a heavy line. Enter column 1 and read down to the average amount of cut or fill for the length cancer ned. 4. adjust the answer proportionately. material must be borrowed. first stake out over the area a system of squares referenced to points outside the limits of work. shown in Figure 3.. and d arc on the original ground line. and the accuracy desired. either in the original ground surface or in the pit floor. Quantity to be added if the slope ratio on both sides is 1.i . page 3. However. b.14. label lines in one direction by numbers and in-the other direction by letters.

A is the right cross-sectional area of one rectangular solid. (Refer to Figure 3-13.. . aa’ is Figure 3-15. in cubic yards.. use proportional surface areas..FM 5-430~OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.v:. 84 d 55 a c4 C L an hl.. represented by all complete squares: V = Original ... ... ... However.. when a number of such volumes adjoin one another. . and h4 is a corner height comrns3n to four solids..c . .: :... Use the formula: I A grid is illustrated in Figure 3. hl is a corner height found in one solid..80 Final -I80 I 82 82 85 85 89 89 88 78 so 76 89 76 78 88 8. .. and then multiply by the length of the sides of the figure.. v = 4..:.. page 3-15 and Figure 3. 76 76 87 87 87 80 88 81 87 81 86 82 82 82 84 84 86 86 84 84 84 84 82 82 83 86 80 85 88 --I b z II $ z v) &#u +2xhz + 3Cf.j:.. Sample grid-system work sheet 3-76 Surveys and Earthwork Operations .... and dd’. ::..+.14.~::i. .. For these volumes.:.:. i:‘. c::s. :.921... :. .92 x 250 x 250 4 x 27 = 11.. hz is a corner height common to two solids. . Therefore. As an example..) The total borrow-pit quantity also includes the wedge-shaped volumes lying between the complete solids and the limits of excavation. ccl... . The length of the sides of each square is 50 feet. ha is a corner height common to three solids.: . bb’ is an hp.15. . :.. bb’.:::. or 85 85 80 82 f 85 82 80 87 This could be approximated corner cuts and multiplying V=$h 87 8.333 cy A 27 (aa’ + bb’ + cc1 + dd’) 4 3.o + 4Ch4) (corner cuts) by adding all by A.i . compute the average cut across all squares (123/25 = 4... givenv = 1 a’ y A (hl t 2h2 + 3h3 + 4h4) 4 x 27 v = 50 x 50 x 492 = 1 1 388 cy 4 x 27 Figure 3-14.. it is quicker to use the following relation which gives the total volume. The volume represented by each square might be computed by the preceding method and all volumes added..... Excavation volume for one square resulting form is the product of the right cross-sectional area A and the average of the four corner heights aa’. : : . Vol 1 ..i . 801 83 180 I L--~~ 83 87 87 5 at 50’ 87 87 = 250’ 85 85 84 In the preceding formula. dd’ is an ha and cc1 is an h4. v = An alternative method is to compute the total of all cuts at each corner (123 feet).

and is large in ordinary earth containing appreciable percentages of silt.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. It is usually more economical to haul excavated material to the embankment sections. occupies less than 1 cubic yard of space when excavated. which is discarded as unsuitable for embankments. Shrinkage is very high (possibly 70 percent) for shallow cuts containing humus. as measured in place before excavation. This difference is due to the combined effects of the loss of material during hauling and compaction to a greater-than-original density by the heavy equipment used in making the embankment. thereby eliminating borrow and waste. and compacted. Shrinkage Loose and swell refer to a condition which is the reverse of shrinkage. Shrinkage. Vol 1 -- FACTORS INFLUENCING EARTHWORK CALCULATIONS On many projects. Shrinkage is small in granular materials such as sand and gravel. or loose state. It is due to slow additional compaction under traffic and to gradual plastic flow of the foundation material beneath the embankment. This factor ranges from 10 to 40 percent swell and is usually uniform for a given material. The uncertain change of volume of the material make this difficult.17 . varies with changes in the soil constituents and with changes in moisture content and the type of equipment used. Table 3-2 provides conversion factors used to find the net volume. or clay. All calculations are recorded on Table 3-2 Soil conversion factors Soil type Sand Sun/e ys and Earth work Operations 3. hauled to an embankment. Consequently. inplace. loam. Net volume may be described in a compacted. Settlement refers to subsidence of the completed embankment. The earth assumes a larger volume than its natural state when stockpiled or loaded into a truck. The net volume is the difference between the volume of cut and the volume of fill between any two specified stations. The net volume may apply to the entire project or to a few stations. one objective of the paper location study is to design the grade line so the total cut within the limits of the work equals the total fill. These shallow cuts (usually 4 to 8 inches deep) are called stripping. A common shrinkage allowance is 10 to 30 percent for ordinary earth. however. a percentage allowance assumed in design may eventually prove to be 5 percent or more in error. Net Volume Calculation Shrinkuge has occurred when 1 cubic yard of earth. _- Compute the volume of cut and fill and the net volume between any two points on the construction project.

Complete column as column 2.1. This indicates the volume of 5). Stations (column I). Total Volume of Fill (column 10). The most common method for computing volumes is the average-end-arca method (or the earthwork table based on this method). Area of Cut [column 2). Column 10 is column 5 plus column 7. convert these various volumes to the same state so the comparisons can be made. because the total cut must be decreased by the amount of material wasted in stripping. Volume of FilZ (column 5 in the same manner show fill volumes. depending on the degree of accuracy required. Column 8 is column 4 minus column 6. the same layer of llu~llus must bc removed and the volume replaced with satisfactory material. Before an embankment can bc constructed. Area qf Fill (column in the same manner show cross-sectional 3). 3-18 Surveys and Earthwork Operations . Record in column 2 the computed cross-sectional areas of cut at each station. Indicate in column 10 the amount of compacted material required between stations to complete needed embankments. This figure represents the fill required to achieve the original ground line. volume sheet shown in Table Earthwork Volume Sheet The earthwork volume sheets allow you to systematically record this informalion and make the ncccssary calculations. Indicate in column 8 the volume of cut material between stations that is available for embankment. except volumes reflect comthan in-place yardage. these areas are taken at all full stations and at intermediate stations that are required to fully represent the actual ground conditions and earthwork involved. plus the amount necessary to replace the quantity removed by stripping. In planning operations. rcmovc the layer of humus or objectionable material thal lies on the ground surface. Indicate in column 6 the volume between stations of this humus material over scclions of cut. Vol 1 the earthwork 3-3. Column 1 1 is the diffcrcncc between column 10 and column 9.25 cubic yards whcll removed and placed in a truck or stockpile. undisturbed state occupies approximately 1. One cubic yard of material in its natural. Before actual earthmoving operations begin. including the organic material. Changes in volume of earthwork arc discussed in this chapter. Complete column as column 4. They provide a means of labulaling earthwork quantities for use in tllc mass diagram discussed later in this chapter. and Table 3.FM 5-4309001l/AFPAM 32-8013. Normally. This material must be wasted because it is not satisfactory to place in an cmbankmcnt. is divided into columns for recording and calculating information. provides the necessary conversion factors. 3 This layer varies in depth but is usually 4 to 6 inches deep. The earthwork volume calculation shctri. shown in Table 3-3. - Volume of Cut [column 3). Column 9 is column 8 multiplied by the appropriate conversion factor (in this case. The same 1 cubic yard. occupies a volume of approximately 0. Net Volume of Cut (column 81. page 3.9) to convert it from inplace yardage to compacted yardage. except arcas of fill. Complete the volume of cut material between adjacent stations and record it in column 4. Stripping Volume in Cut [column 61. Thcsc areas may bc computed by one of the commonly used methods. Fill pacted yardage rather when placed in an embankment section and compacted. This volume represents only the volume of cut between the stations and the volumes reflected as in-place yardage.14. Algebraic Sum (column I 1). Incliratc in colrlmn 7 the volume of this material bclwccn stations over sections of fill.9 cubic yards. List in column 1 all stations at which cross-sectional areas have been plotted. Stripping I’olrrrrw in Fill (column 7). Adjusted Volume of Cut (column 9). 0.

THE MASS DIAGRAM The first step in planning earthmoving operations is the estimation of earthwork quantities involved in a project.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. comple- The mass diagram is one method of analyzing earthmoving operations. This diagram can tell the engineer where to use certain types of equipment. This can be done accurately by one of several methods. this column increases in value.lll t991 t334 -215 -- Notes: 1.053 tl. CCY: ardage Banked cubic cu x*IC yardage Compacted material that is available (plus) or required (negative) within the station increment after the intrastation balancing has been done. this column decreases. Column the total of column 11 starting 12 indiat sta- tion 0 t 00. the quantities of materials needed. With these estimates. depending upon the standard of construction preferred. Mass cates Ordfnate (column 12). Vol 1 Table 3-3. While passing through a stretch where cutting predominates. Earthwork volume calculation sheef Mass brdinate (12) -89 -329 -680 I I 2 t 50 1 64 1 30 -744 -633 -234 t494 6 t 00 51 +1. the average haul Surveys and Earth work Operations 3-l 9 . the engineer can prepare detailed plans for economical and efficient tion of the earthmoving mission. While passing through a stretch where embankment is required. BCY: 2.

where the curve changes from rising to falling or vice versa. Conversely. The maximum or minimum point on the mass diagram.17 shows a typical mass diagram with the actual ground profile and final grade line of the project plotted. from the start of the project at station A to a point of crossing the zero volume line. indicates whether the project was predominately cut or fill. Plot the mass diagram on scaled graph paper with the stations indicated horizontally and the mass indices (column 12) denoted vertically. Filling is occurring from stations B to D in Figure 3. The section of the mass diagram. The final position of the mass diagram line. as at station C. The ground profile is placed above the mass diagram to facilitate the calculation of. that is. Positive numbers arc plotted above the zero datum line. This point is referred to as a transition point (TP). cumulative total) of a complctcd earthwork volume sheet. The mass diagram is a running total of the quantity of earth that is in surplus or deficient along the construction profile. or zero volume excess or deficit at that point. producing an ascending mass diagram curve line. you have a flZZ operation at that station. On the ground profile. above or below the datum line. the operation was cutting. i CONSTRUCTION OF THE MASS DIAGRAM IJsing column I (station) and column 12 (mass ordinate. negative numbers below. a mass diagram can hc plotted as shown in Figure 3-16. producing a descending massdiagram curve line.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Connect all plotted points to complete the mass diagram as shown in Figure 3. there is exactly as much material filled as there is material cut. The quantity or volume of deficient material will be increasing as filling operations continue through the station. The quantity or uohme of surplus material will be increasing as cutting operations continue through the station. it is one of the most effective engineer tools and is easily and rapidly prepared. where the mass diagram ends at station E. the average slope for each operation. The last node may or may not return to the zero datum line. Nodes are numbered from left to right. indicates a change from cut to fill or vice versa. The 3-20 Surveys and Earthwork Operations .17. and it has limitations that restrict its effectiveness for ccrlain types of projects.16. you have a cut operation at that station. The total volume for the fill at stations B to D is obtained by projecting the points on the curve line at stations B and C to the vertical axis and reading and adding the volumes above and below the zero datum line. Each crossing point on the zero volume line indicates another node. is known as a node. Vol 1 distances and. PROPERTIES OF THE MASS DIAGRAM Figure 3. In Figure 3. Cutting is occurring from stations A to B and stations D to E in Figure 3-17. This permits the preparation of dclailed management plans for the entire project. Note that both USC the same horizontal axis (stations). the grade line crosses the ground line at the TP. total volume for the cut at station A to B is obtained by projecting the points on the curve line at stations A and B to the vertical axis and reading the volume (8). surplus material was generated by cutting and must be hauled away (waste operation). when combined with a ground profile. However. the average grade over which equipment will work. The mass diagram is not the complete answer to job planning. When the mass diagram crosses the datum line or zero volume. as illustrated at stations B and D. Borrow operations occur when the final position of the mass diagram is below the zero volume line. The horizontal axis is the only thing lhcsc graphs have in common. If at one station more material is being cut than filled. if at one station more material is being filled than cut.17.

y&/’ TP Figure 3-l 7. Vol 1 3t75 ziii5*25 Eiii -400 -380 6+75 7+50 -200 I I otoo lt50 Figure 3-16.FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM Earthwork volume sheet Mass d agram 32-8013. 3too Plotting 4t50 6tOO 7t50 the mass diagram Mass diagram I I A Station B ----_--------_------I I \ _ I I. Properties of a mass diagram Surveys and Earthwork Operations 3-21 .

lween stations A and C. The term muximum haul distance i s used because operating the equipment beyond this point would not be efficient. A balance line is a line of specific length drawn horizontally. The mass line returns to exactly the same level. intersecling the mass diagram in two places. the cnginccr can conducl a detail& analysis to determine where dozers. the distance between stations A and C would be 300 feet. provided the project or node is Start excavating each at least lhal length. Cut equals fill between the ends of a balance line.000 feet 5. There has been an exact balance of earthwork. and dump trucks will operate. This is accomplished by using balance lines.001 miles feet to several Average haul distance Balance line (Maximum haul distance) Figure 3-18. If this was a dozer balance line. indicaling that the input and the expcnditurcs of earth have In Figure 3-18. Mass diagram with a balance line 3-22 Surveys and Earthwork Operations . Vol 1 PROJECT ANALYSIS Once Lhc basic properties of the mass diagram arc understood. node with the dozer followed by the scraper and dump truck. the amount of material made available by cutting between stations A and B is measured by the vertical lint marked Q.18 shows a balance line drawn on a portion of a mass diagram. The maximum haul distances (balance-line lengths) areMaximum Distance Dozer Scraper Dump Truck Up to 300 feet These lengths arc measured using the horizontal scale (stations measured in hundreds of feet). The specific length of the balance lint is the recommended working or maximum haul distance for differcnl pieces of equipment. In Figure 3-18. this occurs bebeen equal. Always use lhc maximum haul dislancc (Icnglh) of each piece of cquipmcnt. This is also the amount of cmbankmcnt malerial rcquircd bctwecn sta- 301 to 5. Figure 3.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. scrapers.

This is described balanced quantity of earthwork. The quantity balanced is the vertical distance between the balance line. Vol 1 - tions B and C. Because the ordinate of the mass diagram is in cubic yards (which represents weight) and the abscissa is in stations or distance. equipment is used to do the balanced earthwork between the ends of the balance lines as drawn.19 shows a part of a mass diagram on which two balance lines been drawn. The same principles apply for the area between the lines as with only one balance line.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. have Profile I i i Mass diagram Scraper balance line Maximum haul distance Figure 3-19. while the horizontal bisector is the average haul distance. some of the haul distance would be short. Figure 3. The converse is true when the curve is below a balance line. By definition. and the shorter balance line is the minimum haul distance. If the curve is above a balance line. The mass diagram is a useful indicator of the amount of work expended on a project. an area on the mass diagram repIn Figure 3-20. as the If equipment was used to do the balanced earthwork between stations A and C. work is the energy expended in moving a specified weight a given distance. to In accomplishing balanced earthwork operation between stations A and C. the maximum distance that earth would have be moved would be the length of the balance line AC. the work expended is equal to the area between the mass line and the balance line. The longer balance line is the maximum haul distance. It is the product of weight times distance. the direction of haul is from left to right. if resents work. The haul distance depends upon the position of the curve with respect to the balance lines. page 3-24. Mass diagram with two balance lines Surveys and Earth work Operations 3-23 . while some would approach the maximum haul distance. The average haul dfstance (AHDI is the length of the horizontal line placed midway between the balance lint and the top or bottom point (transition point) of the curve (Figure 3-181 and is found by dividing the vertical distance of Q in half.

“Work” in earthmoving operations Another item calculated from the mass diagram is average grade. they should be drawn to conform to the capabilities of the available equipment. at haul distances that are within its best Figure 3-2 1 illustrates range of efficiency. page 3-26.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. to locate the areas for operation for various types of equipment. Because the lengths of balance lines on a mass diagram are equal to the maximum or minimum haul distances for the balanced earthmoving operation between their end points. the means used to analyze the mass diagram will follow the same principles regardless of the end result desired. Equipment planned accordingly will operate 3-24 Surveys and Earthwork Operations . to establish the requirements for borrow pits and waste areas. . The analysis of the mass diagram is based upon the proper location of balance lines. The average haul distance is the horizontal line midway between the balance lines. The minimum and maximum haul distances are 301 and 5. respectively. To determine the average grade for either the scraper or dozer work area. and to provide an overall control of required earthmoving operations.. Figure 3-21 and Figure 3-22. The amount that will bc cut between stations C and D and filled between stations D and E is the length of the indicated vertical lines. However. illustrate a portion of the mass diagram on which the average grade has been determined. This value is used when computing equipment scheduling and utilization. a portion of a mass diagram on which two balance lines have been drawn: 300 feet to conform to dozer capabilities and 5. use the following procedure: 4 USE OF THE MASS DIAGRAM The mass diagram is used to find the cost of a project in terms of haul distance and yardage. Use scrapers for cutting from stations A to C and filling from stations E to G.: Figure 3-20. The amount of earthwork is indicated by the vertical line.000 feet for the scraper.. Vol 1 : .000 feel. The following job analysis can be made from the diagram in Figure 3-2 1: Use dozers between stations C and E. The maximum haul distance is 300 feet. the average haul distance is the horizontal bisector shown.

4.87%. (See Figure 3-23. Surveys and Earth work Operations 3-25 . These lines are referred lo as the average haul vertical.) 3. An uphill cut would have a positive grade. Draw on the profile a horizontal line through the work area that roughly divides the area in half. This is a rough estimation. Determine the average change in eleva tion (the vertical distance between the cut and fill). page 3-26. the grade would be negative. Balance lines for equipment efficiency 1.87% Since this is an operation which moves earth downhill.) 2. This line represents the average grade. or -8. Draw a final line connecting the intersecting points of the lines drawn in steps 1 and 2. (See Figure 3-22.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 Average haul for dozers Yardage for dozers 300’ balance line w Dozer balance line _---- Average haul for scrapers Scraper balance line Figure 3-21. the average grade for the dozer would beAverage Grade % = 18’ x 100 203’ = -8. page 3-26. 5. Extend a vertical line from the end points of the previously determined average haul line up through the project profile. Calculate Average the average Grade % = grade as follows: Average change In elevation Average haul dfstance x 1OO In the example shown in Figure 3-23.

:.... Horizontal line divides area approximately in half..:.‘. Determining average grade. Vol 1 :. .. :.:...~i. step 2 3-26 Surveys and Earthwork Operations .:.::i. Determining average grade... .:...::: :..: ‘:: ::-‘i.FM 5-430-0&1//W’AM 32-8013.‘-\ Profile I 1 I I I Balance line Maximum haul distance Figure 3-22... step 7 Average grade line Profile & & Q Average Maximum Mass diagram I I I haul = 203 haul distance Figure 3-23.‘i. . .I’.

This would result in a savings because the increase is less than the decrease for the same amount of earthwork balanced. Some part of the mass line will be outside the balance lines. Concentrate all necessary borrow and waste operations in one general area. Minimizing work with two nodes Surveys and Earthwork Operations 3-27 . All balance lines must bc within cquipmcnt limits. the size of these areas should be decreased whenever possible. Only one balance line. Figure 3-26. work is reduced when the balance lines are one continuous line and AD + CD t EF = BC t DE + FG. Minimizing work with an even number of nodes If there is an odd number of adjacent nodes. The length of each balance line must be within equipment maximum haul capabilities as defined earlier. If the portion not within balance lines is ascending (cutting). The work would be decreased by the size of the area between CH and DG and increased by the size of the area between BD and C. work is decreased when the balance lines are one continuous line and AB t CD t EF . the method used to minimize the area depends upon the shape of the mass diagram and the number of adjacent nodes that can be used. - Figure 3-24. This decreasing process will continue by raising the lines to the point where one equals the other. This material must be wasted or borrowed. If this one balance line was replaced by two balance lines. there is borrow. If two nodes are adjacent. or until AE = EF is reached. as shown in Figure 3-25. the quantity of earthwork balanced would remain the same. work is minimized when two balance lines are drawn as one continuous line. CH. This is shown in Figure 3-27. or approximately 1. may be needed if it is within efficient haul distance specifications. with BD less than DC. However. if it is descending (filling). The quantity involved would be Q yards and the work involved would be the area above CH. within the maximum efficient haul distances for the equipment. with AE = EF. as shown in Figure 3-26.000 feet. with the balance lines Each balance line must be equal in length. page 3-28. The best placement of balance lines on the portion of a mass diagram shown in Figure 3-24 would be lines AE and EF.(BC t DE) equals the limit of efficient haul. BD and DG. there is waste. Minimizing work with an odd number of nodes Calculation of Earthwork not Within Balance Lines It is usually impossible to place balance lines so that the entire amount of earthwork on a project can be balanced.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Figure 3-25. AE = EF If there is an even number of adjacent nodes. Vol 1 Placement Work of Balance Lines to Minimize Because the area between the apex of the mass diagram and the balance line is a measure of the work involved in the balancing operation.

or a taxiway. Mass diagram showing analysis results 3-28 Surveys and Earth work Operations . Vol 1 LIMITATIONS OF THE MASS DIAGRAM The mass diagram has many limitations that preclude its use in all earthmoving operations. it is a good starting point.2. as shown in Figure 3-28.22+ 50 Average haul = 1. resulting in longer. if the project becomes relatively wide compared to its length.24 + 30 Average haul = 220 ft Scraper .630 cy cut 25 + 50 .35 + 00 7 Dozer 400 Cut 24 .000 ft t- 2300 Figure 3-28. The haul distances are along the centerline or parallel to it. it is merely a guide indicating the general manner in which the operations should be controlled.14 + 60 Average haul = 740 ft Waste360 cy 33 + 00 .9 + 00 Full 12 + 00 . Format Waste and borrow diagram on a mass for Analysis The simplest and most practical method of tabulating the results of a mass diagram is to write all quantities and distances on the diagram. an airfield runway.33 + 00 Fill 14+ 60. The mass diagram is most effective when used to plan operations along an elongated project similar to a road. Figure 3-27. Any attempt to get exact quantities and distances from it may be misleading.+ 30 cy25 + 50 Fill 22 + 50 . It is also possible to extract information from the mass diagram and put it in a format that effectively controls the operation.1.330 cy Cut9+00-ll+Oo Fill 11 + 00 Average haul = 225 Scraper . At best. The mass diagram is used to analyze only the potentiality of balancing within one Dozer . transverse haul distances and invalidating the mass diagram analysis. However. However.FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.250 cy cut 0 + 00 . movement of earth may be transverse as longitudinal. One method is to prepare a mass diagram analysis sheet as shown in Figure 3-29.

all unacceptable quantities can be eliminated from the earthwork table. it may be better to balance yardage with an adjacent taxiway in which the haul distance will be only 1. it may be more economical to use the borrow pit instead of a long balancing operation. The mass diagram is applicable to projects needing balanced earthwork. However. the mass diagram may indicate that the best balancing of a ccrlain portion of a runway will require a haul distance of 2. The mass diagram assumes that all material excavated in the cut sections is acceptable for use in the embankment sec- tions. The mass diagram can deal only with the runway or the taxiway. Mass-diagram analysis sheet Surveys and Earthwork Operations 3-29 .FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.200 feet. If there is a short distance between an acceptable borrow pit and an embankment section. This is not necessarily true. However. Vol 1 phase of a project. not with both simultaneously. 9+00-11 11 +oo-12+00 +oo Cut Fill 300 225 -2% Dozer Figure 3-29. Balancing eliminates the double handling of quantities. This can be determined by a work or economy.200 feet along the site. For instance. study.


rain. and other factors vary widely within each zone. booby traps. Grubbing is the uprooting and removal of roots and stumps. Forests are not uniform in type.: :::>. The general nature of a forest is determined from records of the principal climatic factors. From these records. shallow._i. ...:: .. the terrain’s eflect on the operation of equipment. deep.... ..: : ~ . altitudes.:.:.x. Soils.: :.. and the time available for completion. Factors that determine which method to use are: the acreage to be cleared the type and density of vegetation. andJre are also used. the areas to be cleared are usually larger thanfor road construction: the number of personnel and amount of equipment used are correspondingly greater. and stripping operations differ in every climatic zone because each zone has different forest and vegetative types. grubbing. : : :. . land clearing also includes the removal and disposal of mines. The climate classifications of forests are temperate. grubbing.: : : : : : ..or power-felling equipment. GRUBBING.:. grubbing. a general interpretation of the forests in an area can guide detailed reconnaissance.:. rubbish and surface boulders embedded in the ground. sunlight. and unexploded bombs. humidity. Hand.:. and the disposal of unsuitable materials requires more detailed planning and longer hauls. :. growth. The density of growth in these forests varies with topography and local climate Clearing. .. AND STRIPPING CHAPTER Land clearing is the removal and disposal of all vegetation.: . . Clearing.. and stripping are the same in road and airfteld construction. ::: . Hardwoods are dominant where the soils are old. For best results. Softwoods are dominant where the soils are young. The nature and action of climatic factors during the growing season determine the amount and types of forests. and less fertile. explosives..:. and the direction of the prevailing winds.. : ...:.: ... . monsoon.j FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM 32-8013. temperature. a combination of methods is used in a sequence of operations. . . j. and dry. the availability of equipment and personnel. water tables.j.. Grubbing.. TEMPERATE FORESTS Temperate forests contain both softwood and hardwood trees.:::.j: j::.+j. Vol 1 CLEARING. In the TO.. I. Stripping is the removal and disposal of unwanted topsoil and sod Clearing.. The following paragraphs describe these classifications. In air-eld construction.. and Stripping 4-7 .. precipitation. j : : : : : ::: : : : : : :. :.:. and density within climatic zones. j :.. FOREST TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Clearing. :‘.. :.. and stripping are accomplished by using heavy engineering equipment.. and fertile..:..: . : :.

broadleaved. and shallow root systems near the surface of the ground.) After such information has been verified. They consist of tall. Bogs present a hazard to construction equipment during the clearing operations. deep taproots that make uprooting difficult. with large trees widely and uniformly spaced. vines. select the available equipment. Savannas usually have continuous coverings of small grasses. Hardpan or Rock MONSOON FORESTS Monsoon forests occur in climates of heavy seasonal rains with strong. estimate the quantity of work. softwood forests. Savanna forests are in more humid. warm winds. Marshy. These forests are park-like. Where permafrost is far below the surface.FM 5430-000l/AFPAM 32-8013. and terrain encountered while clearing the land must be determined as accurately as possible from climatic and geological maps. Inundated. Where sunlight reaches the forest floor. The forests are either scrub or savanna. the trees to form large. Permafrost DRY FORESTS Dry forests occur in arid and tropical regions where there is little precipitation. Because of continual precipitation. tered growths of low. 4 RAIN FORESTS Rain forests occur in tropical climates where rainfall is heavy throughout the year. PREPARATION RECONNAISSANCE AND PLANNING The types of trees. Scrub forests usually consist of broadleaved hardwoods with dense thickets along In open areas there are scatwatercourses. GEOLOGIC AND PERMAFROST CONDITIONS An investigation of the geologic conditions of a forest can help when estimating the density and depth of the root systems of should bc conthe trees. tough taproots that are difficult to remove. Where the permafrost is near the surface. Where a forest is closely underlaid by hardpan or rock. with varied species of hardwoods which are moderate-sized. sists of thick vines that cling to the trees for support and grow to great heights. The trees have an umbrella-like foliage that permits liltlc sunlight to penetrate. In northern regions where permafrost occurs. the root systems of trees are similar to those in hardpan or rock. the tree roots branch remain near the surface. Vol 1 conditions. the undergrowth is dense and varied. The undergrowth con. The undergrowth is very dense with shrubs. vegetation. Where the soil is firm the hardpan or rock is deep. and Boggy Areas and is and tend In these areas. intelligence reports. thorny. and aerial and ground reconnaissance. Grubbing. roots branch out and lie close to the surface. This growth easy to uproot. and permafrost conditions. and plants. the root systems are on or near the ground surface and spread in a lateral pattern around the base of the trees. Bogs are common in cold region. soil. Root systems vary according to geologic conditions and species. marshy. trees have thick. The forests are dense. broad-leaved trees that grow as high as 175 feet. The investigation cerned with hardpan. The types of root systems typical of various species are listed in Table 4. (Refer to Chapter 2 of this manual for more detailed information. determine the number of 4-2 Clearing. and Stripping . and have shaIlow root systems. dry-forest regions. widcspreading. stunted shrubs and stunted trees that usually have long. trees develop taproots.1.

.. ............ ..:. : (... ...............Several descending and many shallow.............A...... Noble ....: ..... ........... wide-spreading laterals .....:... wide-spreading laterals Deep...:... Shallow.. ...... ................... .. : :. wide-spreading laterals Moderately deep... wide-spreading laterals Shallow........................ wide-spreading laterals Deep in porous soils.......... ............... Black...... . wide-spreading laterals t in rocky soils wide-spreading a taproot laterals laterals Moderately deep....... Loblolly ........ wide-spreading Shallow laterals Deep.............“... ...... Ponderosa . wide-spreading laterals Deep........... Poplar .. Vol t Table 4-1.. later laterals Moderately deep..... : .. wide-spreading laterals.... wide-spreading laterals Shallow...:...... Hickory .........................::::::::::::::::::... Red......... wide-spreading laterals Shallow.... Pitch ................/......... strong taproot with laterals ......Shallow to moderately deep laterals .......... Several descending roots and many shallow... wide-spreading laterals Moderately deep. well-developed laterals . wide-spreading laterals. wide-spreading laterals Deep... always with taproot ... : :... Laurel . Western white ... ‘......... Yellow ......... Shortleaf Slash ...Short taproot (young)..: .......Taproot supplemented by laterals Taproot (seedlings)........ ..................... wide-spreading laterals Deep............. sweet Paper. sweet ...‘.................. Cedars .......... Larch . Normal Root System Shallow.........: ....Shallow laterals Shallow.. Spruce ..:... Quassia ....:............ Aspen .... wide-spreading laterals . . FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013..........‘:. ........ ............ wide-spreading laterals .......... deep laterals Taproot (seedlings).. Mahogany Maple Oak ... .. occasionally Shallow... .......:::: . Longleaf Nut ......... Magnolia ... laterals Deep................... : .... Norway ......... wide-spreading laterals Shallow....... ...................... .....: : ::.. Eastern white Jack ....:......... ...... Species of trees and their normal root systems Species Alder . Sycamore .. wide-spreading laterals Shallow.......:... Locust ...... Chestnut . wide-spreading laterals Shallow. .. Lodgepole ... Basswood Birches: ........Taproot (young)......... Sugar ........ wide-spreading laterals Wide-spreading laterals Deep. Gums .... :.......: .......... :..... Hackberry Hemlock ........ Red..... .. Elm ... :.. Tamarack Willows .. wide-spreading laterals Taproot ..::‘::... cherry... Firs: Balsam ...............:j.... .... .. deep..................... .. ............Very deep taproot Deep. wide-spreading laterals ..: : :.....Shallow laterals Deep......:.....:.........: ... wide-spreading laterals Strong taproot and laterals .... shallow and spreading Shallow laterals Deep...... Stone (Foxtail) ....... .... and Stripping 4-3 . Cherry ...............:..... Redwoods .......................... Ash .............. Juniper .. wide-spreading laterals Wide-spreading laterals Clearing.:. Yellow ......... wide-spreading laterals Shallow..Deeptaproo Pine: ............... Grubbing.......:.......... :.. .. Cypress ......... ... Douglas Lowland white ..... :................. wide-spreading laterals Deep taproot Deep laterals Deep......:...... ..... wide-spreading laterals Shallow laterals Shallow. ........... wide-spreading laterals Shallow.‘....... white ...... no taproot Moderately deep........................:...................... White .... Deep taproot.

and lumber. All equipment used in clearing should. usually 10 percent of the area. Proper supervision and planning can help prevent accidents caused by falling trees. a loo-percent cruise is usually made. This will prevent stumps. and the subsequent immobilization of construction equipment can be eliminated by careful development of the drainage system before. and the number of each tree species in a given area. Push or skid this timber into a salvage area where it can be moved to a sawmill with little difficulty. and stockpile it for future use in bridge. The sample may be increased or decreased. do not remove standing trees and brush outside the designated cleared area unless When uprooting trees with necessary. the height. work required in clearing. A sample. other construction. Use the original drainage features as much as possible 4-4 Clearing.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. or concurrent with. In timber cruising for land clearing only. TEMPORARY DRAINAGE Phased development of the drainage system in the early stages of clearing. Vol 1 personnel needed. is studied and the result is applied to the entire area. bulldozers. and Stripping . subgrade failures. if practicable. the decisive factors controlling the method of clearing are the type and amount of equipment and the time available for completion. and boulders from damaging vulnerable equipment parts. grubbing. Delays caused by flooding. and stripping is essential to ensure uninterrupted construction. It is used either to determine the quantity of usable timber or to estimate the amount of CLEARING PERMAFROST Clearing of ground cover over permafrost which is near the freezing point may result in thawing of material. TIMBER SALVAGE Trim all timber useful for logs. record the diameters of the trees at breast height (DBH) taken at 4 l/2 feet above the ground. and other construction applications. uprooted stumps. In all clearing operations. With this protection. culvert. Protective. This information is used to plan the clearing operation and select the type of equipment most efficient for the diameters and species. In small areas. damage to the dozer is reduced and continuous production results. TIMBER CRUISING Timber cruising is performed to estimate the size. and record the species and number of trees. CONSIDERATIONS CAMOUFLAGE To provide cover and concealment (camouflage) for the construction site. and plan a sequence of operations to complete the clearing rapidly and efficiently. tractor mounted cabs should be used when extensive clearing operations are anticipated. stump holes. causing considerable ground-surface subsidence. SAFETY Careful consideration must be given to the safety of personnel and equipment during clearing operations. take care to control their fall and avoid breaking surrounding trees. and rough or broken terrain during the clearing operation. piles. logs. Grubbing. heavy mud conditions. Protective cabs permit greater flexibility in clearing operations and increase operator efficiency. be equipped with heavy steel plating for protection of the undercarriages.

.j: .: . .... Start the fire with limbs and small brush to get a good Gradually increase the size of bed of coals. Use dozers and graders for this work. assign specific units of equipment to accomplish this concurrently with the clearing and grubbing. environmental concerns.: . To dispose of material as rapidly as possible. :.. Cleared material can be disposed of by using it as fill material in revetments around hardstands when protective measures are needed.j:y:..y . Push the material into the pit with a bulldozer.. .3 +::. Vol 1 - without disturbing natural drainage ditches downhill._ WASTE AREAS In airfield construction. The disposal method should be consistent with the methods of camouflage.‘.. The most satisfactory method for burning large quantities of brush and timber is to burn them in a pit or trench dug by a bulldozer or scraper.:. .. Strip the area around any debris to be burned before fires are started to provide a firebreak... In dry weather. .: FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.:.. the material as the intensity of the fire increases. Maintain a fire guard over the fires as an additional safety measure. and Stripping 4-5 . . . > . the material is pushed and skidded off the construction site and into the surrounding timber to speed disposal and keep the area cleared for equipment operation. Locate this clearing as close to the main project as Clearing. ::.. Backfill existing ditches at the latest possible time to permit the best use of the original drainage. Get as little dirt as possible in the pit because it tends to smother the fire and fill the pit. . closely follow recommended procedures. j.: ~. Under favorable tactical conditions.‘:‘:. keep fires burning as hot as possible and do not push new material into the fire rapidly. Off-Site Areas In constructing the main project. F&e Control. the threat.:. .j .... Grade possible to shorten the hauling distance. Dumps Adjacent to Work Areas In forward combat areas where saving time is essential. When burning is required. : ..: :y . :..:...: :.. Slope the ground toward drainage ditches to prevent ponding on the surface.. establish firebreaks on all sides as a precaution against shifting winds.. it may be necessary to clear some adjacent land to dispose of the cleared material. producing a very hot fire. grades.j. : . Use the same methods to clear disposal areas that are used in clearing work areas. Study the construction plans to determine where the debris can be piled without interfering with drainage or potential work areas. and other expedient fire-fighting equipment should be available to extinguish fires caused by flying sparks..: : .... . The choice of method depends on the type of construction.. A soldier should be detailed to .. Burning DISPOSAL Use waste areas or burning to dispose of cleared materials.::: .i.. If large areas are to be burned. consideration must be given to the areas used for disposal of construction waste.. Do not permit fires to burn at night unless tactical conditions are extremely favorable and approval has been obtained from headquarters.. . .. Generally.. and compact the ground to prevent the accumulation of surface water.. and the time available. and drainage used for clearing. : :. ‘. :. brush and timber debris may be burned. . . the quickest and most convenient method of material disposal is to pile the materials adjacent to the work area._: .. .. water buckets. The sides of the pit will reflect the heat back into the fire... Revetments Fill holes left by uprooted trees and stumps with acceptable soil... . Do not use fire for clearing land unless suitable equipment and sufficient personnel are not available for other methods of clearing. salvage.. ‘.: . the location. .: . Burning will be rapid and complete.: ‘.. Burning PLts. Grubbing. hand shovels.:. To limit the likelihood of detection because of smoke.ji:j.

Table 4-2 summarizes the limitations and proper applications of engineer equipment in clearing operations. . Dirt on the roots will retard combustion and smother the fire. In preparing stumps for burning. winches. rippers.:. ::::. it is best to fell or uproot trees that extend above the glide angle..:.~ :. Limitations and applications for each type of equipment follow. power saws. Once the pile is burning well. Use production rates of equipment under normal operating conditions for determining the total time re- TECHNIQUES quired for the job. burn piles of logs by loosely piling them so that the heat and flames can It is always best to start the pass through.. . Although more time and effort are required. and stumps up to 6 inches in diameter.. tractor mounted units: tractor -mounted clearing units. If material is to be pushed onto the pile while the pipe is being used. This type of equipment includes bulldozers: tree-dozer.i’. the fuel can be cut off and the pipe removed. one on ing process. .:. Bulldozer When clearing an area in dry or temperate forests.. In addition. When the stumps are pushed out. PERFORMANCE CLEARING WITH EQUIPMENT The use of engineer equipment is the mosl rapid and efficient method of clearing. .:. Obstructions extending above the glide angle must be removed.. because all demolished material is left in place. leave them with the roots exposed to sun and wind so the dirt will dry quickly.. the bulldozer is the most efficient mechanical equipment for removing small brush. If it is not desirable to construct burning pits. fire with brush. Vol 2. wet logs. Log PIZes. Grubbing.. This method cannot be used in swampy areas where groundwater will seep into the trench. and motor graders. AIRFIELD APPROACH ZONES Airfield glide angles and approach zones are further discussed in Chapter 11 of PM 5-430-00-2/AFPAM 32-8013. The use of such equipment is limited only by unusually large trees. top of the other. pioneer tools are used for some clearing operations.: .jF .. the bulldozer is used extensively as the primary unit of equipment in all clearing operations.FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. particularly if the brush is green and wet. This procedure will speed up the burning...j:::::. trees. stumps.. Scrubbing with the side of the bulldozer blade will knock off much of the dry dirt.: : ::. The fuel oil is carried to the center of the pile by a pipe in which holes have been drilled or cut. Pile the stumps as close together as possible with the trunks pointing toward the center of the pile. Clearing rates are discussed in FM 5-434. y.. To burn piles of green. Care must be taken to avoid ground contamination.:i’. move.. Keep the stumps together after they start to burn. it may be necessary to use fuel oil to furnish enough heat to dry out the logs and start the burnPile the logs parallel.“. add a few logs at a time to obtain a good blaze. from tractor grousers and bulldozer CZearing and Pfllng Stumps...‘. and terrain that decrease the maneuverability of the equipment and increase maintenance requirements. 4-6 Clearing. . tend the fire and ensure that the pile is kept compact. After a large bed of coals is formed.. ‘. Although glide-angle requirements may be met by only topping trees. remove as much dirt as possible from the roots.. Fuel oil is also a quick and convenient means of starting brush fires. Vol 1 . . Disposal is no problem in the approach zone...:.i~‘i. bulldozers can also remove trees up to 30 inches in diameter when tractor-mounted clearing units and power saws are not available. Because of its ability to push.:‘~.:. and Stripping .::. and skid felled trees and brush. :.::ii:. it is best to bury the portion of the pipe outside the pile to protect it from damage blades.

. or skid cleared material for disposal... rugged ground.. for operation in jungles. -Skid small trees and brush. felling diameters. -Pulling -Terrain capacity affects limited by size of tractor. -Extricate mired equipment. Applications . other units completion. other units required for completion of clearing when burning is not permitted.‘: . . Grubbing... swamps.:. Air hoses frequently are fouled and broken by rolling logs and chunks. for light pulling in diameter. . . trees. -Terrain must be suitable for truck use. and Stripping 4-7 . They can be used in any type of terrain safety with a reasonable by skilled degree of if operated operators.( . of trees up to 6 inches -Rigging personnel required. -Pneumatic saws are very dangerous to use on steep. trees. . -Extricate mired equipment. Gasoline chain saws are far easier to handle than the pneumatic ones because there are no hoses to contend with.. -Maneuverability swampy terrain personnel in diameter require by methods of removal or limited in muddy and in dense./. . -Push. of tractor. Tractor.... and lands with heavy growth. Limitations -Trees over 6 inches special and slower dozer. required for rigging.:. ... up to 24 inches maneuverability for disposal. :.. . and stumps up to 6 inches in diameter.>.. . -Skid cleared -Extricate Truck-mounted -Expedient material mired equipment.. :.‘... Skilled personnel Slow in clearing required -Not TOE. : : : FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 Table 4-2. -Pulling capacity too limited for most operations. of trees of almost Chain -Other units required for uprooting stumps and disposing of felled timber. of Tree-dozer. operations of almost trees and stumps diameters. tractor-mounted unit (Rome Plow) -Medium clearing of brush and trees at ground -Skilled for cutting level rather than uprooting. for salvage...: .mounted clearing unit -For extensive requiring -Uproot unlimited heavy clearing pulling. : .. - Clearing.. an area.: ). Tractor-mounted - -Uproot trees and stumps in diameter.: ‘: : . -Excellent for removing brush.. for speedy -Skid cleared material for disposal.: . -Excellent bottom Winches (towing): -For general light and medium pulling. pull._ and limitations of engineer equipment in /and clearing Equipment Bulldozer Applications -Primary equipment for all land clearing. Felling equipment: saw -Controlled unlimited -Rapid -Saw timber felling. required heavy growth I.

Small Trees. -May bind in unbalanced tree. weeds. -Windrow cleared material. requiring extensive looping of tractor pull line. and terrain and in dense. Use clearing units to uproot large stumps and work in areas inaccessible to dozers. 6 to 12 Inches Diameter. add more dozers for a third cycle of operation to take care of the heaviest removals. As the tree falls. set the blade of the bulldozer as high as possible to gain added leverage (Figure 4-l). Vol 1 . -Maneuverability to level terrain small brush/vegetation. Use power saws.:. and dispose of light material. Start clearing at the disposal area and move in each direction away from it. If necessary. Move the cleared material to the spoil area by skidding. the sequence of operations depends on the type of trees. and Stripping . -Grade cleared area for drainage. -Careful operation required to prevent damaging blade. and Brush. stumps.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.rader -Light clearing of grass. select spoil areas for disposal of all cleared material based on the shortest haul. When clearing with bulldozers. . -Excellent rough for clearing heavy. the 4-8 Clearing. Disposal should be done with uprooting and removing. After establishing the boundaries of the clearing. The cleared material can either be pushed into windrows for later removal or 1 nushed off to one side of the area to be cleared. limited heavy growth boulders. effective camouflage. Another pair of dozers will remove the larger trees and stumps bypassed by the previous units. pushing. Use bulldozers to clear. free of trees. Table 4-2. mounted on tractor -Maneuverability swampy terrain steep for tractor limited in muddy or and in terrain too to negotiate. soil for stripping. The operational methods used by bulldozers in clearing depend on the size of the trees. It is best to have a separate crew assigned for disposal. Limitations -Other stumps units required and disposing for uprooting of felled lumber. operate the bulldozer with the blade straight and digging slightly. Applications and limitations of engineer equipment in land clearing (continued) 2quipment Xrcular or chain saw Applications -Saw timber for salvage. the terrain. a downgrade slope. -Loosen surface -Loosen -Depth of shank penetration limits use to shallow roots. -Maneilverability limited in muddy or swampy . -Rapid felling. Multiple operations types of equipment are possible when other are available. dense growth in and broken terrain. 6 Inches or Less in Dtameter. Grubbing. In clearing small trees and brush. or pulling. using each type where it is most effective. to fell large trees. Medium Trees. and planned construction. {ipper -Cut free roots.. It may be necessary to back up occasionally to clear the blade. stockpile. To push over trees that range from 6 to 12 inches in diameter. for example. Use one or two dozers to clear the small trees and brush only. The methods briefly discussed below are discussed fully in FM 5-434. and general accessibility. and boulders.

Step 4. However. buld an earth ramp on the same side as the original cut. and Stripping 4-9 . if the tree has a large. gently and cautiously small trees. Then push the tree over. make a cut deep enough to cut some of the large roots. Grubbing. push the tree over the same as you would a medium tree. As the tree starts to fall. Cut side two. The felled tree is then ready for removal to the spoil areas. 6 to 12 inches in diameter Clearing. If possible.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Step 3. ‘if any. Then. deeply embedded root system. probe the tree for dead limbs that could fall and injure you. Determine the direction of fall before pushing the tree over: the direction of lean. the dozer travels forward again and digs the roots free by lifting the blade. Cut side three. reverse the tractor quickly to get away from the rising root Figure 4-1. use the following method (Figure 4-2. Vol 1 bulldozer is backed up quickly to clear the roots. With the blade lowered. page 4-10): Step 1. Opposite the direction of fall. To obtain greater pushing leverage. Bulldozer removing medium-sized trees. Large Trees. is usually the direction of fall. Step 2. Use a V-ditch cut around the tree: tilted downward laterally toward the tree roots. position the blade high and center it for maximum leverage. Removing large trees (over 12 inches in diameter) is much slower and more difficult than clearing brush and First.

It provides- The tree-dozer. and Stripping . fill the stump hole so that water will not collect in it.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Tractor-Mounted Unit edge shears them off at ground level.cut roots on side four) Figure 4-2. Four steps for removing large trees with a bulldozer mass.. while the cutting 4. Grubbing. NOTE: The roots on the fourth side may need to be cut also. The operator is protected by a steel canopy and a guide bar that controls the direction of falling trees. Cut roots on side one Cut roots on side two (either side) Cut roots on side three Build ramp and push tree over (optional . or Rome plow. is a tractor with a blade that stings and slices large trees. A sharp projection on the left side of the blade splits the trees. Tree-Dozer.10 Clearing. It does not appreciably disturb the soil.. The tree-dozer is a simple and efficient piece of equipment used for military landclearing operations. Vol 1 . After felling the tree. ‘.

The piling is done with the treedozer mounting. Fast production can be obtained by laying out long Another method is shown in Figure 4-4. thercby reducing the enemy’s capability of ambush. One tractor equipped with a tree-dozer mounting can clear approximately 1 to 2 acres per hour. the operator keeps the cutting edge on the ground while pushing into the windrow and raises it Start - Start Start Start Figure 4-3. following the pattern outlined on the right side of Figure 4-4. depending on the tree density and size. Sweep a blade width at a time. and dispose of them. sweep them into piles or windrows. l Before committing a tractor equipped with the tree-dozer mounting.12. which becomes the windrow site. Piling is done by sweeping with the treedozer mounting.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Use one of the following clearing methods: l areas (200 to 400 feet wide) that can be cut from the outside toward the center in a counterclockwise direction. and other facilities. airfields. it shears to ground level anything in its 400-foot widths. investigate the soil condition in the area of operation to determine if it will support the equipment. The windrows are placed lengthwise on the borders of the areas. at a right angle to the border (Figure 4-3). This allows the cut material to fall toward the center. When the tractor can move forward almost continuously. page 4. . When windrowing. Use the tree-dozer mounting to make cuts through any kind of forest except heavy swampland. long areas are laid out in 200. Vol 1 l Clear fields of fire and security around cantonments. The cut material then slides off the trailing (right) end of the tree-dozer mounting and leaves the uncut area free of fallen debris. Right-of-way clearance to desired depths along roads and railroads. Cutting vegetation to ground level and piling using the counterclockwise method cut material Clearing. but the cutting is done from the center toward the sides in a clockwise direction. Work from the center of each area. Grubbing. Shear trees at ground level. and Stripping 4-l 1 . Again.

....~j:/:.. Grubbing...j:.:/j.... mately right angles to the ure 4-51.. .~:~.j~..:. from left to right. and Stripping . the Where the vegetation is dense and small.:.y . .: .~. If the terrain is production is semicircular at approxiwindrow (Figsteep.. .::..:: ..jjj.: ..~j:~j. and the tractor should work from the uphill side and push downhill to the windrow. l windrows should be on the contour..~. This allows accumulated soil to sift away and lessens soil deposits in the windrow. Work from left to right at a 4-12 Clearing.~~jj::j:.. Vol 1 j.~: . the highest production can be obtained by cutting and windrowing simultaneously. :..:: .: :.j(j::j ....: . Cutting vegetation to ground level and piling using the clockwise method when backing away.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-801 3.‘..‘.: .. .I. On extreme slopes.:..Ij.:i:II:l. j..:I. rapid obtained by working in a pattern.:..‘. Any length I cut material Figure 4-4.

:. Grubbing.’ .T. Vol 1 - Figure 4-5. from inside to outside in a counterclockwise direction and at right angles to the windrows.‘.:&. :. the operator should stop the tractor and deposit the cut material. the operator should deposit cut material and form another windrow. Clearing.: .:::. Sweeping and piling the resulting debris can be accomplished much faster when tractors are used in teams traveling abreast. :... Clearing on steep slopes covered with large trees 90degree angle to the windrow. The operator should then reverse to the starting point and repeat the operation to the right (Figure 4-6.:..‘:. When the tractor reaches the previously cut material. The area of vegetation should be laid out as shown in Figure 4-6. reducing the time lost in backing up. This prevents cut material from sliding off the moldboard and allows the cut material to accumulate on the moldboard. Tractor-Mounted Winch..and stump-pulling units. Use tractor mounted winches for uprooting trees and stumps up to 24 inches in diameter. When the moldboard is filled.‘:b’ : FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.:::. Winches Towing winches mounted on tractor -dozer units or trucks are limited in use for clearing operations because of their small capacities in comparison with the tree.. page 4-141. and Stripping 4-13 . :.. with the operator working in patches. ‘:‘.. with the trailing edge of the tree-dozer working against the uncut material.

shovels. Grubbing. Vol 1 Figure 4-6. truck-mounted winches can be used on trees up to 6 inches in diameter. dig and uproot stumps: and slash grass. the speed at which the winch is operated. and extricating mired equipment. Their Truck-Mounted capacities are too limited for heavy work. Axes. the winch is mounted in the rear and is directly geared to the rear power take-off on the tractor. The line pull developed varies with the size of the tractor. pick-mattocks. Clearing by hand is usually too slow and difffcult for military requirements unless explosives or mechanical methods are used.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Winch. The line pull of a tractor-mounted winch is only about one-half the pull of a standard tree. vines. if the haul road is sufficiently cleared for trucks to operate. As an expedient. Their best use is for skidding felled trees and logs to a disposal area. When labor is 4-14 Clearing. On the tractordozer unit. and machetes are used to chop or saw down standing timber. Felling Equipment Felling can be done with hand tools or power equipment. Cutting and piling dense growths of small-diameter vegetation on level terrain hoisting and skidding felled trees.and stump-pulling unit. two-man saws. and the number of layers of rope on the drum. and Stripping . and undergrowth.

Deep taproots often are only broken by explosives and have to be removed by hand. There are three methods used in this operation: hand. the ripper is used to help in the removal operations of bulldozers and tree. Figure 4-7._- CLEARING WITH EXPLOSIVES Explosives may bc used to fell standing trees. have several disadvantages. Prior to stripping operations.1. however. and cranes or scoop loaders with trucks.001l/AFPAM 32-8013. blockholing. and soil conditions. Various types of tools (such as pinch bars. wooden pole about 5 feet long and 1 l/2 inches in diameter can be used. Explosivcs. In spite of these disadvantages. and age of the tree or stump. Vol 1 L plentiful. Used with rippers and bulldozers. Wood augers can be used for taproots. Refer to FM 5-250 for the correct application of explosives and demolitions. and a second charge may be required to remove it. and clear the area of dead vegetation. Table 4. equipment. variety. the initial charge may be entirely expended in compacting the soil under a tree or stump. bulldozers. or snakeholing (described in Chapter 3 of FM 5-250 or Chapter 6 of FM 5-341 may be used.16. The terrain must be level and free from boulders and trees. The short depth of shank penetration limits its use to shallow root systems. Power equipment and chain and circular saws are the principal ways of felling timber. All holes must be tamped firmly with earth to retain the full force of the explosion. In loose soil. shows the methods of placing charges to blast stumps with different root structures. and ground conditions. they must be removed from the construction area. and spoons) can be used when drilling holes for the charge. Boulders When boulders cannot be used in an embankment or fill. The grader is extremely limited in most clearing operations. this method of clearing can be used with good results. Also. the ripper is used to loosen and break up frozen soil or organic material for easier removal by graders or scrapers. page 4. Clearing. and rcmovc and dispose of large boulders. The handle from a long-handled shovel is excellent because the crook of the blade end provides a good grip. The choice of method depends upon the situation. Grubbing. For loading and tamping. and terrain is rough. Trees and Stumps Methods of tree and stump blasting vary with the size and condition of the tree.: : FM 5-430. The ripper cuts and breaks tree roots and loosens boulders from the ground. uproot entire trees and stumps. Refer to Chapter 3 of TM 5-332 for quantities and types of explosives to be used and details regarding blasting rock. which require borrow excavation and compaction to backfill. Ripper In land clearing. and Stripping 4-15 . Mudcapping. graders can windrow the cleared material for later removal by other equipment. The sound of the explosive can travel farther than the sound of the construction equipment. explosives generally take time to place and they create large craters. The size of the charge required depends on the strength of the explosive available. Grader The grader is used to cut grass and weeds. earth augers. page 4-3. Blasting is a quick and easy method of dislodging boulders. it is still somelimes necessary to use explosives to clear an arca where the terrain precludes or seriously impedes the operation of heavy REMOVAL OF SURFACE ROCKS All surface rocks must be removed in certain types of construction. shows the type of root system for several tree species in temperate forests. root structure. remove small brush. any smooth. forests are dense. .and stump-pulling units. the size.

The rocks may be windrowed by dozers for scrapers or shovels and tance is short. Cranes or Scoop Loaders with Trucks Clearing surface rock by this method alone is possible. but it is slow. The 4-16 Grubbing.. Vol 1 ::. If the rocks are first windrowed or moved into piles by bulldozers or graders.FM 5430~OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. the shovel will load the trucks quickly and efficiently. Stump-blasting methods for different roof structures Hand When there is sufficient time and personnel. Evenly rooted stump Large roots on side of tree Large. rocks are picked up and loaded into hauling units by hand. they may dozers to the designated later removal by trucks. If the disbe pushed by disposal area. . This slow method is used in military construction only as an expedient . and Stripping . lateral brace roots Heavy taproot and strong brace root Figure 4-7. Bulldozer The bulldozer is the most commonly used engineer equipment for moving rocks to a fill or disposal area.

booby traps or other antihandling devices. peat.... Power Lines Power lines obstructing forward area construction or glide angles should be removed. ... Establish the boundaries of the construction area first. . It is desirable to have the airfield located near a good road or railroad so supplies may be readily transported to the site. Examples of this material are organic soils. REMOVAL OF BURIED EXPLOSIVES Mines. If time allows.I7 .. not available.. If the lines cross the runway. . long distances for STRIPPING Stripping consists of removing and disposing of the topsoil and sod that cannot be used as a subgrade. destroy the device in place. In rare instances. particularly when the size of bombs precludes detonation in place. power lines. and Stripping 4. .. scrapers. houses...... relocate them around the nearest end of the runway.: 32-8013. thoroughly investigate the area with mine detectors or by probing methods. and under stockpiles. . As a last resort... They may be razed in a manner to conserve usable material.. humus.. and roads.... Vol 1 .... FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM _. pickets.::. -. . and sometimes shovels. . . or stakes placed in unnatural locations. . or borrow material. The method of mine and UXO removal is a For minefields with command decision.. dary. booby traps. use trained explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) detachments. Buildings Buildings may be completely razed with explosives or heavy equipment. The survey party often selects a site where limited clearing of structures will be necessary before full-scale operations can take place. in disturbed ground hollows where the earth has visibly settled.. .. REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES An airfield construction site may be acceptable except for obstructions such as houses.. .. the lines may be needed intact and a different approach to the airfield must be used. .‘. then make a visual search of the most likely places for explosives. Whenever possible. In rear areas..I.::. They are usually near existing structures.::. .: . Stripping is done concurrently with clearing and grubbing by using bulldozers. leaving no salvage.: . or they may be relocated.: . graders.. ::::::. Good topsoil and sod should be stockpiled for later use on bare areas for dust or erosion control or for camouflage.. railroads. foundation under a fill. The primary selection of a site always involves compromises. the traffic does not interfere with the approach or takeoff of aircraft. and other structures on the proposed site or near the operation of aircraft.. .:>:. Unsuitable soil must be removed to a depth at which compaction and thickness requirements are satisfied. and other buried explosives must be located and removed or neutralized before any construction operations begin.. unexploded ordnance (UXO).. and muck. UXOs may be disarmed by ordnance personnel and then manually removed from the area If ordnance personnel are and disposed.:.:. .y. “-:‘.. power lines that are not in an approach zone or not high enough to extend into the glide angle when located in an approach zone may be marked with suitable warning lights. The safety of personnel and equipment is primary at all times during the removal of The speed of clearance is seconmines.- rocks can then be hauled disposal. Do not destroy main paved highways and railroad lines because they may be required for ground operations... it is best to destroy the mines in place by explosives or mechanical means. Check all reports and data on an area to locate and iden tidy explosives. underground installation may be used if armored underground cable or conduit is available that will adequately insulate the lines. if Clearing.:: :.... :. Roads and Railroads In general. >:: . roads and railroads present no obstructions when located near airfields. Grubbing..

:.l.y ..FM 50430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013...: :. Grubbing. . :::.:. see FM 5-434. 4-l 8 Clearing. Vol 1 . i:z.: :.::: . and Stripping .ii::.i : ..+_::. : .. using dozers or graders.:::.i.. all resulting holes and craters must be filled and compacted with acceptable material. .:. For additional information..:. If devices are destroyed in place...i’::. Surface mines or bomblets may be able to be pushed from an area by using a drag chain or dozer..t: :.

permitting it to act as a beam and allowing it to bridge over minor irregularities that may occur in the base or the subgrade upon which it rests. any distortion or displacement occurring in the subgrade is reflected fn the base course and continues upward into the surface course. All other types of pavements are classified as flexible.:. and 10 of FM 5-410 and in Chapter 2 of FM 5-530.1 arc not present in every flexible pavement. Rigid pavements are generally not less the materials are more readily available) and are not discussed in detail in this chapter. compaction. Flexible pavements are used almost exclusively in the TO for road and rear area airfield construction. and other properties suited to TO construction requirements (un- Subgrades and Base Courses 5-1 . The design of flexible pavements must include a thorough investigation of the subgradc conditions.and surface-course thickness for roads. and they fall within the construction capabilities of the combat heavy engineer battalion and Its support unlts. 6. borrow areas. FLEXIBLE-PAVEMENT STRUCTURE A typical flexible-pavement structure is shown in Figure 5-1. and base materials. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Pavement structures may be rigid or flexible. CBR values. SUBGRADES AND BASE COURSES This chapter discusses the functions of the subgrade. page 5-2. a flexible-pavement structure may consist only of an asphaltic-concrete surface. Additional information on soils. They are adaptable to almost any situation. For example. A rigid pavement made of concrete will have great flexural strength. In a flexible pavement. and sources of select. a base course. include similar information for all classes of air-elds and heliports as well as all commonly used types of surface materials. subbase. subbase. TESTS Engineers should classify soils according to Chapter 2 of FM 5-410. Vol 1. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Detailed tests determine compaction characteristics. Chapters 11 and 12 of FM 5-430-OO-2/AFPAM 32-8013. and California Bearing Ratio [CBR) requirements is contained in Chapters 2. and base courses and covers the selection of materials and construction procedures. Flexible denotes the tendency of all courses in this type of structure to conform to the same shape under traffic. It illustrates the terms used in this manual that refer to the various layers. the wearing surface is made of portland cement concrete. Chapters 8 and 9 of this manual discuss the determination of the base. Vol 2. All the layers shown in Figure 5. and then select representative samples for detailed tests. and the subgradc. In rigid pavements.

Figure 5-1. Intermediate courses maybe placed in one or more lifts. Tack coats may be required between the intermediate courses and under the surface course. DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS Flcxiblc-pavcmcnl design is based on the principle that lhc magnitude of stress induced by a wheel load decreases with depth below the surface. Materials arc scicctcd for each layer based on their characteristics (gradalion.FM S-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. When tests arc complclcd. A prime coat may be required between the highest aggregate surface and the first layer of asphalt. Figure 5-2 shows the tfistribulion ol a single-wheel load on two 5-2 Subgrades and Base Courses . the stresscs induced on a given subgradc material can bc decrcascd by increasing the thickness of the overlying layers (subbase. and CBK values). liquid limit (LL). Conscqucntly. Vol 1 E P 2 al % ? t c 3 Binder 8 c course Leveling course Compacted subgrade s Uncompacted subgrade (Subsoil) NOTE: All layers and coats are not present in every flexible-pavement structure. and surface courses). LL. PI. plasticity index (PI). Typical flexible-pavement section needed for designing the flexible-pavement structure. Subbase and base-course materials arc tested for compliance with specification rcquircmcnts for gradation. and CBR values. limiting conditions in the subgradc and subsoil must be dctcrmincd. base.

the subgradc is the foundation that cvcntually carries any load applied at the surface. The major difference in stress intensities caused by variation in tire pressure occurs near the surface. The intensity of stress at a given point in a flexible pavement is affected by the tire-contact area and tire pressure. one with a thick and one with a thin flexible-pavcmcnt struclurc. the load al the subgradc level is spread over a wide area. the load at the subgrade level is confined to a much smaller area.FM 54300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. In both cases. This is illustratcd at line A-A in Figure 5-3. and the stresses on the subgrade are low. Subgrades and Base Courses 5-3 . beneficial because the stress distributions produced by the tires do not overlap to a large dcgrec at shallow depths. The pattern of decreasing stresses with increasing depth is the basis of the conventional flcxiblc-pavement design in which subgradc materials of low-bearing capacity are covered with thick flexible-pavement slructurcs. and the stresses on the subgrade level are significantly higher. the flexiblepavement structure is thick. The distrib\ltion of pressures under a multiplc-wheel assembly is shown in Figure 5-3. Figure 5-2 demonstrates that the magnitude of the stresses on the subgrade decreases as the flexible-pavement structure is thickened. In the left diagram in Figure 5-2. the surface course (pavcmcnt or a well-graded crushed aggregate) and base course are the most seriously affected by high tire pressures. In the right diagram the structure is thin. Distribution of pressures under single-wheel loads -- sections of flcxiblc pavcmcnl. Vol 1 A B Thin structure Thick structure Figure 5-2. multiple-wheel assemblies are beneficial on thin. Therefore. Multiple-wheel assemblies are page 5-4. flexible-pavement structures constructed on subgrades with high-bearing capacity. Consequently.

..:..:. ..‘i-.. Vol 1 L..... Susceptibility to detrimental frost action or excessive swell...‘. Dlstributlon of pressures produced by multiple-wheel assemblies SUBGRADES Using information from a deliberate soil survey as outlined in Chapter 2 of FM 5-530. l l l l l COMPACTION Compaction normally increases the strength of subgrade soils..:.. Compaction that can be attained in the subgrade..L:..... Presence of weak or soft layers or organics in the subsoil..:. CBR values of uncompacted and compacted subgrades.(.._.‘..‘...... The normal procedure is to specify compaction according to the requirements in Figure 5-4...:.‘. simplicity of construction must also be considered..:::......... :.:.‘.. the depth to the water table....:.. ......:..““. A specification block should be used to determine limits for density and moisture content.... “““““““...::.i’..‘.:: : C.:+:m... .:.~~~..:::..~.:...: “““““‘.../ ....:. i...‘....::: :::(. .:.‘.....:. ... ....:. l 54 Subgrades and Base Courses ......: .. consider the following factors when determining the suitability of a subgrade: l GRADE LINE Classify the subgrade soil in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) (as described in FM 5-4101 and consider the previously hsted factors to determine the suitability of a subgrade material.i..........(...........:. ....i’i..:..:.....‘.. Depth to the water table... However..........~..:.“‘.....:. “.~:..:.:......:. Depth to bedrock. ....‘...i’... and the depth to bedrock... :....::::::..... .. ‘i... _...FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.. General characteristics of the subgrade soils. ......:....((.‘... .i.~.I.:....(. ““” . ..: ....‘.. .:. :::. the grade line should be established to obtain the best possible subgrade material consistent with the design parameters.‘.... Figure 5-3. Generally. When locating the grade line of a road or airfield. .‘..‘.....~:...:.............. ::::::::. .:. .:.....i’......... consider the suitability of the subgrade..

Compaction must be obtained during construction to a depth at which the natural density of the material will resist further consolidation under traffic. Subgrades and Base Courses 5-5 .100) Airfield Road Compaction 100 .50) Airfield 100 . Recommended compaction for rear areas requirements Compaction is relatively simple in fill sections because all the layers are subjected to construction processes and can be compacted during construction. Percent compaction is a percent of the maximum density at CE 55. 2. Compaction is more difficult in cut sections. 4. 3. Each layer shown will not necessarily be used in the final design. 5.95% compaction 95 .100% COMPACTED Cohesive Cohesionless SUBGRADE 90 -95% CE 55 CE 55 compaction 95 .105% 98 . The minimum compacted layer thicknesses are 4” for a road and 6” for an airfield.100% CE 55 (Soil) CE 55 (AsDhalt) or roads Subbase Compaction course (CBR usually 20 . Vol 1 Pavement compaction 98 . A cohesive soil is one with PI > 5. A cohesionless soil is one with a PI s 5.105% CE 55 SELECT Subgrade Cohesive Cohesionless CBR < compaction MATERIAL Select CBR c 20 CE 55 CE 55 90 . Specific requirements for minimum depth of subgrade compaction for both cohesive and cohesionless soils for road designs are described in Chapter 9 of this FM.100% CE 55 Base course (CBR (CBR 80 . NOTES: Figure 5-4. Vol 2. This same information for airfield designs is described in Chapter 12 of FM 5-430-00-2/AFPAM 328013.100) 50 .FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.100% compaction Uncompacled (Subsoil) subgrade 1.

should be compacted at the optimum moisture content determined from the densitymoisture curves developed for that soil using the 55-blows-per-layer compactive effort (CE 55) test. This condition can also develop when silts and poorly draining. very fine sand. When these soils are encountered. and rock flour located in areas with a high water table can pump water to the surface. 5-6 Subgrades and Base Courses . The types of soils that decrease in strength when remolded are generally in the USCS CH. some soils lose stability when scarified and rolled. Compactions of deposits of silt. it is difficult to SUBGRADE COMPACTION-SPECIAL CASES Although compaction normally increases the strength of soils. the total thickness design above the subgrade may be governed by the required depth of compaction rather than the CBR method. Compact the soil that is removed to the design density at the design moisture content. and rock flour (predominantly USCS ML and SC groups) is reasonably good if properly compacted within the specified moisture range. Compare the subsoil with compaction requirements for the subgrade (as described in Chapter 9 of this FM and Chapter 12 of FM 5-430-00-2/AFPAM 32-8013. MI-I. air voids so that the available water fills the void space. Some soils shrink excessively during dry periods and expand excessively when they absorb moisSpecial treatment is required when ture. They are soils that have been consolidated to a very high degree. initially replace material in 6-inch lifts. Vol 1 SUBGRADE COMPACTION-NORMAL CASES paragraphs describe the soils in which these conditions may occur and suggested methods of treatment. to determine the minimum compactive effort. no compaction should be attempted and construction operations should be conducted to produce the least possible soil disturbance. CE 55 may also be designated for ASTM 1557. and they have developed a definite structure. They have attained a high strength in the undisturbed state. either under an overburdened load by alternate cycles of wetting and drying or by other means. Scarifying. Vol 2) to determine if consolidation of the subsoil is likely to occur under the design traffic load. Other samples should be compacted to the design density across the range of specified moisture contents. The material becomes quick or spongy and practically loses all load-bearing capacity. Compaction of cohesive soil is best achieved with penetrating rollers such as tamping or sheepsfoot. free-draining materials should be compacted at moisture contents approaching saturation. Cohesive materials. Since compaction should be avoided in these cases. In cut areas consisting of cohesive soils. as necessary. If the undisturbed value is higher than the laboratory test results. (See Chapter 3 of TM 5825-2. it may be necessary to remove the subgrade material and replace it with sequential lifts capable of being compacted to the required density.) silt8 The bearing capacity of silts. As a rule of thumb. Therefore. then adjust the lift thickness up or down. reworking. If such consolidation is likely to occur. The following these soils are encountered. very fine sands. including those of relatively low plasticity showing little swell. Cohesive soils (including silts) cannot be compacted in thick layers.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Soib That Lose Strength Cohesionless soils (except silts) can be compacted from the surface with heavy rollers or very heavy vibratory compactors. provide a means for compacting the subsoil or design a thicker flexible-pavement structure to prevent subsoil consolidation. and rolling these soils in cut areas may reduce the soils loadbearing capacity. and OH groups. the American Society of Testing and Materials code for densitymoisture curves. obtain CBR values for the soil in both the undisturbed and disturbed conditions. very fine sands are compacted at a high Compaction reduces the moisture content. Cohesionless.

:... uplift pressures... ..:_:+: .:. .“““““““‘..:+:. ... These soils can cause trouble in any region where construction is accomplished during a dry sea- Subgrades can be stabilized mechanically (by adding granular materials).: :. .:. Stabilization with chemior geosythetics).):(.. Also.. Vol 1 - obtain the desired compaction in these sflts and very fine sands at moisture contents greater than optimum.:. .:~:._... and such) is generally costly but may prove to be economically feasible. cal admixtures (lime.. in some cases.:.. ....:.. This reduces the impact of future expansion.1“““’. ..‘L’.. :. swelling soils are placed at moisture contents that will not result in more than a 3-percent change in volume if soil moisture is later increased..‘.......::::: ..:.:.I(. .‘:.:.. . impossible in the allotted construction period. ._.. . .: :. or with a stabilization expedient (sand-grid.:+.. . Subgrades and Bass Courses 5-7 ... . Where the design CBR is above 20.’ ‘X’. r... However.‘.~““‘““.. depending on the availability of the chemical stabilization agent in comparison with the availability of granular material. .:. Compaction operations will continue to cause water to be pumped to the surface.. ~ .‘.:.~_.. _..... Proper control of moisture content is the most important item to remember for swelling soils. .: ::.:: _. Water from a wet. Preswelling is a common method for treating subgrade soils with expansive characteristics.“‘.:..:::>:::.... .:. . . . normal compaction effort should be applied...‘.. The soil should be compacted at a moisture content at which a 3-percent or greater swelling has already occurred..~...> FM !j-430=004/AFPAM 32-8013. In areas with a high water table. .):. Pumping action limits the ability to obtain the desired compaction in the immediate overlying material.:.~::~. These tests are used to estimate the CBR that will develop in the prototype structure.. If the source of water can be removed. .. ..:.. matting. The pumping and detrimental actions previously described should be anticipated whenever silts or very-fine-sand subgrades are located in areas with a high water table. For military construction....:..“. If the moisture content of the compacted soil increases after compaction........~. ..:. the subgrade must also meet the gradation and Atterberg limit requirements for a subbase given in Table 5-l.:.. .. :....... ..::~... fly ash.. ...:.:...::v::. - SUBGRADE STABILIZATION - Soils are characterized as swelling if they display a significant increase in volume with the addition of moisture. drying is not possible until the water table is sufficiently lowered. .-:. .:... Areas of this nature are best treated by replacing the soil with subbase and base materials or with a dry soil that is not adversely affected by water. ..I’...::.. removing the source of the water is often very difficult and..::.....: . If the soils can be dried.. >:. ... . These soils usually crumble easily and scarify readily. the soil will swell and produce large.. . port-land cement......:.. Do not disturb the subgrade where drainage is not feasible or a high water table cannot be lowered... Chemically stabilized layers should be designed according to the criteria presented in Chapter 9 of FM 5410...:. spongy silt subgrade often enters the subbase and base during compaction through capillary action..... ...:...:..:.... This additional moisture may have detrimental effects on bearing capacity and frost susceptibility. .“. SELECTION OF SUBGRADE AND SUBSOIL DESIGN CBR VALUES The CBR test described in FM 5-530 includes procedures for conducting tests on samples compacted in test molds (design density and soaked for four days) and for taking in-place CBR tests on undisturbed samples. it is usually not difficult to dry these deposits. This action may result in unacceptable differential heaving of flexible pavements. .. ./ .~.~.‘.. Compaction of lifts during wet periods can cause fines from the subgrade to contaminate upper layers of the flexible-pavement structure...( .‘~:. swelling soils son and the soils absorb moisture during a subsequent wet season. chemically (by adding chemical admixtures).. . .. do not disturb the subgrade in cases where soils become saturated from sources other than high water tables and cannot be dried (as in construction during wet seasons).....:...:::j:: .

. .:..‘.:‘_:..:::::.: . . ::.... 5-8 Subgrades and Base Courses ..:.‘. without processing..: ... Those with design CBR values less than or equal to 20 are called select materials.:......~...:....... Those materials with the F3 and F4 classifications are extremely frost-susceptible... . l:...:.. ~::.:.:. it can be assigned a subbase CBR rating.:>: y: :. i:.:y...:..:... The thaw period and resulting degraded soil strength may last from one to four weeks.. .:. Emphasis must be placed on reducing traffic loads during this period to help reduce the possibility of damage. maintain the separation of soil layers. and control drainage through the road or airfield design.\\. :. ... Matting and sand grid are expedient methods of stabilizing cohesionless soils such as sand for unsurfaced road construction.. .l.:.. ...... The most popular of the manmade stabilizers are sand grid. . The availability of these materials must be weighed with the considerable time savings for use of expedients in combat construction....:... and various types of geosynthetics.‘. and those with CBR values greater than 20 are called subbases.~.: .i :. ::.. especially if the water table is less than 5 feet below the top of the subgrade.~v. Where the CBR value of the subgrade.. locally available or other inexpensive materials may be used between the subgrade and base course. .::.: .. If it does not meet the requirements for a subbase.. Vd 1 ::::::‘:::::::::.:.:...:.:‘i:::~.‘..:.:.. .: .:.i:::~j.:: . IO 50 80 15 15 Subbase 50 40 30 2 ! 2 2 / 25 25 35 ! .:....~.:.: 3.... subgrade materials may exhibit frost heave and thaw weakening.‘> . the material must be considered a select material.:.:.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.:::::::::::i :.:....:.:.. FROST SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SUBGRADE In areas subjected to seasonal freezing and thawing..... to ASTM D4318 of these values will be made according If mechanical stabilization is used and the stabilized material meets the gradation and Atterberg limit requirements in Table 5-1.. 100 / I 15 Select Material *Determination 20 / ! / I 3 __ -- I_. Table 5-2 lists the frost-susceptibility ratings of soils.1 :. Recommended maximum permissible value of gradation and Atterberg limit requirements in subbases and select materials for roads and airfields Maximum Maximum design CBR Size in inches Permissible Value Atterberg LL* 25 Limits PI* 5 Gradation requirements % passing No......>:..:. Silty soils are particularly susceptible and their CBR value may be less than 1 during thawing periods.. These layers are designated in this manual as select materials or subbases. .:...: . .: . is in the range of 20 to 50. Geotextiles and other geosynthetics are primarily used to reinforce weak subgrades. SELECT MATERIALS AND SUBBASE COURSES When designing flexible pavements. ...+::.. .::.::::..:..::.~~:~ .... :.:.). especially geotextiles.:. roll-matting.:..j::j:~. Table 5-7.:...~. A stabilization expedient may provide significant time and cost savings as a substitute to other means of stabiliztion or low strength fill. ..:.y. 200 No.

MScctM-SC CL$MfH$ x SMf...: ...:. .:.. SW-SC.... A maximum aggregate size of 3 inches will aid in meeting aggregate gradations. SC.. GP-GM.:i 3..L . 7: ..... or similar materials to produce an acceptable subbase and raise the design CBR value.thOe25) Crushed rock b Sands (e 5 0. shell..: .. GW-GM.....> FM 514301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.. : .. . caliche...:. page 5-8. MH....: :. _:.: .. g..... Lime rock.. GP ET 2: GW: GP. Subbase Materials Subbase materials may consist of naturally occurring.: .. GM-GC SM........ Consider lime rock.::....10 o-3 o-3 o-3 3-6 Typical Soll Types Under the USCS ES $ SF’ GW.. SW-SC. GM-GC SM. or ’ egre E:: SGpp Sl s2 Sandy soils (e 5 0.25) Crushed stone Crushed rock (b) Gravelly soils % By Weight < 0..... ........:... . ML-CL ML.. GW-GC....: ..: ::... select materials and subbases may not be needed. GP-GM.‘~.10 IO..ravg’.’ (a) Gravels (e c 0.. coarse-grained soils or blended and processed soils.. :. SM-SC GM..... GC.....15 Gravelly Sands F3 a b iIc a b c ild Gravelly soils Sands.. ML-CL gy... To qualify as a select material. SW-SM..: . However.:.... ....... GW-GC.....: . although fine-grained soils in the ML Subgrades and Base Courses 5-9 . (... caliche. SM-SC CL..‘:.20 6. ashes..:.. except very fine silty sands Clays (PI > 12) Silts Very fine sands Clays PI < 12) Varve 6 claysand other fine-grained.:... cinders. and CL groups may be used in certain cases.. SP-SM.:: .. and disintegrated granite when evaluating sources of select material. SW-SM..... a material must meet the gradation and Atterberg limit requirements established in Table 5..... .... shell..... ashes... SP-SC. ... coral.: ..... GP-GC SW. . The existing subgrade may meet the requirements for a subbase MATERIALS Select Material8 Select materials will normally be locally available.....36) 3-6 Fl F2 Gravelly a b II soils soils 6.... :.s.....30 c 11 Sands (e > 0.. SC.. .30 ..~. GP-GC GM. Where subgrade materials meet plasticity requirements but are deficient in grading requirements.. CH.: ... cinders.... coral.. . GC.. :..1. .... lime rock. > :: : :. coarse-grained soils (classified G or S).. SP..:.......-~F. x..... and disintegrated granite may be used as subbases when they meet the requirements in Table 5-1....>:... it may be possible to treat an existing subgrade by blending in stone. banded sediments > 20 > 15 F4 > 15 NOTE: e = void ratio. . sand. the subgrade cannot be assigned a design CBR value greater than 20 unless it meets the gradation and plasticity requirements for subbases.. :: ‘...: :.:.. Frost-design soil classification Frost Group NFS Type of Soil (a) “.:...:<.:.. ..... Vol 1 Table 5-2.LM&. GW-GM..02 mm o-3 o-3 .

::. .:. enabling them to be used as subbases. materials listed in Table 5-2. where existing molded samples.) Ratings as high as 100 can be assigned to these materials when proper construction procedures are followed. 5-10 Subgrades and Base Courses .. gradation.:. . as NFS. if supported by adequate inplace CBR tests on construction projects using the materials that have been in service for several years. A suitable subbase may be formed using material stabilized with commercial admix Portland cement. conduct CBR tests on material in place when it has attained its maximum expected water content or on undisturbed. Specify compaction according to the criteria described in Figure 5-4. These chemically stabilized soils must be assigned an equipment CBR value based on the type of admixture and method of application. the material must comply with the requirements indicated in Table 5. similar construction is available. and bituminous materials are commonly used for this purpose. This is especially true of materials which have more than 20 percent fines (particles passing the Number (No. S2. If possible. In order to be used as a select or subbase. fly tures. hydrated lime.1. Some natural materials develop satisfactory CBR values but do not meet the gradation requirements in Table 5. Fl.::. . COMPACTION Select and subbase materials can be processed and compacted using normal compaction procedures. For example. BASE COURSE Thepurpose of a base course ute the induced stresses from load so that it will not exceed of the underlying soil layers. they may lose up to 50 percent of their strength during thawing conditions. including CBR value. Sl. and Atterberg limits. material with a measured CBR value of 37. it would be used as a CBR 30 subbase rather than a CBR 37. page 5-5. or it may be possible to treat the existing subgrade to produce a subbase..FM 50430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.. or F2 should be used as subbase and select materials in seasonal frost and permafrost areas. a 4 POTENTIAL FOR FROST ACTION Select and subbase materials which are subjected to freezing and thawing may exhibit detrimental frost effects. course. .. Although these materials generally are not affected by excessive frost heave. is to distribthe wheel the strength Figure 5-5 shows the distribution of stress through two base courses. ash. as appropriate.:.. if the material failed to meet the CBR 40 subbase requirements (gradation and Atterberg limits) but met the CBR 30 subbase requirements. which meets the gradation and Atterberg limit requirements for a CBR 40 subbase.) 200 sieve). If a material meets the requirements for gradation and Atterberg limits for the next higher design CBR category. These materials may be used as select or’subbase materials. (See Chapter 9 of FM 5-410. . . but the material’s CBR value does not meet the maximum design CBR for that category.. should be used as a CBR 37 subbase. The plasticity of some materials can be decreased by adding lime or portland cement.:: :. The procedures for selecting test values described in the section on subgrades also applies to select and subbase materials. Do not admix native or processed materials unless the unmixed subgrade meets the LL and PI requirements for subbases. soaked samples. The CBR test is not applicable for use in evaluating materials stabilized with chemical admixtures. assign the material design a CBR value equal to the measured CBR results. the stress must be reduced to a low value and a thick base is needed.1. page 5-9. Conversely. Vol 1 .: . When the subgrade strength is low. SELECTION OF DESIGN CBR CBR tests are usually conducted on reHowever..

Table 5-6. If strict adhermg mechanical Base-course material must be capable of being compacted to meet the requirements given in Ffgure 5-4. the compaction equipment used. The CBR of the finished base course must conform to that used in the design. Base courses are always cohesionless materials and are normally processed to obtain the proper gradation. page 5-13 lists nine types of materials commonly used as base Subgrades and Base Courses 5-l 1 . page 5-5. For continuous stability. having CBR values near the CBR standard material (crushed limestone). The total compacted thickness must equal that obtained from the flexible-pavement design curves. Compaction REQUIREMENTS Give careful attention to the selection of materials for base courses. When constructing a base course. Material with a LL greater than 25 or a PI greater than 5 should not be used as a base course. a thinner base course will provide adequate stress distribution. a base-course material must meet the same PI and LL requirements for a subbase material as indicated in Table 5.1. page 5-12 (depending on the type of material). lift thickness must be based on the ability to attain the reLift thickness is dependent quired density. and the method of construction. on the type of material. base courses must meet gradation and plasticity requirements.FM 51430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Distribution of stress in base courses snd affects on base-course thickness of subgrade strength When the subgrade strength is higher. a material used as a base course must meet the gradation requirements outlined in Tables 5-3. page 5-8. 200 sieve). a safe rule of thumb is to avoid using materials which have more than 15 percent fines (particles passing the No. Because the stresses in the base course are always higher than in the subgrade (Figure 5-5). Gradation Normally. Determine gradation of the proposed material usanalysis. Plasticity Index and Liquid Limit In addition to the gradation requirement. the base course must have higher strength. 5-4 and 5-5. The base course is normally the highestquality structural material used in a flexiblepavement structure. ence to gradation requirements is not feasible. The materials should be dense and uniformly graded so that no differential settlement occurs. Vol 1 Area of tire contact Area of tire contact Base 1course Pavement or surface Base course Subgrade support Subgrade Subgrade support Low-bearing-ratio subgrade High-bearing-ratio subgrade Figure 5-5.

40 No. or slag aggregates for macadam base courses 1 Percent Passina Each Sieve (1 II II Sieve Designations 1 II2 ) 2 inch 1 inch l-inch sand 1 1 inch 1 clay 11 2 inch 1 112 inch No.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. and uncrushed sand and gravel aggregates for nonmacadam base courses i Percent Passing Each Sieve Table 5-5. Vol 1 Table 5-3. Generally suitable base course materials Uu Rock Type Granite I G N E 0 U S S : GabbroDiorite Baaatt Felsite Conglomerate Breccia Sandstone Shale Limestone Dolomite VR Chert Poof Concrete Fair to Good Excellent Excellent PM4 Poor aa an Aaaregate Asphalt Fair to Good” Excellent Excellent Fair Poor Poor to Fair Poor Good Good POOP uee a. Desirable gradation for crushed rock or slag. 200 5-25 <lo <lO <lo 5-12 Subgrades and Base Courses . Desirable gradation for crushed rock. Couree Good Excellent Excellent a Ba*e or Subbase Fair to Good Poor I : TN A Poor to Fair Poor Fair to Good Good Fair to Good Poor Good Good Poor-Fair I! : ?I : ? c Gneiss (nice) Schist Slate Quart&e Marble Good Poor to Fair Poor Good Fair Good Poor to Fair Poor Fair to Good’ Fair Good Poor to Fair Poor Fair to Good Fair ‘Reacts (alkali aggregate) **Antistripping agents should be used Table 5-4. gravel.

and macadam. Descriptions of these materials follow.and fine-grained material and in the character of the rock fragments. clay. Processed Materials Processed materials are made by crushing and screening rock. Satisfactory base materials can often be produced Sand Subgrades and Base Courses 5-13 . processed. and Gravel. and other natural materials such as lime rock. Gravel deposits differ widely in the relative proportions of coarse. Deposits of partly disintegrated rock that consist of fragments of rock. and other materials are used for base courses. Natural mixtures of sand and clay are often located in alluvial deposits of varying thicknesses. these deposits may also provide suitable base-course materials. courses for roads and airfields. The mica flakes make the deposit unsuitable for use as a base course. coarse mine tailings. MATERIALS Natural. Fines act as a binder and fill the voids between coarser particles. Sometimes natural materials require crushing or removal of oversize material to maintain gradation limits. Laboratory CBR tests to determine design CBR are not necessary. or slag. and mica flakes should not be confused with sandclay soils. Base courses made from processed materials can be divided into three general types: stabilized. hot mix rock macadam Design CBR 100 100 100 100 80 80 80 80 80 by blending materials from two or more deposits. Depending on the proportions of sand and clay. Vol 1 - Table 5-6. central Lime plant. sands. A typical design CBR is given for each type of . material ranging from coarse to fine is mixed to meet the gradation requirement given in Table 5-4. coarse-graded. durable rock fragments are the sources of processed materials. Mistaking these deposits for a sand-clay soil may result in base-course failure. and similar hard. durable rock makes the highest-quality base material. gravel. clean. talus deposits. Many natural deposits of sandy and gravelly materials make satisfactory base-course materials. Existing quarries. washed gravel is normally not suitable for a base course because not enough fines are present. Uncrushed. crushed rock base-course material produced from sound. crushed aggregate Water-bound macadam Dry-bound macadam Bituminous base course. Bituminous *Stabilized aggregate (mechanically) Soil Sand cement shell or shell *It is recommended that stabilizedaggre ate base-course material not be used fg tire pressures in excess of or 100 psi. The mixing process can be accomplished in advance (at a Stabilized. A properly graded. satisfactory results can be obtained with sand-clay soils. With proper proportioning and construction methods. ledge rock. Table 5-3 shows the common rock types that are generally suitable for base-course material. shells. Generally. cobbles and gravel._ __ material. Often there are great variations in the proportions of sand and clay from the top to the bottom of the deposit. coral. rock which is hard enough to require blasting during excavation makes suitable base-course material. Sand and Clay. Some natural materials may be suitable for use as a base course by mixing or blending them with other materials. In a stabilized base course. gravelly and sandy soils.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Assigned base-course CBR ratings materials for Tvoe Graded. and some caliches can be used alone or blended as a suitable base course. Natural Materials A wide variety of gravels.

This has led to the development of base courses from materials that normally would not be considered. resulting in too much moisture and loss of stability. they are judged on the basis or scrvicc behavior. or salt. As a general rule. Coral is commonly found along the coastlines of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. silt. It is composed of limestones. Coral is normally very angular and. The crushed rock used for macadam base courses should consist of clean. and other similar materials. cinders. crushed aggregate is placed in a relatively thin layer and rolled into place. 50 percent of lhc material by weigh1 must have two or more freshly fractured facts. with the arca of each face equal to at least 75 percent of the smallest midsectional area of the piece. and given a setting period. Sprinkling with sea water or sodium chloride in solution prornotes bonding when rollers are used. iron oxide. the proportion of fine and coarse material.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. drainage. and clays cemented together by lime. it is important that caliche of good. organic matter. based on the amount of volcanic impurities. These properties vary. coral. and clay) and in degree of cementation. Macudam. Vol 1 processing plant1 or during the placing operation. Any hard. and compaction arc csscntial to obtain satisfactory results. angular. The PI is a reasonably good criterion for detcrrnining Lhe suitability of thcsc materials as base courses. Coral. crusher -run fines. as such. gravel. Avoid \. Caliche is a by-product of chemical weathering processes. CaIiche. Uncompactcd and poorly drained coral is susceptible to high capillary rise. Water may be used in the compacting and keying process. Some of these materials arc weak rock that crush or degrade under construction traffic to produce composite base materials similar to those described in the preceding paragraphs.14 Subgrades and Base Courses . Proper moisture conlrol. deposits of natural sand and gravel and sources of crushed rock are not available. and other unwanted material or coating. Caliche has been used extensively in arid regions as a base material because of its ability to reccmcnt when saturated with water. and the age and length ol exposure to the elements. shells. action that results in a satisfac- These matcrjals cannot bc judged on the basis of the gradation limits used for other materials. When water is used. observation of lhesc types of base materials in existing roads and pavements is the most reliable indicator of whether or not they will be satisfactory. Fine aggregate or screenings are placed on the surface of the coarse-aggregate layer and rolled and broomed into the coarse rock until it is thoroughly keyed in place. lime rock. it may bc necessary to blend in selected fines to get a suitable gradation. Aggregates for macadam-type construction should meet the gradation requirements given in Table 5-5. uniform quality bc obtained from deposits -- In some TO areas. Other Materials cementing tory base. the base is termed a wafer-bound mucadam. Because the aggregates produced in crushing operations or obtained from deposits are often deficient in fines. silts. a low PI (I 5) is a necessity. durable particles free of clay. As a rule of thumb. page 5-12. provided the coarse aggregate is one size and the fine aggregate will key into the coarse aggregate. or slag. The term macadam is usually applied to construction in which a coarse. or natural clay-free soil may be added for lhis purpose. Others develop a 5. A coarse-graded type oi base course is composed of crushed rock. When gravel is used. compacted. coral should cure for a minimum of 72 hours after compaction is completed. rubble.ariations of more than 1 pcrccnt from optimum moisture content. Strength tests on laboratory samples arc not satisfactory because the method of preparing the sample seldom replicates the characteristics of the material in place. Coarse-Graded. crushed aggregate can be used. its greatest assets as a construction material are its bonding properties. These include calichc. Rather. However. iron ore. Caliche varies in content (limestone. Screenings. durable.

OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. . For base-course material. Bituminous Base. 200 sieve 100 15-35 O-20 thick. on an inch-for-inch basis. This is true even where suitable admixture materials for such construction are readily available. as nonfrost susceptible (NFS). and the PI should not exceed 10.: . When a bituminous base course is used. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SEASONAL FROST AND PERMAFROST CONDITIONS Since base-course materials are near the surface of the road or airfield. the amount of strength loss during thawing periods will have a strong influence on the life of the facility. to other types of high-quality base courses. ‘A& Tuff and other cement-like materials of volcanic origin may be used for base courses. Jagged pieces of metal and similar objects must be removed: large pieces of rubble should be broken into 3-inch pieces or smaller. Vol 1 1 and that it be compacted within a specified moisture range. Fine Grading The subgrade is fine graded to achieve the desired cross section established by final grade stakes. 40 sieve No. A complete investigation should be made to determine the location and characteristics of all natural materials suitable for basecourse construction. Before placing select material. which is not true in many areas of the world. materials listed in Table 5-2. In general. subbase. when mixing-plant and bituminous materials are readily available. and base course. page 5-9. CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS Construction operations for roads and airfields include the following tasks which are organized according to the construction schedule and quality control plan for the project. caliches should be crushed to meet the following gradations: Percent Percent Percent passing passing passing 2-inch sieve No. The surface is then graded and final compaction and finishing are accomplished. the binder and leveling courses may be omitted and the surface course may be laid directly on the base course. SELECTION OF BASE COURSE Stripping should be used to remove undesirable material from surface deposits of caliche. Bituminous bases may be advantageous when locally available aggregates are relatively weak and of poor quality. a bituminous base course may be considered equal. 40 sieve should not exceed 35. Tuff bases are constructed in the same manner as other base courses except that the oversize pieces are broken and the base is compacted with sheepsfoot rollers after the tuff is dumped and spread. or possibly frost susceptible (Sl or S2) should be used as base courses in seasonal frost and permafrost areas. . particularly for rear-area airfields carrying heavy traffic. Caution should be exercised when using rubble in a tactical environment to avoid mines or booby traps. If a bituminous base is used. After caliches have been air-dried for 72 hours. Rubble. the LL of the material passing the No. or when a relatively thick structure is required for the traffit. If possible. Untreated bases are relatively easy and fast to build and are preferable to bituminous or cement-stabilized types.: >~ FM 5-430.. the Subgrades and Base Courses 5-15 . Bituminous mixtures are frequently used as base courses beneath high-use bituminous pavements. it is placed in lifts no more than 3 l/2 inches Selection of the type of base-course construction depends on the materials and equipment available and the anticipated weather conditions during construction. Base courses of untreated natural materials are less affected by adverse weather and normally require less technical control. The debris or rubble of destroyed buildings may be used in constructing base courses.

Fold the fine material into the coarser aggregate with the grader blade. Mixing operations should produce uniform blending. the engineer in charge can calculate exactly how much water is to bc added or if the base needs to be aerated to achieve the specified moisture con ten 1 range. Lift thickness should be based on the ability to compact the material to the required density. When a Compacting Base-course compacting must produce a uniformly dense layer that conforms to the specification block. When bucket loaders are used. or rototillers. dry-mix the material using blades. grader is used. with the finer material on top. increase or decrease the lifl thickness as necessary to meet the project requirements. disks.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.and coarse-aggregate portions in adjacent windrows on a paved area. harrows. Blade the windrows together to meet the requirements spccificd for the project. or front-end loaders. Placing. If a self-propelled spreader is not available. The moisture con tent of the base material at the site can be obtained by a nuclear densometer. Asphalt distributors should not bc used because the pump lubrication system is not designed for water. thoroughly mix the materials by blading the windrows of materials from one side of the area to the other. which can cause unwanted segregation. When mechanical mixing is used. After testing the compacted density. the material can be initially dumped in long windrows and subsequently spread with graders. 5-16 Subgrades and Base Courses . Vol 1 subgrade should be compacted to attain the required density. Given the on-site moisture content. and PI requirements are attained after the base has been placed and compacted. Watering Base Materials As in subgradc-compaction operations. If equipment capable of spreading the aggregate in even lifts is not available. The advantage of working from the point nearest the source is that the haul vehicles can be routed over the spread material. The self-propelled aggregate spreader is the preferred piece of equipment for placing a base course. Proportionally distribute the coarse and fine aggregates by weight or volume in quantities so that the specified gradation. Blending and Mixing Materials to be blended and mixed should be spread on the road. Controlled watering can bc done with a truck-mounted water distributor. or dump trucks. obtaining the specified compacted density requires that the material be placed and compacted at a moisture content inside the specification block. place the fine. and ruts and other soft spots should be corrected. dozers. LL. Hauling. which compacts the base and avoids damage to the subgrade. place the coarse and fine a<ggrcgates in separate stockpiles or adjacent windrows to permit easy proportioning. this practice will not overwork the base course. Any container capable of movement and gravity discharge of water may bc used as an expedient water distributor. runway. If available. scrapers. Also. a speedy moisture tester. Compact base-course material with vibratory or heavy. or by expedient methods. and Spreading Placing and spreading material on the prepared subgrade may begin at the point nearest the borrow source or at the point farthest from the source. leaving the material in windrows. An advantage of working from the point farthest from the source is that hauling equipment will further compact the subgrade. This method also reveals any weak spots in the subgrade so that they can be corrected prior to placement of the base courses. and interferes less with spreading and compaction equipment. base-course material can be spread using towed spreaders. or taxiway in correct proportions. with the blade of the grader set to give a rolling action to the material. A good rule of thumb is to initially place the base course in 6-inch lifts. The coarse and fine aggregates can also be mixed in mechanical plants (mobile or stationary) or on a paved area with graders and bucket loaders.

towed aggregatc spreaders. apply the aggregate succcssivcly in two or more layers. and peeling and scabbing may result. or road to the middle and back to the edge until the required lines and grades are obtained. tribute sufficient screenings (fine dis- SPECIAL PROCEDURE FOR MACADAM BASES Construction of macadam base courses quires the procedures that follow. If the compacted thickness of the lift is 4 inches or less. Applying Screenings After the coarse aggregate has been thoroughly stabilized and set by rolling. The care and judgment used when constructing the base course will directly reflect on the quality of the finished flexible pavement. steel-wheeled. FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. water-shedding surface free of ruts and depressions that would Inhibit runoff. compact the coarse aggregate the full width of the strip by rolling it with a steel-wheeled roller. Preparing Subgrade If a macadam base course is constructed on a material with high plasticity. sary when placing the aggregate at the point nearest to the source and routing hauling vehicles over the spread material. Final rolling is done with rubber. Select the equipment and methods on each job to suit the characteristics of the base material. Continue rolling until the absence of creep or wave movement of the aggregate ahead of the roller indicates that the aggregate is stable. unyielding mass. begin compaction on the outside edges and work inward. Finishing Finishing operations must closely follow compaction to furnish a crowned. Measure field densities on the total sample. Before final rolling. Compacting Immediately following spreading. Use a test strip to determine which rollers are most cffective and how many roller passes are necessary to achieve the desired compaction. re- Subgrades and Base Courses 5-l 7 . Do not attempt rolling when the subgradc is softened by rain. Spreading should bc from dump boards. Use the grader for finishing compacted aggrcgate bases. or taxiway. and shell are compacted with vibratory. A membrane or a geotextile fabric may be used in lieu of the blanket course. When more than one layer is required. Blade the material from one side of the runway. The blanket course should be lightly moistened and rolled to a smooth surface before spreading the coarse macadam aggregate. or rubber-tired rollers.tired and steelwheeled rollers. runway. taxiway. Base courses of crushed rock. thin layers of the material will not be bound to the base. For greater compacted thickness. lime rock.. This can bc prevented with a blanket course of fine material such as crusher screenings or 3 to 4 inches of sand. Vol 1 rubber-tired rollers. there may be base in fil tra lion. Base-course layers that contain gravel and soil-binder material may be compacted initially with a sheepsfoot roller and rubber -tired rollers.. the bladed material must be within the specified moisture-content range so it will consolidate with the underlying material to form a dense. If this is not done. spread the loose macadam aggregate in a uniform layer of sufficient depth to meet requirements. overlapping passes by one-half of a roller width. When using rollers. and from the low side to the high side where there is a transverse slope across the road. Spreading Macadam aggregate must be placed and spread carefully to ensure that hauling vehicles do not add objectionable material Care is particularly necesto the aggregate. construction procedures are identical for all layers. Rolling should progress gradually from the sides to the middle of each strip in a crown section. or moving vehicles that distribute the material in a uniform layer. tight. Rubber -tired rollers are particularly effective in compacting base materials if a kneading motion is required to adjust and pack the particles. Compact each layer through the full depth to the required density. Maintain moisture content during the compaction procedure within the specified moisture-content range.

Follow the grader immediately with a pneumatic roller to reset the surface. S-18 Subgrades and Base Courses . rollers FINISHED SURFACES The base-course surface determines the smoothness of the finished pavement. slush rolling should not be used on a highquality base-course material. slush only the rough areas. If necessary. When a section of a strip has been grouted thoroughly. and remove material to the total depth of the lift. The sprinkling causes the screenings to be flushed down into the voids of the aggregate. It should be used only when required by the specifications or when conventional compaction methods have failed. so the jarring effect of the roller will cause them to settle into surface voids. and rolling until no more scrcenings can be forced into the voids. allow it to dry completely before performing additional work. When tested with a la-foot straightedge applied parallel and perpendicular to the centerline of the paved area. or steelwheeled rollers to obtain a smooth finish on the base course. the temperature. Slushing requires a considerable amount of water on the surface. Start sprinkling the surface with water after the screenings have been spread. cured base course. SLUSH ROLLING The purpose of slush rolling (rolling with enough water to produce a slushy surface) is to achieve compaction when conventional methods fail. and gathers in a small wave before each roller. The base surface should be smooth and conform to specified design requirements. Do not apply screenings too thick because they will bridge over the voids and prevent the direct bearing of the roller on the coarse aggregate. vibratory. Applying Water application rate in terms of per square yard in order to allow the water distributor operator to accurately estimate for applying must follow immediately achieve the the roller should carry a wave of water ahead of it as it passcs over the base Rolling Equipment Use pneumatic-tired. Continue rolling until compaction has been obtained. use hand or drag brooms to distribute screenings during rolling. In general. fills all voids. Slush rolling should be permitted only on a free-draining. The quantity varies greatly with the type of material. Roll continuously while screenings are being spread. The surface is then rolled. and the humidity. Correct any deviation in excess of these figures. This delicate operation requires a good operator and a sharp. Finishing There are usually small rivulets or ridges of fines left on the surface after slushing is completed. Slushing brings fines to the top and creates voids. the surface of the base course should not show any deviation in excess of 3/4 inch for roads and airfields (for propeller-type aircraft) or l/8 inch for jet aircraft. or moving trucks. Spread screenings in thin layers by using hand shovels. the fin ished pavement also will not conform. Do not dump them in piles on the coarse aggregate. true blade. replacing with new material and compacting as specified above. If the surface is generally satisfactory but has some large areas’rcquiring slushing. Where these are excessive or when the thickness of the blanket of fines is excessive. Continue spreading. sweeping. Do not saturate and soften the subgrade.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Continue sprinkling and rolling until a mixture of screenings and water forms. Vol 1 aggregates) to fill the voids in the surface. mechanical spreaders. If the finished base does not conform to the specified grade when tested with a 12-foot straigh tedgc. sprinkle the surface with water and hone (dress lightly) with a grader blade.

a job may require a combination of the two. plasticity characteristics. a dclailcd quality control plan should bc developed which addresses testing procedures. frequency. QUALITY CONTROL Quality control is essential to any project’s success. Additional water may be required. by itself. This coarse aggrcgatc can be cvcnly distributed over the arca and incorporated into the surface of the base by a steel-wheeled roller closely following the grader. dense surface is obtained. it is not. Vol 1 WET ROLLING All base courses require a final surface finish. most importantly. This method can also be used for correcting minor surfact irrcgularitics in the base course. in some cases. These tests are described in detail in FM 5-530. and rolling by the steel-whcclcd and pneumatic-tired rollers must be continued until a smooth. For less critical base courses or where dccmcd necessary by the project cnginecr. The final Gnish should bc obtained immediately after Gina1 compaction or proof rolling. and CBR values. control tests will include dctcrminations of gradation. Prior to starting construction. Finishing Finish the surface by having the grader blade lightly cut the final surface. mixing proportions.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. the coar- Subgrades and Base Courses 5-19 . moisture contcnl. Although visual inspection is important. wet rolling and slush rolling may bc used to obtain the final finish. Applying Water ser particles of the base course will be carricd along by the blade to form a windrow at the cdgc of the section being finished. The light blading will loosen the fines. Both methods have strong points and. lift thickness. Depending on the type of base. sufficient to control the construction of all courses described in this chapter. particularly those which contain considerable fine material. remedial actions. field density. location and.

Apply design D15 (filler) Ds5 (protcclcd crilcria soil1 to soil A. Any attempt to lower the quality of construction or to use a sketchy or inadequatc subdrainagc system can result in disastrous failures. Drainage 6-101 . Thus.o=g() Dlo . with soil B under discussionDs5 (filter) hole diameter which 13.09 . Soil A is Ltnsuitable because movement of the subgrade soil through the filter material is possible. For cxamplc. which is not < 5.25 Should be > 1. was installed with the care and skill consistent with its purpose. To make this conversion.0 mm = l/4 x 25. Note that the soil particle size is usually given in millimeters. any attempt to install an claboratc system of undcrground piping whcrc a simple V ditch would serve as well is inadvisable.8 The most efficient and most practical type of subdrainage system is one which adequately performs the operations for which it was intended and. both soils A and B satisfy the requircmen1 that the coefficient of uniformity bc less than 20.0.4 which rcprcscnts the number of millimeters per inch.35= 20 2. the cocfficienl of Llniformily of both D15 (filter) II& (protected soil1 Soil A CU = G Soil B c u Dso Should hc 1 5 to permit water movcmcnt through the filter. -i 19.2 = 24. by 25. ’ Thus. D I 5 (fil tcr) D85 (protcctcd INSTALLATION of OF A SUBDRAINAGE SYSTEM 0. in inches. &.4 0. Conversely. multiply the size of the pipe perforations. in addition. is < 5.0 = 1.6 0. = 23.0 to prevent clogging of the pipe.01 = 30 Ds5 (filter) hole diameter =nso_2. which is < 25. Should bc 5 5 to prcvcn t movemcn t of subgradc soils through the filter. Should be < 5 to prevent movement subgradc soils through the filter. while the hole size is Llsually given in inches.4 l3 =6. The two dimensions must bc cxprcsscd in compatible units bcforc the preceding formula is used.33 which D5o (filter) D50 (protected soil1 Should be 5 25 to prevcn t movcmen t of subgradc soils through lhc filter.FM 5=430=00=l/AFPAM 32-8013.09 = 3. which is > 5.30 0. is > 1. Vol 1 Cheek soils.4 = 13.0. Apply design criteria soil1 to soil B. soil B satisfies all the criteria for a good filter material while soil A dots not.30 0.

These areas may indicate a shallow groundwater table with capillary water movement and may require intercepting subsurface drainage. could increase surface runoff. . l PROTECTIVE MEASURES Controlling runoff during construction can be costly. Streams that should be checked for normal high-water and flood indicators. Compacted fills across such areas could change the movement of the flow... Vol 1 - DRAINAGE Inadequate drainage is the most common cause of road and airfield failure.. designing.: . . Construction-drainage measures used during different phases of construction are discussed below. and building military roads and airfields. Trees adjacent to dry or low-flow streams that could receive their root water from a groundwater table flowing near the surface. . The following measures can help Drainage 6. when a storm begins it is too late to start drainage work. PRELIMINARY RECONNAISSANCE Prior to the start of construction. Springs and seepage on hillsides which may indicate perched or high water tables detrimental to cuts. :.::: . These features includel MEASURES Vegetation or cover that. preliminary reconnaissance of an area should disclose features that require advance drainage plannfng and operations. . The construction drainage system is temporarily established to prevent construction delays and structural failure before completion. FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. drainage is a vital consideration in planning... long delays will result if drainage is not DRAINAGE - continuously emphasized by the command. SECTION I. It is important during both construction and use. :. Generally. if removed during the clearing and grubbing phase of construction. . Construction drainage must be completed before needed.. .::. CONSTRUCTION Commanders and construction supervisors must ensure continuous maintenance of the drainage system during construction of a military road or airfield.:.. Therefore.1 . : : :. The presence of level areas which have good vegetation and adjacent slopes.

FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1

maintain struction:





the following factors tion stripping:

with regard

to construc-


Make maximum use of existing ditches and drainage features. Where possible, grade downhill to allow economical grad ing and to take advantage of natural drainage. Use temporary ditches to help construction drainage. Ensure efforts are made to drain pavement subgrade excavations and base courses to prevent detrimental saturation. Carefully consider the drainage of all construction roads, equipment areas, borrow pits, and waste areas. Be aware of areas where open excavation can lead to excessive erosion. The discharge of turbid water to local streams will require temporary retenlion structures. Hold random excavation and sod or seed finished diately. to a minimum, surfaces imme-

Select a disposal area that will not interfere with or divert the drainage pattern of surface runoff. If the drainage pattern is disturbed, the stripped material may form a barrier resulting in ponding and may otherwise affect adjacent areas. Be aware that removing the vegetation from an area can lead to excessive surface runoff and erosion. This could lead, in turn, to silting of channels and flooding of low areas. Consider that serious bank erosion due to surface runoff may occur if vegetation adjacent to the banks of streams or ditches is removed. To avoid this, it may be necessary to leave the vegetation or to provide a berm with a chute. In large, cleared areas, control runoff sediments to prevent failure of other structures and possible adverse environmental effects. This is more of a contern in permanent construction than in wartime TO construction. Grubbing, and Stripping









Plan timely installation of final stormdrain facilities and backfilling operations to allow maximum use during construction.


The following sidered: Existing constraints should be con-


Clear excess vcgctation from streams. This increases the velocity and quantity of flow. Widening the stream can also increase the flow. Bends and meanders can be cut to straighten the stream. Use care in making major alignment changes because they can change the hydraulic characteristics of the stream. This change could adversely affect other parts of the stream. Vegetation Removal of

Any clearing, grubbing, and stripping must include filling holes and back dragging or grading to a slight slope. This will ensure proper runoff and prevent water from collecting and saturating the subgrade. If filling and grading is not done, the advent of rain will make it necessary to strip off any wet soil until dry soil is reached to start the fill. Some ditching may be required to direct the surface flow to an outlet point. Fill When placing fill, exercise firm control over the project to prevent adverse effects from improper drainage procedures. Some of the factors requiring attention are* The fill section must be rolled smooth at the end of each working day to seal the surface. No areas should be left that can hold standing water.

Military projects may require the removal all vegetation from large areas. Consider



..; :x:.,,::

., :.:: : :.







,, :,j.,:












FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM


Vol 1


The fill surface must be kept free of ruts caused by trucks and other equipment. These depressions collect rain and saturate the subgrade. Also, the surface must be crowned to discharge runoff quickly. When the fill area is large, it may be necessary to create swales (depressed areas) to conduct surface runoff to discharge outlets. To allow fill to proceed, it may be necessary to install temporary culverts in the fill area in places other than final design locations. After the fill area has reached design depth, the design culverts can be properly trenched in place.

consider removing and compacting.

the ditches

by backfilling


Locate interceptor ditches on hillsides and at the foot of slopes to intercept and divert runoff from the construction site. Make these ditches part of the final drainage system wherever possible. Roadside ditches, required during all construction stages, should be placed at design locations. During construction, use deep ditches for subsurface drainage. They intercept groundwater flow, as shown in Figure 6- 1. If groundwater flow must be intercepted but ditching is not possible, modify the ditch into a subsurface drainpipe system. Ditching may be required in swamp areas to either continue drainage ditches to an outlet point or drain the area. Engineers may use explosives in such cases, since the soil may not be capable supporting construction equipment. Draglines should also be considered. of



Use interception ditches during construction to collect and divert surface runoff before building the designed system. Prior to construction, conduct a site investigation of the general layout, consistent with the work plan. When interception ditches cannot be made part of the design drainage,



Figure 6-1. Deep interceptor ditch











. .





.,... .,.. j:..:;.,i,:

Timber or steel mats can be used to provide a firm foundation and support equipment during the operation.

Culverts are required during construction to allow surface runoff. If streams must be diverted to allow the construction of

permanent culverts, use temporary culverts in the construction area. Never close natural drainage channels, even if they are currently dry. If these channels are closed, surface runoff from sudden storms could cause a serious problem. These conditions must be anticipated. Construction drainage must keep pace with the construction project.

The hydrologic cycle is the continuous process which carries water from the ocean to the atmosphere, to the land, and back to the sea. A number of different subcycles can take place concurrently in the overall cycle and are discussed below.

water absorbed depends on the soil type, the vegetation, the terrain slope, and the soil moistness prior to the rain. Stormwater runoff begins to accumulate only when the rate of rainfall exceeds the rate of infiltration.

Rainfall is the moisture-delivery mechanism of primary concern to most military drainage designers. Snowmelt may be of greater concern in colder climates or in the design of reservoirs in milder regions. These concerns are beyond the scope of this manual, but they are included in TM 5-852-7. The amount of rainfall that evaporates depends on the surface temperature of ground features, the air temperature, the wind speed, and the relative humidity. Evaporation occurs while rain is falling to the ground and after it lands on vegetation and other ground cover.

Before overland water flow can begin its downhill motion, it must be deep enough to overcome any obstacles to its movement. Detention is the amount of water required to fill depressions of any size in the earth’s surface. Except by infiltration or evaporation, no water can leave a depression until the holding capacity of the depression has been exceeded.

On a long-term basis, vegetation returns water to the atmosphere through a process called transpiration. Because of the time involved, transpiration has no immediate effect on water runoff in an area.

Rainfall coming to rest on vegetation is said to have been intercepted. Large quantities of water can be trapped in the leaf canopy of trees and plants. Rain does not reach the soil until the holding capacity of the vegetation canopy is exceeded.

Evaporation, interception, infiltration, detention, and transpiration are all moisture losses. Runoff is precipitation minus these moisture losses.

A significant portion of the water that actually strikes the soil soaks into the ground. This process is call infiltration. The rate of absorption and the quantity of

Storms can deliver a large quantity of water to the earth in a short period of time. For




,, :;y. ,.


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W Thunderstorms

that reason, the study of storms is an important part of the study of drainage hydrology. This section discusses storms in terms of duration, frequency, and intensity. 11 describes procedures for determining maximum storms and introduces the subject of runoff.

Duration Duration is the length of time a storm lasts. After many years of observation, hydrologists have determined that a storm of long duration usually has low intensity. In contrast, a high-intensity storm usually has a short duration. Figure 6-2 shows typical storm hydrographs developed by the National Weather Service. Time, usually measured in hours, is depicted horizontally. The amounl of rain for each unit of time is measured vertically in inches. The total amount of precipitation is the area of the graph. The five main types of storms are described below. Thunderstorms
Ibl Moderate storms


Thunderstorms, represented by Figure 6-2(a), are local atmospheric disturbances of short duration and high average rate of rainfall [intensity). They are characterized by thunder, lightning, torrential rain, and sometimes hail. Thunderstorms tend to govern the design of drainage for small areas. Moderate Storms Moderate storms, represented by Figure 6-2(b), cover larger areas for several hours with moderate intensity. These storms




(13 Long-duration storms


Figure 6-2.

Typical storm hyetographs



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.y.yI:il:.;:,> .:..:..: .::,j.~~:,~:..:I:...:... :: . .I.: ...I.. ..:...: .:...

.. ..:::..:

develop greater total precipitation than thunderstorms. The moderate storm normally controls the design of drainage struclures for medium-sized basins.

period is the probability of that value or greater

of having a storm in any one year.



Long-duration storms, represented by Figure 6-2(c), page 6-5, often have several peaks of high rainfall. Durations may be up lo several days, developing very large amounts of precipitation at relatively low average rates of rainfall. With a low average rate of rainfall, such storms have little or no impact on small- or mediumsized drainage basins, but they normally control the design of drainage structures for large basins.

For the two-year-frequency storm, lhe probability of having a storm equalling or exceeding the value in any one year is 0.5 (two out of four times). The design-storm frequency for TO construction is normally two years. If construction with a longer estimated life is desired, the

appropriate design storm should be specified in the authorizing directive.
As with any statistical method of describing essentially random, natural events such as weather, there is a degree of uncertainty. The two-year design storm occurs on the average every two years; it is not guaranteed to occur every two years. Statistically, the probability of a storm equal to or greater than the two-year design storm occurring in any two years is 0.75 (three out of four times). Details of lhc statistics involved can be found in hydrology textbooks.

Monsoons arc seasonal winds of the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. These winds blow from the south during April to October and from the north during the rest of the year. Heavy rains usually characterize the April-to-October season. This rain is not normally continuous; it rises to a peak and then subsides in a cyclic fashion.

If there are extensive rainfall and rain-rate records for the location of interest, and if hydrologists have examined those records statistically to formulate intensity-duration tables, then those tables can be obtained through the Air Force staff weather officer. The staff weather officer is normally located at division level. Within the United States, the data will generally come from the National Weather Service, either directly or through the Air Force. Overseas, the staff weather officer may be able to obtain data from local government sources, but it may take considerable time to obtain. However, it is unlikely that such pinpoint data is available in many overseas TO locations. When weather data is not available, use rainfall isohyctal maps. Isohyetal maps have contours of equal rainfall intensity just as topographic maps have contours of equal elevation. Figure 6-3 is an isohyetal map of the world, in this case showing the iso-intensity lines for a 60-minute, 2-year slorm.

Tropical Cyclones
Hurricanes and typhoons are storms caused by severe cyclonic disturbances over a wide area. Precipitation is normally heavy and long.

Design Life Versus Actual Life of a Structure
The design storm is an idealized storm that is expected to be equalled or exceeded at least once during the design life of a For example, if a draindrainage system. age system has been designed for an estimated life of five years, then the design storm will have a five-year frequency. The frequency of a design storm is the average return period of a storm. For example, if a two-year frequency storm has an intensity of 1.5 inches of rainfall per hour, it can be expected that a storm of that intensity or greater will recur an average of once every two years. Two years is also called the return period. The reciprocal of the return








15 1





I 120

I 100

, 60


I 40

I 20

I 0

I 20

I 40

I 60

1 60

I 100

I 120


1 160

Figure 6-3.

World isohyetal


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.. .,

To properly read a value on the isohyetal map, find the project location and read the value of the appropriate isohyettsl. Do not interpolate. falls* On an isohyetal that isohyet.

If a project


line, read the value of read the larger

Between value.

two isohyets,

To use Figure 6-4, enter the graph using the Duration in Minutes (Tel. Follow the line vertically unlil it intersects the curve whose number corresponds to the 60minute intensity determined from the isohyetal map (or from pinpoint data, if you choose not to draw your own intensity-duration curve). Read horizontally to the left to determine the rainfall intensity (I) in inches per hour. The following is an example:
ISO, 2-y


Within an encircling isohyetal line, read the value of the encircling isohyet. (in inches per hour (in/hrll: 1.0 1.5 2.5 1.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Intensity (in/hr) 1.0 1.5 2.0

Critical Duration (min) 50 30 10


(Whr) 1.2 2.4 5.2


Southern Australia North Dakota Florida Washington, DC Vietnam Cuba New Orleans, Louisiana

Precipitation supplies water to the surface, but evaporation, interception, and infiltration begin to draw water at the start of the Eventually, if the storm is strong storm. enough, vegetation and other surface characteristics, such as depressions and soil, will become saturated, allowing water to flow freely over the surface. This condition is called runoff and is usually measured in cubic feet per second (cfsl. Runoff begins sometime after the beginning of precipitation and may continue long after precipitation ends. The total quantity of runoff from a given area, after it is collected in channels and streams, is the flow estimate used to design an area’s drainage structures. Transpiration and evaporation also draw from the water supplied by precipitation. However, these are relatively small losses and will not usually affect military drainage design. Estimating runoff will be discussed later in this chapter. Once the runoff has been determined, necessary ditches and culverts can be designed.

Note that the intensities just found are for a 60-minute storm. This must now be adjusted to the critical duration of the project under construction. Once the critical duration has been determined, make the adjustment using the standard rainfall intensityduration curves in Figure 6-4. The standard curves are numbered 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0, with intermediate values readily interpolated. Note that curve number 1 passes through 1 inch per hour at 60 minutes, curve number 2 passes through 2 inches per hour at 60 minutes, and so on. Where intensity is known for any nonarctic location (taken from the isohyetal map, Figure 6-3, page 6-71 and critical duration is calculated, the intensity (I) can easily be determined. (The standard intensity-duration curves are applicable to any frequency, not just a 2-year frequency.1



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Instructions: 1. Enter the chart with the area Tc. 2. Follow the vertical line until it intersects the curve line corresponding to I for a 2-year, 60-min storm 3. Read horizontally to the left from the curve line and find the value from the vertical scale.


Curve No. (I, 2-year,









60 Duration









(min) (Tc)







flow may originate from surfact runoff, groundwater, or both. Runoff reaches the stream as overland flow. Groundwater flow results from side-bank seepage and springs. The hydrograph depicts the fluctuations of flow with regard to time. Stream-water

the stream and its tributaries from their banks and the flow from permanent springs and swamps. Depending on the area, climate, and groundwater level, it may flow at a fairly constant rate. Conversely, the flow may fluctuate widely or even cease completely for some periods of time.

The clcmcnts of a hydrograph arc base flow, lag time, peak flow, time of conccntration (TOC), and flow volume. Each stream will have its own characteristic hydrograph with widely varying values for the clcmcnts. A typical stream-flow hydrograph is shown in Figure 6-5, page 6-10.

When precipitation begins over an arca, thcrc is an initial period during which the loss factors induced by interception, iniiltration. and detention take effect before any surface runoff takes place. Stream flow will increase only when these initial losses have been satisfied and surface runoff begins. This is known as initial lag time. The

The base flow of a stream the amount of groundwater


seeps into


of this lag Lime is influenced




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o 0 2 -5









Time (hours)


Typical hydrograph

vcgctation and olhcr terrain characteristics. For cxamplc, a grass-covcrcd parking area will have a longer initial lag period than an asphalt parking lot of the same size. A second lag Lime occurs bctwcen the time the storm rcachcs its peak precipitation rate and the time the stream reaches its maximum flow. The lcnglh of this secondary lag time is influcnccd by the size of the area drained. In small- and modcratcly sized drainage arcas, lhcrc will bc only slight diffcrcnccs brlwccn slorrti peak and slrcam peak.

the hydrograph peaks at that point. TOC is critical to the drainage cngincer, since it dctcrmincs the duration of the storm that will demand the most from the drainage system; that is, the storm’s critical duration.

The area under the curve of the indicates the total flow, in cubic ing front any particular storm. drainage design for dctcrrnining lirncs when it is practical to use with submcrgcd inlets. hydrograph feet, resultIt is used in ponding culverts

The peak of Ihc hydrograph is the maximum strcarn flow that will occur during a particular storm. In gcncral, peak flow is generated when the entire drained arca is discharging its runoff. Peak flow is read directly from the maximum ordinate of the hydrograph. This flow determines the size of the drainage structures required at the basin outlet.



A hydrograph is constructed by measuring a stream’s rise and fall and the times related to thcsc changes in flow. When constructing a hydrographThe base flow must be measured at a time when there have been no recent storms. A field reconnaissance must be made for this measurement. The peak flow can bc estimated using the hasty runoff estimation presented lhis chapter. The general shape of the curve of the hydrograph will be similar to that shown in Figure 6-5. in

TIME OF CONCENTRATION ‘I’hc TOC is the lime it takes
drainage basin to the stream. for an cntirc to begin contribtlting runoff Assuming uniform rainfall,

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Before designing a drainage system, survey the various types and sources of drainagerelated information. The survey should include, as a minimum, information concerning the area’s topography, meteorological records, soil characteristics, and available construction resources.

area or to divert it away from the work site.



Gather information on general climatic conditions, seasonal variations in rainstorms, and intensity and duration of representative storms. This data can then be applied to the location of the proposed facility.



Give special attention to the vicinity of the proposed facility as well as the presence of any topographical features that may contribute runoff to the project area. The completed facility often will interfere with the site’s natural drainage. Therefore, when analyzing the effects of the surrounding terrainl

Obtain soil data from soil and geological maps, aerial photographs, or site tests performed by soil analysts. Soil data deals with the horizontal and vertical extent of soil types, the elevation of the groundwater table, and the drainage characteristics of the soil. The most important drainage characteristic of a soil is its permeability. Permeability limits the rate at which the rainfall infiltrates the ground, which greatly influences the presence and movement of subsurface water.

Identify all areas to the site.

that contribute



Determine the general size and shape of these contributing areas. Determine the natural direction of surface-water flow, the slope of the land, and the type and extent of natural ground cover. Locate natural channels that can be used to move runoff within the project





Make an initial investigation of the time, materials, equipment, and labor available to build a drainage system. Without a sufficient quantity of these essentials, the construction of an adequate system is impossible.

Designing a drainage system involves numerous assumptions and estimates. The degree of protection to be provided is directly related to the importance of the established time-use period. The general location of the facility will be determined by its functional requirements. The drainage system must be planned and designed for the predetermined location of the facility. There are three basic procedures ture:

in the design Determining contributing Estimating

of any drainage


the area (usually in acres1 runoff to the facility. the quantity of runoff.



Designing the drainage structure to carry the maximum expected runoff.


6- 1I

Next. For example. Vol 1 DETERMINING THE AREA CONTRIBUTING RUNOFF When developing a tentative layout for the drainage system. Note that at Point A the elevation is 65 feet. This is best done from a topographic map of lhe area or a sketch of the project site. will be controlled by the topography. Typical airfield drainage features 6.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. dcterminc the acreage of the areas that contribute runoff to these required drainage structures. this tentative plan should be field checked at the project site. a fill section which crosses a valley will require one or more culverts to permit the flow of storm runoff down the valley. Culverts and ditches must bc laid to carry water from high to low clcvations. identify all locations within the site requiring drainage structurcs because of topographical or manufactured features. Placement. while at Point B the elevation is 55 feet. An analysis of existing channels is helpful in establishing locations for the required structures. Establishing Drainage-Structure Locations The initial step in developing a drainagestructure layout is to establish the location of the required drainage structures. Figure 6-6 shows an airfield with required culverts (X) and open channels or ditches (VI.12 Drainage . A depression or enclosed area will require ditches or culverts at various points to rcmovc accumulated rainfall. The alignment of thcsc culverts and ditches Figure 6-6. Upon completion. in general.

Locate all existing or proposed drainage struclurcs on lhc topographic or sketch (X and VI.73 . Step 5.) _ drawing the arrows until step 4. This process is known as delineation.FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. Not shown on this sketch are the standard ditches constructed along the sides of all military roads and airfields. (These arrows must always be perpendicular to the contour lines bccausc water flows downhill. (These lines will run from high point to high point. airfields. as illustrated in Figure 6-8. Delineation of roads and airfiejbs ‘- Figures 6-7 and 6-8 depict the USC of flow arrows and’ delineation lines for special. When airfields or straight roadways are properly constructed. Sharp bends in ditches or near culverts will cause erosion. Identify and mark all terrain map 4 4 view high Step 3. poin Is. Cross section A-A ” Delineation of superelevated roads Drainage 6. the delineation will be at the centerline. Draw delineation lines. they are shaped so that the highest portion of the cross section (the crown) is at the ten terline.) Figure 6-7. Continue they converge upon the culvert or the end Remember that runoff will of the dilch. define the boundaries of the areas (or watersheds) contributing runoff Lo each of them. Step 2. manufactured structures such as roads. precisely Figure 6-8.) Delineation lines are located so they cannot be crossed by any flow arrows. flow parallel to a road or airfield when it is intcrccpled by side (or intcrceplor) ditches. Flow arrows only cross dclincation lines at culverts or ditches. Draw arrows representing water flow away from these high points. indicating where the flow of surface runoff scparatcs. Delineation is performed in six simple slcps (rcfcr to Figure 6-6): Step 1. Vol li v should bc as straight and smooth as possible. Delineating Watersheds Delineation line \ 4 Afler initially locating drainage structures. and superclcvated roads. (See Figure 6-7. In the plan view. NOTE: Delineation lines are drawn between opposing arrows.

page 6. Vol 1 where the accumulated storm water would scparatc and flow in opposing directions. ridges. page 6-13.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. supcrelevatcd road. valleys. shows how superelevated roadways (roadways that are banked to east the flow of traffic through a curve) arc delineated. In a properly constructed.16. and saddles. as shown in Figures 6-9 and 6. Delineation line Figure 6-9. storm water will always the curve. Figure 6-8. including hills. separate at the outside edge of Several examples are provided to aid in visualizing special terrain features.74 Drainage . Delineation of a hill 6.10 and Figure 6-l 1.








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Step 6. have an multiple cover or

Since each cover or soil type will effect on the basin, if there are types of cover in the basin, each soil type must be delineated and

measured according to its respective type. (See Figure 6- 12, page 6- 17.1





Delineation line




of valleys

and draws


6- 15

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1, : : :;’ .:

Ridge line



_FP _---


6-l 1. Delineation

of ridges, spurs, and saddles

6- 16


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Compacted 0.9 acres


GMd with turf
47.9 acres

Figure Determining Drainage-System


Area delineation

by cover or


After dclincating lhc watcrshcd, determine its size in acres. Make this mcasurcmcn t carefully, since tlic size directly influcnccs the calculation of runoff from lhc watcrshcd at peak flow. USC any accurate method of mcasuremcnt dcsircd. A planimctcr. which mcasurcs the arca of a plant figure as a mechanically coupled pointer traverses the figure’s pcrimctcr, is quite accurate and should be used, if available. However,

scvcral other


arc suitable

for field

method. To make a hasty approximation of an arca, transpose the outline of lhc watershed to graph paper (or Count the number of other suitable grid). whole squares and cstimatc the values of the partial squares. Multiply the total numbcr of counted squares by the number of counted square feet reprcscntcd by a single square. Then convert the mcasuremcnt in square feet to acres (1 acre = 43,560 square feet). Figure 6- 13, page 6- 18, shows this technique.



6-7 7

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Colculstions: Approximate Approximate Approximate Example: If one squ6ro represents 10,ooO actual sq tt on the ground. then the delineated sres represents: number of large squares = 5 = 5 sq in number of small squares = 564 = 5.64 sq in area = 10.64 sq in







Area measurement

- counting-squares


6- 18


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Geometric-shapes method. This method involves estimating the watershed shape in terms of rectangles, triangles, or trapezoids. Using the formulas below for determining the areas of these geometric shapes, determine the area of each shape and then total all areas to estimate the area of the watershed. This technique is shown in Figure 6- 14, page 6-20. Rectangle: Arca = base x height Triangle: Area = base x height Trapezoid : Area = sum of bases or A = bh or A = bh x height

Solu lion: Step 1. 12.5 x 1 in = 12.5 in2 ft/in12 = 382.812.5 feet (ft12 = 8.78 acres

Step 2. 12.5 in2 x (175 Step 3. 382,s 12.5 ft2 43.560 ftLlacre




Drainage systems must bc designed lo accommodate the peak flow generated by runoff from contributing watersheds during the design storm. Many tcchniqucs are available for dctcrmining the peak flow, but most arc too complex for gcncral field use. This manual will demonstrate the most common method for estimating runoff-the rational method.

Stripper method. The stripper method is a variation of lhe geometric-shapes method. This method Is shown in Figure 6- 15, page 6-2 1. Approximate the area by drawing a series of lines that are equidistant (stripper width) across the delineated area. Then measure the lines and total all of them. L = total of the lengths. This method is more applicable for field estimations. Use a stripper width of 1 inch.

To accommodate the peak flow of the design storm, design structures must provide a sufficient cross-sectional arca and longitudinal slope for passing storm runoff. If ponding or flooding of adjacent arcas must be prevented, the design must be for peak flow. At the same time, water velocities generated at peak flow must not be so great as to cause damage to the drainage structure or excessive erosion and scouring to the protcctcd facility. Determine Lhc capacity of drainage structurcs by calculating the runoff from all contributing drainage areas. Specific procc. durcs for designing open channels and culvcrts are discussed later in the chapter.

The total of the lengths (L) is then multiplied by the stripper width. This would represent the total area on the map in square inches. Since the value of 1 square inch on the map would represent the map scale squared on land, the acreage can be found by mulliplying L (in inches) x stripper width (in inches) x (map scale in feet per inch (ft/in)J2 and dividing Ihc product by 43,560 ft2 /acre. Example: L = 12.5. map scale width = 1 inch (in) = 175 It/in. stripper


6- 19



Vol 1

Calculations: Area I1 = Area LIZ = Area 13 = Area 114= Area 116= Area #6 = Area 117 q Total area Example

trapezoid = H (3.90 + 3.10) 1 .S4 = 6.79 q in triongls = H (O.S)(O.93) = 0.23 q in trapezoid = H (0.5 l 0.34) 1.36 = 0.67 q in rectangle = 0.30 a 1 .S6 = 0.47 q in trapezoid = H (1.43 + 0.76) 0.86 = 0.93 q in trapezoid = H (2.37 l 1.66) 0.41 = 0.82 q in trapezoid = H (1.66 4 0.94) 050 = 0.89 q in = 10.6 q in

If one quaro represents 10,000 actual sa ft on the ground, then tno des~nated woa rapresents: 10.6 x io,OoO = 2.41 acres 43,660





- geometric-shapes




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2 1.0

+ 5.3 + 5.3 + 3.1 + 3.6 + 3.8 + 2.4 = 24.5 in lengths = 24.5 in

Map scale:

1 in = 285 ft

Step 1. 24.5 In x 1 in = 24.5 in2 Step 2. Step 3. 24.5 in2 x (285 ft/ln)2 = 1,990,012.5 ft2

43,560 ft’lacre







6- 15. Area


- stripper




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:.:..:.. j,::::. .:.i~i':~_~:~:.~,:.i,:,~~,i~:~~~::~:.i :. .:,:.:j ,...:':. ;,:j.: i..:.~~::::::j::::~


This is so close to unity that no correction factor is added; hence, the name rational (because a rational conversion of units) is used.


The rational method is used to estimate the expected peak storm runoff at a given drainage basin outlet. Much of the input to the formula is based on judgment. Therefore, it Is imperative that sound engineering judgment be used to determine the input data.

The rational formula has three variables. The C and I variables are explained here. The A variable is explained later in this chapter.
The C Variable

The rational method is based on the following underlying assumptions and limitations:

The area is not greater than 1,000 acres and is regular in shape, with a homogeneous cover and soil type. The entire drainage area is contributing runoff to the outlet point when peak runoff Is obtained. The design rainfall intensity is uniform over the entire drainage area (that is, the rainfall is uniform over time and space). There are no active streams draining the area. (If an active stream drains the basin, use the hasty method found in FM 5-34.)


The runoff coefficient, or C variable, accounts for losses from precipitation. The C variable is the decimal fraction of the amount of water expected to run off relative to the amount of precipitation. It can be expressed as the ratioc=




The rational mula: method uses the following for-

Table 6- 1 gives conservative values of C. Knowledge of an area’s USCS classification (for example, GMdl or an estimate of the soil’s perviousness allows selection of a C value. C values appear in the table for manufactured surfaces and for wooded areas as well. An area of SP soil (a pervious, sandy soil with a slope less than or equal to 2 percent) with turf has a C factor of 0.10; that is, only 10 percent of the rain falling on this soil will actually run off.
Table 6- 1. Runoff coefficients


Soil or Cover Classification

whereQ c I A = peak runoff in cfs = runoff coefficient = intensity of rainfall = drainage

Stope 22 &t7% slope 27% WI0 WI0 w/tuli turf w/turf turf

in in/hr area in acres factor is applied to

The following conversion this formula:

1 acre x 1 inch = 1 0063 1 hour




,.. ,..., ..:...j. ...:, :::.





. : ::i: ., : ,. .. :, .,

., ..,. ,.. ,. ., ., .,,., ., ,..,..,..,.
:.:. ::.:.:..::.Y’..‘.:. .,..., ,...,. ., .,.. ,. .: . ..i... i?. i?. i..........:. ., ,.,., ,., ,., ,. .,.,.,.,.,.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ...i ,.,. .,.,.,., ,...::.:.:.:.,


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The remaining 90 percent becomes lost to runoff through inftltration and other factors. At the other extreme, an asphalt pavement has a C value of 0.95. Only 5 percent of the rain falling on asphalt will be lost. The remaining 95 percent is expected to become runoff. NOTE: C values given in Table 6-l are actually maximums of ranges of allowable values for the cover or soil categories. Using the maximum value, a conservative “worst-case” design runoff is calculated. To use values less than the maximums given in the table, refer to a reliable civil engineering texi dealing with hydrology. The table is arranged with three columns for varying slope conditions. C Versus Slope As terrain becomes steeper, water flows sooner and more rapidly. This allows less time for infiltration to occur and results in the C value becoming larger for the natural cover or soil categories. For this reason, whenever the average slope of an area exceeds 2 percent, an adjustment must be made. Table 6-1 is arranged with three columns for different slope conditions and their corresponding runoff coefficients. Use the column that corresponds with the average percentage of slope. The C for a turfed soil is different from the C for bare soil. The turf (grass or other ground cover) exerts a drag on water, causing slower flow and providing more time for infiltration to occur: hence, a lower C results. Denuded soil (soil from which the turf or cover has been removed) requires an increased C because a swifter flow will result and less time will be available for losses to occur. If one cover type has more than one flow path, average the slopes and use the appropriate column in Table 6- 1. Example: Flow path 1A = 2.3 percent 1B = 1.9 percent. and flow path

Solution : 2.3% + 1.9% = 2 1 % 2 C for Nonhomogeneous Areas One of the assumptions made by the rational method is that there is a homogeneous cover and soil type throughout the area. Quite often this is not the case, especially In areas where humans have exerted their influence on the topography. If one type of cover and soil predominates in 80 percent or more of the area, the area is called simple and the C value for that predominant soil and cover type controls. If no one type of cover and soil type predominates in 80 percent or more of the total area, the area is comp2ex and the C value must be weighted: that is, the C value has to be adjusted to account for the proportion of C contributed by each subarea. To help understand this, imagine a complex area with one subarea of average turf and the other of bare soil. The slope of the bare soil does not affect how fast (or slow) the water runs off the turfed area and, as a result, how much of the water soaks into the turfed area. The converse is also true. The slope of the turfed area does not affect the speed or amount of water that runs off the bare soil area. Table 6-l shows C values with and without turf. Weight the C value by multiplying the corrected C values by the area (in acres) that the C values affect. Then total the products and divide by the total acreage. Expressed mathematically, the formula isCIA] + Cd2
c = Al

+ c3A3 t t

t . ..CNA.‘q


whereCIAI = C value and area for first subarea C value and area for second subc2A2= area



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The I Variable

As cxplaincd previously in this chapter. rainfall intcnsilics can bc dctcrlnincd from pinpoint source data or isohyctal maps. The former method provides more accurate rcsulls if reliable data is available. The task of calculating the critical duration for any given drainage area is detailed here.
Time of Concentration

Under the assumptions listed at the beginning of lhis scclion and with the intensitytluration relationships presented earlier, only one particular storm will give a maximum discharge (8) for a given area. This parlicular storm is the one that rains over the entire area being drained for a period of time just long enough to fill the outlel with runoff from all segments of the area at the same time. This time is called the area TOC. A storm of shorter duration than this TOC would not last long enough for the runoff from the more distant segments of the arca to reach the outlet. The outlet would be filled only with the runoff from nearby scgmcnts. Thcrcforc, runoff would not bc maximum. In Figure 6- 16, all of the area below the 1Ominute line will drain in 10 minutes or Icss. Runoff from the area between the loand 20-minute lines will reach the outlet in not less than 10 minutes but will have drained in not more than 20 minutes. Similarly, the runoff from the area between the 20- and 30-minute lines will reach the outlet in not less than 20 minutes nor more than 30 minutes. At the end of 30 minulcs, the entire area is draining. Therefort. the TOC at the outlet for this area is 30 minutes. If a storrn of 20-minute duration sweeps over the area in a uniform fashion, only a fraction of the total area inside the 20minulc boundary simultaneously contributes runoff to the outlet at the end of the slorm. All runoff from the upper third of the arca reaches the outlet after the rainfall has ceased and after much of the lower acreage has finished contributing runoff.

storm sweeps over Lhc same arca in a uniform fashion, the entire arca contributes runoff to the outlet in the 30-minute time frame (the TOC mentioncd above). If a storm with a duration longer than the TOC occurs, the drainage designer can easily picture (using the standard intcnsityduration curve) that the intensity, I, will be less than the I of the 30-minute storm. Examination of the rational-method equation, Q = CIA, reveals that since C and A would not change as I decreases, Q must decrease as well. The critical-storm duration which yields the design Q must then be equal to the contributing area’s TOC.
Determining TOC

If a 30-minute-duration

Determine the area TOC by determining representative flow paths. A flow path is the path that a typical drop of water ~111 follow from the time it hits the ground until it reaches the area outlet. The flow path is called rcprescntativc, because not all drainage arcas are as regular in shape as the arca in Figure 6- 16. The path selected must be represenlativc of the time at which most of the area will be contributing water to the outlet point. Establishing representative flow paths is based largely on experience and judgment (trial and error).

Figure 6- 16.

TOC, regular area



..:~:..:.: .... page 6-9..:.. Flow paths must be chosen that represent the time required for most of the area to drain...... make a careful check to determine why...:~.. the faster the water runs.. in this example let C arbitrarily equal 1.. .: .....:. “..... ....... ....Ol(2..:::. ... Flow in a ditch is more rapid than overland flow over turfed..:.. :.: .. Slope affects the velocity of the water in that the steeper the slope.and 20-minute lines will drain in not less than 10 minutes nor more than 20 minutes and so forth up to the 40-minute line....... 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013... .. :....: .?.... bare. Apply rainfall adjusted to this critical duration over the entire watershed................:.....:.. 90 percent of the area (90 acres) wffl be contributing water to the outlet and the volume will beQ = CIA Q = (1...... ...... The area between the lo. :z::a::: :...:::..y.... At the end of 30 minutes........ ..0 and assume that the l-hour....:: ..::::::.:: :. Line b is not representative.:...........:. Flow is slower over bare soil than over pavement but faster than grass. The design runoff from the watershed in Figure 617 would beQ = CIA Q = (l. therefore.‘........):j ::: ?:...... If a 40-minute-duration storm occurs.. the estimated runoff isQ = CIA Q = (l..:.: ... in 40 mlnutes the entire area will be wet and contributing water to the outlet point......._...::::-::.. To do this.FM .. .: .. :. and c have been determined... In irregular areas.:. ..y.... the area in Figure 6..: .‘...0 inches per hour........“‘...... .:::.16.. ...:..::::::::::..:..:. it is especially critical that the flow paths chosen truly represent the time required for most of the area to drain.. . . Water from the remaining 10 acres will reach the outlet in not less than 30 minutes nor more than 40 minutes.. .:... determine (through observation) the nature of the surface cover and the slope of the flow path....2 in/hr)(90 acres) = 288 cfs which is larger than the 270 cfs estimated for the entire area.Ol(3.. ...: :..):....I. :::‘:... . or compacted gravel surfaces.. .............: ::.::..:. .......... :::::y...:. All the area below the lo-minute line will drain in 10 minutes or less.‘.....:. ... If times are not relatively close.. ....:...::.....:...7 in/hr)(lOO acres) = 270 cfs A storm of 30-minute duration will have an intensity of 3..:..(. Flow lines a and c should be chosen as the representative flow paths and used to determine the TOC because they are indicative of the time it will take for most of the water from the area to reach the outlet.... Vol 1 u Unlike the area depicted in Figure 6.: ::: .2 in/hr)(lOO acres) = 320 cfs After representative flow paths have been established. Flow lines a........ estimate the time it will take for water to reach the outlet if it travels along the established path... 90 percent of the total area (90 acres) lies below the 30-minute line and will drain in 30 minutes or less. Water will also travel faster across a paved area than across a grassy area of the same slope because grass slows the flow.. . shows that the I for a 40-minute storm is 2.. ....... .0)(3.... ... TOC.......7 inches per hour. The standard intensity-duration curve in Figure 6-4.. . After all the chosen paths have been timed. .:... irregular area Drainage 6-25 .. ...........:~:~:~:~~~ ..::z ::... > ....:....: :.17 is irregular as most natural areas will be...I :. :....~.... As shown above.:...:.. .2 inches per hour. a shorter storm of higher intensity may cause a larger flow...... .:.......:. ... .. ..: . the times should correspond to each other within a few minutes. ..........:.... For simplicity.. b. and assess the area to determine which of the times wffl produce the critical flow.- Figure 6-l 7...... 2year intensity is 2..:.

min It Is valid to interpolate between percent slope curves. I Notice that there is a series of curves. In the curvilinear portion. This represents the fact that water Average turf Sparse turf Bare soil Compacl :ed gravel Paved areas 20 NOTE: 30 40 Time of concentration .Estimating Flow Time for Single Covers After establishing the location. each with linear and curvilinear portions. Flow travel time 6-26 Drainage .18 can be used to estimate the travel time along the flow path. The slope of the curve indicates the velocity at a given point along the flow path. the cover. Figure 6. and the slope of a flow path. the slope is initially zero and gradually steepens until it becomes linear. Figure 6-16. It is important to understand what the illustration is depicting as well as how to use it properly.

use Figure 6.7 NOTE: 182 250 fps. Using the slope of the flow path. To calculate the velocity. Read the travel time. It is valid to interpolate b’ctwcen labclcd lines.18. divide the length of the path by the velocity obtained from the chart.135 feet per minute flow velocity Ifpml Table 6-2. Follow the curve up or down until you reach the intersection of the horizontal line equaling the flow-path length. that situation.18 that the slope and “slickness” of the flow path dictate how quickly the lransition occurs from slow-moving laminar flow lo rapid. lhe turbulent-flowing water reaches some steady-state velocity. To estimate the travel time in sheet-flow conditions.015 fl Slope . It is apparent from Figure 6. 250 Steady state will be at Drainage . Estimating 1.5 2. then read the right-hand column under velocity. which is determined on the left-hand vertical edge. At some point.9% Chart vclocily .Ditch Lenglh . which is found by drawing a line vertically from the intersection to the lowermost axis. Proceed horizontally to the left until reaching the curve labeled with the slope of the path. enter the chart. It is initially slow flowing in a laminar or sheet-flow manner and gradually becomes turbulent (and faster) as it progresses downhill. fully dcvcloped turbulent flow.0 1. Some examples of the use of this graph are as follows: Path Cover Length Slope W) 3.1. To cstimatc the travel time in ditch-flow conditions.0.FM 514301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. but never extrapolate above or below the limitUse the limiting curve in ing-curve values.5 (fi) 1 2 3 Sparse turf Paved area Average turf Travel Time (min) 19 8 26 800 500 600 Note that il was necessary to intcrpolatc to find the travel time for palh 3. use Table 6-2. Example: Path 1B Cover . Enter the right-hand vertical edge at the appropriate cover type of the flow path. Vol II initially moves very slowly and begins to pick up speed only as its accumulated depth increases.

Remember that the flow cntcring at the upstream end of path 2 is al ready moving. for a 500-foot. Estimating travel time accurately then becomes more complicated because it is not appropriate simply to add times obtained from Figure 6-18. 6-28 Drainage . Enter the table using the slope of the flow path. The travel time remains 19 minutes. If the times arc not within a few minutes of each other. nothing has changed from before. The A Variable The drainage area. paved path at 1. Example: Assume that paths 1 and 2 from the preceding example were actually the upper and lower lengths of one combined flow path. The steps are summarized in the proper order. divide the length of the path by the estimatcd velocity listed in Table 6-2. no matter how many cover types are traversed. Selecting Design TOC The usual procedure is to establish several trial flow paths that are thought to be representative of the area and determine a travel time for each path. Vol 1 Solution : = 7. This procedure was presented earlier in this chapter. (the area contributing storm-water runoff to the culvert or ditch being designed) must be calculated in acres. Laminar flow occurs only once along a flow path. to estimate the travel time through a culvert. By knowing the flow-path length and the table velocity. If this summary is followed step-by-step. although more precise determinations can be made with information presented later in this chapter.) travel The rational method of estimating single arcas is reasonably simple and straightforward.FM 5430-OOWAFPAM 32-8013. the travel can be calculated. For subsequent covers. use Table 6-2. A. page 6-27. To estimate Cravcl time in a ditch. In this cast. The largest representative time is chosen as the design TOC. Single Areas (Note that path 2 had time when considered an 8-minute alone. page 6-26.0 min APPLYING THE RATIONAL METHOD Application of the rational method of cstimating drainage varies according to the type of drainage arca.5 Flow minutes Time (min) Covers 1. at times. it becomes necessary to estimate flow velocity using Table 6-2. a flow path traverses more than one cover type. One type is a single. independent area which does not receive any drainage from an upstream arca. make a complete analysis of the area. Another type is a dependent or successive area that rcccivcs runoff from another area. select the longest time as the arca TOC.5 pcrccn tTravel time = 500 it ( 165 fpm) = 3. Then read right to the velocity column and find the velocity in feet per minulc.0 min = 22 min for Multiple In many cases. Estimate the travel time of path 1. first cslimate each separately in the order the water would flow through them. if it is done methodically. Estimate the travel time of path 2. Solution : It may be helpful. To estimate their combined travel time. To estimate travel time. A reasonable assumption of culvert velocity is 5 feet per second (fps) (300 fpm). Since path 1 is uphill from path 2. New flow paths may be needed to determine which of the times is representative of the bulk of the area draining. If the times arc within a few minutes of each other.015 135 fpm Estimating Add partial travel time: Travel time travel times to get the total = 19 min t 3. Compare the time for water to travel along each of the flow paths chosen.

As a rule of thumb. >... .>:.. : : j ::. Estimate the amount of runoff expected to arrive at the culvert in Figure 6-19..:: >...17. (Given for this example. Determine acreage for each basin Refer to page 6. Example: 12. ~:::::.. .::‘j :. :. overland flow concentrates into natural rivulets or channels after roughly 500 feet of travel.A.. It is always best to visually investigate on-site to look for evidence of channeling..:: : : : :. Notice that the columns are arranged with respect to slope and cover type.. ClAl t C2A2 t c3. Adjust I based on the TGC 10).:. .:. .. vegetation. Delineate example. Find I for a a-year. clues to determine when overland flow (sheet flow) ends and ditch flow begins must come from topographic information alone. using Figure 6-4. if the area is complex.:. Generally. . Step 4.: .:...:. Delineate the subareas by soil or cover type. .. :.43 A. Vol 1 .: .. making sure that you pick the right C-value column. A simple watershed has one cover or soil type over 80 percent of its total area.13. This convergence may take place in a valley where multiple paths meet. and subarea. Step 2....:.CNAN Step 3.. ::.::..>< FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. Refer to the information on pages 6-24 and 6-25. . Step 5..: : j .. 60-minute storm on the world isohyetal map (Figure 6-3. Determine the slope of each section of flow path.: .. by soil or cover Step 8.:::. page 6-27. Determine the average slope of the basin or each subarea based on flow paths.. Step 12. . and slope.. Determine the travel time for each flow path and select the longest flow path as the basin TGC.. since in this problem it is not possible to visually investigate the drainage area...: . . quantities....:~ . ::. Step 11.. Step 1. . and calculations will be “given” to illustrate the process. Step 10. page 6-30.. See page 6-25..i:l::.. Calculate Q using C from step and A from step 3 as follows: Q&IA.:. Refer to page 6-15... use 500 feet plus or minus 200 feet as a point where laminar flow will change to ditch or steady-state flow.. Delineating Watersheds.. and take measurements accordingly...: :. .. and the NOTE: A number of steps.::. Refer to sheet flow on page 6-27 and ditch flow in Table 6-2. : ..+ A3+ t . Step 9.) Drainage 6-29 . . Some of these clues may be the beginning of uphill swales or flow paths that converge in a swale.:...:. Determine representative flow paths. :j:j.. This distance may vary up to several hundred feet either way.::::. Delineate subareas type. Define the slope as being either 12%. depending upon such factors as soil type. page 6-9. ::. . or 2 7%... . ..:: . page 6-7). Classify the drainage basin as simple or complex.. Select C from the appropriate column in Table 6-2.... (step . . Delineate the area to determine the area contributing runoff to your project location.. Divide flow paths into two sections: laminar and ditch flow.: . C wtcl = . page 6-22.::y::::... (Given for this Step 2.- Step 13.. Germany.:. Solution: Step 1. Refer to page 6. Find the C value of the basin or each subarea based on soil or cover type and slope from Table 6-1.i: . The location is Giessen.) the area.- the procedure will be correct and the estimate obtained will be as valid as the judgments that are made. However. . Calculate Cwtd. .: .::.....::. .:.:. . Step 7..: :..I:l:::::. .. Step 6. .‘. > 2% and c 7%. t A. design life is two years.: :. A complex watershed has no single cover or soil type covering at least 80 percent of its total area..

..: .8 acres is Step 4.98 or 98% 6-30 Drainage .. Figure 6-19. Determine the acreage for each basin or subarea.'.9 acres 0.~:i_i.:~~~:.~i:.:. Delineating runoff area Step 3. : ::: ..8 acres.. :: :::. Classify the drainage basin as Divide the largest soil simple or complex..9 acre 48.FM 5-430-00-l/AFPAM 32-8013. x = 0. The following acreage given for lhis example: Average turf GMd Compacted gravel Total acreage (A) 47. . or cover group (lhe GMd soil) with turf subarca equaling 47.9 acres by the total area... ..::i:/ :..:: <F.'::j. 48..:. j/o11 .

FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. the number of slope measurements taken on the western slope should be balanced by twice that number taken from the east.: .52. In order to do this.265 ft 96ft .. use representative flow paths.:. If the northsouth running swale is imagined as the dividing line.1 ft .:..:‘:. To determine an average slope. this area will be treated as a simple area consisting of 48..:. .. showing three slope measurements.:. It is necessary to determine the average slope of the entire simple area shown in Figure 6. .8 acres of turfed GMd soil. NOTE: The selection of representative flow paths is a judgment call based on the best evaluation of the topographic features..5 ft = 2. Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 I 2. . ... Figure 6-20 reflects this guideline....5 ft 95..3% slope average 640 ft + 1.52... Determine the representative flow paths. : .. Vol 1 -- Since the percentage is greater than 80.:’ .::.! . Determining average slope Drainage 6-3 7 .6% slope average 575 ft + 650 ft Figure 6-20.52. .. Step 5. : .015 ft + 575 ft 95.: . two on the east and one on the west.: .1 ft .7% slope average 1.:. .19.. approximately one-third of the watershed area lies to the west (left) and two-thirds to the east (right).5 ft = 3.

g6 ft . we can see they are relatively flat. if properly selected. Determine the travel time of each flow path and select the longest flow-path travel time as the basin TOC.1 balance in finding slopes in this basin and to delete redundant information. to determine the slope for path 1 AS = The slope of the original path 3 is unchanged. 2. By looking at the contour lines near path 3. Both of these possibilities are likely to be true.3 (215 fpm) 3.9 (135 fpm) 5. Divide flow paths into two sections: sheet and ditch flow.0.2 percent and 0.4 3A 38 Average turf Ditch section 650 2. leaving only the original path IA (with S = 5.5 Iftj 575 to deterTime tmln) 14.8 percent is not 2.5 19. For instance. remaining at 3. Other slope lfnes may be selected for practice and to gain confidence in using this procedure. The representative flow paths selected in an earlier step. Determine the slope of each flow path. However.6% = 3. Step 7. A good estimate would be at 575 feet. Vol 1 Step 6. Since we know that the average slope is 3. Step 10.g3% Step 9.62 ft = 0 575 ft 059 or 5. See section A of Figure 6-20. Remember to maintain the 2-to.0 9. 26.9 640 1. Normally.9 percent) as the new path 1. is not excessively large. (The average of 5.285 0. the average slope of the simple area is5.93 percent. With the three flow paths now determined.8 (130 fpm) 26. either. page 6-31. The earlier path 1B has been deleted.2 7. and 19.5 Slope (%I 5. Generally.3 percent. Times for paths 1B and 2B were obtained by dividing their flow lengths by approximate velocities obtained from Table 6-2. and no clear point can be seen where the flow changes. Path 1 changes to ditch flow in the valley where it slopes down. The reason for deleting 1B is that it provides the same information already provided by the new path 2. The same is true for path 2. all work would be performed on one consolidated map. overland flow concentrates into natural ditches after 500 feet. The variation between the smallest and largest time.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Perhaps path 1 is not representative and some ditch flow occurs along path 3 that could not be determined from the topographic information available. without an actual field investigation to justify revising either path 1 or 3. Step 8.9% + 2. can provide very good slope information with a minimum of effort. page 6-27.3 percent.35. The slope must be measured over a path that water would actually follow as it flows downhill. although not small. Path 2B could have been deleted instead of path 1B with no change to the final result. accept the travel times already determined and select the largest as the basin TOC.02 minutes. The travel times for each of the complete flow paths (22.4.02 6-32 Drainage . Using the column marked slope >2% and <7% with turf. page 6-26.9% * This procedure is repeated for every flow path illustrated in Figure 6-20. A tabular solution is recommended mine TOC.0 16. with an average slope of 2. Find the C value of the basin or subarea based on soil or cover type and slope from Table 6. respectively) are obtained from Figure 6-18. Determine the average slope of the basin or subarea based on flow paths.015 0.) Redetermine the overall slope (as done earlier). Thus. Paths 2A and 2B are now one single path.1.02 575 5. Length Path 1A 1B Cover Average turf Ditch section 2A 2B Average turf Ditch section 1.9 22. Flow occurs across a wide area. page 6-22.“3” t 3. we have a C value of 0.6 percent.0 16. we can use Table 6-1. TOC = 26.4 minutes.

The areas receiving this runoff are called dependent areas. independent areas. All the variables have been determined solve the equation Q = CIA. independent areas. as follows: c 1 A Q Q = = = = = 0. discharge downstream are called Iadj = 126.. ing Q = CIA. 160mln. thus- Up to this point. A C Drainage 6-33 ..2 inches per hour.8 acres 0. 2 yr = 4.35 4.5 inches per hour) and sliding along until the 26.4-minute imaginary vertical line is intersected. steps 1. of (J is the final solution If area 5 had been a complex area. to make the adjustment.35 x 4. which would be changed as follows: Because of the accumulation of peak flow in successive areas.74 cfs or 71. 2 yr must be adjusted so that its duration is equal to the basin TOC. duration curves in Figure 6-4. whether simple or complex. and A from step 3. To determine factor I.2 in/hr x 48. the intensity (adjusted to 26. depcndcnt areas will probably not arrive at the lower outlet simultaneously. Such contributing areas parallel areas. Vol 1 Determine the I value for a 2year. Successive Areas -- Step 12. consist of a series of drainage areas with upstream areas discharging runoff into lower areas. 3. Iadj from step 12. Refer to the isohyetal map in Figure 6-3.. rainfall intensity of the l-hour. flows arc acted upon by various factors. a procedure has been dcvelopcd to recalculate TOC for each of the successive drainage arcas as water Naturally. creases. The only difference would occur in step 4. Using curve 5 (for 2. Calculating TOC acres The determination to the example.5 inch per hour or160.: ” .4 minutes) is found to be 4. use an isohyetal map. :. 1. Knowing that the airfield is located near the demilitarized zone IDMZI in Korea. Also.4 Use the set of standard intensityminutes.7 cfs to Unfortunately. 26. . however. Once all C corrections are made. Adjust the I value. These independent areas do not receive runoff from an upstream area. as shown in Figure 6-3. rainfall intensity.. 2 Yr = 2. An Savg for each soil or cover area must be determined (except for manufactured covers).8 71. 2. the total peak flow must be less than the total of the individual peak flows. 60-minute storm. Consider two areas. The choice is between using pinpoint data step 11.5 in/hr value for each soil or cover must be determined based on the average slope for each cover area. the increase in runoff is not the simple summation of the peak runoff of The individual peak each individual arca. a source of rainfall data is necessary.. Hence. dccrcascs. then an area-weighted C or Cwtd can Cwtci would bc used in solvbe determined. To determine I. Sometimes. an upstream area W and a downstream ‘\_ Step 4 (for a complex area). page 6-9.2 inihr Step 13. Since pinpoint data is not available. To estimate the amount of the accumulated runoff with sonic precision. the drainage areas discussed have been single. Some drainage systems. as TOC intravels downstream.. calculation of TOC for those areas must be different from the method used for single.2 inlhr 48. including storage and peak-flow reduction while in the drainage network. Calculate (J using C from step 9. page 6-7. and 5 would be unchanged. The term TOC must be modified lo reflect calculation differences. FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. a-year storm is determined to be 2. the peak flow from upstream areas and the peak flow from downstream. The runoff accumulates and increases in its passage through the system.4 min. (the most accurate means of determining I) or referring to an isohyetal map. two or more areas runoff into the same dependent area.

DclincaLc of arcas. the DT is determined from the upper outlet to the 6-34 Drainage . Schematic example successive areas for For each dependent subarea..+ DT. from oullct W lo oullct X. the designer rcquircs Ihc time it takes water to arrive from the most hydraulically remote localion.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.x) is inlet timcw_s. TO&. appropriately modified..givcn as TOCw. whichever is larger For each subarea. The ditch fin2e (LIT) or Lransir (imc Llirotlgh arca X. Preparatory Step Work. the culvert at outlet XI. rcspcctivcly. which . Figure 6-21. variable C. Estimating Successive Area Runoff Inlet time W The modified definition of TOC is applied in estimating runoff for successive areas.. To dclcrminc this maximum representative lime (TOG). senlativc time for water to arrive al outlet X. This composite time. Is DTwVx. TOC. Ihc dcsigncr must compare the travel times for runoff origination in both arcas. Vol 1 arca X. The total of lhcsc two clcmcnts (TOCw and DTw. must be compared the time for water that originates in area X. Step 4. since arca W is dcpcndent) plus the transit time as the water flows in a ditch through area X. simply be TO& = Inlet Tlmew when sizing culverts that occur further down in successive areas (for instance. the TOC would However. 3. as shown in Figure 6-21. is the larger time value idcntificd in the comparison. detcrminc the acreage (A). The travel lime [or water originating in arca W and arriving at outlet X is equal Lo the’ inlet time at area W (which is Ihc same as TOCx.. This calculation requires collection of certain essential data and application of the principles used for single areas. and inlet time. Determine the DT (or transit time). = Inlet time W-X. To a designer engaged in sizing the culvert which serves as outlet W.x. or = inlet time X. S&p 1. Dclcrminc the intensity 60-minute rainfall. The nlaximum travel time from the most hydraulically remote representative points in Ihis series of lwo areas to the outlet of arca X is defined as TOC.. Dctcrminc A. every subarea in the of lhc 2- 2. corrected for slope and weighted (as necessary). The maximum rcprcscntalivc flow limes for runoff originating in bolh arcas (X and W) to arrive al lhcir rcspcctivc outlcls (X and W) arc dctincd as inlcl time X and inlet time W. and the inlet time..TOC. scrics Slcp year. Tllc TOC al Lhe oullcl upslrcanl in arca W is . to called inlet timew. to determine the desired Q. C. the maximum repreor inlet timex. which equals inlet lime W for [his inrlc~)cndcnl arca. which migh I bc in cilhcr arca X or arca W.

use the following equation: Compacted gravel Average turf Total 6. page 6-36. plex.000 acres. t DTwx subarea area is- Compare inlet limcx with inlet limcw. Determining Specffk Q. Divide flow paths into two sections: sheet flow and channel flow. expected at culverts 3 and 4 at the Span Ii Army Airfield at Giessen. Solution: Step 1. Step 2. Drainage 6-35 . NOTE: Remember that when using the rational method. Delineate subareas type. Calculate f&u = Q for subarea W. (See step 1. page 6-37 formation). Proceed downstream to subarea and repeat steps 1.5 acra 13.2 acres 6. Q = Compacted gravel Average turf Total 0.2 acres Simple 6. and 3. Germany. Determine acreage for each basin or subarea. use the total area for all basins and the subareas for the area. Example: Using the rational method and Figure 6-22. See Table 6-3. To get the total runoff at the outlet of subarea X. start at the uppermost subarea and proceed downstream. Total lhc accumulated runoff.97 or 97% the basin as simple or com- Cw~TOCxhu Step 4. Determine representative paths. Adjust 16Oml11.5 acres/ 13. unless you have more precise data).4 acres Simple Area Compaclcd gravel Average turf Simple Area Compacted gravel Average turf it is found to step 1.1 by soil or cover Step 3. A value. Refer to Figure 6-21 and note that subarea W is upstream from subarea X. in cfs. Vol 1’ lower outlet using culvert flow (assume 300 fpm.x. Dclerminc these simple rules: the subarea TOC using is- The rule for an independent TOCw = Inlet time.2yr IO ITOC.93 Simple 12. 2yr.4 acres Subarea B.3 13.4 acres = 0. The soil lypc is GMd. Working systematically.4 Subarea B. (This information is given in step 1.5 m-c. Delineate the area: have the following: Subarea A. Step 3. Conlinuc working downstream.9 act-c 13.2 acresl6. in the rational-method formula. USC the drainage basin’s corresponding rainfall in tensity for the I value.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Step 6. Select the larger value of TOCx. Slcp 5.4 acres = 0.4 acres or 93% flow (given in- CIA Step 5. Always check the accumulated acreage to ensure that it does not exceed 1. Step 2. 2. based on the comparison.9 acre 12. Subarea Classify A.1 X Step 4. determine the runoff. 0. The rule for a dependent TO&. See Table 6-3 (given information). 6. Proceed until the runoff at the lowest oullcl in lhc series is calculated. the area limit is 1. 6.000 acres. acres Step 6.

Vol 1 1A 4oofi 1 5% . Successive areas . (See 6-36 Drainage . Subarea 2 has three major paths. 43ofl 08% HP= 76 1 Subarea A Figure 6-22.6 percent. and path 4 has an average slope of 2. Both of these paths will have an average slope of less than 2 percent. path 3 has an average slope of 2. Determine the slope of each section of the flow path.example Step 7. Step 8. Determine the average slope of the basin or each subarea.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.4 percent. paths 1A and 1B.3 percent. There are two paths in subarea 1. Path 2 has an average slope of 2.

.7 in/hr from local rainfall records.. page 6-22.3 t 3.. as drawn on the map.8 min Ditch velocity = 188 fpm at 1.:.:‘:.6 cfs = 11.4 = 20 cfs = CBIBAA = 0.6 cfs To calculate QB runoff in subarea Qlnlet Qlnlet 3 4 in/hr)(13.6 25.1. .5 _ 1. we can now get an average slope for paths 2..70..3 16.: : .6 in/hr 116. and 4.5 Travel time (mW 13.6 1.:.6 3.4 = 8.. Determining travel time Length (ft) gravel 400 430 530 350 Path 1A 16 Cover/type Compacted Ditch Slope (%I 1. .6 t 8. Drainage 6-37 .4 percent....2 1. Likewise.9 Figure 6-22.5 2. . .3 mm with TOCA t DT = 16..:: .) NOTE: Although path 4 was used to obtain an accurate slope average.‘I .: .j).. :.: : : : : . Subarea A has compacted gravel with an average slope less than 2 percent...6% 3 = 2.1 Using this information.3 min = 2.4% 1 = ~2% 2 = 2..3 23.. A.. 370 ft 350 ft Ditch time3_4 = 188 fpm ’ 194 fpm = 3..:..4% + 2.1 Step 13. clearly shows that path 4 could not be chosen for the TOC. Adjust I based on TOC using Figure 6-4... page 6-9.: .. Vol 1 Table 6-3.I: FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. is 0.3 min Step 12.7Oi2.y. . . it is not used for travel time. Determine I and I&l. Determine runoff. page 6-27.8 in/hr Step 9. : . Average slope for subarea Average slope for subarea Compare inlet timen = 25. the C value for subarea B. TOCA = 16.35..4 at 130 fpm 2A 26 3A 36 Average turf Ditch Average Ditch turf at130fpm 360 430 at 130 fpm 20.3 Subarea B. GMd with average turf with a slope of 2.3 = 1.‘.... ..>: .8 2. Obtain sheet-flow times from Figure 6-18..8 Step 11. ‘. and ditch-flow travel time from Table 6-2.. 3.9 3. Using Table 6.3 min and 125.8 = 20. .: .. Average Slope = 2. . Find the C value for each subarea. : .8% and 194 fpm at 1. The situation..4 cfs = 11.9% Inlet time A Inlet time B = 16. (I value for Giessen.35t1.. useacres) To calculate runoff in subarea Qn = CAkdA = 0.0 0. page 6-26..‘:.4% Subarea A. useacres) B..~:.::(j.3% t 2.. .:. Step 10.4 = 11.: . Determine the travel time of each flow path and select the longest flow-path travel time as the TOC.3 min = 25. (This step was included in step 11. I.6 in/hr)(6. we find that the C value is 0.... Determine the travel times and ditch time from Table 6-3.3 16.~: .I.1 min Select the larger value of TOCB = 25.: . Germany is 1.: .

or shovel front. above sidehill cuts to prevent erosion of the cut. the shape. the ditch can be lined along the bottom from bank to bank. The most common is a ditch. once determined. OPEN-CHANNEL DESIGN An open channel is a conduit with a freewater surface used to convey water. A side ditch is located along the side of a road. VOl 1 SECTION Il. If so desired. ditch is built Triangular (symmetrical) When the lopography allows. front-end loader. and the location of a ditch are determined largely by its purpose. trenching machine. Ditch cross sections 6-38 Drainage . It collects runoff from the road and adjacent areas and transports it to a culvert or diversion ditch. are shown in Figure 6-23. Triangular (nonsymmetrical) CROSS SECTION The location and peak quantity of runoff expected will determine the ditch cross-sectional area required. and crane equipped with a dragline. Other items of equipment that can bc used to excavate a ditch section include the backhoe. clamshell. gineer tion. cept runoff and direct the flow to a more It is usually located desirable location. suited TO. the shape of a ditch is also dicto a great extent. It can be used in conjunction with interceptor and side ditches to transport water between culverts or to divert an existing stream channel around a project. DESIGN FACTORS LOCATION There arc three main lypes of dilchcs in road and airfield construction.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. which is an open channel cut into the soil. These factors. An interceptor ditch is generally located on a hillside above a roadway or other feature Its function is to interrequiring protection. will influence the design capacity and maintenance requirements. by the choice of enequipment available for its construcTwo items of equipment are uniquely for speedy ditch excavation: the Segmental Figure 6-23. a dioersion lo transport water away from roadways or airfields. bulldozer. the method of construction. used motor grader and the wheeled tractorscraper. trapezoidal. The size. The most common shapes of cross sections-triangular (symmetrical and nonsymmetrical). and segmentalIn the tated.

production rates for these items are relatively low compared to the grader or scraper. illustrates this terminology.- However. Side slope is the slope of the banks of the channels. l SIDE-SLOPE RATIOS Ditches have two sides and two associated side-slope ratios. The far slope. 3: 1 is a side slope of 3 feet horizontal to 1 foot vertical.) l Diversion ditches may be cut symmetrically at 1: 1. common sense dictates that the grader be used to construct an oversized V ditch rather lhan using low-production-rate equipment to construct a trapezoidal ditch. is simply an cxtcnsion of the cut face in an excavation. The designer selects appropriate side-slope ratios. the ditch is called symmetrical. normally expressed as a ratio of feet horizontal to feet vertical. Likewise. Ditches cut by hand will often bear this shape as well. Even more serious is the risk of a severe accident. Drainage 6-39 . however. - Roadside ditches may be cut nonsymmetrically at 3: 1/ 1: 1 (front slope/back slope). Nonsymmetrical ditches have side slopes that differ. hence. The flat bottom and midsection of this ditch can be excavated rapidly by a wheeled scraper. and the side slopes can be dressed back by subsequent passes of a road grader. will be much lower than those of the wheeled scraper. For example. For clarity. Production rates. This technique is often used when the terrain is too soft to support excavating machinery. interceptor and diversion ditches are installed far enough from the traveled way not to present a hazard to passing vehicles on the roadway or aircraft on the runway. Ditch sidewalls that are too steep invite excessive erosion and are likely to cause the ditch to clog with sediment. the horizontal component on the back slope will be referred to as Y. Note that the 60 cubic feet per second guideline is flexible. are commonly installed to handle flows up to 60 cubic feet per second. The sidewall of a roadside ditch located adjacent lo the shoulder is called lhc front slope of the ditch. the horizontal component of the roadside ditch will be referred to as X.FM +430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Triangular or V ditches equally. called the back slope. the trapezoidal ditch is commonly specified. The following rules of thumb are applicable only in shallow ditches in relatively flat terrain: l For flows larger than 60 cubic feet per second. The selection is critical to ensure that the ditch serves its purpose. including the road grader with its blade turned lo a high angle. (See Figure 6-23. Only one side slope is required for symmetrical ditches. The road grader is well designed to quickly excavate the necessary cross section to handle this flow. NOTE: For calculation purposes. if a vehicle should run into the ditch and become entrapped or overturn because the side slope is too severe. Grader efficiency drops significantly when cross sections of larger dimensions are required. Since there is very little danger from either side. page 6-40. When the sidewalls on opposite sides are inclined In most cases. provided that the ditch is built in soil rather than rock. the termsfront slope or ditch slope and back slope are used to differentiate between the dissimilar slopes. Figure 6-24. Ditches intended to be subject to cross Lrafflc may be cut symmetrically al 3: 1 or more genlly. The segmental-ditch shape results when explosives are used to create the ditch. the grader or scraper is more likely to be used. Vol II . If scrapers are not available to excavate a ditch carrying 100 cubic feet per second but a grader is. symmetrical sideslope ratios are specified for these types of ditches. Smaller bottom widths can be provided using any of the previously mentioned items of construction equipment.

It is assumed that the flow flow is assumed according to of the conservation of mass. and culverts not flowing full. This type of flow occurs when viscosity forces are relatively weak and the individual water particles move in random patterns within the aggregate forward-flow pattern. These hydraulic formulas reflect certain hydraulic theories and assumptions governing design analysis of free-flow channels. The only type of laminar flow considcrcd in this manual is sheet flow. parallel paths. Some of these types occur simultaneously in the same channel. An example of this type of flow is honey poured from a container. honey has high-viscosity strength compared to water. be introduced by significant. An open-channel flow has a free surface and no hydraulic pressure. Definition sketch Tables 6-4 and 6-5 are also useful ing front slopes for fill sections. Flows in ditches. and rivers arc uniform. 6-40 Drainage . An understanding of these types of flow and their interrelationship is essential to the effective design of drainage systems. A unrorm flow is assumed when the depth of water throughout a channel is constant in dimension and slope. Laminar flow occurs when viscosity forces predominate and the particles of the fluid move in smooth. The strength of viscosity forces and hence the thickness of moving fluid. in select- TYPES OF FLOW Several types of flow are associated with open channels. Vol 1 Figure 6-24. This assumption is essentially correct for channels of moderate slope and length. but flows over spillways or waterfalls are not uniform. determine whether channel flow is turbulent or laminar. canals. Some examples of open-channel flow include ditches. Empirical formulas with experimentally derived coefficients are used in designing an open channel. This means that the slope of the water surface is the same as the slope of the channel bottom. which occurs where depth is extremely shallow. canals. A steady flow is assumed nel with a uniform depth period. Turbulent flow is assumed for purposes of open-channel design. Changes in flow and any errors that may this assumption are not A continuous the principle in an open chanduring the design are generally slow.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. streams.

SP. Recommended requirements for slope ratios in cuts . 2. Recommended slopes are valid only in homogeneous soils that have either an in-place or compacted density equaling or exceeding 95% CE 55 maximum dry density. CH Less than SO 2:l L9sS than 50 3:l feet Generally not suitable for construction feet OL. Apparent dip equals: and strike x true dip 90” and bedding planes. GMd SW. For nonhomogeneous solls. or soils at lower densities. Table 6-5. GP. a near-vertical cleavage. Solid rock (with no plane of weakness) may be cut 1:4 to 1:2.rock with bedding or other planes of weakness 18 . angle between centerline Drainage 6-4 1 . a deliberate slope stability analysis is required. GC SMU.35 36 . not apply loading above this cut face. Pt 4OTES: 1.75 75 .homogeneous soils Slopes Not Subject to Saturation uses Classification Maximum Height of Earth Face Not critical Maximum Slope Ratio lH:l Slopes Subject to Saturation Maximum Height of Earth Face Not critical Maximum Slope Ratio 2:l GW.90 or any negative angle 1:4 to 1:2 Effective (degree) B Maximum side slope ratio (H:V) dip angle o. SMd GMu. MH CL.19 I:2 1:l cut to dip angle 1. measured perpendicular to strike. SC ML. True dip is the angle between the horizontal b. Vol 1 Table 6-4.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Back slopes cut into loose soil will seek lo maintain Expect sloughing to occur. Effective dip angle = true dip . OH. Recommended requirements for slope ratios in cuts and fills . Do 2.apparent dip where-a.

In channel design. thereby changing the water contact area. DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR OPEN CHANNELS This section deals with open-channel design equations. the ditch slope (the longitudinal fall of the channel in feet per foot or in percentage) will be determined by the slope of the terrain. Slopes under 0.486 or. Vol 1 in natural and designed channels will be steady.) Roughness Coefficient (n) Continuity Equation The equation follows: whereA = cross-sectional of continuity Q = AV is expressed as Q = rate of flow in cfs area in sq ft V = velocity in fps The roughness or resistance coefficient is a measure of the resistance to flow caused by surface-contact irregularities. Use Table 6-6 to estimate the roughness coefficient. It statesv _ I. Slopes over 2 percent may have too high a velocity. (See Figure 6-25. continuous. However. For short ditch lengths only.FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. the velocity of flow will be different. the slope can be increased or decreased independently of the terrain slope. The most widely used is the equation presented by Manning in 1889. Slope or Grade (S) Under normal conditions. a variation from the natural slope of the terrain can be achieved by modifying the cutting depth of the ditch. channel condition. n. whereV = velocity of flow in fps R = hydraulic radius or R = cross-section area of water wetted perimeter S = slope or grade of the channel in feet per foot (ft/ft) n = roughness coefficient or friction factor. The coefficient can be changed only if the ditch lining is changed or modified. uniform. and type of ditch lining used. resulting in erosion. to assist in the design of open channels. the equation has been prepared as a nomograph. resulting in sedimentation deposits. slope percentage and the resulting change in velocity are important considerations. Since excessive velocity in a ditch will cause erosion and When using metric unitsR v= 213 s’/2 n 6-42 Drainage . Manning’s equation can easily be solved mathematically using the equation.5 percent will generally have too low a velocity. which depends upon the material comprising the channel lining NOTE: Velocity of Flow (V) Many ditches with differing side slopes and cross-sectional areas of flow will carry the same rate of runoff on a similar longitudinal slope. It varies with soil type. however. In each case. and turbulent. Longitudinal Manning’s Velocity of Flow Equation Many empirical equations have been proposed for determining turbulent flow. Deposition (the depositing of sediment on the bottom of the ditch) normally occurs at velocities below 3 feet per second. trial techniques are required to determine the shape and depth of a particular channel before a final solution is reached. Changing the roughness coefficient in this way changes the ditch capacity. used in the solution of the equation. after R 2’3 S”2 n transposing. The effect of the roughness coefficient on velocity can be altered by changing the side slopes of the ditch. By varying the cutting depth within the ditch length. Because of the variables and assumptions to be made.

02 Find: R 1..6 foot.10 0. Vol 1 0.7 L 0.6 0.003 n = 0. Figure 6-25.2 1.6 P z 2 \ 0.09 0.08 ~ 0. Line from S value to n vrlue intersects turning line.0 / > 6 7 8 9 10 Example (see dashed line): Given V = 2.06 I c 2 -2.h n ’ ’ 0.07 I -= r 0.0 \ \ \ e+ % a.3 Equation: w = 0. Line from V value through turning point intersects hydraulic radius scale at R = 0.9 1.05 0. establishing turning point. II \ \ z\ 0. .04 a!! 0. Nomograph for Manning’s equation Drainage 6-43 .486 z.9 s = 0.FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. 2.

it must be contained within limits.. . Table 6-6. Concrete (ail surfaces) b..’ . As slope increases. erosion increases. For example. velocity (Vl increases..024 0. If Manning’s n increases.025 0. ML CL. Vol 1 : ..m. . Paved surfaces: a.014 20 0. l l 6-44 Drainage .: .018 0.022 0. MH GC SW. Values for Manning’s n and maximum permissible velocities Manning’8 n of flow in open channels v. depending on soil and other factors. As quantity of runoff (9) increases while area (A) remains constant.018 0.028 0.c. Brick e.023 0.. page 6-46.:. for a GP soil possibly damage adjacent structures. calculated as shown in Figure 6-26.015 10 10 10 10 20 is 8 .043 0.: .. take V. SMu SC. PT 0.023 0. NOTE: To calculate V_.025 0. .:. Rock: smooth and uniform jagged and irregular b.022 0.:: :.: .: ._. OL.027 20 19 15 15 0. Concrete bottom w/sides of-dressed stone in mortar random stone in mortar dressed stone or smooth concrete rubble (riprap) rubble or random stone c.. w/sides of-formed concrete random stone in mortar random stone or rubble d. It relates the surface area of friction resistances with the volume of water being carried by the ditch. Soils: GW GP GMd GMu.024 0.016 0.016 0. CH. and subtract 1. OH. Natural earth: a. Velocity Relationships l l If velocity IV1 increases. The hydraulic radius can be calculated using an electronic calculator as shown in Figure 627.038 0..:. . SP SMd. velocity (V) increases.023 0.023 0.FM 5-43&O()-l/AFpAM 32-8013..:.:: . V_. Hydraulic Radius (R] The hydraulic radius (R) is the area of the water cross section of the ditch divided by its wetted perimeter.1 or 7 fps..023 20 18 7 8 5 4 7 2 3 4 3 2. Asphalt 0. : . UP@ Ditch Lining 1. Table 6-6 lists the maximum permissible velocities. Gravel bottom. velocity (V) decreases.:.

will be used. In general. the effect of terrain on slope. triangular or trapezoidal.:. Hydraulic radius DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS There are certain factors known for each ditch being designed. =vT Wetted perimeter = 2 m * 10 24 15 7 = 1 53 ft +2-w=1571t Hydraulic Wetted radws area perimeter q hypotenuse Figure 6-26.. this is estimated using the rational method of runoff determination. the entire length of the ditch will probably be eroding.: . and the type of culverts used to discharge into the channel.‘::. channel.y. . The lower velocity on the chart indicates the velocity at which erosion will start occurring in some portion of the ditch. Table 6-6 also provides Manning’s roughness coefficient (n) which represents the friction resistance of the ditch. : . SLOPE (S) The slope will be determined by the terrain.‘. At the high velocity value.. the slope used will be the natural ground slope.:. j: y>. Usually. This depends on whether Q is greater than or less than 60 cubic feet per second.W~=141t. n.. However. Small modifications of the slope can be made for short ditch sections. the diameter. PROPOSED DITCH LINING The ditch lining determines the velocity and roughness coefficient or resistance factor.. . Vol 1 Examole Assume Find A q H=2ft. QUANTITY OF RUNOFF (Q) Designers must know the quantity of runoff the channel will have to carry. it may also be estimated based on knowledge of the slope.“. or stream for various soil types and linings..W~=iOft radluk + W2)= (R) %(2)(14 l hydraulic %(H)(W.::.) Table 6-6 gives maximum erosion velocities for each type of soil and lining.j ::j :. and the soil type or material to be used to line the ditch all have a bearing on channel design.. Items such as the location.. The value of Q will also determine which type of ditch section. L 10~ = 24sqft In a 1 1 triangle. Each of these factors will affect design details.. LOCATION The location of the ditch will determine its general shape and the side slopes to be used in its design. (See Table 6-6.. the peak flow or runoff carried. Drainage 6-45 .” FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.: . Use the average value of n for design purposes.

Therefore. Calculating hydraulic radius DESIGN TECHNIQUES Once design considerations have been examined.6 and Since n and S are constant for various trial iterations. (Use the rational method.:.I..486 Times constant Calculate and invert denominator Times value for n Store constant values K R for various of V..::i.5 = C. Determine the slope.:.486 R2” SR V = n y” you can determine hydraulic radius (R) more quickly in the workbook.. + R = ( Vxn 1.~.486 \Is 1 1.y:” . >I.. Below are keystrokes which will work on most calculators. I. Transposing Manning’s equation.FM 5_43()_0&l/AFPAM 32-6013... input and store values ... use the above equation for numerous iterations until you have “bracketed” within acceptable limits.. if S and n are constant.486 = l/x x . If your calculator has the function fiand accurately than with the nomograph provided 1. a. To calculate R.. Step 2. ..“:. Determine the peak volume of storm-water runoff.xXx x5 x 1..i:: ::yy. First.:.c.:.:.) Using the appropriate formula. Enter value for S Square root of S of 1.:: .. the interactive design procedure can begin.xXx = ST0 b To calculate or M+ for K. RCL or MRC XV = yx 1. Figure 6-27. Q. Step 1.::i::i:‘:.::..486 & values for V to for R becomes: 2. the above equation R=[VxK] ” where K = n 1. ‘: :.~... If the slope is already known as a DESIGN STEPS The steps used in design follow: J 6-46 Drainage . ‘-:.:..:‘. j/o1 1 .:. Repeat 2b for different Recall K Times value for velocity Equals Raise product to 3/2 power Displays V values value for R until you reach an acceptable R and Q.::: : ::.. Y. Q. find Q.:‘: 1. flow rate. S. Calculate the total area(s) contributing flow to the ditch. you need only enter different arrive at an acceptable value for R.. in feet per foot.

If the calculated Q from step 7 is not more than 5 percent greater than the design Q. even with sediment in the ditch bottom. find the hydraulic radius of the ditch. Select trial values for resistance.5 = 0. Step 6. select the appropriate hydraulic radius and area table for the desired ditch cross section.. The ditch invert (or bottom) elevation at the outlet of the culvert will be 7. V. the cross section must be increased by flattening the side slopes or by increasing the bottom width (if a trapezoidal section is used). do not make it any larger than the maximum for the soil or lining based on Table.:‘. Calculate Q. Where Q is equal to or less than 60 cubic feet per second. Select the appropriate hydraulic radius and area table.3 Slope cfs = invert at culvert or 7. Identify the column headed with the tentative side-slope ratios. Whether the ditch is symmetrical or nonsymmetrical will depend on the specific location. as excavated. From Appendix C. V. If the calculated Q is still less than the 95-percent limit. If the calculated Q is smaller than the design Q by more than 5 percent. From the slope. If the calculated Q is more than 5 percent greater than the design Q. The initial trial velocity should be held to 1 feet per second below the high value. will be the cutting depth and the depth at which the ditch grade will be set.5 ft distance from culvert to stream = 1. However. reducing the velocity and making sedimentation likely. reduce the velocity and repeat steps 4.0052 289 ft ft/ft Soil (GMd): V = 3 to 5 fps (Table 6-6) = 0. Use the equation $J = ALoV. 5. including freeboard. page 6-43. respectively. The total depth. are determined in steps 6 and 3. use a triangular ditch. n. Example: Design a ditch to carry a peak volume of storm-water runoff equaling 47.024 (Table 6-3. the ditch selected can be used. using the nomograph or equation. In using the tables. Q = 47. where area. Step 7. it may be converted to units of feet per foot by simply dividing by 100. Add 0. if the exact Rm value is not available. ALU. Determine the type of ditch cross section. this deposited material will be removed by the water during a peak flow without causing extensive damage to the channel. V. From Table 6-6. and the velocity.6-6. use a trapezoidal ditch. V. :. and velocity. Call this Rm to distinguish it from the R values in Appendix C of this manual. Manning’s n.5 foot to the water depth to provide freeboard. Freeboard is the additional ditch depth over that required to carry the design flow.5 feet above sea level. page 6-37) Drainage 6-4 7 .3 cfs from a culvert to a stream that is 289 feet from the outlet of the culvert.0 ft . which will be Rt. and 7. Step 3. locating the value of Rt that corresponds with Rm. select a value of the resistance or roughness coefficient.. use the next smaller Rt value listed in that column. Step 4. Enter the Rm table. n. and velocity. The ditch lining will be the bare (unturfed) GMd soil. Determine the hydraulic radius. Then find the cross-sectional area and ditch depth corresponding to Rm and Rt. increase the velocity. 6. the channel will be carrying less than design flow.0 feet above sea level. Usually. Provide freeboard. Vol 1 - percentage. for the soil type in which the ditch is to be constructed. : :. The ditch invert will be constructed above the stream high watermark at an elevation of 5. If a high value is chosen for the design velocity. FM 5-430-00. S. Step 8.5.l/AFPAM 32-8013. and a velocity. Where Q is greater than 60 cubic feet per second.. Step 5. This added depth allows the ditch to carry the design capacity.

The R value can bc computed by using the calculator method shown in Figure 6-27. the best initial choice is usually 1 feet per second lower than Vmax.) Thcsc factors can bc changed if lhc ditch design is not suitable. In this cxamplc. in the right column. page 6-46. This means that at 3 feet per second the soil in the ditch may begin to crodc. This gives the rcquircd R for any given V in Manning’s equation. and the depth (d) found in the column at the far left is 1.86 cannot bc found in thcsc columns. Record these values under the appropriate headings on the ditch design work sheet. In this cxamplc.FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM 32-8013. Then read the hydraulic radius (R) in the second column from the left. from nomograph (Figure 6-26. The tables should bc similar to the ditch design work sheet shown in Table 6-7. The hydraulic radius. work sheet r Ditch design 6-48 Drainage . the Rm value found from the nomograph of Manning’s equation. or the one that is exactly equal to. page 6-441. is less than 60 cubic feet per second. Vol 1 Soiu tion (Nomograph and Table Method): The solution of a ditch problem is always a trial tcchniquc in which several values of velocity arc used. R = O. Using the R. For this example. use Table C-2 for a symmetrical V ditch. and trapezoidalnonsymmetrical. Tables arc recommended to tabulate the results. but the values 0. Select side slopes for a 3: I tri angular ditch for the first trial. Enter the information in the columns under ditch sclcction on the ditch design work sheet. Step 5. Locate the Rt values that fall above and below. S tin feet per foot). The erosion velocity for the soil Is 3 to 5 feet per second.. (This assumes that periodic vehicular crossings are expected. first io cate a turning lint. trapezoidal-symmetrical. in the left column of the chart and the roughness coefficient. Step 2. step 1. so it should be symmetrical. Rm. n. The line is in the center on the nomograph. Locate the appropriate table among Tables C-2 through C.. The channcl is not a roadside ditch. the nomograph.90 arc given. and at 5 feet per second the whole ditch will be eroding. Select the velocity. This turning point will remain the same as long as neither S nor n changes. Enter this value on the work sheet.8 feet.72 square feet. Dctcrminc the hydraulic radius. in the ditch table. The point at which the new line crosses the turning line is the turning Table 6-7. Step 3. Sclcct a ditch. point. There arc four types of tables: V-triangular or symmetrical. 3:l). With RI = 0.85 and 0. V-triangular or nonsymmetrical. Since it is preferable not to exceed the VmRx of 5 feet per second. the Rm = 0. Since design flow.10 in Appcndix C of this manual. Locate the pair of columns representing the side slopes of the ditch being designed (for example. or 4 feet per second. the corresponding arca found in Table C-2 is 9. Enter this figure on the design work sheet. Step 4. Record the area and depth. Draw a straight line to connect the two points. is found by connccting the velocity tin the second column from the right) and the turning point by drawing a straight line through to the R scale.85. Lhc ditch should be triangular. Find the turning point by locating the slope. USC the lower value (0. Rt.S6.85) on the work sheet. Q. Find the hydraulic radius.

V = 4. l&l=[ 1.9 ft = (4.0 rt fpsl(l2. With V = 4. Since there are 2. For this example. If this requircmcnt is not met.2 the cutting Cutting depth depth = 1.0 sq il) cfs. Step 7. as in this cast.92 Rt = 0. which cxcccds 49. so lhc ncxl trial than 4. the ditch can be considered If it is more convcnicnt to use the calculator method than the nomograph.4&] whcrev = 4 fps R = 0. or between 44. If the calculated Q is less than 95 percent of the design flow. Rm.72 sq ftJ(4. the ditch is V-type and symmetrical.7 cubic feet per second. d = 1.5 = 2.024 S = 0.5 foot below the edge of the ditch as a safety factor.9 is less than 44.83 sq it.5 foot of freeboard.5) of available cutting depth at the end of the dilch.2 fps)( 10. with a slope of 0.5 Rlt.2 lCCt per second.9 cubic feet per second (the lower limit of the acceptable range).9 feel and a velocity of 4. Altcrnativc Solution (Calculator Method): V = 4. This calculated quantity of flow (9) musl fall within 5 percent of the design flow of 47.83 sq ft) 2 Q = 45. Vol 1 Step 6. lining.5. d = 2.0 Q = 38. Select a ditch. Enter this value of Q on the ditch design work sheet.3 cubic feel per second. use a higher velocity. Accordingly. Step 8.0 = (4. In this case. Select the velocity. Dctcrminc the hydraulic ?*L radius. Dcterminc the cutting depth. triangular ditch in GMd soil. a velocity of 4. lhcrc mav bc sonic erosion of the ditch.FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Since lhc velocity in the ditch is greater than 3 fps.9 + 0.5 cubic feet per second runoff with a water depth of 1. Cheek for Q. This process dcscribcs a symmetrical. Conclusion: Use this ditch. The water level in the ditch should be at least 0.90 = 10.7.5 feet per second would bc an acccplablc assumption for the next trial.2 R 111 = 0.5 = 2.9 and less than the high limit of 49. and slopes are acceptable. This ditch is within the range and thus meets the ditch water depth and velocity requireITlen ts.5 fps: try 4. it will be 4 feet per second. try a new velocity.4 ft sq ft.5 feet (8. Dctcrminc if the ditch is appropriatc.9 and 49. the cutting depth is the water depth plus 0.0 .0052 feet per foot and 3: 1 side slopes. Assume side slopes of 3: 1 have been selected for the trial cross section. It carries 45. step 3.5 2 = 54. since 38.0 9 cfs. the following proccdurc is used: Step 1. Cheek to see if lhis particular ditch will meet the rcquircmcnls of the design by performing lhc calc(llalionsQ = Au. but it shoUId not bc a significant maintcnancc problem.95 = 12.0052 sclf- ft/fl Drainage 6-49 . = 1. The shape.V Q = (9.0 RI = 0. the design is acceptable. As before.5 cfs Q is greater than the lower limit of 44.7 vclocily must bc less fps. The assumed trial velocity should always be 1 feet per second less than the maximum erosion velocity of the soil. Step 2. Cutting Using depth = d + freeboard just calculated.2 feel per second.9 cfs fps) cleaning and rcquircs little maintcnancc Peak runoff will remove any silt buildup from lhc channel bottom.

d.486v0. Determination of the wetted perimeter of a triangular ditch = ll2(3d + 3cl)d = 1/2(Gdk-l = 3d2 Thcreforc. Aw. is calculated.848 If the Slcp large triangle ISdlvlded Into two right triangles. the hydraulic Rm = -!k WP radius (Rm) is- + Xd-----+-+-4 3d2 =2m 3d2 =2(3. wetted perimeter (WP) = c. or between 44. = I :2(xci TOT any Lriangular ditch. = 38.474 Figure o. As explained in Fig- the Pythagorean theorem IS applrcable (cl 1’ = (al I2 + b2.79 rt lo 6-26. Dcterminc depth of water.79 The wetlcd pcrimctcr Fjgurc 6-29.61 sq ft Aw = 3d2 = 3( 1.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. >’ = 3 Figure 6-29.4. For tliis problcrtt.0052 : $2 = 0.474d. A\& x = 3.5 feet per second. as cxplaincd in Step 5. Check for Q. and Rm is also equal to 0.7. = 0. Vol 1 1. and tlrc 4. Since the calculated Q is below the lower limit.4 (xd12 + d (@I2 + d Q = AwV = 9. Drainage .9 and 49. + c2 AU.16)d 3d2 =6. area = %(Xd + Yd)d For depth (d). =j/qzq~ and (~2)’ = (a2)2 + b2 Therefore.474d Area of any triangle = %(base)(helght) Base of triangle = Xd + Yd Height of triangle = d Therefore.6(4) cfs values of and y+ d= d@i)i + d/(3d)’ = 2 tl(9dL + dL) =2dd-iG 6-50 The Q calculated for the ditch must be within f 5 percent of the design Q of 47. velocity will be 4. Determination triangular of the area of a ditch This allows Aw be computed. raise the velocity for the next trial calculaFor the second trial. = 0. the assumed tion. Since Rn. iswp = Cl + Substituting wp = twp). ft)2 = 9. the depth of water (d) can be computed.848 from step 3. 6-28+ ydid the area of water.3 cfs. The calculated ditch Q is 38. which is less than the lower limit and is unacceptable. d _ 0. the depth of water for the conditions assumed in step 3.848 _ 1.

‘. ThereforeCutting depth = water depth (dl + 0.5 fps the it is bclwcen Step 8.13 ft 0. Step 7.y. must be modified.Ol)“& 0. A sufficient number of inlets should be provided in the gutter to prevent the depth of flow from exceeding 3 inches. bccausc = 46.2 cfs Q is too high.6 sq ft d Q = AwV = (13.5 foot. dual roads. The flow can be determined by the rational melhod. Determine the ditch.. longitudinal grade in the gutter.474 Aw = 3d2 = 3(2. Aw = 3d2 = 3( 1 . .06 sq ft Q = AwV = (1 1. . the depth can be dctcrmined by trial using the flow equation or nomograph for flow in open channels. but il will not be serious. Gutters Gutters are shallow.‘I2 0. . They provide positive removal of runoff.92 feet and side slopes of 3: 1. ments for fast landing speeds make it desirable to provide a continuous. flow (91.474 0.5 = 61.015 1.OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. and prevention of softening of turf shoulder areas commonly caused by a large volume of runoff from adjoining pavements. open channel hydraulics. page 6-52. The input flow into such channels is from surfaced and unsurfaced areas adjacent to the channel. the ditch will have a water depth of 1.614.474 = 1 92 ft . because of the high velocity.5 = 1.01 Rm = == 2. This additional depth can be selected depending upon the conditions external to the ditch but cannot be less than 0. . 108 3z“ = (l.2 fps. protection for easily eroded soils adjacent to the pavement.92J2 = 1 1.. Combating this problem requires special consideration during the design of the surface drainage system. 13J2 = 13. and other similar structures. the flow will clean out the sediment from previous low flow. Vol 1 Step 6. Median Channels Channels will be placed down the center of medians.42 ft or 2. In addition. and the general width are known. With the Q being acceptable. try V = 4. These channels will be symmetrical but very wide and shallow.4 ft The velocity of 4. d = Make a third trial calculation. Manning’s n. Some erosion may be anticipated.92 + 0. BERMS SPECIAL CHANNELS Some facilities will have special types of channels where surface runoff will be intercepted and removed. as previously discussed.. Additional depth must be added to the water depth for freeboard. except they The uncontrolled inflow from drainage areas adjacent to open channels has been a source of numerous erosion failures. Close conformity to the runway gradient requires the use of sump inlets (drop inlets covered by gratings). = 1.2 feel per second is acceptable.’ . These channels will be similar to open channels. .5 = 2. To determine runoff capacity (in cfs) in this type of channel. paved drainage channels used in more permanent construction adjacent to paved or hard-surfaced areas. Make a second trial calculation. Local runoff inflow can Drainage 6-5 1 . FM 51430. runways. will tend to be very wide and shallow.107 R. This gutter conforms to US Air Force safety requirements and design charts of that particular Safety and operational rcquiregutter. taxiways. A cross section of a typical runway gutter is shown in Figure 6-30.0614. Since the factors of slope (S). = 1 1 0.2 Q is acceptable limits.

. Q. This prevents sloughing from the spoil bank into the channel... ::. properly protected against erosion.::.. Figure 6-3 1... Because of normal irregularities in grading operations.cfs Inflow rate . Experience shows that constructing a berm (raised lip). at the top edge of the channel... A suitable berm allows a minimal amount of excavated material to flow back into the channel.4 02 0 -0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Discharge . Runoff. Place the berm.. there must be frequent openings through the levee to permit inflow to the channel... Vol 1 “:. . from the area is determined by the rational method..FM 6-43&00-1/AFPAM 32-8013....: .i .cfs per ft 20 18 1.z. ::.::. is provided... usually made of earth...0 08 06 0. .6 14 12 1. ‘:. runoff becomes concentrated and causes excessive erosion as it flows over the sides of the channel. prevents this problem. .. This berm prevents inflow into the channel except at designated points where an Inlet.::... Where excavated material is wasted. as in a levee or dike parallel to the channel. .e .:c . .. . Typical runway gutter be particularly detrimental.:. This runoff is collected and conveyed by the channel formed 6-52 Drainage .cfs Figure 6-30..:. Typlcal gutter sectlon for mllltary altflelds “W” _ fi 2 9 10 11 12 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Discharge .

/... ::::. . .:. i. . CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF CHANNELS Ditch construction normally requires either a grader or a scraper. other factors must be considered in designing and building ditches.:. . Abrupt changes in a ditch’s normal flow pattern will induce turbulence and cause excessive erosion. special attention must be given to these locations during design.. the ditch may require an asphalt or concrete lining. Interceptor ditches should be set on grades.: . as shown in Figure 6-3 1. and width are used to solve for depth by the trial method.:. :::..’ . these two items are used in combination. Typical berm emplacement by the berm. The factors of Q..:-j’:‘... Depending on the location... 3 :.::.:.. Accordingly... j. S. to prevent overflow and excessive erosion of the downhill slopes. n.. .. Sometimes... j:. .’ :. and storm drain outlets.:: . . When the grade is not sufficient to permit quick water removal. Drainage 6-53 .. FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.. junctions. These conditions develop most frequently at channel transitions.... :..::j:...I. Berms may be constructed on the downhill side of interceptor ditches. Vol 1 Interceptor ditch berm construction Dlverslon ditch side berms Figure 6-31.. thus allowing for quick removal of water without erosion.

Erosion should be considered and accounted for in the design of channels.5 1 2.FM 50430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.2 EROSION CONTROL Water flowing through open channels is turbulent. Table 6-8 shows the maximum velocities. designers must have a thorough understanding of the two basic ditch maintenance problems: sedimentation and erosion. Velocity and turbulence may also endanger the channel itself. but such velocity must not exceed the maximum velocity for the soil. Together. Therefore. the ditch may overflow and cause damage to adjacent structures before the channel is cleaned out. One solution is to line the ditch with asphalt or concrete. no .) When the soil type requires a maximum allowable velocity under 3 fps.0 . tures such as roads.0 I-’ 3. channel maintenance and repair will be a constant concern. This can be accomplished by lining the natural channel material with a more erosion-resistant material or by reducing the side slopes. If the sediment is not removed. Table 6-9 shows the recommended side slopes. when used together.m 1 L’” 2. the channel bottom may accumulate a large volume of loose sediment. the channel should be kept clean through maintenance. Suggested maximum velocities ’ SEDIMENT CONTROL Water flowing overland tends to carry sediment into any open channels. Table 6-8. Erosion can be prevented by lowering the velocity below the soil-erosion velocity. sedimentation will be a maintenance problem. When the velocity in the channel is 3 fps or less.0 3. Channel protection and ditch shape. keep peak velocity flow above 3 fps. Since most storms are less intense than the design storm. Vol 1 Channel maintenance problems exist in all drainage systems. When peak flow does occur. increase the allowable freeboard to eliminate overflow. the eroded material may sometimes be deposited within the channel in areas where it will cause damage. control maintenance problems most effectively.5 (noncolloidal) Ordinary firm loam 2. A higher velocity is preferred. The basic design of the ditch must consider these maintenance problems before they arise. This keeps the channel self-cleaning. therefore. water vegetation) iI Fine sand 1 Water carrying I and fine silts 1 gravel &&kiTG&l) 9ilt 1ns. velocity and turbulence erode and carry away the soil of the channel and endanger nearby struc- 6-54 Drainage . and culverts.0 2. In addition. it will compact and gradually reduce the depth of the ditch. This reduces the coefficient of friction. this sediment can be deposited in the channel.I 2. (See Table 6-8. When sedimentation is expected and linings cannot be used. In these cases. At peak flow. When designing channels. bridges. This turbulence increases as the velocity increases. Maximum permissible velocities (fps) * / Soil type or Clear lining (earth. thus increasing the velocity. Erosion most commonly occurs when the velocity of flow exceeds the velocity at which the soil of the channel will erode. the velocity should be great enough to scour the channel bottom clean of loose sediment.

they are seldom used in the TO. A (while the Q remains constant). Riprap Riprap lining involves placing rocks or rubble in the bottom and on the sides of the ditch to prevent soil erosion. in feet. To prevent unnecessary work. large channels Firm earth. Riprap not only prevents erosion but decreases velocity in the channel because of its high n value. Rocks should be hand-placed in at least .FM 51430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.116 through 6.two layers and compacted individually. Because of pavement’s low n values. sandy earth Sandy. in relation to the area. Check dams should be considered when the slope ranges between 2 and 8 percent. Riprap also helps prevent erosion when making transitions from paved to soil ditches or from other high-velocity ditches to those in which lower velocity is required. porous loam (Horizontal:vekcal) Vertical to t&l I??3 tl:l 1:i 1:l 1M:l 2:l 3:l Decreasing the Hydraulic Radius Reducing the hydraulic radius will decrease the velocity. Vol II Table 6-9. Because of the low n values of different types of pavement. However. or widening the bottom. Recommended side slopes ditches. flattening the side slopes. velocity may increase too much. Design Correct spacing between check dams can be determined by using the following formula: whereS = spacing. as shown in Figure 6-32. The required changes in ditch design are determined by the trial approach. the practical lower limit for H is 1 foot. paving the ditch with asphalt or concrete will prevent erosion. Grass or Turf Since natural linings take considerable time to grow or effort to place. Gabions are another method of lining When the design and construction are done properly. Special protection. Details on riprap and gabions given on pages 6. This decrease in hydraulic radius can be accomplished by increasing the wetted perimeter. small channels Loose. Lining the Channel Erosion can be controlled by lining the bottom and sides of the channel.] Drainage 6-55 . page 6-56. between check dams (This value should not be less than 50 feet.123. This increases the wetted perimeter without materially increasing the area. Channels with slopes of 2 percent or less generally do not require extensive erosion controls. must be retained while reducing the velocity. except for local variations. Installing Check Dams The water velocity in a channel can also be reduced by decreasing the slope.) H = height from the channel bottom to the lower edge of the weir notch (This value should not be greater than 3 feet unless the dam Is to be structurally designed. thus preventing deposition. causing erosion where the pavement ends. it is usually more economical to pave the ditch with asphalt or concrete than to build check dams. may be required at this point to slow the velocity before allowing the flow to continue into the natural soil channel. This can be done by widening the ditch. such as a stilling basin or rock lining. wp. Pavement are Type of channel Firm rock ‘Concrete-lined stiff day Fissured rock Firm earth with stone lining Firm earth. building ditches at slopes other than that of the surrounding ground is impractical. One method for decreasing the slope is to install check dams or weirs. With slopes in excess of 8 percent. it can be used effectively to increase flow velocities if they are too low. Q. since the amount of runoff.

Check-dam design 6-56 Drainage .__-a Old ditch slope _______--_---________-__-Jl H is expressed in feet Figure 6-32. Vol 1 A I % grade of road centerline B = % grade of proposed water surface .FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

2 26.2 37.3 53.5 56.9 93.8 47. Weir-notch dimensions for various flow rates are given in Table 6-10.2 433.0 1 1.4 23.7 74.2 44.4 388.4 37.9 38.9 9 10.2 20. is a common problem with cheek It usually occurs when the weir Table 6-10.FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.8 10 12.4 54. The weir notch must be designed to carry the flow in the ditch.0 264.5 5.1 2 2.8 108.4 151. a weir notch is built in the center of the dam.6 174.1 113.3 120.1 32.) Example: Original Desired H = 3 ft Find S.2 134.3 99.8 226.7 11 13.7 5 7.6 67.8 485. Maintenance Erosion dams.2 16 19.1 47.4 266.9 177.7 194.3 155.1 530.2 229.5.2 341.6 13.0 124.0 31.6 158.5 13 15.7 133.8 211.2 54.5 3. slope slope = 5% = 2% 300 100(H) _ lOO(3) =_= 3 A-B 5-2 100 The spacing bctwccn check dams is 100 feet.39L(H”T Q q discharge in cfs L = length of weir notch in ft H = depth of weir notch in ft 0 H L 0. 68.0 3 3.9 303.6 420.0 L 0.0 406.2 9.6 27.8 606.0 88.4 2144 281.2 27.6 153.8 379.7 75.4 6.9 62.8 76.2 140.5 147.6 22. To prevent erosion of the sides of the channel at the check dam.6 217.8 355.3 95.9 517.0 4.7 453.4 57.5 44.6 7 8.7 28.7 115.6 81.3 356. Vol 1 A = slope B = desired of the original ditch in percent s = slope in percent (This value should be set at 2 percent.5 1.6 70.8 40.0 160.6 12 14.2 333.0 33.6 379.2 298.0 86.4 6.4 189.5 19.4 193.0 4.7 107.1 222.4 17.5 8 9.4 568. This is the maximum slope that will not require additional erosion control.0 2.0 271.4 143.9 67.8 35.7 43.2 64.8 30.2 227.5 1.7 492.5 2.8 12.1 93.3 37.5 129.1 61.5 3.8 244.4 Drainage 6-57 .8 13.6 246.4 40.2 162.0 288.2 3.3 454. Discharge for weir notches in check dams Compute by formula Where Q = 3.6 201.5 4.5 804 105.8 5 6.1 291.6 10.0 3.5 24.5 265.0 1.8 66.2 323.5 199.6 310.2 52.0 135.0 416.8 244.6 123.1 111.0 17.0 2.9 4 4.3 68.0 1.5 5.8 189.2 187.0 176.9 134.4 325.4 14 16.5 2.2 18.6 161.5 87.1 49.0 258.0 50.3 15 18.5 4.4 97.0 3.5 105.6 352.

. Vol 1 5. Check-dam maintenance 6-56 Drainage . there will be more damage caused to adjacent structures than if the dam had never been installed. . If lhis occurs.: . Figure 6-33.. ...:: .: :.:: ::>:: j j .:.j :.:: :. :::.:: :. If allowed to continue long enough... These construction techniques will prevent scour and undercutting. :. Scour can also be prevented by anchoring the sides and bottom into at least 2 feet of compacted material.. Some protection usually takes the form of an extended horizontal or sloping apron. Scour begins on the area exposed to the hydraulic jump./.. ..jj notch is too small or is clogged with debris so that water flows over the top of the dam....:.:. Then place riprap along at least 4 feet of the downstream channel... the erosion will extend to the area around the dam.... .. as seen in Figure 6-33... >.. :j ::y :::‘.. A Water ..FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013..\ :.:.>.

give 2-foot effective lengths. CMP is made of an aluminum-and-steel alloy. causing collapse of the fill. Second.013) than CMP (Manning’s n = 0. headwalls. aluminum-steel Drainage 6-59 . wing walls. preferably with caulk or bituminous material. It is available in many lengths and widths. precast concrete pipe should be used instead of CMP for culverts. If joints are not sealed. the interior surface of concrete pipe is smoother (Manning’s n = 0. lengths. it is stronger and requires less cover than CMP to support the same load. including the lining. A retaining wall called a heczdwall is placed at the upstream end of the culvert.0598 I Z-loot effectwe length half secttons) Material. voids may be generated around culverts. when assembled. Seal joints between the sections to prevent excessive leakage and subsequent weakening of the I L 16 (nestable alloy 1 I 0. Failure to properly overlap the pipes will tend to force the flowing water through the joints and into the fill. and diameters. Concrete-Pipe Culverts When available. CULVERTS A culvert is an enclosed waterway used to pass water through an embankment or fill. multiplate pipe arch. vitrified clay (VC). It has two advantages over CMP. Commercial CMP is available with asphalt linings. It comes in nestable half sections that. Sizes of corrugated metal pipe CMP has flange-type fittings which arc easily fastened together by nuts and bolts that come with the sections. Specific construction techniques are employed in placing CMP. CMP joints must be lapped so that water flowing through the culvert passes over the joint rather than into it. culvert types and construction procedures are discussed prior to considering culvert hydraulics and design features. The minimum diameter recommended is 18 inches for lengths up to 20 feet and 24 inches for all other lengths. The flow in a culvert depends upon several factors. . Headwalls are always used upstream: they are desirable but not mandatory for the downstream end.. First. and downstream conditions. concrete pipe of the same diameter and slope as CMP will carry a higher flow. It is available in the diameters and gages listed in Table 6.1 1.. line the culvert with asphalt.’ FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Accordingly.024). Assembling Nestable CMP Because it is commercially available in numerous shapes. concrete. Small diameters may become clogged with debris and are difficult to maintain. Corrugated-Metal-Pipe Culverts headwall supports the soil mass at the end of the culvert and helps to protect against erosion. For TO construction. The Table 6-11. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). CMP is commonly used in military construction. Vise grips and a ratchet set make assembly faster and easier. Concrete pipe is fabricated in circular and noncircular cross sections. All joints must be sealed. To increase the velocity for a greater quantity of flow. Because of these advantages. Vol 1 SECT/ON /Il. or other material. slope. CULVERT TYPES AND DESIGNS PERMANENT CULVERTS Permanent structures can be constructed from corrugated metal pipe (CMP).

place the culvert directly in the streambed. The structure may cut across a bend of the stream. The dam can be built of sandbags. If the bend is close to the structure. Improper location can cause the stream to seek an alternative path other than the culvert. around. Again. and sandbags filled with a sand-ceSome examples of culverts ment mixture. riprap. To maintain an existing drainage pattern. page 6-62. The old streambed must be filled and dammed with erosion-resistant material at the junction of the old and new channels. erosion will eventually occur. Provide a smooth transition into and out of the culvert. 6-35 and 6-36. ExpcdicnL culverts built and sized properly should serve until permanent structures can bc built. but construction in the TO will probably require that they be cast in place. ensuring male ends point downstream. Some things to consider in placing culverts are culvert alignment. as in view (A) of Figure 6-37. dig a new channcl. To lessen the alignment tcchniqucs 6-37. Alignment The relationship of the culvert to the strcambed is of major importance. relief culverts should be spaced 500 feet EXPEDIENT CULVERTS Expedient field-type culverts are built of material available on-site such as logs. the stream will not change its direction. It is a major contributor to survival of the culvert under adverse conditions. To prevent erosion. and over the culvert. Box culverts are cspecially adaptable to rock sites. One advantage is that the box can be designed to withstand external loads with little or no cover. logs. if the hydraulics of lhe channel are not changed. Concrete-box design requires knowledge or construction techniques for reinforced concrcte structures. this effect. rouling the flow through the culvert and away from the structure. Prcvcnt Ihc stream from shifting its course at the culvert inlet or oullct. Start assembly downstream and work upstream. In this cast. Vol I fill section. On a road with a 5-percent grade. Somctimcs lhc structure will cut across a stream meander as in view (B) of Figure 6-37. Concrete-Box Culverts field to traffic. This leads to doubt as to where to lay the culvcrl in the streambed. and protection against erosion. as shown. For cvalualing hydraulics. be sure to fill and dam the old streambed at the junction point. compaction under. page 6-63. or other similar material. The alignment of ditch relief culverts is shown in Figure 6-38. Even though this may be diagonal to the fill. and lay the culvert in Ihc new strcambcti. built of thcsc materials appear in Figures 6-34. slope: fill placement. as shown in view (D) of Figure 6-37. it is preferable to recut the stream. When the channel flows parallel to the structure. end arcas equivalent Lo CMP can bc used for similar slopes. as in view (Cl of Figurc 6-37. with a straight run of the stream through the structure. Substantial headwalls are requircd at both ends to prevent separation at the joints. it is best to cut a new channel to lead the stream away from the structure. as described above.FM 5430-OO-l/AFP 93-4. oil drums. The amount of flow and the slope of the ditch determine the spacing between culvert inlets. Move the water past the project as quickly as possible. Box culverts can be precast. Care should be taken to lill in and dam the entrance to the old strcambcd and the junction of the two streambcds. since the bottom of the culvert can bc placed directly on the rock. use shown in Figure Consider concrete-box culverts where the full area of the waterway must bc used. This could quickly close a road or air- 6-60 Drainage . CULVERT CONSTRUCTION Proper placement is one of the most important factors during culvert construction. culvert length.

FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. $ Diameter logs 1 )) ‘\I’ Driftpin or spike logs and stakes together . Landing-mat and sandbag culvert 4” logs \ Stakes and spreaders spaced 8’ center to center 8” x 10” logs I d : \ ‘I ‘/’ ’ 6”X8” . Oil-drum culvert Figure 6-35.o- ~ ‘+llFigure 6-36 Log culverts Drainage 6-6 1 . Vol 1 Tack weld _ Figure 6-34.

(A) Malntaln existing drainage pattern Dam (B) Prevent stream from shlftlng its course at inlet or outlet Fill old channel (C) Ensure smooth transition at inlet and outlet Fill old channel (D) Move water past as soon as possible I\ Figure 6-37.j~~.. :... :... : ‘... Slope Culverts normally should be installed with the invert of both the inlet and the outlet of the culvert at streambed or channel elevation.FM 5_43().:.:: .... ... ..:. . ..0()-1/AFPAM 32.i..~~~.::..~_-j. should On an 8-percent grade. spacing be reduced to 300 feet. .. Vol 1 .... Use longer :. The invert is the lowest point in the d 6-62 Drainage .8013.~::. .. Culvert alignment apart...

: .:. Ditch relief culverts internal cross section of an artificial channel or the bottom of the culvert.~~~ . .. the culvert grade should not exceed 2 percent... .. a smaller diameter culvert or a drop inlet must be used..:. “‘. ~:.:. :..(.” :. as shown in view (B) of Figure 6-39. In general. The culvert and the surrounding compacted soil must have sufficient strength to carry the compacted soil backfill (dead loads) and the wheel and impact loads (live loads) of the traffic. ‘as shown in Figure 6-39. Live loads are more damaging than dead loads on culverts under shallow cover.: .. ...‘.. if practicable.. Accordingly.(::j:‘j. the culvert should not be set on less than a 0..:.(...:..:::.:. is the depth of fill..~~:‘::‘:‘:‘:i:..‘.+:. (A) Drop Inlet (6) Outlet above grade Figure 6-39..‘: ..:.:~:... l Drop inlets can be used to lower the inlet of the culvert..:::. The normal grade of the culvert can be modified by two techniques..‘~. Vol 1 l The outlet of the culvert can be raised to reduce the slope.:. For a road culvert made of CMP....... ::.~’~...‘..5 percent grade.:. In the TO. culverts may have to be set at grades other than the terrain or streambed slope.:x:.>. and dead loads are more damaging than live loads on culverts under deep cover. both minimum protective cover and maximum permissible depths of backfill must be included in design considerations for culverts. the largest diameter allowable must equal two-thirds the minimum fill depth.‘. FM 5430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.::. .. The depth of fill must be equal to or greater than the cover plus the pipe diameter. free-falling outlets and culverts with slopes of more than 2 percent will require outlet erosion protection.::‘:‘: :..t::~::. . : >.:. This will help to prevent a blockage caused by debris passing through the pipe.: ... . During construction.:::.:: . .:: :..(.:. .:. as shown in Figure 6-40. it may be advisable to accept the erosion problem and install the culvert with a slope for an excess of 2 percent.::::. flow velocity should be at least 3 fps. page 664..~ . .:. Changing normal grade of culvert The depth of compacted soil from the top of the culvert (crown) to the finished construction grade is called cover. provide Drainage 6-63 .. . Otherwise..::::::. Depth of Fill The distance measured from the culvert invert to the edge of the shoulder or top of the fill. To achieve this velocity.:: _. . To prevent excessive outlet velocity.. .>: .i:‘:‘~:.. An example of a drop inlet is shown in view (Al of Figure 6-39 and a discussion begins on page 6-89.. Cover Figure 6-36.i:. This will tend to reduce the slope of the culvert.::. In mountainous country where there are excessive stream slopes or in fills across dry valleys.:_:::::. Ditch relief culverts For culverts to be self-cleaning... . :.

:.:.lii..:: .801 3.I~:. Use linear interpolation for the incremental diameters not listed. the minimum cover is one-half the diameter of the culvert.:I.‘I:. or 12 inches. read down the left column of the table to determine the appropriate row for the gage concer ned..:i Fill and compact inlet culvelt properly layers to top of culvert plus 12 inches shaped and to minimum depth of l/l0 D Figure 6-40.i. in feet. in feet.~i. This will.. wheel loads. .()()11/AFPAM 32..13 and 6. under the column headed with the pipe diameter in 6-64 Drainage . Table 6.:.12 lists characteristics of US aircraft.:::j~j:~. (For example.. Culvert specifications for CMP adequate additional cover to protect the culvert from damage in places where heavy construction equipment will be crossing frequently. When the proper row has been found. for the diameter and gage of pipe concerned... Tables 6.. the chart headed “60..14.000 pounds. read horizontally to the right and find the minimum cover.:: ii. and rows based on the gage of the metal..12 to find the appropriate culvert type. ..5_43()..:: I .~r. The body chart gives the cover required. allow you to select the proper fill requirements category in Table 6.000 pounds more than listed.14 give the cover requirements for culverts under airfields. in inches.I.. To use these tables. The minimum cover required to protect the culvert pipe against live loads will depend upon the type of load.:~.. Each of these charts is headed by a culvert weight type.. The cover over culverts used in airfields must be specifically designed for the heaviest aircraft using the facility.:~i:i:i. whichever is greater. or Table 6.. and culvert weight type. Use this table to determine the landing-gear configuration. Vol 1 :j:~~~. For road culverts.13.1 Each chart is subdivided into columns headed by culvert pipe diameters.: ::j::. in turn. When the proper chart is located.~.. :. page 6-66. page 6-67. These tables are composed of a series of charts based on aircraft load and gear configurations.:i: :..~ii~. Then use Table 6.:. These charts are good for 5.000-lb Singlewheel” is good for single-wheel loads up to and including 65. find the chart that applies to the particular aircraft wheel or gear load and landing-gear type.

::.:.16A B-1 B-52G/H FB-11lA C-5B C-9A c-17 C-130E HC-130H KC. Vol 1 Table 6-12.... ‘. ‘. : ..: ..1OA/B uv-18A Name Corsair II (CAS) Dragonfly (VGF) (VGF) Phantom Tomcat Eagle ___ --_ (LWF) Hornet Harrier Advanced Max wt (kip) 42 51 15 100 100 58 72 56 68 81 33 20 28 30 477 488 114 840 108 580 175 175 301 323 334 323 800 170 14 13 Gear type S S S S S S S S S S S S DU-S(BlC) Load on main gear (klps) 18 23 7 44 48 25 34 25 30 35 14 9 10 11 222 265 54 400 52 267 84 84 142 153 167 155 372 77 55 6 Culvert WT type 2 2 1 4 4 3 4 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 15 16 5 15 7 15 13 13 14 14 14 14 16 9 1 1 II Harrier (Adv SB) Stratobomber (VGSB) Galaxy Nightingale -__ Hercules Hercules Stratotanker Starlifter (707) T-T-TA T-T Single T-DE-TA Twin T-TA-TRl S-TA S-TA T-TA T-TA T-TA T-TA DU-T-TA Triple DU-S(-fA) Single (707) (707 AWACS) (747 AABNCP) (A=) Bronco Twin Otter Drainage 6-65 . .. j:.. ..:~:.::.:.::. . . :. .:.:...1378 E-3A E-4B SR-71 c OV. :. . :.. . . Characteristics of US aircraft Aircraft A-7 A-1OA A-370 F-l 1 lA/D/E F-111F F-4C/D/E/G F-14C F-l 5A/B F-l 5C/D F-l 5E F-l 6A F-18 AV-80 AV.135A C-1414/B VC..::. .:. . y: FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.: :.j.:.. : .. .

a 4 question. measured from the bottom 01 the stab 010 5 t1 tar 25. Federal Spscd~cat~on QQ C. Vol 1 ” . follow.orm dra.3th 13proven. or AREA Spsc~t~cat~on l-4-6 (1953) 1 Ptpa produced by certam mwwtacwrsrs exceeds the strsnpth requ~ementr estabhshed by the lndlcsted rtsndardr When sdd. typr __@I pip 60.:. Table 6-13. .andam assembly Mfnlmum cover for greater toadmpr wit be 1 0 h 5 tn seasonal tron areas. from Table 6-12. and 40.ns sgaunst lreezm~ condltoons 3 Covsr tof ptpe w~lhin Iandmg or 1axlw.:. Minimum cover requirements.OOGtb s~npte..57.OOMb d’5 12 24 Singlo-tandrm 36 48 60 ass] V 72 r GAGE 16 14 12 IO 0 20 15 30 25 15 15 35 25 25 20 35 30 25 30 30 35 30 - 6-66 Drainage . i.. in feet. rnl”lrn”rn pipe cover Wlli meel the repvlrementr 01 Table 2 ot Change 1 to EM 11 10 345-283 tor protsct.6060 and Am 1... AASHO M36. (Use 60. chart 13.mnat rtre”. Two examples of this tabulation 60.. the m~“~m”m co”ef may be reduced accordmgty 2 Tabla to be used tar both trench.FM 5-430~OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.000-lb twl”-wheet arsembly.n.000-lb single-tandem assembly (assy).:::: .on 01 s. C130E requires culvert WT type 13.vtI have a m. for airfields (CMP) 10 20 30 35 40 45 10 10 10 15 15 10 20 15 10 15 20 20 20 25 30 20 40 30 30 40 35 35 40 30 30 25 40 35 30 45 45 35 45 45 50 45 35 30 45 40 35 55 50 40 55 50 60 55 45 65 10 10 40 50 55 65 15 15 15 30 15 15 20 15 25 20 -’ ‘Corrugated NOTES: metal pope.y slnps or s!mntar Irattnc areas w~tttbe I” accordance wnth thus table except as prpwded I” no. ‘: 2:. page 6-65.000-lb rr”gte.) Wolght 13 Example 1: C 130E Hercules-12-gage pipe.ype mstatts~mns 4 Pope placed under alrfietd rqd pavenw”ls .and embankment-.mum cove..whest toad 40.000-lb single-tandem-12-gage pipe.

1 I 8-gage (in) Cover required (ft) *Linear 24 30* 36 42* 48 / 1.5 2. sizes listed. 3. 3.75” 3.000-lb single-wheelpipe. (Use chart 5 in Table 6-13. Minimum cover requirements.0 30 25 20 20 15 20 15 20 15 - 15 15 - - From chart: Pipe dia Example 2: 60.5 between Drainage 6-67 .0 20 20 25 25 25 3.5 15 15 2.5 interpolation 2.5 interpolation 2.0 3.75” sizes /is ted.0 between Pipe dia (in) Cover required (ft) *Linear 36 42* 48 54* 60 2.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.ok 2.5 35 30 30 30 30 30 30 6.25. Vol 1 Table 6-14. in feet. for airfields (reinforced concrete pipe) 25 10 10 10 10 10 1.

Except for gage tables. AASHTO Standard M36-57 or to AREA Specification 2. Vertical elongatfon live load. and will load live load Is equivalent to a 32.15 for slccl and Table 6-16 for aluminum alloy. At no time should the invert elevation increase as the flow proceeds downstream. ranging Speclflcation QQ-C-666a t and Aml. the foundation is cambered (curved slightly upward). as shown in Figure 6-41 along the centerline of the culvert to allow for settlement and to ensure tightness in the joints. The bedding is formed and shaped to fit the bottom of the culvert. page 6-64. Table 6-15. Reinforced concrete pipe made under standard specifications can be cased in fill up to 50 feet. CMP will conform to the requirements of Federal (1953).000-lb will be accompllshed by either shop fabrlcatlon or field strutting generally be 5% of the pipe diameter. 6-68 Drainage .FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Maximum permissible cover for CMP NOTES: 1. Bedding (Foundations) The minimum bedding depth for pipe culverts is one-tenth the diameter of the pipe as shown in Figure 6-40. H-20-44 l-4-6 and for loads from dead (earth) axle load. Vol 1 The maximum pcrmissiblc depth of fill (cover) for CMP is given in Table 6. In addition. Table will be used for normal installation conditions only to dead load plus H-20-44 3.

‘. &?+J Figure 6-41. Vertical elongation will be accompllshed by elther shop fabrlcatlon or field strutting and will generally be 5% of the plpe diameter. muck. well-compacted foundations. If a stream bottom is composed of poor material. Vol 1 Table 6-16. Elevation of center section of culvert Culverts are constructed on firm. The composition of the soil on the bottom of the stream should be determined. such as organic matter. The depth of material to be Drainage 6-69 . Good granular material will be required to form a proper compacted and shaped bed. Table will be used for normal Installation conditions for loads ranglng from dead dead load plus H29-44 live load or dead load plus Cooper E-W railway loadlng. Maximum permissible cover for corrugated aluminum-alloy pipe YOTES: 1. 3. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. remove and replace the material. silt. Corrugated-aluminum-alloy pipe will conform to the requirements of AASHTO Standard (earth) M196621. or large material that could puncture the CMP. load only to 2.

hand tamping. page 6-63.or air-operated or if other mechanical tampers arc used. Vol 1 : rcmovcd will depend upon information from borings. as shown in Figure 6-43. Culverts can be placed on properly prepared rock foundations. Trench the rock and backfill with firmly compacted soil for bedding the culvert. since the backfill supports the culvert against soil pressure generated by surface loads as shown in Figure 6-39. The soil selected should be placed carefully in well-compacted layers kept al the same elevation on both sides of the culvert.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. 3” x 12” or 4” X 12” Figure 6-43. or other cxpedicnt methods are used. If logs. Compaction is done in 6-inch layers if hand. 6-70 Drainage . Footings for timber culverts Hand placed and 2’ X4’ Beveled nter to Center Beddina: compactecY fill shaped to fit pipe & or malbr cuhrerts Figure 6-44. can also bc adaptctl for various types of ct~lvcrts and soils. provide cradle footings. When the bearing slrcngth of the soil is complctcly inadcquatc and uneven settlcmcn L is cxpcclcd. Carry the compaction from Lhc culvert bed material to 12 inches or one-ltalf the diamctcr above the top of the culvert (whichcvcr is grcatcr). as shown in Figure 6-44. place the soil in 4-inch layers. Cradle footings Take cart in backfilling around the culvert. Concrete-culvert rock installation in Backfill center to center 6” x 6” Cradb on piles for large culverts and larger fills Figure 6-42. Thcsc footings may rcquirc piling as shown in Figure 6-42. Footings used for timber c~~lvcrts.

USC headwalls on the upstream end of all culverts. hold the soil in place. . Culverts that do not include a downstream hcadwall must bc long enough lo cxlend a minimum of 2 feet beyond the Lot of lhc embankment lo prcvcn 1 erosion. sandbags filled with a soiland-ccmen t mixture may provide the best headwall possible.. headwalls and wing walls should bc rcinforccd concrete or morlared stone. They should be at least 2 feet outside the shoulder so they do not present a traffic hazard./: : : j y: : i:. Ideally... When concrete pipes arc used. If possible. however. and support the ends of the culveri.. These structures are shown in Figure 6-45. as shown Figure 6-46. should have wing walls or retaining walls set at an angle to the headwall. Headwalls close to roads should not protrude above the shoulder grade. The upstream wing wall will guide the waler into Lhc culvert and assist in improving 11-1~ culvert hydraulics. . use a headwall on the downstream end as well. and Aprons Hcadwalls and aprons arc constructed to guide water into the culvert... Headwalls. They can. Vol 1 Length Culvert length is determined by the width of the embankment or soil mass through which the culvert carries water. ::: FM 514301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. be made of expedient material such as lumber. Plank headwall v Concrete headwall Concrete wing wall Figure 6-45. .. both upstream and both ends. Headwalls and wing walls culverts for Drainage 6-7‘1 .:. . prevent or control erosion. The downslream wing wall... .. For speedy construction in the TO. . Wing Walls. When hcadwalls arc not used on the downstream end.I. USC riprap to protect lhc projecting area culvcrl riprap. combined with an apron. downstream. This will help support the fill and direct the water flow to prevent erosion. rcducc seepage.. and thcrcby lessen erosion al the oullct..“. will help reduce the velocity of the stream.:. headwalls are mandatory at Headwalls. logs. the culvert should project beyond the toe of the fill at lcasl 2 feet... page 6-72. Standard designs are in the TM 5-302 series manuals. or sandbags...

FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM


Vol 1

.. :..




Figure Erosion Control






Culverts discharging into open channels should have antiscour protection to prevent erosion. Two types of channel instability can develop downstream from culvert and storm-drain outlets. These conditions, known as gully scour and scour hole, are shown in Figure 6-46. Predict the type of scour for a given field situation by comparing the original or existing channel slope or drainage basin downstream of the outlet to what is required for stability. Gully scour is expected when channel flow exceeds that required for stability. It begins at a point downstream where the

between the outlet and the stable channel, the outlet structure will be completely undermined. Erosion of this type may be considerable, depending on the location of the stable channel section relative to the outlet in both the vertical and downstream directions. View (A) of Figure 6-47 illustrates this condition. A scour hole or localized erosion, as shown in view (Bl of Figure 6-47, is to be expected if the downstream channel is stable. The severity of damage to be anticipated depends on existing conditions or those created at the outlet. In some instances, the extent of the scour hole may be insufficient to produce either instability of the embankment or structural damage to the out-

channel is stable and progresses upstream. If sufficient differential in elevation exists





. .


. .



FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM


Vol 11


(A) Flow

gully scour

Stable slope

Headwalls, wing walls, or channel linings can absorb the energy of flowing water and reduce its velocity to acceptable levels. When wing walls are not provided, line the stream bank and bottom for some distance downstream with riprap or other material. Ditch linings were described in greater detail earlier in this chapter.


scour hole

The hydraulic load on a culvert is the amount of water that will flow to the ulvert inlet, either as direct surface or chartnel-stream flow. Surface flow is determined by the rational and channel-flow-equations methods discussed earlier. outlets Hydraulics of Culverts Culvert quantity of flow (9) is the amount of water the culvert will carry in a unit of time. This capacity is expressed in cfs. For a particular culvert of known size (AI, shape, and interior roughness (n), the discharge capacity is controlled by one or more of the following factors:



Types of scour at culvert

let. However, in many situations, flow conditions produce scour that erodes the embankment and causes structural damage to the apron, end wall, and culvert. This type of outlet erosion of the bottom of the ditch and of the side banks is shown in Figure 6-48. Erosion is best controlled by two methods: velocity reduction and channel protection. Reducing the slope of the culvert reduces the velocity. This solution, however, may require a larger pipe since it changes the capacity of the culvert.

Height of the water above the culvert Hydraulic gradient Elevation outlet. (S) of the culvert.

inlet. Length (L) of the culvert. of the tailwater at the culvert


Top bank of ditch

Slde-bank scour (plan view)

Bottom-scour (wctlon v&w)



Outlet erosion



FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1

The type of inlet is not generally considered in military culvert design. However, it should bc rcmcmbered that the discharge capacity of a culvert will bc increased by a smooth, transition type of inlet with headwalls and wing walls. For construction in the TO, Lhc culvert should have a design capacity sufficient to pass the peak runoff from the design storm.
Hydraulic Gradient

The hydraulic gradient and illustrated in Figure 6-49.



The normal flow pattern for culverts, for which Table 6-17 is used, is shown by view (Al of Figure 6-49. In this case, the water is at crown elevation at the inlet, and the ou tlct is free-flowing. An accumulation of water at the inlet of the culvert is called pending. When ponding occurs, the outlet will normally be free-flowing, but the water will be at some depth above the inlet. When this depth at the inlet is 1.2D or less (where D is the diameter of the culvert), use Table 6- 17 to directly determine Q and V. When the waler depth at the inlet invert is greater than 1.2D and the outlet is free-flowing, use a nomograph (Figure 6-50, page 6-76) to determine Q, and use the continuity equation Q = VA to determine the velocity. When both the inlet and the outlet are completely submerged, use Figure 6-50 exclusively.

The hydraulic gradient (S) of a culvert is one of the culvert discharge capacity controls. It can bc satisfactorily estimated as lhc slope in ft/ft. The gradient is calculatcd by dividing the head (HI on a culvert by the culvert length CL): S = H/L. The head is the diffcrcncc in elevation between the following:

The two ends of a culvert, if both the inlet and the outlet are not submerged. The water surface directly above the inlet and the top of the outlet, if the inlet is submerged and the outlet is not submerged. The water surface directly above the inlet and the outlet, if both the inlet and outlet arc submerged.



Water level


(Al Inlet and outlet unsubmerged s, = H, /I. Water level

(cl Water level

Inlet and outlet submerged Sg=Hg/L

(8) Inlet submerged and outlet unsubmerged s2 = H* /L

@I Drop inlet culvert - inlet submerged and outlet unsubmerged s, = H, /L Hi = heaa on grate





S, and heads,

H, for culverts



:;::;;:i::; i:::~:::l:::l:~:::.:::.:...

.,.,.,..,..,:,.,..,. .,.. :..,>:..,, .,,:...,..,. . :. :,:.::..,::.:::‘.:..::,.. ,.. :y+,::::
:. ,:,.:,.(.
.A., .i... .j ..,,., :,::,::.,.::~::;:.,:


> :j:

.+:.:.:.:.~.‘.;:.:.:‘.:. .. .. . . . ..:;:.:::.:x ::j:$j : ,,.,..., :,..>:.:..: ::::,;:: . .. . .:.>... ..


,j,:; :i;;::(‘:’ ,,


FM 5=43&00=1/AFPAM


Vol 1

Table 6-17. Capacity and critical slope of culverts* (h-fanning’s n of 0.012, 0.018, and 0.024) _. ___

30.9 Tii4





10 10

16 *-716





110 110









2.6 n =O.OlS

TMverts NOTES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

with fraa outlet with water surface at inlet sama elevation as top of pipe and outlet unsubmerged

Values are In da. Horvy horizontal Ilnos indicate “critlcal

l lope.”
diecharge. In fps. condition of aurfaclng allgnment. velocltiaa

Steopar rlopoa than “crltlcal” do not result In Increaaod Numbered Mannlng’r Mannlng’r Mannlng’r “oteppad” Ilnea Indicate appoxlmate n = 0.012 appllea to clay or concrete

pipe; rxcellent

n = 0.019 appllae to CMP; Invert paved to 50% of diameter. n I 0.024 applier to CMP; ofandard unpaved.



FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1


5 6 ; 9 10










The head al entrance (h,) must exceed velocity head plus entrance loss. Compute VI-

600 700 800 900 I,OOcJ

Qi A



section V2

II necessary, until hi > 0.022 for CMP h, > 0.017

7 8 9 10

V2 for others.

O45:e 51



For free outlet. be rpprox,msted ~emcrl

use Ii’ for n. H’ may 8s Ii” less an rssumd


Figure 6-50. Nomograph for culverts


full with ponding


6- 76


FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1



For a given size, A, of the culvert and a given head, H, on the culvert. the discharge capacity of the culvert will increase as the hydraulic gradient increases. This continues until the hydraulic gradient becomes equal to or greater than the critical slope, SC. As the hydraulic gradient is increased beyond the critical slope, culvert discharge remains constant. The area decreases because the pipe does not flow full, and the velocity of flow in the culvert increases because V = Q/A. The critical slope is the maximum discharge. Roughness For the sclcction of the pipe roughness values (n values) for flow determination, rcfcr lo the footnotes to Table 6- 17, page 6-75. Box-Culvert Flow

extent of the pond, the requirement of safety to the structure, and the time it will take to empty the pond. These factors are determined by the runoff rate, the pond volume, and the culvert-flow ralc. They are derived using the following steps: Step 1. Determine the rate of runoff (9) the culvert must drain or, in the case of ponding, the inlet drain capacity, Qd. Step 2. Step 3. Determine Determine the length of the culvert.

the head on the culvert.

Step 4. Using Figure 6-49, page 6-74, determine the size and type of pipe or box culvert required lo handle the quantity of flow, Q. To use this table, enter the nomograph (Figure 6-50) at the intersection of the length for the type and size of culvert (for example, point A in the nomograph). Extend the line horizontally to the turning-point lint (point B in the nomograph), and extend the line to the culvert head, H, in feet (point C in the nomograph). Find the discharge, Q, in cubic feet per second, for the pipe selected at the intersection with the discharge line. Step 5. Compute the discharge velocity, V, in fps. Use the equation, V = Q/A. If the discharge velocity is greater than the maximum permissible velocity for the outfall or the height of the water, in feet, above the top of the culvert inlet is less than 0.022(V2) for CMP or 0.017(V2) for concrete pipe or boxes, either select pipes of larger diameter or decrease the slope of the culvert. Example Outlet) : (Submerged Inlet, Unsubmerged


Flow characteristics of box culverts may be different from those of pipe culverts, even those with the same slope, lining, and inlet and outlet conditions, Flow, 8, can be determined, as previously noted, for the conditions of inlet and outlet water elevations. Assuming that the water elevation of the inlet is at the top of the box and the outlet is free-flowing, the difference in inflow characteristics between pipe and box culverts of the same material and slope is negligible. Box-culvert sizes can therefore be determined by computing the cross-sectional area required for a pipe and then designing a box of the same material, slope, and cross-sectional arca. When the water clcvation is above the top of the box inlet, use the nomograph in Figure 6-50. In this case, make trial solutions until there is correlation between the box size and ponding depth. Design of Culverts with Submerged Inlets

Determine the most economical pipe size and number of pipes required for a culvert across an airfield. The following are known conditions: The outfall from the culvert is a natural drainage channel with dense turf in a GP soil.

Submerging of the culvert inlet results in ponding at the site. The elevation of the pond surface, which will determine the


of submergence,

is a function

of the



FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1



The design flow, Q, is 2 10 cfs. 42-inch and 48-inch available. concrete pipes are


Solution : Step 1.
Q = 2 10 cfs (given).

(c) If the exit velocity is based on a design flow of 70 cfs, the pipe would be flowing only partially full and the exit velocity would be 9.2 fps. This velocity is greater than when the pipe flows full because the resistance to flow decreases until the pipe is flowing approximately 0.8 full. (d) Check to see that Hi 2 0.017(V2).

Step 2. Step 3. H 42-m H 48-m

L = 180 feet (given). Determine head, H. ft t 3.5 ft) ft + 4.0 ft)

Hi = 598.6 ft - (594.0 ft + 3.5 ft) = 1 .l ft and 0.017 x 9.22 = 1.44 (e) Since allowable outfall velocity is exceeded and Hf < 0.017(V2), use three 48inch pipes as the most economical available size. of Design of Pipe Culverts with Unsubmerged Inlets The factors to be applied to the design of these culverts are determined as follows: Step 1. Determine the rale of runoff. Use the area the culvert must drain. This will be the required capacity, &-,, of the culvert. Step 2. Determine culvert use. Will it be used for a road or for an airfield? Step 3. Calculate the critical dimensions from the cross sections. See Figure 6-51. Determine the length in place (LIP) and the fill critical (Fc). Step 4. Determine the largest pipe for the fill. Begin from the cross section at the outside edge of the shoulder. Consider only pipes that are available and for which cover is adequate. For roadway loadings, the maximum culvert diameter is equal to two-thirds of the minimum fill (F-r from Figure 6-5 1, page 6-79). The cover required for culvert protection is equal to one-half the diameter of the culvert or 12 inches (whichever is greater). For runways and taxiways sustaining aircraft wheel loads, refer to Table 6- 12, page 6-65, for the wheel loads and Table

= 598.6 ft - (593.0 = 2.1 ft = 598.6 ft - (593.0 = 1.6 ft

Step 4. Determine the size and number pipes required to handle the flow, Q.

(a) On the cast-concrete-pipe portion of the nomograph. draw a horizontal line from the intersection of the 180-ft L line and the 42-m pipe line (point A) to the turning-point line (point B). From B, draw a line to an H of 2.1 ft (point C). The intersection of this line with the “9” portion of the nomograph shows the maximum discharge of one 42-m pipe to be about 78 cfs. For 210 cfs, three would be required. (b) Similarly, for the 48-in pipe, 180 ft length, and 1.6 ft H, proceed from D to E to F and find that one 48-m pipe would have a capacity discharge of about 92 cfs. Again, three would be required for 2 10 cfs. Step 5. Compute the discharge velocity, and check for excessive outlet velocity. Check smaller pipe. V,

(a) Since three pipes are used, assume each will carry one-third the total Q or 70 cfs, whichever is greater. (b) is78 3.14(1.75)2 = 8.1 fps If the pipe flows full, the exit velocity



,,,,., .......~..~...~. .,...,.... ... .., .,..,.,,,.,,. . ..... ., .....>:.:,.: . .. . ,. ,..... . .., ........,.,. >:...: ..,.....,
>..$:,..>>::‘,:‘::::x:,::: > . . ..‘..~:::‘.:.:::..

., : ‘. .: ‘:






FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1

F, = El - EL, =
s, = F, x X = F, = EL - EL, =
S, = F, x Y =

F, = S x S, = F, = F, + F, = LIP = s, + TW + s, + 2’ =

EL, - EL, S = ____________________________ = _____ __ ___. _________________ = s, + TW + s, . . . F, (Fill 1) = roadway elevation at the outer edge (EL,) -the

F, = F, - D,

elevation at the toe of the slope (Ek),

S, (Slope horizontal distance on the inlet slde of the road) = Fill 1 x the “x’ value (horizontal component of the inlet side slope ratio). F2 (Fill 2) = roadway elevation at the outer edge of the road on the outlet side (Et-s) - the elevation at the toe of the slope on the outlet end. S, (Horizontal distance of the roadside slope on the outlet end) = Fill 2 x the “Y” value (horizontal component of the outlet side slope ratlo). S (Slope) = the difference between EL, and EL, divided by the sum of S, + TW (top wldth across the road) + S,. Fs (Fill 3) = fill amount from the existlng ground on the inlet side to the culvert inlet. FT (Fill Total) = Fill 1 t Fill 3. LIP (Length In Place) = S, + TW + S, + 2’. F, (Fill Critical) = Fill total minus DP (diameter of the pipe).


. . . . .

Figure 6-51. Calculating cover



FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1

6- 13, page 6-66, for the minimum

or Table 6- 14, page cover required.

l l



type = 9. by culvert = 32 cfs. the maxi= 3-4 fps.

Step 5. Determine the culvert capacity, QP, and outlet velocity. Use values based on culvert material and slope and Table 6-17, page 6-75. Step 6. Determine the number of culvert pipes required. Divide the area runoff, Q, by the pipe capacity, QP. Round up to the next whole number. Step 7. Determine the order length (OLI. The OL is calculated by multiplying the number of pipes (NPI times the LIP times a waste factor of 1.15. (See step 3 for the LIP and step 6 for the NP.) Step 8. Determine the maximum permissible discharge velocity, Vmax. Use Table 6-6, page 6-43, to calculate Vmax for the channel lining into which the culvert outlet will discharge. Determine the correct pipe to be used. Apply the following criteria in your calculations:

Q to be handled

* .

Soil type is bare SC; therefore, mum allowable outlet velocity

Pipe sizes available: 24-, 30-, 36-, and 42-inch CMP, 10 gage.

Referring to Figure 6-52, note that the following information is required before design can be accomplished: Horizontal length of one culvert, L.

Slope of culvert pipe needed to determine the flow characteristics of various pipe diameters (see Table 6- 17, page 6751 and Fc, which is a portion of the critical fill depth, Ft. Critical fill depth, Ft, in order to determine if the cover over the pipe meets the requirements of Table 6- 13. Solution: the runoff Step 1. Determine for this example, Q = 32 cfs. Step 2. Determine airfield rate. Given

Be sure the outlet velocity is equal to or less than the maximum velocity of the channel lining into which the culvert outlet will discharge. If outlet velocity exceeds the soils Vmax, the outlet must be protected against erosion. Use the least number of culvert pipes possible to carry the total flow and still be consistent with the above criteria. (Unsubmerged Inlet): pipe size for a with the below. The class for




Step 3. Calculate the critical dimensions. Computations should be made in the following sequence (see Figures 6-52 and 6-53): * Determine the difference in elevation between the edge of the runway and the culvert upstream invert. Fi = EL1 - EL2 Fi = 607.00 - 600.80


Determine the most economical and the quantity of pipe required culvert located under a runway, general data cross section given maximum using aircraft weight this example will be an SR-71C. No headwall down-stream. conditions:

= 6.20

it be-

will be constructed The following are known

Determine the horizontal distance tween the culvert invert and the shoulder edge.

Aircraft SR-7 1C. (Refer to Tables and 6- 13, pages 6-65 and 6-66.)

6- 12

= Fi xX Si = 6.20 x 10 = 62 ft Sl



:. :,..: : :.::,,:.~j:.~:,. .,,;: : ::j::. j ,::,: : ,,,.. :,.



:..i(,j,j :: :: ,j:; :: .‘,.,




FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM


Vol 1

_“‘I,M)7.0 loo DP

L 2





1 \ I F3 L
600.8 I Sl




inlet culvert


F, = EL, - EL, = dOZo’-

boo.& f0 =






,3r ’ 6,571’

s, = F, x X =


CZ’* 7.38’ 73.f

F, = F, + F, = LIP = s, t lw

t s, + 2’ = 237,g.d

F, = EL, - EL, = &07.0:59Q.

S, = F,x

Y =






F, (Fill 1) = roadway


at the outer edge (EL,) - the elevation

at the toe of the slope (horizontal


S, (Slope horizontal distance on the inlet side of the road) = Fill 1 x the “X’ value component of the inlet side slope ratio). F2 (Fill 2) = roadway elevation elevation at the outer edge of the road on the outlet

. .

side (EL3) - the

at the toe of the. slope on the outlet end. (horizontal

S, (Horizontal distance of the roadside slope on the outlet end) = Fill 2 x the “Y’ value component of the outlet side slope ratio). S (Slope) = the difference road) t S,. F3 (Fill 3) = fill amount FT (Fill Total) LIP (Length between EL, and EL, divided by the sum of S, t W


(top wldth across the

. . . .

from the existing


on the inlet side to the culvert


= Fill 1 t Fill 3. = S, t TW t S, t 2’. of the pipe).

In Place)

F, (Fill Critical)

= Fill total minus DP (diameter




cover (sample



6-8 1

Dp. - l Dclcrminc the actual slope of the culvert. Starting with the largest pipe available. corresponding to culvert WT 9. and select chart 9.005 foot per foot or 0. Fc represents the actual cover over the pipe at the critical section.EL4 FP = 607. Determine the culvert capacity.5 feet (rounded to the nearest tenth of a foot).EL4 S1 t TW t S2 fj = s = 600. Repeat the process using the next smaller pipe available. refer to Table 6-12. S2 = F2 x Y Sp = 7.8 t 2 = 237.8 (Round up to 238 ft) ft. This gives a culvert length of 238 feet for a single pipe. Subtract Dp from total fill. Determine the largest pipe for the fill.8 .62 = 7. A 2-foot projection is added because there is to be no downstream headwall. Compare Fc to cover required.31 = 6. The CMP available is 10 gage.01 feet against a required cover of 4.38 x 10 = 73.005 = 0. With this information.17.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. It has a Fc of 3. Use Table 6. The slope of the culvert is 0. page 6-65. CR.18 235. 42-inch or 3. Start by entering the largest pipe available.8 ft NOTE: These computations depict the cross section and Figure 6-53. rounded up to an even value of 236 feet.5 feet. FT.005 l Dctcrminc Chc incrcmcntal elevation difference bctwcen the elevation of the upstream invert and the invert of the culvert at the critical fill section. CR is 4. page 6-75. summarizes the calculations. ft/ft = 0.5 feet. refer to Table 6-13. 6-82 Drainage . To find CR for aircraft. EL2 .8 = 0. page 6-81. to find the capacity and velocity for the 36-inch pipe. determined thatit has been l The actual length of the culvert is 235. This pipe will work.62 62 + 100 t 73.31 ft 0. F2 = EL3 .51 ft (Length of horizontal projection ol the culvcrl.:: l Dcterminc the difference in elevation betwccn the cdgc of the runway and the culvert outlet and fill slope. Fc.8 feet. to get fill critical. which indicate that an SR-7 1C aircraft has a culvert weight type (WT) of 9. into the table.5 feet) cannot be used because its actual cover is 3.) The upstream invert elevation to downstream invert elevation isLIP = SI t TW + S2 t 2 ft LIP = 62 t 100 t 73.8 or 0.2 t 0. 36-inch pipe.0 feet (interpolated between pipe diameters.38 ft Determine the horizontal distance between the edge of the runway and the intersection of the culvert and fill.5 percent. Vol 1 . From these calculations. Step 5. The depth of fill at the critical section is 6. l Determine the depth of critical fill section.0 feet. Ft = F1 t Fn Ft = 6. page 6-66.5% _ 1.51 feet and a CIX of 3.005 Step 4.) Enter this value in Table 6-18. Prepare a table as shown in Table 6-18 and fill in all known values. The 42-inch pipe (3.599. The diameters and cover are given in chart 9 under the lo-gage line.599.00 .5 percent F3 = S x SI F3 = 62 x 0.

therefore. Entering the graph from the top (pipe diameter). pages 6-65 and 6-66. the pipe selected will be 36 inches in diameter with a length in place of 476 feet. The slope of the culvert is 0.2 or two 36-inch diameter pipes. move down the column until you intersect with the slope in the left-hand column. Drainage 6-63 . The velocity of flow is shown by following the respective shaded or unshaded areas down and to the left until it ends in the velocity column..5 Pipe Dla Fill Critical Cover Reqd *For aircraft. *CR 6. the value of 1. for roads.15 = 1. The velocity indicated is 4 feet per second Step 6.0 3.5 = 1. and assembling. .096 feet of pipe. 2/3 F. The next step is determining the length of pipe to be ordered. F.51 3. Vol 1 Table 6-18.. This will state the quantity of flow in the pipe. The order length is calculated by multiplying NP (Step 6) times LIP (step 3) times a waste Since pieces of material wllI factor (WF)..D.8 ft The pipe comes in 2-foot increments.. the number of pipe rcquircd is 32/27. an additional amount over the actual in-place length will be required.51 3. For this example. The length to order will beNP x LIP x WF 2 x 476 x 1.5 3. For this project. This value has been determined to be 15 percent of the total length of pipe required. Total Fill F. Step 7. 27. transporting. . see Tables 6-12 and 6-13. 4 feet per second.01 4. = F. .8 is rounded up to the next even value. Determine the number of pipe required to carry the flow by dividing the total (8) of 32 cubic feet per second (step 11 by the pipe capacity.5 cubic feet per second for the 0. The 36-inch pipe has a capacity of 27.5 percent slope.0 6. or 1.5 percent.51 3.- Unsubmerged inlet sample data F.. D.. FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. handling.094.094. be damaged in manufacturing.5 cubic feet per second (step 51 and rounding up to the next whole pipe.

terrain conditions. . the final grading plan is required to compute the volume of permissible ponding. The ponding areas store excess runoff until the intensity of the storm decreases and the structure can handle the flow. The actual time during which ponding is allowable will depend upon the type and condition of the soil in the ponding area and the embankment. overloading the drainage structures. In some casts. Thus. the amount of freeboard required to prevent overtopping of the road. military drainage systems are designed to pass the runoff from the design storm without ponding. the preparation of runoff curves. and the soil analysis must be done before designing ponding areas to meet the above specifications and assumptions. . a contour line may bc selected to provide a ponding area located a safe distance or elevation from the pavement. or other conditions. ponding areas..::. the adjacent fill side slope should be made less steep to prevent the sloughing of saturated fill. by definition. In general. . When possible. fill. a system may not be able to take care of the runoff from the design storm. . :. and the time allowed for the pond to empty. Ponding volumes may be computed from the contour map by the average-end-area method. - The determination of permissible volume. due to limitations in culvert cover and space. the height of the headwall and wing wall. In anticipation of this event. this period will be no more than four hours from the start of the storm.. Vol 1.FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. is expected to be equaled or exceeded at least once in the design period. the depth of the pond will be determined by the porosity of the l The volume of permissible ponding is determined by the elevations of the area available for such ponding and the A contour map showing surrounding areas. l Military drainage structures in the TO are designed to discharge the runoff based on the 2-year design storm which. When a pond is used with road fills or embankments. However. include sufficient ponding areas in the original plan to prevent flooding of vital areas.. By inspection. An increase in the head because of ponding does not increase the discharge capacity of the culvert. time. ‘. materials.:. This method is 6-84 Drainage . The following specifications are generally adhered to in the design of ponding areas for military installations: l The pond must be drained before damaging infiltration of the subgrade can occur. j ji: : : . the following are made to simplify the and to retain satisfactory In designing assumptions calculations accuracy: l l A culvert discharges its design capacity before runoff starts to accumulate at the inlet and form a pond. PERMISSIBLE VOLUME The edge of the pond must be at least 75 feet from the edge of the pavement when used for runway and taxiway design. To provide for this. a storm more severe than the design storm may occur and generate excessive runoff... PONDING AREAS Ponding the inlet from the discharge capacity is the accumulation of runoff at of a drainage structure resulting inability of the system to more of the runoff than the rated of the structure. When ponding is anticipated. design the arcas around the inlets of drainage structures to accommodate a certain amount of ponding.. some provision for ponding may be made in those areas where flooding for a period of time will not affect the facility’s operational status.

It should be noted that the contours are concentric: the 66-foot contour-line area includes the area bounded by the 64-foot contour line. .000 Volume 64-66 cubic feet feet feet b = vertical distance.000 = 45. Determine the volume of the pond.. Water can be safely ponded to the 66-foot contour line.. page 6-86. Assume that the ponding area extends to the 68-foot contour line.000 + 35. Vol 1 - the average of the areas. consider the contours shown in Figure 6-54. or any other method. Volume 62-64 = ‘“‘oo20 + ’ x 2 = 10.. Use a planimeter. In this case. between contours (contour interval) As an example of computing the volume for ponding. FM 5-4301001l/AFPAM 32-8013.000 square B = area in square in square = 25Pooo i loBooo x 2 of the next contour = 35. Figure 6-54.000 cubic feet The total volume of the ponding arca is10..000 square feet. the 66-foot contour line encloses 25. The 68-foot line encloses a total area of 30.000 cubic feet A further example of the computation of ponding volumes by the average-end-area method is shown in Figure 6-55.b 2 whereV = volume in cubic feet A = area of the first contour feet.000 square feet. : . in square feet. in feet. The bottom of the inlet end of the culvert is at an elevation of 62 feet. The 64-foot contour line encloses 10. enclosed by two adjacent contour lines and multiplied by the contour interval in feet. to determine the total area enclosed by each contour. Ponding area Drainage 6-85 . VzA+*.

000 cubic cubic feet feet Prepare a cumulative runoff curve based on the data given.000 2 feet cubic The total volume available for ponding will bc 10. in inches per hour. Column 3 is the intensity. using the rational method. Ponding Column Column 6 = (column 6 = (163)(300) 4Hcolumn = 48. Q. in seconds.75.. for each one of the minute values of column 1. The weighted C value is 0. All data required to plot a cumulative runoff curve. Ponding may be required to reduce the culvert size.2 inches per hour for a I -hour storm with a 2-year frequency. The shows how such a curve Column 1 is a tabulation of time in minutes. column 1. Any similar combination of time increments can be used as long as enough properly spaced points are obtained to plot a smooth curve. in minutes (column 11. page 6-9.19. and the area in acres. The value of 2. C (as determined for the area using the rational method).. Column 4 is the rate of runoff. amount of water an area a pond. These values are obtained from the standard intensity-duration curve number 2. :. For the first five minutes of rainfall. Tabulation of Data-Rational Method is -I = 2 x 30. given in Top view Column 6 is the quantity of water supplied to the pond for the time given in column 1.000 = 100. Vol 1 . consisting of 23.2 is the location intensity. The cumulative runoff curve is constructed by plotting time.000 + 35. of the l-hour. It is obtained by multiplying columns 2 and 3 (9 = CIA).000 cubic feet. in cfs. for the entire interval of time shown in column 1. if (hc ponding area cxtcnds to lllc 68-fool contour lint.000 + 25.000 + 55.000 = 55. shown in Table 6. Column 5 is the time. the TOC is 13 minutes. Each column is prepared as follows: RUNOFF CURVES To rletcrminc the will contribute lo runoff curve must following example is prepared : Example: An area has 33. a-year storm as specified in Ihe given conditions.2 in Figure 6-4. in inches per hour.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.. a cumulative be plotted. Volume 62-64 Volume 64-66 Volume 66-68 = 10.900 5) cubic feet 6-86 Drainage . against volume in cubic feet (column 6). the quantity of water entering the pond is given byarea enlarged Figure 6-55.000 = 35.3 acres of impervious soil and 10 acres of paved surface. Column 2 is the product of the runoff coefficient. and the loca tion intensity is 2.3 acres.‘.

000 270..:.:: j .BM _~___ 7..:. 2-year storm A = 33.6 i 4.900 82.::~~:~ 32-8013.i 1. Preparation of Cumulative Runoff Curve Q = 0.I /.~.2 I 1..000 cubic feet. Table 6-17. ~.:. in minutes (column 1.~. Analysis of Cumulative Runoff Curve 30-inch pipe al 36-inch pipe at 42-inch pipe at 48-inch 60-inch 24 cfs = 6 pipes 38 cfs = 4 pipes 57 cfs = 3 pipes pipe at 80 cfs = 2 pipes pipe at 140 cfs = 1 pipes These pipes In the above sizes and quantities will pass the flow without ponding.j : . The requirement is to reduce the flow past the outlet point by using a single culvert and allowing ponding at the inlet. FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM -.: 1: j .~.4 would be as follows: The cumulative runoff curve is obtained by plotting the volume (column 6.: : : .~.~.‘:.800 3 174.2 inches per hour for the l-hour.~..<! .75 I = 4.. the cumulative discharge is a straight-line function for any time interval with a line passing through the origin. the flow for the culvert design shown in Ngure 6-55 would be determined as follows: Q = CIA The safe volume for ponding is 100.8M . ANALYSIS FOR PONDING Based upon the data given in the problem.x:x.‘r Jj.024) on a 1. rational method 2 3 4 6 6 Cxrrrr..6 82. page 6-88.000 cubic feet. .:yj. Table 6-19) obtained by the rational method..0 After 20 minutes from the start of rainfall.2-percent slope discharges 24 cfs. on the horizontal axis.4 2.a _-ii 163. 0. :: .3 Intondty (Inlhr) 6.4 cfs.. .6 66 32. .200 1.~.:.:.000 : 134.j: .~.~.75 x 4.~.75 x 33.~.600 60 60 120 180 198.c+ :.::. pzY.6 2.:: . Table 6.6 26 Tlmo WC) 300 600 900 1.~~~~~ : :.2 percent (Figure 6-55) when Q = 122. on the vertical axis and the time.3 Q (cff4 163 130 116 106 86 72...3 acres Drainage 6-67 ..9 for a TOC of 13 minutes and a location intensity of 2.200 or 126.400 mm 3. Vol 1 Table 6-19. The number of culverts at a slope of 1.19)..800 103.200 _~__ 10.)‘. The cumulative runoff curve for the data listed in Table 6-19 is shown in Figure 6-56.::~::::::::::j.000 1. wherec = 0.. reveals that a 30-inch CMP culvert (n = 0.000 I 6 16 20 30 40 2.9 2.> .ow 1 187.~.3 = 122. Assuming that the pipe always discharges at the rated capacity.:‘i’:..-__ Volume (a fi) 48. Cumulative runoff data tabulation..:.6 4.::i:I:~:i:i:i:i:::::::j:::.600 12a. if no water was released from the pond. the volume of water would be equal to 105 x 1..~::::::::::::.2 3.. page 6-75.9 x 33.

c> .:. . In this case.000 cubic feet with a pond time of 95 Since the safe ponding volume of minutes.000 cubic feet.‘:.. rtlnoff will have equaled amount of water passed From then on..‘.:. ~. :_j.:.‘/Y.:...:.:...:.:. next determine whether or not the ponding area is large enough.y.000 cubic feet1 is 115..:.000 cubic feet of water have been supplied to the pond by the rain- 6-88 Drainage . Cumulative runoff curve - Continue these slraight intersect the cumulative the point of intersection.::‘:.I.000 cubic feet.000 cubic feet and the 4-hour limit on the ponding time are not exceeded..iI. In addition...\:. . 100.y .:“‘:..... Therefore.i. In view of the fact that the safe ponding volume is only 100. y’::‘.. Figurc 6-56 shows that the greatest vertical distance between the cumulative runoff curve and the 30-inch cumulative discharge volume is lint P..:..:. .::. storm.. . Line P represents the maximum volurnc of water ponded behind the X0-inch culvert. Knowing how long the pond will exist behind the inlet.. the cumulative supply curve shows that 175.. the 30-inch culvert has theoretically been able to discharge 60..000 cubic feet. ... which must still be in the pond. .‘.. ... At the cumulative the cumulative by the culvert.. the pond volume will be 75. ::....:.. the 36-inch culvert is satisfactory.. Measuring lint P by the vertical scale used in Figure 6-56 indicates that the maximum ponding volume will bc 115..:.. Vol 1 T..:. At the end of 42 minutes.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013... the difference between the quantity supplied (175../. be no ponding. Figure 6-56.‘. there will lines so that they runoff curve..:.: .i. 30-inch CMP is unsatisfactory because the safe ponding volume would be exceeded. Make the same calculations for 36-inch culvert. .:.:.’ .::::>. .L.000 cubic feet.:. the excess volume of 25.000 cubic feet will be available for storms that may cxcccd the design storm.000 cubic feet) and the quantity discharged (60.. :.:. Al 42 minutes.+:.

- OF PONDING Although ponding is an added safeguard against the effects of storms more severe than the design storm. A framework of bars. to select the minimum size grating required. drop inlets are used to collect surface runoff from paved and turfed areas. check the additional cost against the savings in reduction of pipe size. Ponding appreciably reduces pipe sizes for areas that have a short TOC. Ponding allows for reductions in the size of culvert pipe necessary to handle runoff. This will be the required discharge capacity. A typical drop inlet is shown in Figure 6-57. or a perforated plate called a grating. 1. passes the storm runoff into a drop inlet. and ditches. Inlet grating should be placed 0. or reinforced concrete with adequate strength to withstand the anticipated load. vertical entrances to a culvert or a storm drain. An expedient grating can easily be fabricated using reinforcement bars welded together. its primary use is as an economy measure. Facilities for ponding should be coupled with initial grading operations. This is done where fill does not provide sufficient cover or where discharge velocity is erosive and can be controlled only by changing the slope. street gutters. Q. gutter. Drainage 6-89 . refer to Table 6-20. This area should be sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the design storm. Knowing the head.2 foot below the grade. brick. may be used to lower the elevation of the culvert inlet below ditch elevation. and the design discharge capacity. When a drop inlet is used in a ditch. Determine the peak rate of runoff.FM 5-4309OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. or CMP sections. For longer TOCs. if additional pipe or other construction is required for pending. 3. ponding has little or no effect on pipe sizes. This will allow for the settlement of the area around the grating and will provide a sumped area to ensure complete drainage around the grating and positive interception of surface and gutter runoff. The grating serves as both a filter and a cover for the inlet. to secure the most efficient use of personnel and equipment. DROP INLETS AND GRATINGS Drop inlets. It should also have enough reserve capacity to take care of storms more intense than the design storm. cast iron. from the area that drains into the drop inlet. timber. or ponding area. page 6-9 1. Determine the load (depth of water or head) on the grating at times of peak runoff. To determine the proper size of gratingQ. However. of the grating. steel plate. page 6-91. Inlet grating should be fabricated of steel bars. The use of ponding as an economy measure is often restricted by the area available for ponding. page 6-90. Multiply the required grating size by the appropriate safety factor to determine the actual grating size to use. if possible. H. the head will be the depth of water running in the ditch or gutter. Gratings arc shown in Figure 6-58. CONSTRUCTION OF DROP INLETS AND GRATINGS Drop inlets should always be protected with some type of grating. or the depth of the pond. A drop inlet may be constructed of concrete. For storm drains (underground culverts or conduits designed to carry surface runoffl. Q. Vol 1 ADVANTAGES . 4. The loads may 2. These gratings should be spaced to readily admit debris which will pass unobstructed through the culvert. range from the weight of debris collected over the grating to vehicle or aircraft wheel loads.

250 feet to Qof SECTION A-A Riprap PLAN Figure 6-57. Grating openings should be at least 18 inches long and should be placed parallel to the direction of flow. Vol 1 Place grating 0. Drop inlets 6-90 Drainage . determine the area of grating openings.2 ft or more below proposed grading elevation to provide sumped area around inlet & A safety factor of 50 percent (1. The area of the grating openings is estimated at 50 percent of the total grating area.5 x total grating area) for paved areas and 100 percent (2 x total grating area) for turfed areas should be added to the grating-area measurement to compensate for debris caught in the openings.FM 5-430-OOWAFPAM 32-8013. When using bars with large openings. 2ft6in minh+l .

0 34. . Clear ope”m9 between 9rats bars w.7 04 1.4 199 21 2 11. Periodic maintenance of drop inlets should include removing the cover and inspecting and cleaning the chamber.6 20 4.0 21 6 2E 4 U4 63 9 1137 . must be covered with bars. Discharge capacity of square grate inlets GM9 oprnlng (qfl) 02 04 06 06 10 12 Head 14 lizo of wstor on 16 16 gralo (Ii) 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 90 100 (In) 6x6 9x9 12rlZ 15x15 16x16 2lr21 14r24 30130 361136 42x42 48x49 0 12 0 26 0 50 0 76 112 1. A = 9rnte opening from the 4.1 76.1 506 543 56.6 609 74. total grate wee 5.5 1269 21 4.0 22. it will tend to fill with debris making cleaning difficult.3 41 1 59 2 16. 450 612 600 47. If the box is left open.0 05.5 34 16 37 16 40 11 1 19 43 11. Grate size should 6 Grate sot* should bs increased be increased taken to be 50% of 50% in paved areas 100% m turisd areas Drainage 6-97 .5 68..2 NOTES: 1 Capacity ts in cubic feet per second calculated from the weir 2 Values to Islt of HEAW line were formula Q =3L+. This damage could consist of saturation of the subgrade by the pond or direct flooding of adjacent areas.6 13.FM 50430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.1 233 30.4 47. a pond could form at the inlet. Valuer orifwe to rqht formula Cl=5 of HEAW line weare cslculsted 37AH’h.5 164 37.9 85 10.00 312 03 0.4 135. Figure 6-58.6 23.3 191 26. Expedient drop inlets of the type shown in Figure 6-39.0 53. resulting in damage to nearby structures.4 07 15 07 17 06 16 06 19 09 20 09 21 12 26 13 30 1.53 2. Grating heads GIllI. A maintenance schedule must be established to check and clean debris from the inlets and gratings. 1 = perimeter 3.9 96.5 142 29 1 124 164 33.3 121. especially if a pond has developed.0 05 1 . page 6-63.5 11. view (Al.l 06 1.7 10.5 146 201 26.9 17.4 65. Table 6-20. Vol 1 MAINTENANCE OF DROP INLETS AND GRATINGS Drop inlets and gratings require continuous maintenance because debris collects at the openings.5 12 6 161 247 32 2 503 71. If these openings are not kept clean.6 13.

Base drainage is rcquircd where frost action occurs in the su bgradc beneath the pavemcnl and whcrc groundwater rises to the bottom of the base course through natural conditions or from ponding of surface runoff. > j:::: . page 6-94. Subgrade drainage is required for permanent construction when seasonal fluctuations of groundwater may be expected to rise to less than 1 foot below the bottom of Figure 6-60. The techniques and combinations depend on the conditions existing in the area to be drained. Vol 1 j. Easily built and readily enlarged. page 6-94. A typical intercepting drainage section is shown in Figure 6-62. establishes the criteria to follow in these cases. These drains. This technique is feasible when* l A gravity drainage system is impractical. subgrade drainage. page 6-97. Base drainage is required if the subgradc coefficient of permeability is smaller than the coefficient of permeability indicated in Table 6-22. pervious soil layers.. The coefficient is cxprcsscd in units of velocity such as fpm or ccntimetcrs per second (cm/set). Generally. SUBSURFACE SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE CRITERIA When surface failures prove that natural subsurface drainage is inadequate. a property of each soil type. the finished grade must be at least 5 feet above the mean groundwater table level. Generally. deep Vditches with free outfall may be feasible. Base drainage is also required at the low point of longitudinal grades in excess of 2 percent where Ihe subgrade coefficient of permeability is less than 1 x 10m3fpm. is defined as the discharge velocity at a unit hydraulic gradient. Deterrninc the cocfficicnt of permeability experimentally. or in seepage from springs. The coefficient of permeability. base-course material is avail- l Deep Ditch Where ditches will nol interfere with operations or become a hazard to traffic. it becomes necessary to determine if a subsurface drainage system is needed. page 6-96. cithcr by laboratory test or by an actual field lest of the soil involved. these ditches provide positive interception and 6-92 . The techniques that follow should be considered when planning and designing subsurface drainage. what type io install. base drainage will be required. in exposed rock cuts. This condition is often encountered in thin. Depth of Base Course The base course may be built up to a specified depth above the groundwater table. Figure 6-59 shows a typical section of base drainage. Adequate able.Drainage . DRAINAGE a typical example of a subgrade drainage section. Base drainage gcncrally consists of subsurface drainpipes laid parallel and adjacent to pavcmcnl cdgcs with pervious material joining the base and the drain.:. and if so. Figure 6-61. and interccpting drainage. The condition to be controlled is limited to a small area such as a narrow swamp crossing. Intercepting drainage is required when water seeping into a pervious layer will raise the groundwater locally to a depth of less than 1 foot below the bottom of the base course. SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE TECHNIQUES Subsurface water can be controlled through a combination of techniques.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. will serve as a guide for spacing drains. although similar to base drains. subsurface drainage may be divided into three classes: base drainage.. have a larger area of filter material in contact with the subgrade. Table 6-21.. Whcrc pavcmen t becomes tempor arily inundated and there is little possibility that the water will drain from the base into lhc subgradc. shows lhc course. page 6-95.

A .y:i:. Figure 6-59. Typical base drainage installations Natural Drainage Channels Where possible and practical...... :.. j ‘.: . .:.. drainage of subsurface water before it reaches the area to be protected...‘.. :.. :. . and right-of-way are factors to be considered before using this solution ... Erosion. . Drainage 6-93 . . : : . maintenance. This technique may be particularly effective in pervious soil...p : j:::. . <j’ .. water in existing natural drainage channels should be lowered when corresponding effective lowering of the groundwater table will occur.: :..:’ : j .:. ‘.j:..: . ..::: :::):... :‘I FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.i:x . ‘:. . Vol 1 Pavement I Compact filter material I ........ j ...:rg:. i. .: :.y.. .-:.. :..: :j::: . ....l’: j:j : j ... : :.....:.. :.‘. ..:. ...’ traffic.‘.::.: .: .

Table 6-21.. . are not recommended for permanent construction because they tend to silt up over time.. Where the perforations do not extend completely around the circumference of the pipe.’ c Clean gravel Clean sand. Vol 1 .j’i. vitrified clay. :.. collars are not needed over the joints. the bedding. or other installation work gives no warning prior to failure. The latter is the In general.. stratified clay deposits “Impervious soils” Homogeneous clays below zone of weathering I’ ‘Impervious soils” which are modified by the effects of vegetation and weathering 6-94 Drainage .. - Table 6-22.e drainage. silt. clean sand and gravel mixtures GF-SF-MH Types of aoll Very fine sands. nonreinforced concrete. the placement of filter material. Such failure is extremely difficult to repair when discovered.0 10-l (log scale) 10-2 10-3 10-4 (1 cm/set 10-e 10-e = 2 ft/min) 10-7 10-e 10-g I I Good ~rrlnrgr I I I Poor dralnago I I I Practically impervious I Dralnago properties I. This type of pipe is generally made of vitrified clay. Drainage characteristics of soil K in cmhec 102 10’ I 1. I t Blind soil with K = 10-T is more prone to capillary sctiol than a soil with K = 10-8.430900. and clay. Drains Blind or French drains are constructed by filling a ditch or trench with broken or crushed rock.. :.FM 5..l/AFPAM 32-8013. /. these drains are often used as a substitute for perforated or open-joint pipe or on filter materials used with such piping. The most common form of subsurface drainage is perforated pipe. and asbestos cement. mixtures of sand. the pipe is generally laid with the holes down and the joints Materials used in manufacturing closed.j:.zp j. or cast iron. nonreinforced concrete. French drains general practice. the pipe placement. Soll cln8slflcstlon Drains very rapidly GW-SW Drains rapidly GP-SP Drains slowly ML-OL Drains very slowly GC-SC-CL Drainage imperceptible CL-CH-OH . Failure of the subsurface system stemming from improper control of the grade. glacial till. If the filter material has been properly designed.j. or the rock may be covered by a relatively impervious soil so that no surface water can penetrate. Base drainage criteria for K Subsurface Pipe IYOte: Capillary action is related inversely to permeability.j. In cases where a V-type or other open-ditch type drainage system is not practical. this type of pipe are corrugated metal.:j: . :.. Bell and spigot pipes can be laid with open joints. organic and inorganic sifts. The top surface of the rock may be left exposed so that the trench will act as a combination surface and subsurfact drain. ::c::>.. bituminized fiber. In TO construction. cast iron. it necessary to resort to construction may of subsurfa-.

. ..::: . Surface runoff often carries sediment and soil from the drained area into the system.. . Typical subgrade drainage installation Porous concrete pipe is laid with closed joints. : . Farm tile is laid with butt joints slightly separated to permit collection of water through the joint.j . Vol 1 Pavement -- Base CQurse Min rlafx 0.: L’ .0015 High point Recommended maximum distance between manholes: 1.y:. Combination Drainage System -- Combination drains. FM 5-4309001l/AFPAM 32-8013. . Because of its low resistance to high-impact loads..000 ft Figure 6-60.:. farm tile is not recommended for use on airfields. . . For this reason. . It collects water by seepage thrbugh the wall of the pipe and should not be used where sulfated waters may cause disintegration of the concrete. :. subsurface drainage systems using some form of piping are Drainage 6-95 . This clogs the system and causes flow stoppage. Materials commonly used in manufacturing farm tile are clay or concrete.:. which attempt to handle both surface runoff and subsurface water in the same pipe system.:. . are recommended..

:.. <j. Vol 1 : . They should be laid according to the following specifications: 6-96 Drainage .‘A:::.. :...:... ..:: .. . PIPE-LAYING CRITERIA There are essentially four different types of pipe available for subsurface drainage... .::.. . . Types of subsurface drainage generally sealed so that surface runoff cannot enter. ::... .I. The only drainage system which will satisfactorily handle both surface runoff and subsurface water is the open channel or ditch...: . . as previously mentioned. .FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM r 32-8013.:: Surface intercupting ditch intercepting surface lntercepling drain n a Pocketed area Storm drain Pervious layer materiil Finished or8 Interceptor / stratum Figure 6-61.::. .

page 6-95. in which the invert is defined as the lowest point in the internal cross section of the pipe at the particular location.15-foot drop in elevation per 100 feet of length. With long intercepting lines l Drainage 6-97 . Pipe should be at least 6 inches in diameter with 6-inch pipe being used for all drains. Vol 1 Shoulder lmpwious material 11 minimum (usualty 6 in) Pervious stratum Figure 6-62. l Manholes should be provided at intervals of not more than 1. with flushing risers between manholes and at dead ends as shown in Figure 6-60.000 feet. Typical intercepting drainage installations l The minimum slope for subdrainage pipe is a 0.:: FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The elevation of a pipe at any particular location is generally specified by the invert elevation.

grain-size curve with gradual changes of slope. calcium chloride prevent freezing.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. freely draining soil layer. Cu. Poorly-graded. When the drain discharges into a pipe of equal or only slightly larger size. . They permit fast runoff from melting snow to get through the frozen soil and reach a pervious stratum. or a layer of hay to The ccntcr of subgradc drains should be located at least 1 foot below the bottom of the base course and not less than 1 foot below the groundwater table. A great deal can be learned about gradation characteristics of a particular soil by observing the soil curves on the mechanicalanalysis chart. during placement. to a great extent. Placing the filter material while it is wet can reduce segregation. When the dram discharges in to a culvert or any considerably larger pipe. Filter material can clog a pipe by moving through the perforations or openings. The selection of the proper filter material is very important since it determines. Free groundwater reach the pipe. intercepting drains should bc placed in the impervious layer below the intercepted seepage stratum. Normally. subgradc drains are required only at the edges of pavement areas where the soil is pervious and drains well. l l may not be able to l Criteria have been developed. The filter material in skip-graded soil tends to segregate during placement. Under such conditions. the bottoms of these wells are treated with 6-98 Drainage . Skip-graded soils have a grainsize curve with a characteristic hump in it. Particles in the protected soil may move into or through the filters. If drainage is obstructed. This will prevent the ivater from backing up in the drainage pipe since thcsc pipes rarely flow full. The quantity of water collected by an intercepting dram is difficult to determine. FILTER MATERIAL A layer of filter material approximately 6 inches deep should be placed around all subsurface piping systems.ion belwccn the two. The improper selection of filter material can cause the drainage system to become inoperative in one of three ways: l The pipe may become clogged through infiltration of small soil particles. However. The grainsize curves in Figure 6-63 show various gradation characteristics. local groundwater conditions and base and subgrade soil characteristics may require closer spacing of the drains. it is generally bcttcr to bring the drain in above the receiving drain and make a vertical conncct. it should discharge above the water lcvcl in the larger pipe. VERTICAL WELLS to Vertical wells arc sometimes constructed allow trapped subsurface water to pass through an impervious soil or rock layer to a lower. 8-inch or larger pipe may be ncccssary. based upon the mechanical-analysis soil curve. Vol 1 or extremely severe groundwater conditions. Well-graded soils generally have a smooth. the success or failure of the drainage system. causing instability of the surface. skip-graded material should not be used. A coefficient of uniformity. but in general. When the impervious layer is at a reasonable depth. 6inch pipe is sufficient for lengths up to 1. Vertical wells arc often used in northern latitudes where deep freezing is common.000 feet. uniform soils generally have a very steep grafnsize curve. especially For the same reason. to prevent the above failures. value of less than 20 is desirable to prevent segregation of coarse and fine-grain particles. additional wells are built or the pocket is drained with an easily maintained lateral subdrain system.

Drainage 6-99 . I o 85-percent ske offtlter hole diameter Use the following methods to prevent particles from the protected soil from moving into or through the filter or filters: 15-percent size of filter material 85-percent size of protected soil ~ 5 and If it is not possible to secure a mechanical analysis of available filter materials and protected soil. g 3 60 50 40 30 6 E 8 h 5 $) 20 10 0 lb 1 0. the filter material must be many times more pervious than the protected soil. Experience has indicated that a well-graded concrete sand is satisfactory as a filter material in most sandy. I 2 85-percent size offIZter material slot wfdth To permit free water to reach the pipe. silty soils.5 01 005 001 Grain sizes .millimeters Figure 663. Standards sieve numbers 100 90 80 70 E .S. concrete sand with mechanical-analysis limits as shown in Figure 6-63 may be used. Vol 1 U.o. 25 For a slotted opening. Standards sieve openings .FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.inches U.S. This condition is fulfilled whenI5-percent I5-percent size offtiter materIaZ size of protected sol1 25 For a circular holematerial . Mechanical analysis curves for filter material Prevent tions: this by using the following specifica- 50 percent size of filter material 50 percent size of protected soil ~ .

the designer 6-59. From the mechanical-analysis curve for each soil.~:“:.l.0 mm q D60 = q 0.: :... to D15 offfilter material r 5 D15 of protectedsoil Select that filter material the above criteria... 6-59. 6-93.:!:i’jiii:::i . Ten percent of these particles are finer (by weight). determine the diameter.:. try to use only one layer. D50.4 mm 2. determine the D15. Example (Selecting Filter Material): Dlo $20 Check the design criteria pipe openings to ensure(1) D35 for clogging of or slot width 035 > 1.~:::..::::‘::.25 mm 0.0 mm 2..0 A suitable filter material must be selected for a 6-inch pipe with l/4-inch diameter perforations to protect a subgrade soil with an E curve (shown in Figure 6-63.0 mm D5o : 13..0 mm D&j 38. Soil B DKI = 015 = D50 085 q D50 offtlter D50 of protected 25 per- D1o = D15 q 1.:.~~.. j::‘::.042 0.100 Drainage ..::‘. in millimeters. in other words. Plot the mechanical analysis of each soil on semilogarithm paper and draw a curve for each soil. the design of a multilayer filter for a subdrain system should proceed outward from the inside filter material to the subgrade soil being protected. ..5 mm Check the design criteria viousness to ensure- for relative D60 = 19. . . data from the mechanical-analysis Subgrade (protected soil) D15 = D5o = D60 = D85 = 0.01 mm 0. Vol 1 -.‘. To further this end.... page 6-93.:.i.. of the soil sample which is finer (smaller in diameter) than the particle in size DIO.~... of the type of pipe to be used. pages 6-91.054 mm mm Check the design criteria for movement of particles from the protected soil (subgradel through the filter material to ensure- ill (2) 015 offilter material DE. I.09 mm 6.:‘~ ‘.’ .. CU. Check the coefficient ensureof uniformity.(. selects a filter material for use around the pipe according to the filter design formulas.. and Da5 particle size for each soil..2 (2) hole diameter 5 1. . .‘. or 6-60. The subscript “10” indicates the percentage. : .:. : ::>: :j :.:. Obtain a mechanical analysis of the subgrade soil (protected soil) at the bottom of the trench which will be in contact with the filter material. by weight... and 6-95. of the particle of each sample.2 mm 0.. If several layers of filter material are required. The soils represented by curves A and B are readily available from local borrow pits..FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Dlo. ::. Tabulate curves.30 mm 1. STEPS IN FILTER DESIGN Obtain a mechanical analysis of each sandy soil from several readily available sources.. page 6-99).‘i:‘:. The second filter material is then designed to protect both the inner filter material and the surrounding soils. Similarly. one layer should be confined to the region around the pipe openings and another layer placed between it and the protected soil. SELECTING FILTER MATERIALS cu = Dso - Filter material should be selected with a view toward the simplest construction and the lowest cost. of protected soil material soil ~ 5 Soil A 5. . in millimeters (mm).>.0 mm 13. respectively.“.:::. as shown in Figure In this case. bedded and surrounded with the selected filter material as shown in Figure 6-58..: . Determine the slot width or hole diameter.:. which best meets Install pipe to grade. Dso.‘.

by 25..4 = 13.0.-. Vol 1 . To make this conversion. Thus. the coefficient of uniformity of both D15 (filter) D 15 (protected soilr Soil A C[‘ = Dso - Should bc 2 5 to permit water movement through the filter.0 = 8 0 0.8 The most efficient and most practical type of subdrainage syslem is one which adequately performs the operations for which it was intended and. The two dimensions must be expressed in compatible unils bcforc the preceding formula is used.25 . For example. - Soil A is unsuitable because movement of the subgrade soil through the filter material is possible. while the hole size is usually given in inches.09 = 3.FM S-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.0 to prevent clogging of the pipe. Should bc < 5 to prcvcn t movcmcn t of subgradc soils through the filter. Should be > 1.35= 20 -2. Apply design criteria soil) to soil A. Apply design criteria soil) to soil B. which is > 5.30 G7l = 30 Soil B D85 (filter) hole diameter D60 cu = r*= 2. soil B satisfies all the criteria for a good filter material while soil A does not. Conversely. Thus. Cheek soils. multiply the size of the pipe perforations.30 0.6 0. with soil B under discussionDe5 (filter) hole diameter which is > 1. Should bc < 5 to prcvcn t movcmen t of subgradc soils through the filter. D I 5 (fil tcr) Ds5 (prolcctcd INSTALLATION OF A SUBDRAINAGE SYSTEM 0. D15 Ifillcr) DB~ (protcclcd Note that the soil particle size is usually given in millimeters.0 mm = 1 / 4 x 25. any attempt to inslall an elaborate system of undcrground piping whcrc a simple V ditch would serve as well is inadvisable. 13. was installed with the care and skill consistent with its purpose.4 0. which is < 25. in inches.09 . Drainage 6.IO 1 . which is < 5. Any attempt to lower the quality of construction or to use a sketchy or inadequatc subdrainagc system can rcsull in disastrous failures. Of && = 23.0 1.4 which rcprcscnts the number of millimeters per inch.33 DUO (filter) -Dso (protcctcd soil) Should be 5 25 to prcvcn 1 movcmen t subgradc soils Lhrough lhc filter. both soils A and B satisfy lhc requircment that the cocfficicnl of uniformity be less than 20.2 = 24.4 l3 =6. in addition. Dlo = - 19. which is not < 5.

and the mean annual temperature is below 32” F.minutes Figure 6-64. Vol 1 SECTION I\/: SURFACE DRAINAGE DESIGN IN ARCTIC AND SUBARCTlC REGIONS APPLICABILITY This section discusses the problems involved in the design of drainage facilities in arctic and subarctic regions. HYDRAULIC Rainfall CRITERIA FOR COLD CLIMATES Arctic is defined as the northern region in which the mean temperature for the warmest month is 50” Fahrenheit (Fl or less. there was a noticeable difference between the rains at Juneau and those at Fairbanks. the A study of rainfall intensity-frequency data recorded at arctic stations indicates a considerable variance between the average intensity of rainfall for a period of one hour and the average precipitation rates of comparable frequency for a duration of less than one hour. and where less than four months have a mean temperature above 50” F. Even within the area of Alaska. The higher values for rainfall intensity were used to develop design intensity-duration (supply1 curves. a minimum rainfall rate of 0. the methods used are generally applicable to other arctic and subarctic regions. In general.FM 514301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Arctic subarctic coincides with the circumpolar belt of dominant coniferous forests.102 Drainage . Intensity-duration curves. which are shown in Figure 6-64. Subarctic Subarctic is defined as the region adjacent to the arctic where the mean temperature is 32” F or below for the coldest month and 50” F or above for the warmest month. This is evidenced when compared with similar rainfall in the continental United States (CONUS). even where maps of intensity-frequency 6. In general. While the design data presented has been developed primarily for Alaska. arctic and subarctic 6. the arctic coincides with the tundra region north of the limits of trees.2 in/hr is recommended. For design purposes.0 20 40 60 60 100 120 140 160 160 200 220 240 260 260 300 Duration .

. fine. Elevation and physiographic orientatfon.. The curves are labeled by the one-hour amounts of rainfall that are represented.1 inch per hour for clayey soils with low permeability.60 inch some summer. . Vol 1 Design-storm -- One-hour rainfall intensities having various average frequencies of occurrence in the arctic and subarctic regions of Alaska are shown on maps in Figure 6-65.\. provide a means whereby rainfall intensities sufficiently accurate for runoff computations for any duration may readily be determined.103 .. other areas. .. design features of a drainage system may be similar to .:. This ratio could then be applied to the known 2-year.: .5 or 0. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. ... these.. a temporary gage might have a maximum hourly value of 0. . . ... . .. . . This figure../.) .. . l Infiltration In permafrost areas. . As a consequence.. . . . If the long-record station has a 2-year. . If the upper surface of the permafrost layer is deep and if provisions are made for lower temperatures.. In Drainage 6. .. ... :: .. ..:.. It is presumed that all phases of site reconnaissance have been carefully completed and that information is available which shows topography...::.. STORM-DRAIN DESIGN Present information is insufficient to establish quantitative conclusions of the effects of elevation and physiographic orientation for all locations.... cohesive forces between gram particles are very small and the material erodes easily.. drainage is an important factor in selecting an airfield site and planning the construction. . ..textured soil profiles may also contain large amounts of ice lenses and wedges. natural drainage patterns... .. l-hour value for the construction site..... exposure. Arrangemcnts usually can be made for borrowing a rain gauge for temporary use from the meteorological agency of the area in which the project is to be located. At the time a site is under investigation. l-hour value of the long-record station to get the estimated a-year. groundwater conditions.. and elevation of the two stations.. . following: l Sites should be selected in areas where cuts or the placement of base-course fills will not intercept or block obvious existing natural drainage ways. in turn. . most soils are of single-grain structure with a very small percentage of clay.. page 6-104.... . . The type and capacity of storm-drain facilities required are determined primarily by the promptness with which design-storm runoff must be removed in order to avoid serious interruption or hazard in the use of important operational areas as well as prevent serious damage to pavement subgrades. infiltration purposes should be considered for design zero.. . .. In arctic and subarctic regions. and the same storm might produce the summer’s maximum hourly value of 0.. Values normally would not exceed about 0.. . and seasonal frost and permafrost levels. . used in combination.5 inch per hour for coarse sands and gravels and would be as low as 0... index. . l-hour value for the short-record station.. it would be helpful to obtain even a short record of rainfall there. . if possible.. frost-susceptible soils should be avoided... Such a record may be compared with the concurrent portion of a nearby long record and proper frequency values assigned to events in the short record.75. .:. a good guide may be oblained when test borings are made... ... . Areas with fine-textured. Figures 6-64 and 6-65. page 6-17. Similar comparison of other storms for the brief parallel record might confirm the ratio of 6 to 4 as an expression of the difference in the orientation.. The planner should be aware of several features related to drainage in order to ensure a sucThese features include the cessful design.. .:. ....... . is known as a design-storm index.. . kozen.. .. .40 at a nearby long-record station. . . it would be 6/4 of 0. on which rainfall depth curves are superimposed.. .. For example.. are coordinated with the intensity-duration or supply curves of Figure 6-12..::. .. Basic Considerations Even though rainfall magnitudes are small in arctic and subarctic regions.

NOTES: 1. Design-storm index for Alaska 6. .FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The lines of equal half-hour The once-in-50-years amount can be eetlmated by the factor 2. 2. stations are not located in the more elevated regions. of local topographic characteristics should be taken into account and evaluated These values may Approximate Approximate Approximate southern southern southern limit of the Arctlc Ilmlt of the permafrost limit of area covered at the tlme of dralnage 3. consequently. Observation of rainfall at National Weather Service stations provides the basic data for this figure. wide devlattons from the charted exist at altitudes above 2.500 feet. . rainfall magnltudes correspond by multiplying to the intensity-duratlon the once-in-2-years curves amount shown in Figure 6-64. 4.104 Drainage . Vol 1 Once In 2 years Once in 5 years Once in 10 years Once In 20 years _e! nd w -. *. The Influence design.2 Figure 6-65.

Fine-grained soils immediately above a receding frost zone are very unstable. Where disturbed. In other locations where flow continues year round. Vol 1 those used in frost regions of the United States. l ting of the soil at the interface between frozen and unfrozen ground.. Sloughing is often manifested by wide cracks paralleling the ditches. Inlets to closed conduits are commonly sealed before freeze-up and opened prior to breakup each spring. Grading Proper grading is a very important factor contributing to the success of a drainage system. Formulate plans in sufficient detail to avoid flooding even during the time of actual construction. Temporary Storage Trunk drains and laterals should have sufficient capacity to accommodate the project design runoff. Conscquenlly. the process is repeated. it should be restored as soon as construction permits.. Pipes for this purpose are often fastened inside the upper portions of culverts prior to their placement. All icings are similar with regard to laminated structures. This may cause the surface of the permafrost to dip considerably beneath streams or channels which convey water. In many subarctic regions. much sliding and caving is to be expected on unprotected ditch side slopes in such soils. The development of grading and drainage plans must be carefully coordinated. size. Do not consider supplementary ponding above the drain inlets in airfield drainage designs for the arctics and subarctic. thickness. thickness. As water flow continues. indicating that irrespective of shape. it is advantageous to have ditch shapes and slopes sufficiently wide and flat to accommodate heavy snow-moving equipment. narrow. when exposed to the cold air. In arctic and subarctic regions. Vegetative cover in permafrost areas should be preserved to the mardmum degree practicable. Bank sloughing and significant changes in channel grades become prominent. . l l ICINGS An fclng is an irregular sheet or field of ice with no uniformity as to shape. deep ditches are preferable to avoid icings. cut sections should be avoided in planning the drainage layout. freeing drainage channels of drifted snow becomes a significant task before breakup each spring. FM 5430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Types of Icings For the purpose of analysis. or size. For this reason. Thawed zones or water-bearing strata may be encountered and later cause serious icings. and an icing with horizontal laminations continues to grow until either the source of water supply is depleted or warmer weather begins. Large. Slides may occur because of thawing and consequent wet- Maintenance equipment for drainage facilities should include heavy snowremoving apparatus and a steam boiler with accessories for steam thawing of structures which have become clogged with ice. Thin films of water traverse over layers of ice or other material and. l The flow of water in a drainage channel has an accelerating effect on the thawing of frozen ground. depending largely on the nature of the source of water l l l Drainage 6-705 . drainage ditches should be located as far as practicable from runway and road shoulders. or cause.. soggy areas. In these areas. Locating ditches over areas where permafrost lies on a steep slope should be avoided if possible.. icings may be divided into three groups. it is necessary to eliminate soft. freeze and form the first or an additional layer of ice. the actual process of formation is the same.

. This action is progressive. exposed to the cold atmosphere. the rivers are quilr wide and relatively shallow.‘:‘:‘::.:.: :. Consequently.. and other factors. If the source is Irom groundwater flow above permafrost.::..:_ srlpply. vol 1 . the soil below slrcambcds is unfrozen to greater depths than soil located clscwhcre. It is not essential that the seasonal frost reach the permafrost. the water quickly freezes in thin sheets..‘::~i. which is often encountered III lllc arctic and subarctic as deposits in fine-graincd soils.. Subsequent penetrations of frost would diminish groundwater -flow capacity at the bridge section and induce the formation of an icing above or at the site. Water coming to the surface in this way may flow d 6.: . the Lcrm river icing applies.._:~~... The head motivating groundwater flow is ordinarily quite large and can result in large pressures above seclions where the groundwater flow is retarded. Freezil$ pcnctrates tb the bottom of shallow slrcams quilt rcndily. A pavement kept clear of snow offers an excellent site over which flowing water can spread out into a thin film and then frcczc. and icing continues to increase in thickness until the supply of water is exhausted or finds a new outlet. Groundwater-flow retardation is a natural process at many river sections because riverbeds arc not lioniogencous in watcr-carryir$ capacity. \‘crv small and shallow.. Icings from groundwater above the permafrost arc not likely to occur in the arctic.:::.::. Most arctic and subarctic streams carry large loads of sediment which arc not fed into the channels in uniform quantilies. and fissures. the depth of the snow. This Lcrm should no1 bc confused \vilh ground ice:. Freezing then would be more rapid beneath the bridge than at either upstream or downstream locations.:.:. but the river discliarQqr corilini~cs as groundwater flow bcncath the riverbed. :: :.:!. Consequently. there is another requisite to the formation of an icing-an area where the water can bc exposed to the cold atmosphcre.801 3.FM 5-43&0&1/AFPAM 32. depending upon the valley topography. In addition to a supply of water. Because of thermal (-lfccts of flowing water. These streams frequently shill in transvcrsc position and often do so tltlring one period of high flow. as the permafrost there is too close to the surface to permit any appreciable storage in the active layer..:‘. Here. The water then finds avenues of escape to the top of the ice via weak points.. The term spring fclng should be confined to when the source of water is from subpermafrost levels or subpermafrost water under hydrostatic presstlrc. Partial freezing of the active layer reduces the area of the section which groundwater must pass. or until the beginning of warmer weather. Ground icings. These icings can be of various shapes and sizes.... The formation of :lrlchor ice on t11c bottom of lhc slrcambcd I-crLllls in f’urlllcr constriction of the chan11~1 (‘ross-scclion arca.i. They may also form as crustations if groundwater flow is induced to the surface at points which are not of great lateral spacing but are of about equal elevation. For icings formed along rivers or streams and adjacent areas having a source 01 water above or below the riverbed. yrorlnd icing is Ihc Lcrm most commonly ~~scd..106 Drainage . Ground icings may take the form of mounds having considerable thickness but small areas. Winter flow is ordinaril). the intensity of cold.i’. ~llcrc is a large space for groundwater sloragc and flow above the permafrost and below all riverbeds. Human activity can disturb the ground regime sufficiently to cause or accclcratc the formation of all types of icings._:‘::‘_:~::~.‘. the water supply.. Frcciing of the water reduces charincl arca and capacity in some sections Inorc than in others. cracks. A bridge may shade the streambed and also prevent the deposition of snow..f:. i:I.. This occurrence is most severe in the southern zones of the subarctic and on slopes which face south.:i:::i. Spring icings are commonly large and thick. :.:... The path of least resistance may lcad to the ground surface via a frost crack or fissure or through holes which have previously been made by burrowing animals.: . although this very effectively blocks groundwatcr flow.~:.:j:. Many rivers have a braided pattern of several smaller streams within the confines of the main channels.. Groundwater flow may be induced to the surface in various ways. .i:: :. Rirxr icings.

CAUSEWAYS. with an average thickness of about 12 feet. The control of river icings then must be concerned with an insulation of streambeds at the critical section. In addition. and the terrain configuration make its use necessary and practical. In some cases. Ground icings can be controlled to some extent by inducing the ice to form upstream from the site in question. Sprtng icings. FORDS. FORDS A ford is a shallow place in a waterway where the bottom. This can be accomplished by the installation of frost belts. A ford is used instead of a bridge when time limitations. Streams in mountainous and desert country are subject to sudden changes in depth. Various methods have been tried to prevent the occurrence of such icings. The thawing in summer is accelerated at the site of the frost dam. It does not melt and form each year. If the source of water forming the icing is a spring. Some of these have met with partial success.107 . In timbered regions. Because the process employs the removal of snow. an insulated conduit may be required to convey the spring water to locations where the formation of icing will do no damage. In the case of springs. the lack of structural materials. and eventually the permafrost degrades sufficiently to permit groundwater flow below the frost dam. permits the passage of personnel and vehicles. the depth of stored ice can be increased by erecting some barrier to the flow. it is obviously necessary to maintain the frost belt at one location to save the expense of tree removal. but this method is effective for only a few years.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. The snow-free area also provides a cold space on which surface flow can spread out and freeze. This spring icing is about 15 miles long and 3 miles wide. DIPS. The frost belt or dam has been advocated by Russian investigators. In the case of river icings. subpcrmafrost water and springs are ordinarily quite thick and cover considerable area. Groundwater flow will be blocked by freezing and forced to the surface upstream from the cleared area. flows are ordinarily too large to permit a storage of ice at or upstream from the site. The increase in Drainage 6. depths to permafrost are ordinarily too large to bc blocked effectively by accelerated freezing such as is induced by the frost dam or bell. This sometimes requires insulated channels. An increase in water depth can close a ford for a considerable time. The temperature of the water emerging from the ground is ordinarily quite high and the water does not freeze quickly if confined to a conduit. Ground fctngs.- considerable distances down slopes beneath a snow blanket without freezing. Measures Against Icings River icings. Spring icings. Reference is often made to the icing in the Momy River Valley of Siberia. then it is necessary to resort to drainage or diversion to control the occurrence. In open terrain. it is essential to shift the position of the belt from year to year in order not to unduly influence the depth to permafrost. Icings that occur from artesian. the tactical AND BRIDGES situation. Vol 1 . Fences and barriers have been used quite effectively under special circumstances. either naturally or by human improvement. some success can be achieved by merely keeping snow removed from a strip crossing the affected area in a direction transverse to groundwater flow. such as an ordinary woodenstave snow fence on top of the ice initially formed at the site of the frost belt. Spring icings can be controlled quite readily. If necessary. the subbed river flow is often in excess of what can be stored as ice above the location of the bridge to be protected.

sloping banks. the bottom depth is constant between the banks with only a slight channel in the center. Ford reconnaissance and required reports are covered in FM 5-36. The bottom material may be disturbed by traffic and will require protection. and interlocking. Special emphasis is placed on the requirements to be discussed in this section. In mountainous country. streams meander and have low velocity. depth. . Such fords Maxlmum allowable slope on approaches* 1:l . Location. the velocity will tend to prevent deposition of fine material. For a natural ford. sudden freshet floods can transport large boulders and stones along the bottom. slops must be IJSS. there is sometimes a high water table. Requirements The characteristics of a good ford are a slow current (usually less than 2 miles per hour). ly adaptable for improvement. firm bottom. This material is deposited at the passing of high water or at locations where the widening of the stream reduces the velocity. the bottom material may be very soft. It may be necessary to remove this material before traffic can cross the ford. Requirements of width. Drainage . durable. In slightly sloping or flat terrain. Because of the increased velocity of the water. In the reach. per- Stream bottoms can be of such material that much effort is required to make fords usable.depth can be so sudden as to endanger sonnel or vehicles ‘in the ford. bends result in a deep channel that is difficult to improve. In addition. Such material will resist cutting by wheeled traffic and erosion. In such cases. and bank slopes for fords are given in Table 6-23. Infantry Trucks Light tanks Medium tanks Heavy tanks I '8JSOd On hard dry 6408 w Requirements Yaxlmum depth (ft) Minimum width (one-byay traffic) 3% 3 for military Type of bottom (Single file) Firm enough to prevent sinking Boulders and obstacles removed 7 (Column of 3s) 2 10 Firm and smooth Firm and smooth Firm and smooth Firm and smooth 3:l 2:l 2:l 2:l 1-3 10 24 10 4-6 12 SIJ~JCJ. In terrain of moderate or gentle slopes. the center channel is not so deep or sharp and therefore is readiTable 6-23. In addition. . Reconnaissance Route reconnaissance should include the selection of possible ford sites. The general terrain will determine the bottom condition. At this location. and a uniformly increasing bottom depth with a firm bottom material. as follows: . good approaches. the bottom material should be hard. the variation in the shape of the banks is not as pronounced in the reach area as it is at the bend. low. A desirable location for a ford is in the reach of the stream between bends. The influence of river action on possible fording locations is shown in Figure 6-66. This tendency and the scouring action of the water will leave a good. Bottom Materlal. if wet Jnd ShppJ~.

lumber. River action Deep depth Drainage 6. The depth of this flow is dependent upon the quantity of groundwater. Base flow is the normal flow that occurs in a stream when there has been no recent rain. Table 6-23 indicates that a maximum water depth of 2 feet is allowable for truck traffic. gravel. rainfalls normally occur that cause flows above the base level.110. as shown P in Figure 6-67. page 6. as f Areas of deposition // Stream Thread of stream (location of fastest velocity) Thread of stream D-p depth Fm’ Section A-A Deposition ‘W//h -Y SectIon B-8 7 Shallow depth Thread of stream I Erosion scour “‘w Soctlon C-C Figure 6-66. Vol 1 material will require a completely improved ford with special emphasis on bottom requirements. can bc made direct stream observation. During the year. High-Wuter Determination. Timber. To ensure maximum use of the ford. Estimates of various depths of flow. it is necessary to detcrminc the depth at which the stream will flow at frequently recurring times. many High-Waler Flout.109 . or gabions can be used to improve trafficability.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The velocity of such flows generates a slight erosion cut. as follows: by Buse Flow. matting.

Stream Velocfty. However.. Make a record of the character of the streambed. In addition. Include vegetation density and type. .. the depth of these flows could control the use of the ford. Since these flows can occur with relative frequency during the year. Approaches. The normal stream velocity at the fording site should not exceed 3 fps. especially with a high bank on the outside of the bend. it is necessary to check stream banks for evidence of floodwater levels. 6... bottom slopes. where it may form an obstruction. and the type of soil. The bend of a stream. as shown in Figure 6-67.: . Flood Flow. The highest level of flood that occurs within a period of two years is of particular interest.:.FM 5_43&()&1/AFPAM 324013. In the event the depth is greater in places than the fording depth of trucks (see Table 6-23.. page S-1081. would show an erosion cut that can be used to determine the flood level. ::. Stream cross section shown in Figure 6-67.. and water depth. Because traffic will wet the slopes and cause eventual deterioration. This information will determine the value of Manning’s R. Make a cross section of a ford location similar to Figure 6-66. page 6-109 and Figure 6-67. :. bottom variations. such filling might cause the velocity of flow over the ford to be increased to the point that vehicles would have difficulty using the ford.: : : Fbod fbw Figure 6-67. provision should be made for protecting the surface.! Y:‘::.110 Drainage . The maximum slopes for ford approaches should be as recommended in Table 6-23. . In the absence of records.. Place material cut from the banks off to the side and not in the stream. Cross occur at Section.. CONSTRUCTION Two phases of construction are required for fords-the development of the approaches and the preparation of the bottom. low or moderate levels. . determine the average velocity of the stream from measurements taken at equal intervals across the stream. it may be necessary to fill these gaps with rock or gravel. whether or not the channel is scoured. in most cases. Vol 1 . The occurrence of such flows tends to prevent the growth of vegetation. ‘. This information helps to determine construction requirements. -\-/ Channel Condftfon. This velocity would. Include full details of bank slopes. Carefully note the height of the bank and the type of soil.

Soft. The site should be in the reach of the stream and well away from any bends. rock. or timbers. especially the banks. wide. Repair scour damage upstream and downstream with riprap. DIPS Dips are paved fords used for the crossing of dry. note the size and type of bottom rock.. to determine the general flash-flood high watermark. check the area above the dip site to determine if ponding will occur and to what level. or coarse gravel. . Even a hard and tenacious bottom deteriorates under traffic conditions and requires protective maintenance. -Cross section of dip section Drainage 6. along with an approximation of velocity as indicated by the rock or other debris on the bottom. mud bottoms can be improved by covering the bottom first with willow. This type of information gives an indication of the volume and velocity of flash floods which move or carry large material. preferably retained by wire mesh. and it should be set between the cutoff retaining walls. The general construction is shown in Figure 6-68. 1 subgrade 1 1 Figure 6-66. and subsequently with metal planking. a structure placed in a bend might be destroyed. Investigate the area. MAINTENANCE Examine fords after each flooding. l MARKING Place marking posts at each end of the ford and at as many intermediate points as may be necessary. The pavement should be of concrete or compacted macadam.: : FM 5-430-000l/AFPAM 32-8013. Determine the width between the banks and the top elevation of the banks. This information on the area of the waterway. Vol 1 Ford-bottom preparation will depend upon site conditions. Construction The subgrade should be of erosion-resistant material or a rock-compacted base. There is more erosion in bends than in straight stretches. This information will be necessary if bridging is required. Reconnaissance The preferred location of a dip is in the straight run of an arroyo or wash. Fill short. The structure should be set at right angles to the flow to reduce scour. brush mattresses. Mark a post at each end with an index to indicate depth.111 .. In addition. The velocity of flow over the ford increases at an increased fording depth so that vehicles may be difficult to operate and control. If a very severe flood occurred. Consider these factors tom of the ford: l Determine the type of soil in the banks and bottom for construction requirements. :. Other factors of importance are as follows: when raising the bot- The depth upstream from the ford increases in proportion to the amount of rise of the bottom of the ford. and shallow arroyos in semiarid regions subject to flash floods.A. gives some indication of the volume of flow.other debris to provide a clear passage for vehicles. Warning notices should be clearly and prominently placed to alert drivers that flooding can occur suddenly and without warning. deep gaps with rock or gravel. In addition. Remove boulders and.

. The cover over the stream must be sufficient to protect the waterway against traffic loads. It must incorporate a sufficient waterway at streambed level to permit the passage of the design volume of flow before the flood level reaches the top of A typical design is shown in the structure. Marking The marking fords. Under no circumstances should the structure be set above drystreambed level.:. Cross-Sectional Area A sufficient cross-sectional area must be provided to ensure that the flood level will not submerge the structure. Figure 6-69. barrels. and strongly built. must be examined after each flooding. Consider the following basic elements: l The size and number of culverts or other elements must be sufficient to pass the flow. like fords. Remove boulders and other debris. Vol 1 “.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The inverts or lowest parts of the culverts must be set at streambed level. for dips is the same as for sited. When the water elevation upstream and downstream is above the culvert crown. The main design features of a causeway follow. it can be anticipated that holes may be scoured in the roadway.. This type of structure must be well l l u Concrete or rock gabion facing on upstream and downstream faces Earth and stone filling of depth sufficient to in concrete or CuhWts of CMP. Consider stockpiling rock adJacent to the area for immediate maintenance repair. Overflow (causeway) 6-112 Drainage .:‘: l The structure must be set al true drystreambed level to avoid scour erosion or silting.. Maintenance Dips.. oil drums. a raised causeway can be used in place of a ford or dip. pipe equations should be used for flow design. carefully designed to pass the flow.. CAUSEWAYS When it is essential to keep a roadway open during floods of medium intensity. When macadam is used. and scour damage upstream and downstream should be repaired with riprap. earthenware pipes Figure 6-69.

This type of bridge presents fewer problems than the high-level bridge. high watermark. BRIDGES This section presents elements of bridge design other than the requirements for structural design. To further prevent excessive scour and erosion. and causeways. Abutments will bc placed on the edge of the stream. a high-profile or highlevel bridge must be constructed to keep the superstructure above the flood level. Bridges must conform to the requirements of stream hydraulics in the same way as all cross-stream structures such as fords. Anchor the ends of the structure securely into the banks in such a way that there is minimum obstruction to water flow. Guardrails Provide guardrails to guide and direct traffic. Heavy flooding or overtopping of the struclurc will require complete protection in the form of a concrete or rockgabion facing. Height The height of a bridge depends upon the flood-flow. at the next heavy flow. high watermark is below bank level. Analysis proceeds as follows: Abutments placed at 1A and 1B of Figure 6-70 present the most direct solution because they are located on high. Location The location of a bridge should be away from bends in the straight section or reach 1A Floodhigh water Figure 6-70. The height of that mark will determine the profile or superstructure level of the bridges as follows: When the flood-flow. The deep channel tends to be in the center. In this location. dips. Repair any damage immediately. Because the structure can be overtopped. the structure could be destroyed. This type of bridge is well above bank level and may require a considerable length and height of approach. carry the protective facings below the streambed and provide them with aprons.Embankment -- Protect both the upstream and downstream faces of the embankment against scour and erosion. there are moderate. Stockpiling of heavy rock and gabions at each end OCa structure may bc required. even depths from bank to bank. be sure to provide for ready replacement of the guardrails.113 . dry ground. Waterway cross section at bridge site Drainage 6. When the flood-flow. othcrwisc. scour and erosion at the stream pier and bank abutments are not expected to be so excessive as to cause maintenance problems. a low-profile or lowlevel bridge can be constructed. Maintenance Inspect the structure for scour or erosion after each flow that causes partial submergence or overtopping. Because of the even distribution of flow. since approach ramps will not have to be constructed. Abutments The location of bridge abutments depends upon an analysis of the flood level and the cross section of the stream (Figure 6-70). high watermark is above the banks. of the stream (Figure 6-66. page S-109).

In this case. The following techniques could be used to accommodate this reduction in an available cross-sectional area : * The elevation of the bridge superstructure could be raised to account for the rise in the flood level. if concrete abutments are used. it may be usable during floods under extreme conditions. Care must be taken to ensure that there is no excessive scour or erosion below the culvert outlet that would affect the roadway. This saturation can take place whether the approach road is at the natural grade of the soil or it is a filled approach. Since overflow is anticipated. this condition is relieved naturally. In this case. This increased length could result in the need for intermediate piers and spans. the pressures can be relieved as follows: Step 1. The superstructure elevation could be left substantially at the original level. excess flood flow would pass over roadway approaches. trol are based on dissipating the energy of water. However. With this method. Erosion may occur at any point where the force of moving water exceeds the cohesive strength of the material with which the water is in contact. may necessitate more construction effort because of the increased length of the bridge. With wood abutments. however. and approach ramps over areas lA-2A and 1B-2B could be constructed as causeways to allow for flow. providing an erosion-resistant surface. Drainage The soil behind bridge abutments can become saturated because of rain or other conditions. However. Use weep holes to pierce the abutments with bagged gravel backing on the soil side. The and the the the roadway approaches in areas IA-2A lB-2B could be depressed below superstructure level. the fill in areas lA-2A and lB-2B could be accomplished as the bridge is constructed. thus relieving l EROSION CONTROL Erosion must be controlled to maintain an effective and clear drainage system with a minimum of maintenance and to reduce hazardous dust conditions. the roadway may not be usable at all times. or some combination of these techniques. In addition. page 6-108. the construction of these approaches is similar to construction of causeways without the culverts. As can be seen from the figure. Vol 1 Use of these locations. d 6-7 14 Drainage . static hydraulic pressure on the back face of the abutment generates additional overturning movement. this placement reduces the cross section of the waterway. If the bridge is designed properly. This chapter acquaints the military engineer with the means available to reduce or eliminate the erosive force of water. Abutments placed at 2A and 2B would reduce construction time because fewer intermediate piers and spans would be required. If this action is taken. l When a depressed roadway or an elevated superstructure is used. Proper design of side slopes in cut and fill sections (based on the type of soil) will reduce the need for extensive erosion control measures. the full river waterway will be used for the passage of flood water. Place gravel backing against the lower part of the abutment drained by a perforated pipe at the footing elevation. with fording depths as outlined in Table 6-23. additional control Most methods of conis usually required. Set the pipe to drain out at the sides of the abutment. When saturation occurs. Step 2. the approach to the bridge must have a gentle slope to prevent vehicle impact on the abutment and to ensure traffic visibility. use substantial abutments that are well protected against end scour.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. l the bridge flow.

...:j+x::::::::::::::::.: :::::: .......0 5. TURFING Ditches are often protected by placing strips of sod (held in place by wooden boards or stakes) perpendicular to the flow path at intervals along the ditch.5 5... . .. . Where a slope equals or exceeds 5 percent.... Vertical spacing and longitudinal gradients of terraces are given in Figure 6-71..:::::.. .15 0. “““.( /.200 . .... . paving must be extended down slope at least to the point in the ditch at which the erosive energy of the water is controlled or absorbed without erosion damage. . ... Erosion-control checks Drainage 6. Vol 1 - NONUSE AREAS AND OPEN CHANNELS Terracing is a control measure designed to dissipate the energy of overland flow in nonuse areas.../..... . and placing riprap are control methods designed to cause turbulence and to increase retardation.~~~..10 0... Terrace spacing and gradients Figure 6-72.~i:’:~:~:~:~. Sectlon through ditch proflle of eroslon checks -- Figure 6-71...: ...40 nol be less than ditference in elevation lo erosion check 0...:::~:~:~~:~:.. : : ::::::::::::::A:..’ .900 900 . FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013...115 ..‘:::::::::.::.. as shown in Figure 6-72....200 1.30 0. 1. . “““‘:‘:‘:‘::.. . ..5 Side sbpe A../ . vigorous turf should be planted to hold the PAVING AND GUNITE LINING Ditches having grades in excess of 5 percent usually require paving or a Gunite lining.. ....5 3.‘.500 0...‘.:. ... (.5 4... Turflng.~~:....... 1. In cases where even riprap will be eroded. A hardy... . TERRACING A terrace is a low. .....: .... thereby dissipating the energy of flow in open channels such as ditches and pipe outfalls.:.. the use of gabions is a speedy and relatively inexpensive means of dissipating energy.: ....:‘~~:~~~~:_.....-. paving.“.: :.. broad-based earth levee constructed approximately parallel to the contours of the topography.‘~..Original grade Average land slope (percent) 2 4 6 6 10 12 14 I4 Vertical spacing Horizontal spacing (feet) 125 75 56 50 45 42 39 Vertical spacing (feet) ?..0 4.“. disturbed soil in place../ . j..._. Vertica! spacing Horizontal spacing Finished terra& grade .:.. Gunite lining.(.. ...~:::::............:.....:. psr+ctlvo with l rorbn of drrlnrgo chocJm ditch Longitudinal gradlents Length of Terrace channel terrace grade (feet) (percent) O-300 300-600 600..0 3.:.. . A terrace either intercepts and holds the water until it infiltrates the soil or moves it as overland flow to a suitable discharge point..20 0.\.

The expansion allows the flow to expand and dissipate its csccss energ-.119. the Froude number can be computed from the following equation: F= 0. are shown in Figure 6-73. and out1. and energy dissipators. the provision of a filter blanket. With the depth of flow and average velocity in the channel known. with Froude numbers and depths of flow in the channel shown.I I6 Drainage . The l l i 6. time. The Cunite lining is formed over steel mesh placed over the bottom and sides of the ditch. Curves for determining the riprap size required to prevent scour downstream from culvert outlets with scour holes of various depths are shown in Figure 6-74. Gunite is sprayed to a lhickness of 1 to 1 l/2 inches. page 6. In certain turbulence rather than directly on the channel bottom and sides.118. ma’tcrial. Riprap can also be used for lining the channcl banks to prevent lateral erosion and undcsirablc mcandcring. ditches. One is for riprap subjected to direct flow or adjacent to hydraulic structures such as side inlets. whichever is greater. Undercutting and leveling of the riprap from scour at the end of the blanket. with the steel mesh localcd midway in the thickness. Riprap has been known to fail from* Movcmcnl ol the individual stones from a combination of velocity and turbulcncc. Movcmcnt of the natural bed material through lhe riprap. resulting in slumping of the blanket.5 times D50. in Figure 6-75. The other is for riprap on the banks of a straight channel where flows arc relatively quiet and parallel to the banks. where turbulence levels are high. confluences. Human resources. Selection of Size Curves for the selection of stone size required for protection. This protection is rcquircd on the bed and banks Tar a sufficient distance to establish velocity gradients and turbulence levels at the end of the riprap. Vol 1 Paving will1 cilhcr asphalt or portland-cemcnt concrctc provides superior erosionresistant linings in gutters. from the ap- PLACING RIPRAP Riprap protection should be provided adjacent to all hydraulic structures. Gunitc is a mixture of portland cen~nl and sand with water added just bcforc the mixture is sprayed from a highpressure nozzle onto the surface being protcctcri. page 6. the use of adequately graded riprap. Make the thickness of the riprap blanket equal to the longest dimension of the maximum size of stone or 1. Consideration must be given to the selection of an adequate size of stone.111 structures. Two curves are given. Grouted riprap should be followed by an ungrouted reach. it prevents scour at the ends of the structure. substituting a grouted reach of smaller rock in areas of high velocities or turbulence may be appropriate. When placed on crodiblc surfaces. and the proper treatment of the end of the riprap blanket. the available material may dictate the gradation of riprap to be used.FM 5-430-OOWAFPAM 32-8013. A well-graded mixture of stone sizes is preferred to a relatively uniform size of A recommended gradation is shown riprap. and cquipmcnt cxpcnscs usually limit the use of paving or Gunitc linings to only the most dcrllanding conditions in TO airfield conslrliction. Gunitc lining of ditches controls erosion efIcctivcly.716v VZ D5o value can be determined propriate curve. Provide an expansioii tither horizontally or vertically (or both) immcdiatcly downstream from hydraulic structures such as drop structllrcs or energy dissipators. When the use of large rock is desirable but impractical.

117 . or synthetic cloth under the riprap.t : . Recommended riprap sizes for open channels should resemble the recommended mixture as closely as possible. .::. V = Average vebcity in channel 0..:‘>.! 0. ..:_:.. Vol 1 0.:‘y 1..‘j ::f :.>: ?. Drainage 6.percent size) d = ‘De&h of fbw .: ...::j..::.’ O.: .:/:i.. . If the gradation of the available riprap is such that movement of natural material through the riprap blanket would be likely..T j : . gravel..1 c+ O. : : . The usual blanket thickness is 6 inches.:. crushed rock.O! Dam= Stone diameter f5O. place a filter blanket of sand. Consider increasing the thickness of the riprap blanket when locality dictates using gradations with a larger percentage of small stone than shown by the recommended gradation plot..1 05 1 2 Figure 6-73.: . FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013...01 0.:.. .

.:.118 Drainage . dipping below the natural streambed to the estimated depth of bottom scour..:. However..l/AFpAM 32-8013. Double the thickness of the riprap blanket at the downstream end to protect against undercutting and unraveling. vol 1 . ::. .FM 5~43&()(). = z is: (50% size) w.716ij I\/a Figure 6-74.: . the extra effort required to provide gradual reduction in riprap size is seldom justified. .. Unless this is done..... Design thickness is sometimes An ideal riprap design would provide a gradual reduction In riprap size until the downstream end of the blanket blends with the natural bed material.3 05 1 F 2 0.. ..’ . turbulence caused by the riprap is likely to develop a scour hole at the end of the riprap blanket. 0 3c Horizontal d “50: .ihmM. 3’ ‘:::::j: .l( 50 K 0 O! Plan c-i-l Varies (O.ODo) 1 4 SeotlonA-A proformad amur hok 00 0. 6...0 = Depth of fbw . Recommended riprap sizes for culvert outlets although a greater necessary.. An alternative is a rubble blanket of constant thickness and suitable length.. Average vebcii = Wiih of outlet at outlet O..

.. galvanized steel. wire-mesh 8-inch openings and divided by diaphragms in to cells.:..::. :.j... usually rectangular and variable in size.A:: . . .::.::. ::.::..:.~..... wire mesh with 4... .: .. For ease in handling and shipping.: ‘:..:. Vol 1 8C 1W 80 60 40 Diameter Max diameter d = dM Figure 6-75. They can be used in place of sheet piling..:j: FM 5.:. ..:. :.. ... hexagonal. or cribbing. .. . Widely used in Europe... 3. . ...:.‘. ..~..119 .‘:‘.. ::.. .:. Fold the Drainage 6.. flat surface to straighten unnecessary creases and kinks. .:~.‘. To assemble.. folded bundles. remove a single gabion from the bundle and unfold it on a hard...:. The box gabion is a rectangular cage or basket formed of woven. masonry construction.430_00_1 /AFpAM 32-8013.. the number of gabions per bundle varies according to the size of the gabions..I.:.+.. Recommended gradation of stones for riprap GABIONS Gabions are large. . . gabions are now accepted in the United States as a valuable and practical construction and maintenance tool..::. steel.:‘:. . designed to solve erosion problems at a low cost. Description and Assembly Gabions are supplied from manufacturers in flat..

720 Drainage . just slightly larger than the size of the mesh (usually 4 to 8 inches). Adjoining gabions are wired together by their vertical edges. diaphragm during the filling operation. Gabiin ends and diaphragms will be lifted into vertical position and laced to form a box Figure Installation 6-76. Then place one connecting wire in each direction and loop around two meshes of the gabion wall. It is convenient to place the gabions front-to-front and back-to-back to expedite the stone-filling and lid-lacing Lace the basket along the operation. the base of the empty gabions placed on top of a completed row must be tightly wired to the latter as shown in Figure 6-77 When using 3-foot-high gabions. inspect all corners to make sure the lacing is secure and the corners are closed. Since it is necessary to stretch the lid to fit the sides exactly. then fold the top shut and wire it to the ends. It is essential that the lacing be done properly. soil. make the ground surface relatively smooth and even. and diaphragms. as shown in Figure 6-76. Keep gabions taut while they are being filled with stone. Securely lace the vertical edge and diaphragms with binding wire. Anchor the first gabion firmly and apply tension to the other end with a comealong or by other means to achieve the Anchoring can be proper alignment. back. Filling Procedures The best filling material is one that allows flexibility in the structure and. Empty gabions. Repeat this operation twice or until the gabion is filled. fills the gabion compartments with a minimum of voids and maximum weight. and end panels to a right angle to form a box. durable. at the same time.FM 5-4309OOWAFPAM 32-8013. Assembly of a gabion Fill the gabions to a depth of 1 foot. Ideally. then lace the lid down with binding wire to the tops of all the sides and lo the tops of the diaphragm panels. and resistant to weathering and frost action. hard. the stone should be small. sides. Some manual stone adjustment is required during the filling operation to prevent undue voids. Before placing the gabions. Pack the stone inside the compartment as To protect the vertical tight as practical. Vol 1 front. and atmospheric conditions allow. place them empty and lace for approximately 100 linear feet. 6. accomplished by partially filling the first While the gabions are gabion with stone. The strong interconnection of all units in a gabion structure is an important feature. as shown in Figure 6-77. being stretched. Fill the gabion slightly overfull and allow for subsequent settlement. temporarily place rebars and lace them along the upper edges. Where water. The stone should be clean. plastic-coated wire must be used to form gabions. perimeter of all contact surfaces. use a short crowbar or special tool designed for this purpose. Where there is more than one course of gabions. galvanized wire mesh can have a life of 40 years or more. Place the assembled gabions in position singly or wired together in groups suitable for handling. For soils and water showing a pH factor of less than 7 or more than 12.

The use of rounded stone.121 . 32-8013. Gabions may be filled by almost any type of earth-handling equipmenl such as a payloader. if it is available. When the depth of the water is too great for the gabions to be filled on site. reduces the possibility of damage to the galvanized wire during mechanical filling. Assembly and construction of gabions Drainage 6.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM stacked on filled gabions. Vol 1 1 ft 6 in \ Edges Figure 6-77. or modified concrete bucket. fill them at a dry location nearby and place them underwater by crane or barge. arc wired to the filled gabions at front and back. conveyor. crane.

the two most common devices for which gabions are used are headwalls and outlet aprons. and the curvature of its course. the steepness of its slope. Headwalls or wing walls are designed to protect the slopes of an embankment against scour. Thickness 12-in-thick gabions The thickness of gabions may be calculated by considering the gradient of the channel. weirs. Other antierosion structures (for example. Use an IS-inch gabion linfng for curved channel sections with a side slope of 45 degrees. and check dams). Typical channel gabions lining using Gabion-lined channels may be designed using Manning’s equation and the procedures for open -channel design. to increase culvert efficiency by providing a flush inlet as opposed to projecting one. to prevent disjointing of sectional-pipe culverts by anchoring the inlet Figure 6-76. Uses Gabions l can be used in the following ways: Protective and antierosion structures on rivers (for example. or spurs). In the case of easily erodible soil. If the gabions are grouted. and broken wires can be repaired by using the method shown in Figure 6-78. and wing walls. l * Channel 0 Seashore l Low-water bridges or fords.018. groins. revetments. Therefore. Vol 1 Maintenance and Repair Maintenance and repair are simple procedures: therefore. l * Bridge abutments It is often necessary to modify the inlet and outlet of a culvert by using transition structures to reduce entrance losses and to inhibit erosion. A 12-inch-deep lining is suggested for channels having reasonably straight alignment. For a steep channel slope. a combination of lining and weirs may be required.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Method of repairing a broken wire 6.122 Drainage . The gabion should be filled with stone small enough to allow at least two overlapping layers. linings. the type of material forming the banks and bed. In designing a gabion-lined channel. protection. drop structures.025 and 0. a layer of filter material or permeable membrane of cloth woven of synthetic fibers is required. the roughness factor or coefficient fn) in Manning’s formula may be assumed to bc between 0.030. Holes can be patched with small panels of mesh. Cross Section Figure 6-79. gabions are inspected at least once a year. and a flow velocity of about 10 fps. the roughness factor can be assumed to be between 0.012 and 0. as shown in Figure 6-79. Culvert headwall and outlet structures. side slopes of less than 35 degrees. Use 36-inch stepped-back gabion protection for sharper side slopes.

and durability. good grass cover is adequate 10 13 to 23 Energy dissipator or stilling basin required Thickness of apron (in) - Drainage 6. Vol 1 - and outlet. L-shaped. A typical plan using a headwall and an outlet apron with a culvert is shown in Figure 6-79.123 . Set Figure 6-80. Calculated outkt voloclty (WI Less than 7 7to10 10 to 15 More than 15 Requirements for gabion protection Length of apron (fl) No apron is needed. and warped. flexibility. flared. and to retain the cmbankmenl slope. Straight hcadwalls arc gcncrally used on small. Gabions arc well adaplcd for use here because of their roughncss. .. They arc also rccommcndcd whcrc thcrc is a tendcncy for lateral erosion to dcvclop at the outlel. These structures are built in a variety of shapes: straight. Culvert in/et or out/et using gabion headwall and channel lining Table 6-24. : FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. roadside culverls under driveways and in small channcls having a low approach vclocily..) Table 6-24 indicates prolcction required lcl \relocilics. An apron is often required at the outlet of a culvert to reduce the outlet velocity and thereby inhibit scour. the type of gabion for various ranges of out- 1WMhick gabion : Figure 6-80.

6. Cantilevered culvert outlets may be used to discharge a free-falling jet onto the bed of the outlet channel. 4. thus reducing the concentration of energy prior to releasing the flow to the outlet channel. A paved apron is required with warped end walls. CULVERT OUTLETS Most culverts operate under free outfall conditions (that is. If possible. and 6. This type of outlet should be used only if the material in the outlet channel can withstand velocities about 1. protective works and depend on natural material to resist harmful erosion. each wing wall may flare 30 degrees. PLAIN OUTLETS If the discharge channel is in rock or a material highly resistant to erosion. TRANSITIONS Outlet headwalls and wing walls serve the dual purpose of retaining the embankment and limiting the outlet transition boundary. Proper allowance for this action should be included in establishing the apron elevation and depth of cutoff wall. side erosion from eddy action or turbulence is more likely to prove troublesome than bottom scour. In general. scour occurs at average velocities in excess of about 1. Vol 1 . These velocities should be used only as a general guide. Warped end walls provide excellent transitions that result in the release of flow in a trapezoidal cross section which approximates the cross section of the outlet channel. As a guideline. A flared transition is effective if it is proportioned so that eddies induced by the effluent jet do not continue beyond the end of the wall or overtop a sloped wall. A warped transition is made at the end of the curved section to reduce the possibility of overtopping as a result of superelevation of the water surface. it is suggested that the product of velocity and flare angle not exFor example. and Plain outlets provide no stilling basins. Transitions provide little or no dissipation on the works themselves but result in a spreading of the effluent jet to approximate the crosssection flow of the natural channel. Special care must be taken in the structure design to preclude undermining. velocity is 5 fps.. the flare should not exceed 10 degrees.0 fps in gravel. transitions. 3. The extent to which protective works are required for energy dissipation depends on the amount of excess kinetic energy and the characteristics of the material in the outlet channel. Erosion of embankment toes can be traced to eddy attack at the ends of such walls. Unless wing walls can be anchored on a stable foundation. Riprap is usually required at the end of a transition-type outlet. 2. A newly excavated channel may be expected to degrade. but if velocity is 15 fps.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. This excess kinetic energy must often be dissipated to control damaging erosion. if effluent ceed 150 degrees. Stilling basins result in dissipation of energy on the protective works. make a study of local material to determine its erosion tendencies prior to a decision on the degree of protection required. a plunge pool will be developed. The study should consider three types of outfalls offering three degrees of protection: plain outlets.0 fps in silty sand.5 times the velocity in the culvert. a paved apron between the wing walls is required. The depth and size of the plunge pool depend on the energy of the falling jet at the tailwater and the erodibility of the bed material. As a result.5 fps in wellgraded sand. At such an outlet.124 Drainage . there is no control of tailwater).0 fps in clay. and the discharge possesses kinetic energy in excess of that occurring naturally in the waterway. special erosion protection is not required.5 fps in uniform-graded sand and cohesionless silts.

. a stilling basin or other energy-dissipating device is required.. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory.: .: ” . For TO construction. impactenergy-dissipating devices. . In unusual cases involving major structures. riprap or simple.: I. These dissipa tors are beyond the scope of TO conDesign procedures are not instruction. and stilling wells. flip buckets. Three types of dissipators which may offer a solution are the hydraulic-jump stilling basin.125 .. the impact-energy dissipator.. with details developed at the hydraulic laboratory of the Bureau of Reclamation. roller buckets. :: j. the use of a special type of device should be considered.. and stilling wells. Vol 1 STILLING BASINS At culvert outlets where a high concentration of energy or easily eroded materials make excessive erosion likely. concrete stilling basins are usually required.:::.: :.:.:: .j:. cluded in this manual.. with details developed at the St. :. FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. - Drainage 6.. There are many types of energydissipating devices such as hydraulic-jump basins.


Today most relations are used for one pass and the combined effects on vehfcle performance of terrain features such as sofl. Plan for the unexpected! This chapter discusses the trafficability (muskegJ and snow are not discussed. This chapter fn- and mafntafnfng test set.. . . : FM 54301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Engineers must be cautious as the calculated results can vary by 20% or more from changes in tire pressure and deflection.:.’ : : : . relationships through personal computer-based NRMM versions of mobility predictions such as the Comprehensive Army Mobllfty Modeling System (CAMMS). The fnformatfon presented In this chapter is lfmited to problems associated wfth soils. produce vehfcle speed predfctfons or GO/NO GO performance based on measured terrain and vehicle characterfstics are contained in the NRMM. use. thfs chapter was designed to permit calculations of trafficability by field perPerformances were estimated for a mfnfmum sonnel with only a hand-held calculator.y: . ::..:.:. .: . Vol 1 ‘- SOILS TRAFFICABILITY CHAPTER Sofls traflfcabflfty eludes information .:. duces fundamental relationships. . .. . Soils Trafficability 7-l ..:: : .::‘:.::‘...:. Organic soils The tra~lcablllty of fine-gralned soils (silts and clays) and sands that contain enough fine-gralned material to behave like fine-grained soils when wet is more dfjfcult to assess than tra~lcabflfty in coarse-gralned sofls (clean sands). If they are not frozen at the time of testing and passage of tra_Cfic..:. number of vehicle passes (1J or a maximum of 50 vehicles in the same ruts. of the tests performed .>: ::.. Most military units have access to NRMM comprehensive mobility evaluation tool... Makfng trafftcabflfty estfmates from terrafn data (topography and sol1 data) and The procedures in this chapter are conservative estimates for field weather conditions. :... and slope can only accurately be determined through the use of the computerized Army mobility prediction system contained The engineering relationships which in the NATO Reference Mobilfty Model (NRMMJ.. terminologies. The basic prlncfples for the procedures presented are sound for temperate and tropfcal clfmates and for soils that have been subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. This chapter only lntroand illustrations of this computerized.’ : .‘. . Operatfng fs the capacfty of sotls to support on the following topics: the sofl-traflcabflfty mflftary uehfcles.. vegetation. .. It does not fnclude problems associated wfth natural or man-made obstacles (such as forests or ditches) nor lnformatfon on vehicle characteristics (such as the maxfmum tilt or side angle at whfch a vehicle can climb without power staZ1 or OoerturnlngJ.. Orfgfnally... ..... of fineand coarse-grained soils. Relationships that describe the soil-vehicle interactions are based on sol1 shearing-resistance measurements made wfth the cone penetrometer and corrected for soil remolding under vehicle tragic by the remolding index [RIJ procedures.. by the cone . Measurfng penetrometer traflfcabflfty wfth the results and remoldfng equipment.

fine-grained soil..j:. the soil strength may be expected to fall to 120 times 0. The finegrained soil CI multiplied by the RI produces the rating cone index (RCI) used to denote soil strength corrected for remolding.:.:‘:i. or an RCI of 72.:‘::~~. Shearing resistance is measured by the cone penetrometer and is expressed in terms of cone index (CI). especially when wet and on a slope...~j ::‘..FM 5_43()... Because the strength of fine-grained soils (silts and clays) may increase or decrease when loaded or disturbed..:i:.:~~. Therefore.~. A comparison of the RCI with the vehicle cone index (VCI) indicates whether the vehicle can negotiate the given soil condition for a given number of passes. Weather changes produce changes in soil trafficability. such soil is not trafficable for vehicles with VCIs greater than 72. Such a condition may make steering difficult or may immobilize rubber-tired vehicles.. sticky soil can accumulate in a vehicle’s running gears..:.:...‘. Slipperiness is troublesome.ii: BASIC TRAFFICABILITY The following factors ficability: impact soil traf- FACTORS SLIPPERINESS SOIL STRENGTH Bearing and traction capacities of soils are functions of their shearing resistance..~. Normally. it may be impassable to nearly all vehicles. Loose sands improve trafficability through an increase in cohesion during rainy periods and return to the loose. VARIATION OF TRAFFICABILITY WEATHER WITH STICKINESS Stickiness may seriously hamper vehicles operating in wet. if a soil has a CI of 120 and an RI of 0. These techniques are part of the comprehensive NRMM and are not included in this publication.. even when associated with soils with high-bearing capacities. Dry periods produce the opposite effects.j.::. Techniques have been developed for predicting the effects of weather on soil traffIcability. less trafficable state during dry periods. However. If a vehicle has a minimum soil-strength requirement of 72 for one pass. For example.:. Trafficability characteristics measured on a given date cannot be applied later unless full allowance is made for the changes in soil strength caused by weather. plastic soil of low LL overlying a firm layer of soil can produce a slippery surface. remolding tests are necessary to measure any loss of soil strength expected after traffic. fine-grained soils). Freezing and thawing conditions can cause extreme variations in the trafficability of soils.jjj. Snow cover can have a significant effect on the depth of freezing. j. may cause immobilization of rubber-tired vehicles.:::~. Fine-grained soils increase in moisture during rainy periods. This results in slipperiness. making travel and steering difficult.::~~:_~~~_. its VCIl is 72 and an RCI of 72 is required for the vehicle to complete one pass without immobilization.60 in its critical layer.~:jj. Under extreme conditions. stickiness is troublesome only when it occurs in soils of low-bearing capacity (normally. The absence of snow allows frost to penetrate more deeply into the soil. and decreased strength.:~i.. when this same material is thawing. Appendix D of this manual summarizes VCIs for military vehicles. Excess water or a layer of soft.. Vegetation. stickiness. .:j.()0_1/AFPAM 32-801 3. 7-2 Soils Trafficability .:~j~~~.. under traffic.i~::: .~i..:~::.60. j/o! 1 ~.:. Several inches of frozen soil may carry a large number of extremely heavy vehicles..

Table 7-l summarizes these variations for common military vehicles. The complete set weighs 19 pounds. --- Figure 7.000 lb *Fine-grained soils and remoldable *Coarse-grained soils NOTE: Vehicle vehicles. and VCI. Critical-layer I profile. and other field identification tests are described in Chapter 2 of FM 5-530. the vehicle type and weight. a 5/8inch steel shaft with foot and handle.2-square-inch cone. plasticity tests. depth variations Depth of Normal Critical Layer (inches) Type of Vehicle 1 Pass F-G Soils* Tracked vehicles with ground contact pressure less than 4 psi Wheel load up to 2.000 lb Wheel load over 10. and the number of passes required. a cylinder and base with pin). page 7-4. values for military INSTRUMENTS AND TESTS FOR TRAFFICABILITY This section contains general information regarding the soil-trafficability test set. operating instructions.trafficability test set Soils Trafficability 7-3 . and a bag of hand tools.000 to 10. The critical layer’s depth varies with the soil type. Vol 1 CRITICAL LAYER - The critical layer is the layer in the soil that supports the weight of the vehicle in question.000 lb Tracked. and test procedures for the soil-trafficability test set are described in detail in Appendix E of this manual. Trafficability measurements are made with the soil-trafficability test set. The set is carried on the back as shown in Figure 7 2. the soil’s strength Table 7. The specific use.000 lb Wheel load. one cone penetrometer with 3/&inch steel and 5/8inch aluminum shafts and a 0.5-squareinch cone. This set consists of one canvas carrying case.1. weights sands C-G Soils*” 50 Passes F-G Soils* C-G Soils** 3 to 9 3 to 9 6to12 9to15 6to 12 9to 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 to to to to to to 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 to 9 3 to 9 6to 12 9to 15 6tol2 9to 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 to to to to to to 6 6 6 6 6 6 are located in Appendix D.000 lb Tracked. one soil sampler. Sieve-analysis tests. over 100.1. 2. up to 100. along with VCI. Soil. remolding equipment (which includes a 3/8-inch steel shaft and a 0. The items are shown in Figure 7-1 in their proper places in the carrying case.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. a 2 l/2-pound hammer.

Vol 1 .) The dynamic cone penetrometer is described in detail in Appendix E. There is also a dynamic cone penetrometer. Cone penetrometer Figure 7-2. The primary instrument of the soil-trafficability test set is the cone penetrometer. It is shown in Figures 7-3 and 7-4 and Figure 7-5.. It is used to determine the shearing strength of low-strength soils. When the cone is forced into the ground. a steel shaft 19 inches long and 3/8 inch in diameter. Carrying a soil-trafficability test set Figure penetrometer 7-4. the proving ring is deformed in proportion to the force applied. The cone penetrometer consists of a 30-degree cone with a l/2-inch-square base area. a micrometer dial. (The dynamic cone penetrometer is currently developmental and has only limited fielding. page 7-5. and a handle.FM 51430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. a proving ring. but this instrument is used to determine shear strength of high-strength soils such as those found in the base courses of roads and airfields. Using a cone in the upright position 7-4 Soils Trafficability . Figure 7-3.

) The proving ring and handle are used with a 3/8-inch-diameter steel shaft and the 0. Variations in soft soils require that at least 15 readings be taken to establish a true average CI at any spot at a given depth. and the general uniformity of the arca. the judgment of the range of soil strengths. a CI below 10 is considered to be a nontrafficable area and a CI above 300 is considered trafficable to all but a few vehicles for 50 passes. Vol 1 Figure 7-5. and any problems can be determined by visual observation. and test procedures for the cone penetrometer as well as the remainder of the soil-trafficability test set are described in detail in Appendix E. The 15 readings should be distributed throughout a uniform area. they should obtain data to determine the number and type of vehicles that can cross the area and the slopes they can climb. NUMBER OF MEASUREMENTS The number of measurements taken is determined by the time available. provided no weather changes occur. The procedures for measuring trafficability are described in this section. TRAFFICABILITY bility evaluation.2~square-inch cone for remolding tests in remoldable sands. since the instrument uses a l/2square-inch base. Trafficability-measuring instruments are designed for rapid observations. RANGE OF CONE INDEXES A CI ranging between 10 and 300 in the critical layer is required to support most military vehicles. The dial’s range is 0 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). The accuracy of the average of any series of readings increases with the number taken. Gravels are considered excellent for 50 passes. while gathering data for traffica- - Soils Trafficability 7-5 . operating instructions. The cone penetrometer cannot be used to measure gravels. These limits usually make it possible.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. This force is an index of the soil’s shearing resistance and is called the soil’s CI in that plane. The specific use.- The amount of force required to move the cone slowly through a given plane is indicated on the dial inside the ring. Remember that measurements are valid only for the time of the measurement and short periods thereafter. (The actual load applied to the cone penetrometer is 0 to 150 pounds. Using a cone penetrometer in the prone position . to classify large areas as above or below the critical range without CXtensive testing. MEASURING Whenever reconnaissance parties have time to take trafficability measurements. Except for a few vehicles.

enough readings should be taken to assure accurate coverage of the area.c. If these show an RI of 0. a few penetrometer readings will usually verify the extent of the area. If these show an RI of 0.90. 18-. If a tentative route can be selected in the field. Readings should be made at enough locations to establish the area boundaries and the average CI within close limits. After all individual readings are added together. and so on. If the CIs are above 200. in test number 1 the O-inch reading is 58. 15-. The resulting quotient is the average CI for that depth. readings should be limited to the number needed to establish the nontrafficable-area limits. penetrometer and remolding measurements should be made at closely spaced intervals to locate any soft spots. In the case of the 0. Example: Using the work sheet in Figure 7-6.) Because the readings on the cone penetrometer are taken at the 0-. and 24-inch depths. 9-.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Two sets of profile readings taken at each location should be adequate. Remolding tests on soil from the critical layer (fine-grained soils and remoldable sands) should be made at the first two or three locations. refer to the section on critical layers in this chapter. 0-. l l 7-6 Soils Trafikability . Continuing with the example above. use judgment to reduce the number according to the following instructions: . 6-. The corresponding penetrometer readings are listed in the blocks for the corresponding depth and test. the M929 dump critical layer for one vehicle and for 50 vehicles is 9-15 inches. (Always round down. Remolding tests (in the case of fine-grained soil and remoldable sand) should be run at a sufficient number of locations to establish the range of I&. The number in the denominator represents the number of tests conducted. no additional remolding tests are needed. select enough locations to verify the area g-inch layer. five tests down to 24 inches were completed at a selected site.) Solution: 58 + 63 + 65 5+ 72 + 75 = 66 6 = 66 If CIs are between 0 and 150. they are averaged with the reading above and below to obtain the average CI for that layer. the g-inch reading is 63. Vol 1 6-inch layer. page 7-3.80. The 68 is the CI for the 0. Four to six sets of readings should be made at each location. Three or four sets of readings should be made at each location. This can be established with tests at approximately six locations. 12-. the 66 and 71 are added and then averaged (68). and lb-inch deptha (fine grains and remoldable sands) can be interpolated when the vehicle types under consideration require them. remolding tests should be made at the first two or three locations. Where CIs are less than 10. (To determine the critical layer. and 2 l-inch readings must be interpolated where necessary. If the RI is below 0. NOTE: Intermediate value8 for the 3-. additional remolding tests are not needed. lish the range for the area if the RI is below 0.90 or more. The individual depth readings are then added and averaged. the 3-. Sufficient tests should be made to estab- The numbers in the numerator are the individual readings. Readings are then averaged for the 6. If the CI ranges from 150 to 200. For fine-grained soils and remoldable sands.80 or more. sufficient remolding tests should be made to establish the range for the area. No remolding tests are 12-inch layer and so on.~~~~ If time is not available to take a large number of measurements. For example. as in the O-inch layer. This can be established with tests at approximately four locations.

...:.:. ..:.i:( : FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. . .:.:.:.. ...:.:: ~ .i. .:.::::::.:. .....\. ...... . .:.. :. .:.:.:.:.:. Trafflcabillty test data form Soils Traffkability 7-7 .. . ~. . ‘...:>:.. ..:. ..:...‘:‘:.. ..:...:.....:.: .:.:.:.“:“.... ::..:. ....:...:.:‘:‘:... .\.. .... .:. ..... .:.:.... . .. ::... ::::::‘::::::.. ..: .: ....:...:: .:. VOl 1 a..... .:... . :.:.:..: ..:. . TEST NUMBERS Figure 7-6..... ...:.:.:.:. . . ..: ~..i.....:. .:j. (. .:.:.. :....:. .:. .:...:.:.:....:..... l.:.~:..:.....:.... ..:. ..:.. .:.: .i:: ..A.a.::. .

An area with Table 7-2.tests made in the 18-inch layers will be interpolated: 73 + 76 2 = 74 layer is 12-m layer are: 0. In a normal profile. The RCI for this layer is used as the criterion of trafficability for this particular vehicle. 0. readings are recorded for the 6. CIs should be measured at 6-inch increments down to 18 inches in the early stages of area reconnaissance. 30 75 45 35 index and for the 6. to 18-k layer tests made is 0 90. The average 3 layer is g-inch 12-inch and 12. The CI for the 15-inch STRENGTH PROFILE Normal Strength Profile in Fine-Grained Soib and Remoldable Sands In a soil with a normal strength profile. Do not add if less than 7-8 . Abnormal 70 becomes the CI for the 3. If these measurements consistently reveal that the profile is 12inch layers are added together and then averaged: 68 + 73 2 = 70 shown in Table 7-2.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. from The results 12-in and 0. For a tracked vehicle weighing less than 100. and 0 93.90. Vol 1 To find the 3.93 for the layer is 0. the 6. Area 8 (Abnormal Strength Profiles) Surface 6 12 18 32 77 42 38 30 78 43 37 33 75 45 34 31 73 46 36 28 76 :: 30 75 47 33 29 73 48 32 27 78 44 36 30 77 42 37 31 72 43 37 29 74 :6” 27 75 46 35 The average remolding index 32 76 47 33 33 72 47 32 28 74 46 34 remolding 0. such as the M113A3 armored personnel carrier (AX).to &inch and the 6. For the 9.and la-inch depths. the CI readings for the 0. An area with a normal strength profile is Strength Profile in FineGrained Soils and Remoldable Sands An abnormal strength profile has at least one CI reading that is lower than the reading immediately preceding it. the CI readings either increase or remain constant with each increment of depth. to 18-in layer are: Coarse-Drained Surface 3 6 9 12 15 18 Soils 20 65 120 175 215 250 290 15 80 120 180 200 250 300+ 20 60 110 175 220 230 250 30 80 130 190 195 245 280 40 70 110 175 205 230 295 120 180 210 250 300+ 20 75 115 185 205 245 275 25 70 125 190 200 240 280 30 60 115 180 210 235 300+ 20 75 125 180 220 240 290 24 68 119 181 208 242 284+ NOTE: The “t’ is normally added to the average to Indicate several of the readings exceeded 20% do not exceed 300. only readings in the critical layer need to be g-inch layer. in the 12. since a decrease in RI with increasing depth is not common. Examples of normal- and abnormal-soil strength profiles Depth (inches) 1 2 3 4 5 Cl Penetration Test Number 6 7 8 9 10 Area A (Normal Strength Profiles) 11 12 13 14 15 AV Surface 6 12 18 28 47 69 80 33 46 67 82 32 50 71 83 27 51 70 83 39 49 69 81 :: 67 70 30 53 72 80 27 49 73 79 29 47 68 77 30 48 70 78 28 50 71 81 31 50 68 79 33 53 70 77 30 51 73 82 32 52 72 83 31 50 70 80 The results from 3 remolding tests made in the 15-inch layer.88.000 pounds. 0 90. 0. remolding tests should be run only on samples taken from the normal critical depth for the vehicle in layer are 0. The average remolding The remolding index for the results from 3 remolding 12.

fewer penetrations are required to establish an average because coarse-grained soil areas generally are more uniform than fine-grained soils and remoldable sands. .:. :::: 15-inch layer...‘:.:......~...~. and this number becomes the RI for that layer. page 7-7.:. the RCI of the 6. each yielding different results..‘.‘. .. CI measurements should be taken at 3-inch increments to 18 inches or until the maximum capacity (300 CI) of the penetrometer has been reached.. the critical layer for one or 50 M929 dumps is 9 to 15 inches. 3 ( 12-inch layer is 60 (the average of 75 and 45) x 0.:...~. remolding tests were necessary for both the 6. . This value is compared to the VCI to determine the trafficabflity of the area for a specific 12-inch layer.......~~...~...:.........14 exceeds 1..... the VCI and critical layer will be determined for the critical vehicle...::‘:::::‘:. VOl 1 - an abnormal strength profile is shown in Table 7-2. . .......... Usually a mixture of vehicles will pass through an area...... The lower RCI is used as the trafficability 6-inch layer. the critical layer for most vehicles in coarsegrained soils is the 0..... a remolding test was run only for the 6.. CI readings should be made and recorded at 6-inch increments from the top of the normal critical layer (6-inch depth for the Ml 13A3 ARC) to 6 inches below the bottom of the normal critical layer ( 18 inches for the M113A3 AF’C).:_i:.~. ...0..19 + 1.....l/AFPAM 18-inch layer.. and the VCIso is 68..:......:. The RCI for area A is 60 (the average of 50 and 70) x 0. .. . .:.:.: FM .: ::::: ..):.. not a column of one vehicle type. will give the AVCI for any amount of vehicles up to 50...90 = 36.. ... . ..:::j:i.~.:.. Sol/s TraMcabllity 7-9 ....:: i:j..:.~. it is determined that one M929 dump can cross the area and 50 M929 dumps also can cross the area because the RCI values are greater than or equal to the VCI values......~...:..:. Remolding tests must be run on samples from the normal critical layer and also from the 6-inch layer below it.. :.......~:...:.). Example: The following fine-grained soil areas are to be investigated for trafficability for vehicles with a normal critical layer of 6 to 12 inches.: ...A/:..90 = 54... iii’:..430900.........‘... Comparing the RCIi to the VCIl and the RCI5o to the VCIso... Therefore..:.......>:i ‘....... In this area.. For this reason. use the following formula: VCIso . 1......0.:.14 = I I4 or I o .:.....:..... is the governing value for the trafficability in area B. Because area A in Table 7-2 has a AVCI - AVCI will give an increment for one vehicle 50 that.. RATING CONE INDEX The RCI defined earlier is the CI that will result under traffic.. The 3... The VCIi is 30... The average of these results is determined......:.. Lowground-pressure tracks are an exception to this rule.:..:... page 7-3.:......: .. when added to the 12-inch and 12-to 1Sinch layers.. :~~::‘:‘:il... 36.............““““’ .. . To estimate how many vehicles will cross an area when the RCI is less than the VCbo or to see what the VCI for less than 50 vehicles will be... When an abnormal strength profile exists...... ... Usually. The RCI of the 12.........~.:...10 + 1..... and the RCI of the 12-to 18-inch layer is 40 x 0..~.. Most coarse-grained soils have a normal strength profile with a large increase in strength with depth when compared to fine-grained soils..i~::. For the 9...) The RCIl is 74 and the RCIso is 74... .. The RI tests are not required... .:::... Samples are removed from the critical layer.“.. The strength measurements in a coarse-grained soil area are shown in Table 7-2..:. Example: Using the work sheet in Figure 7-6....: 5.:::a~~:::::::~.‘::~::~::~ i... so use 1... ..... .. .~.:.:..~......90 = 54. . normal profile.......t::~:~:.~~... three tests were conducted....:.::~....~~~~~~~:~~: g-inch layer is always used as the critical layer for these vehicles..... :::....VCII = Strength Profile in Coarw-Grained Soils As indicated in Table 7-1...:. In area B.....: .

may provide slippery conditions. that must be negotiated should be determined by studying a contour map. and other vegetation in various stages of decomposition. tracked 7. the effects of slipperiness cannot be measured. Immobilization can occur when slipperiness is associated with low-bearing capacity. soil strength requirements will be greater than normal if small trees or thick brush must be pushed down by the vehicle. The worst stickiness is nothing more than a nuisance to larger. Vol 1 . or ruling grade. From Appendix DVCIso = 58 and VCIl = 25 RChjo = 65 x 0. plastic soil usually are slippery and often cause steering difficulty.80 in the critical layer. For travel over slopes. Stickiness adversely affects the speed and control of all vehicles but will not cause immobilization except for the smallest tracked vehicles. Slipperiness Like stickiness. more powerful military vehicles. Soils that are covered with water or a layer of soft. consider the factors that follow when evaluating trafficability. Additionally. Limited testing with military vehicles reveals that low-ground-pressure. (Remember. The following categories are used to rate slipperiness: Condition Not slippery under any conditions Slippery when wet Slippery at all times Vegetation Symbol N P S 50 =50 33 = 066 * Each vehicle adds 0. The differences are not linear but can be estimated in the manner shown here. Example: Estimate how many M 1A 1 tanks can cross a level area with fine-grained soil where the CI is 65 and the RI is 0. Chains on rubber-tired vehicles usually improve mobility in slippery conditions.. more strength is required for lower passes than for higher passes. the strength increment decreases as passes increase. mosses. so that more remolding occurs at lower passes than at higher passes. The greater the plas- The effects of vegetation on trafficability are not within the scope of this manual. especially if wet. Stickiness Stickiness occurs in all fine-grained soils when they are wet.VCIl = 58 . Dense grass.. Slope The steepest slope. For simplicity. especially in rubber -tired vehicles.80 = 52 To determfne the VCI increment per vehicleVC150 . we have used this approach on trafficability research. .25 = 33 fi ticity of the soil.66 to VCIl until the number is equal to the RCI or one more increase will exceed the RCI. the CI requirements must be increased over those required for level terrain. Removing fenders will reduce stickiness effects on some vehicles.70 Soils Trafficability . Sometimes slopes with adequate soil strength will not be passable because of slipperiness. Instruments for measuring the effects of stickiness on the performance of vehicles have not yet been devised. add 0.) OTHER TRAFFICABILITY EVALUATION FACTORS In addition to the CI of an area.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. The adverse effects of slipperiness are more severe on slopes. but some points are worthy of mention. In actuality. Organic-Soil Areas Much of the terrain in northern latitudes is blanketed with a layer of organic material composed of roots. the more severe the effects of stickiness. this is only an estimate.. for example.66 to the VCIl. To estimate the number of vehicles that can pass.

APPLICATION OF TRAFFICABILITY PROCEDURES IN FINE-GRAINED SOILS AND REMOLDABLE SANDS The procedures presented in earlier sections of this chapter are intended for use in tactical operations.L.. .:. Example: Estimate the maximum slope an M923 5-ton cargo truck can climb for 50 passes where the slope consists of a remoldable sand whose CI is 93 and RI is 1..:y.:::::..VCI50 = 93 ... SELF-PROPELLED.:j::... : FM : : :. when the RCI is known. 32-8013..._..... ..::. .i .:.:::. high-ground-pressure vehicles can travel only a few passes before they break through and become immobilized.:. 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM _.. .68 = 25 Soils Trafficabirity 7.:c..:: : : : ..58 = 27 Using Figure 7-7.. Exact effects of such obstacles on the performance of vehicles are determined by the comprehensive NRMM but are not within the scope of this manual..‘.:.. Therefore. TRACKED _VEHICLES AND ALL-WHEEL-DRIVE The maximum slope negotiable and the maximum towing force or gross vehicle weight for the RCI are essentially equal. .:. .::.::. Example: Estimate the maximum slope an MlAl tank can climb for 50 passes where the slope consists of a fine-grained soil with a CI of 100 and an RI of 0. so NRMM actually predicts performance in finegrained soils based on specific soil type.. the soil-strength vehicle performance relations for organic soils are not as well defined as for fine-grained and coarsegrained soils. such as the M973 small-unit support vehicle (SUSV).. can travel 50 passes over organic mats that are more than 6 inches thick..> I. _.::::y::::+:. . The differences in the properties of various soils produce some differences in vehicle performance. Usually.85 in the critical layers..:.: +.: : .:..::.... sufficient strength will be available in the soil to withstand 1 or 50 passes of the same vehicle (or vehicles with smaller VCIi or VCI50) operating at a slow speed in the same ruts (in the case of 50 passes) and to permit stopping and resumption of movement.. v::..I... the maximum slope negotiable by a given vehicle for 50 passes [or by 50 similar vehicles in straight-line formation) can be estimated from Figure 7-7.: ..: :.Li. boulder fields. Criteria have been established so that when a given area’s RCI is equal to or higher than the VCI for 1 or 50 passes (VCIl or VCI5o) of the selected vehicle.....11 ..>. .:l.:.... and hedgerows.. The maximum slope the MlAl can negotiate under the given conditions is 50 percent. . Wheeled vehicles usually cannot travel on most of these organic-soil areas. .. Cone indices denote the relative strength of organic soils..::.:.. Other Obstacles A complete assessment of the trafficability of a given area must include an evaluation of obstacles such as forests. vehicles.. However.00 = 93 RCIx = RCI .)‘..85 = 85 RCIx = RCI .:..: .:. the maximum slope equals 50 percent.. ::::: . Solution: RCI = 100 x 0.. .. if necessary.. Vol 1 -...:. rivers.. page 7-12. .A. Solution: RC = 93 x 1.. :..::.:.: :. ditches. .:. i-‘-:: ‘7%.00 in the critical layer..VCIso = 85 ...I/.

the MlAl tank can complete one pass. at RCIX = 25. Tracked Vehicles and AllWheel-Drive Vehicles on Level Terrain The ability of a given vehicle to make one pass on a straight line on level terrain is assured if the RCI of the area is greater than the VCI for one pass fVCI11. The maximum slope the M923 truck can climb under the stated conditions is 35 percent.VCI = RClx vehicles operating in Figure 7-7. if water on the soil surface causes excessive sinkage or slipperiness. Example: Estimate if an MlAl tank can complete one pass on a level. Immobilization of a vehicle probably will occur when the RCI is less than the VCII. (Use Appendix D to determine the VCI. Immobilization may occur even when the RCI is slightly greater than the VCIl.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The VCIls of most military vehicles arc listed in Appendix D. Fifty-pass performance curves for self-propelled fine-grained soils or remoldable sands In Figure 7-7. fine-grained soil with a CI of 50 and an RI of 0. Vol 1 L Tracked vehicles with grousers less than 1%” 30 40 50 layer 60 70 RCI in the critical . the maximum slope is 35 percent. 7-12 Soils Trafficability .) Solution: VCIl = 25 RCI = 50 x 0. ONE-PASS PERFORMANCE The following information is used to determine if various vehicles can make a single pass over different types of terrain: Self-Propelled.70 in the critical layer.70 = 35 Because the RCI is greater than the VCIt (35 is greater than 25).

the maximum slope the MlAl tank can negotiate is 63 pcrccnt. the maximum slope = 63 pcrccnl. Soils Trafficability 7-13 . - Dctcrminc the maximum slope an M923 truck can climb on one pass whcrc the slope consists of a remoldable sand with a CI of 93 and an RI of 0.85 = 85 RCIx = RCI VCIi = 85 .40 in the critical layer. Example: Determine the maximum slope an M 1Al tank can climb on one pass where the slope consists of fine-grained soil with a CI of 100 and an RI of 0. Example: The maximum slope negotiable and the max imum towing force (as a pcrccntagc of gross vehicle weight) for the same RCIx arc cssentially equal. Under the stated conditions. at RCIx = 60. Therefore. Vol 1 Tra&d behides 1 Wh&ad bhicles L 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 90 100 J RCI In the critical layer - VCI = RCI.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.25 = 60 Using Figure 7-8.85 in the critical layer. the maximum slope ncgotiablc by a given vehicle for one pass in a straight lint up a slope can be determined by using the information in Figure 7-8. Figure 7-8. One-pass performance curves for self-propelled vehicles operating in fine-grained soils or remoldable sands Self-Propelled. when the RCI is known. Tracked Vehicles Wheel-Drive Vehicles Up Slopes and All- Solution: VCIi = 25 (Appendix Dl RCI = 100 x 0.

additional shear strength is required to produce the thrust needed to overcome the motion resistance (or required towing force1 of the towed vehicle. Solution : From Appendix D: One-pass performance of vehicles towing trailers is predicted using the comprehensive NRMM and is beyond the scope of this manual.000 Grousers < 1 l/2 in For the M923 VCI50 = 68 Gross weight truck- lb = 32. Vehicles Terrain Towing Other Vehicles on Level When the RCI is equal to the VCI.14 Soils Trafficability . The prediction system is not as well validated as that for single. Curves that predict the force required to tow vehicles of various weights and types on level terrain are shown in Figure 7-8.80 in the critical layer for the tank.10.30 = 7 In Figure 7-8. 5-ton cargo truck for 50 passes on a level. If the vehicle must tow another vehicle. the M923 truck can climb a slope less than or equal to 21 percent.VCIr = 37 .12 through 7. Such development can be reliably made only through the integration of complex considerations which are beyond the scope of this manual. some commonly used truck-trailer combination vehicles are listed in Appendix D. in examples involving vehicles towing other vehicles always refer to the towed vehicles as “inoperable. using Appendix D and Figures 77 through 7.500 lb RCI for the tank = 100 x 0. the VCIs of commonly used combination vehicles are listed in Appendix D. The following parapowered vehicles. However.80 in the critical layer for the truck. Thus. the maximum slope = 21 percent. fine-grained soil where the CI is 100 and the RI is 0. where required towing force (expressed as a percentage of vehicle gross weight) is related to RCI. The maximum towing force (expressed as a percentage of vehicle gross weight) is related to RCIx.17: Procedures used in the examples should not be extended to the development of a single VCI for a tractor-trailer combination vehicle. Although the procedure for determining the VCI for combinations of trucks or tractor-trailers is not discussed. page 7-12. selfpropelled vehicles. the ability of one vehicle to tow another can be determined. RCI .80 = 80 RCI for the truck = 60 x 0. where their VCIs arc used in the same way the VCIs for other vehicles are used to predict their performance on level terrain. Vol 1 Solution: VCI 1 = 30 (Appendix DI RCI = 93 x 0. at RClx = 7.VCI. the necessary RCI can be determined. For the M 1A 1 tankVCl5o = 58 Gross weight = 125. When a vehicle is required to develop a given towing force.” graphs give examples of the application of vehicle performance criteria for both 1 and 50 passes. therefore. The determination of VCI for towed tractors and self-propelled vehicles with nonpowered wheels requires calculations on an axle-byaxle basis and is beyond the scope of this manual. page 7-13.FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. is a measure of additional shear strength that allows the vehicle to develop a towing force. and the CI is 60 and the RI is 0. pages 7. Vehicles Towing and Up Slopes Trailers on Level Terrain When the RCI is known. Curves that predict the maximum towing force that can be developed by three types of self-propelled vehicles on level terrain are presented in Figure 7-7.40 = 37 RCIx = RCI .80 = 48 7. Under the stated conditions. Example: Estimate if an MlAl tank can tow an M923. the soil has just enough shear strength for the vehicle to overcome its motion resistance. or RCIx.

25 x 125. In Figure 7-9. T2 = 18 percent of 125.00) is the same for the critical layers for both vehicles.000 = 31.925 lb) for the M923 truck. labeled “Tracked vehicles with grousers less than 1 l/2 inches. Because the available towing force (12.000 = 0. truck the labeled On this of 32.12.00 = 95 RCIx = 95 .250 lb. t 32.000 lb for wheeled vehicles. T2 = 49 percent of 32. curve.250 lb) of the MlAl tank is greater than the required towing force ( 15.000 = 22.85 in the critical layer for the tank. Vehicles Towing Other Vehicles Up Slopes The maximum slope a vehicle towing another vehicle can negotiate is estimated using the following formula: Tl -T2 WI + w2 WhereTI = the maximum towing force (in lb) of the towing vehicle T2 = the force (in lb) required to tow the towed vehicle on level terrain WI = weight (in lb) of the towing vehicle W2 = weight (in lb) of the towed vehicle NOTE: This formula slippery surfaces.38 x 32. the truck cannot tow the tank.68 = 27 for the M923 The maximum towing force (Tl) of M923 truck is read from the curve “Wheeled vehicles” in Figure 7-7.58 = 22.500 = 12. does not apply to Example: Estimate the maximum slope that can be negotiated by an M 1Al tank towing an M923 truck for 50 passes.16.80 = 64 for the truck Using Figure 7-7.025 lb.000 lb = 0.350 lb. where the slope consists of fine-grained soil whose shear strength is such that the CI is 100 and the RI is 0.49 x 32.925 lb.85 = 85 RCIx = RCI .80 in the critical layer for the truck. The vehicles are the same as those in the previous example. The required towing force IT21 of the M923 truck is read from the curve in Figure 7-8.T2 Wl t w2 56. it is estimated that the tank can tow 25 percent of its weight. Because the available towing force (3 1. at RCI = 48.000 .025 lb) of the M923 truck is less than the required towing force (22. On this curve. the required towing force (T2) of the M923 truck at RCI = 64 is 38 percent of 32. On this curve.500 The required towing force (T2) of the MlAl tank is read from the curve in Figure 7-8 that is labeled “75.58 = 27 for the tank RCI = 80 x 0.000 lb” for tracked vehicles.500 lb) of the M 1A 1 tank. Tl . the tank can tow the truck under the stated conditions.500 = 12.500 = 15.500 = 0. for 30. page 7. Vol 1 ‘- The maximum towing force IT11 of the tank is read from the curve In Figure 7-7. at RCI = 95.” Using this curve. fine-grained soil whose shear strength (CI = 95 and RI = 1. 25 percent of 125.500 lb. Tl = 37 percent = 0.15 .37 x 32. RCIx = 27. page 7-13. 5-ton cargo truck can tow an MlAl tank for 50 passes on a level.250 = 125.500 = 0.279 = 28 percent Soils Trafficability 7.18 x 125. and the CI is 80 and the RI is 0. where the RCIx = 80 .000 = 56.FM 504309OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Solution : RCI = 100x0. page 712. Thus. the maximum towing force (Tll of the MlAl tank at RCIx = 27 is 45 percent of 125.500 = 0. Example: Estimate if an M923.250 lb.VC150 = 85 .350 Solution : RCI = 95 x 1.

fine-grained soils or remoldable sands Thus. multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) for 50 passes.68 = 52 for the M923 truck Using Figure 7-7. 2. page 7-12. 7.47 x 32. the maximum towing force CT11 for the truck is 47 percent.500 = 15. Example: Estimate the maximum slope negotiable by an M923.FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.VcIso = 120 .00 in the critical layer. Figure 7-9. Vol 1 . where the slope consists of fine-grained soil with a CI of 120 and an RI of 1. the maximum slope negotiable by the MlAl tank towing the M923 truck under the given conditions is 28 percent. The towing force In sofl areas where vehicles are bogged down may equal or exceed the weight of the vehicle. Solution: RCI RCIx = 120 x 1. The M998 is a wheeled vehicle with a gross weight of 7.500 lb. Fifty-pass performance curves for vehicles towed in level.275 lb.00 = 120 = RCI .16 Soils Trafficability . where the RCIx is 52. Thesecurves also apply lo inoperable powered vehicles. 5-ton cargo truck towing an M998 high mobility. 0 NOTES: 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 zoo Rating cone index 1. 0.

500 = 0.T2 t w2 15. tracked vehicles and one for selfpropelled.::j.500 = 975 lb.’ . : . The maximum towing force (expressed as a percentage of the vehicle’s gross weight) that can be When the RCI is equal to the VCIi. . If the vehicle is required to tow another vehicle. Figure 7-10. One-pass performance curves for vehicles in level. Powered on Level Terrain (One Pass) vehicle to overcome its motion resistance.::.. FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.: : ... which is the additional shear strength that allows a vehicle to develop a towing force when required (for one pass)..:::.j y:. . Thus.. fine-grained soils or remoldable sands towed Soils Trafficability 7-7 7 . . additional shear strength is required to produce the necessary thrust to overcome the motion resistance (or required towing force) of the towed vehicle. ..:: . :..13 x 7.“. the maximum slope negotiable by the M923 truck towing an M998 HMMWV under the given conditions is 36 percent. the required towing force (T2) of the M998 at RCI = 120 is 13 percent of 7. one for selfpropelled.. . the soil has enough shear strength for a given RCI in the critical layer . page 7-13. : . Two performance curves.VCI = RCI.:. Vol - Using Figure 7-9.275 . .VCIl = RCIx.. Vehicles Vehicles Towing Inoperable. Tl Wl .358 = 36 percent Thus. are shown in Figure 7-8. . .. RCI .500 t 7.’ ‘I’.. wheeled vehicles. .: : .975 = 32..j :.500 = 0.

In Figure 7-8.. RCIx = RCI .000 lb) required to tow the tank. fine-grained soil whose CI is 95 and RI is 1.1 For the MlAl tank. where the slope consists of fine-grained soil with a CI of 100 and an RI of 0.00 in the critical layer for each vehicle. In Figure 7-9. at RCIx = 70 the required towing force (T21 = 8 percent of 125.T2 Wl +w2 WhereTI = the maximum towing lb) of the towing vehicle force (in T2 = the force (in lb) required to tow the inoperable.500 = 8.70 in the critical layer for the truck. For the MlAl tank.000 = 0. RCI = 100 x 0.500 lb.000 = 10.25 = 45.000 = 0. 7-18 Soils Trafficability .10.63 x 125.25 x 32.85 = 85 For the MlAl tank. the truck can tow the tank under the stated conditions.85 in the critical layer for each vchiclc. developed by a vehicle on level terrain is recurve for all lated to RClx. RCIx = RCI .63 x 125. In Figure 7.. Solution: For the MlAl tank. For the M923 truck. Because the available towing force of the truck (17.17.750 lb.500 = 17. Vol 1 . at RCIx = 5. and grousers are less than 1 l/2 inches. 5-ton cargo truck can tow an M 1A 1 tank for one pass on level..000 = 0.16. finegrained soil whose shear strength is such that the CI is 100 and the RI is 0. the maximum towing force (T 1) = 63 percent of 125. Example: Estimate if an MlAl tank can tow an M923. RCI = 50 x 0.08 x 125.500 = 0. page 7-13. Solution: RCI = 100 x 0. When the RCI is known. at RCL = 60 the maximum towing force (Tl) = 63 percent of 125.6 percent of 32.10. In Figure 7-10. Vehicles Towing Inoperable.‘:.25 = 60. gross weight = 125.546 x 32. the required towing force (T2) = 25 percent of 32. powered vehicle on level terrain WI = weight (in lb) of the towing (in lb) of the towed vehicle vehicles W2 = weights NOTE: The relation does not apply to slippery surfaces. The performance vehicles when towed on level terrain is shown in Figure 7. VCIl = 30 and gross weight = 32. For the M923 truck.000 lb.500 = 0. Example: Estimate if an M923.70 in the critical layer for the tank.25 = 70. page 7. (See Appendix D.VCIi = 95 .745 lb. at RCIx = 45. 5-ton cargo truck for one pass on level. Solution: RCI = 95 x 1.70 = 70 and RCIx = 70 . page 7.000 = 78. and the CI is 50 and the RI is 0.125 lb) of the truck. at RClx = 65 the towing force (Tl) = 54.125 lb.750 lb. VCIi = 25.30 = 5.VCIl = In Figure 7-8. For the M923 95 . RCIx = RCI . Example: Estimate the maximum slope that can be negotiated by an M 1Al tank towing an M923 truck on one pass.00 = 95 truck.70 = 35 and RCIx = 35 . where the required towing force (expressed as a percentage of the vehicle’s gross weight1 is related to RClx.000 = 78.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.VCIl = 85 . Because the available towing force (78.745 lb) exceeds the force (10. the ability of one vehicle to tow another can be estimated. the tank can tow the truck under the stated conditions. powered vehicle can climb is estimated using the following formula: r1 .750 lb) of the tank exceeds the required towing force (8.30 = 65. Powered Vehicles Up Slopes The maximum slope a vehicle towing an inoperable.000 lb.

r- Determination of VCIs for New or Unlisted Vehicles For conventional-type vehicles not shown in Appendix D. 12 or less VCiw 29 or less Vehicles Lightweight vehicles with low contact pressures (less than 2. a mobility index (MI) is calculated for each vehicle. of each vehicle Military vehicles and VCI and category Range Category 1 2 vci.698 + 32.3 percent of 2. a great number of trailed vehicles.VCIl = In Figure 7.30 = 55. tanks with comparatively low contact pressures. tracked vehicles. page 7. at required towing force (T2) = 32. truck. Tl .17.I9 . self-propelled.083 x 32.2. the following procedure can be used to calculate the VCI: First. Military vehicles can be divided into seven arbitrary categories according to the minimum CI requirements WC11 and VCIso).698 lb. the 8.48 = 78. tractors with high contact pressures.000 . and trucktrailer combinations.and 50-pass performance. CLASSES OF VEHICLES Appendix D contains a list of vehicles divided into four classes: self-propelled. especially in wet soils 12-21 30-4s 3 21-26 50-5s 4 26-30 60-69 5 31-35 70-7s 6 35-44 80-99 7 45 or greater 100 or greater L Soils Trafficability 7. Each vehicle is idenTable 7-3. construction equipment. The range of VCIls and vcI50S for each category (exceptions are numerous) are shown in Table 7-3. and heavy tanks A great number of all-wheel-drive and rear-wheel-drive trucks and trailed vehicles intended primarily for highway use Rear-wheel-drive vehicles and others that generally are not expected to operate off roads. wheeled vehicles. Appendix D also includes performance categories for each vehicle and each vehicle’s VCI for l.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. RCIx = 55.10.750 125. the maximum slope negotiable by the MlAl tank towing the M923 truck under the given conditions is 48 percent.500 PERFORMANCE CATEGORIES = 48 percent Thus. and all-wheel-drive trucks and trailed vehicles with low contact pressures Most ail-wheel-drive trucks.500 = tified by its standard nomenclature. RCIx = RCI .T2 Wl+W2 = 0. and some trailed vehicles with very low contact pressures Most medium tanks.500 = 0.0 psi) Engineer and high-speed tractors with comparatively wide tracks and low contact pressures Tractors with average contact pressures. Vol 1 __ For the M923 85 .

the VCI can be estimated by using the following steps to calculate the MI and VCI for each type of vehicle.:- :. [For MIS above 40. . ( 1) Wheeled Vehicles. With the newer trucks the VCIr may vary 20% with tire pressure changes ONLY. the VCI50 can be obtained from the equation VC15o = 25.454 x M1J. Step L Tracked Vehicles. assuming equal wheel or track loads and all wheel drive: (The NRMM adjusts for uneven loads and differences in tire pressures. . Self-Propelled. Determine the MI.1 grouser factor: bogiefactor = gross weight.FM 5-43O-OO-l/AFpAM 32-8013..05 Z&p_& Use Figure 7-l 1 to convert the MI to VCI. Step 1.000 to 69.l Self-Propelled. All-wheel-drive vehicles.:j. Mnhilifrr I ’ + wheeZ load - clearance factor x engine factor x transmission factor 7-20 Soils Trafficability .4 1.00 < 10 horsepower/ton of vehicle weight = 1. : : .05 factor: hydraulic = 1.0 1.. ::.5 inches high = 1. contact Pl -essure x yi:i: factor bogie clearance x engine factor x transmissionfactor = factor track x grouser +factor factor factor I contact qross weight in Ibs pressure area of tracks in contact with ground in square inches factor Mnhilitrl “-------3 index I .999 lb 100.000 lb or greater track width in Lnches = = = = 1. transmission 210 horsepower/ton of vehicle weight = 1.:. Vol 1 Y’.2 1. Although the NRMM calculates actual VCIs based on an axle-by-axle basis.000 lb 50...8 trackfactor = 100 grousers less than 1. dfvfded by 10 (total number of bogies on tracks x (area of 1 track shoe Ln square In contact with ground ) = clearance in inches inches) clearancefactor 10 engine factor . Determine the MI.999 lb 70.2 t (0.00 mechanical = 1. :: . wherein weight factor: less than 50.) NOTE: These formulas could be used to determine estimates of VCI and adjusted by 20% to reflect that drivers of trucks with central tire inflation will reduce as required.000 to 99.5 inches high = 1. Ln Zbs..0 grousers more than 1.: :‘:‘:..

5 ) I x number of tires weight factor: Weight range (lbs)* less than 2.278X .501 to 20.000 greater than 20.553x 0.142X .FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.050 0.05 = 1. Estimated relation of a MI to a VCI Soils Trafficability 7-2 7 . Vol 1 contact wherein pressure factor = gross weight in lbs outs [de diameter of tires Ln inches tire width in inches x r) .500 13.0.420 0.000 to 13.00 180’ 140 . 00 40 20 0 60 70 80 so 100 Figure 7-11. 00 ’ f $ .033x t 1..000 2.3.115 ross vehicle weight (kips) number of axles Y = weight factor where X = ’ tirefactor = 10 + tfre width in fnches 100 grouser factor: with chains without chains = 1. 120 .c 5 s 80.000 * gross oehlcle weight (Ibs] number of axles Weight factor equations Y Y Y Y = = = = 0.

05 SteD Enter Figure 7.000 lb = 0.8 track width 100 track factor = in Lnches bogiefactor = (total numberof gross weight.:. in lbs.05 transmission factor: hydraulic mechanical = 1. .:. The all-wheel-drive formula is used to obtain the VCI of halftracked vehicles by assuming that the vehicle has wheels instead of tracks on the rear end. page 7-21.. (For MIS above 40....= 1.1 is used (to account for increased traction provided by the rear tracks].00 < 10 horsepower/ ton of vehicle weight = 1. (21 Rear-wheel drive vehicles only. divided by 10 bogies on track in contact with ground ) x ‘ar~~~~~a~fl~~~~~~ clearance = clearance in inches 7-22 Soils Trafficability . to convert the MI to VCI.FM 5.: . If the vehicle being considered is not equipped with an all-wheel drive.454 x kIl]. then multiplied by 1. . j/o1 1 ::. the VCIso can be obtained from the equation VChjo = 25.4 to obtain the VCI. . Towed. the MI is computed according to the formula for all-wheel-drive vehicles. Tracked Vehicles. wheel load factor = gross number factor weight In kips of wheels = clearance (wheels may be single or dual) in inches clearance 10 engine factor : 1 10 horsepower/ ton of vehicle weight = 1. A grouser factor of 1.:. .430. (31 Half-tracked vehicles.00-1/AFPAM 32-8013. contact Mobility index pre~c~~~x = weight factor + :a::: clearance I gross wefght In Zbs area of tracks In contact with ground in square inches + 30 L wherein track factor contact pressure factor = weight factor: 15.00 = 1. .2 t (0. : . . The wheels are assumed to be of the same size and have the same load as the front wheels.000 lb or greater . Step 1c Determine the MI.11.: .0 below 15.

.:::::j::::~:~:~~~::::~:.. .0 0.2 + (0.. ..::..2 t (0. the MI..:. ... .::~... the VCIso can be obtained from the equation VCko = 25.. to convert the MI to VCI. .::~:::iiiiiii)::i:li:ii’il iiiiii FM 5-430-()()-1/AFPAM 32..... . ... ..::::::::::::::::::::. . . ...... . . . ..:. j:. . and wheeled vehicles1 may be used only for Lfmltatlons..... . .:.:~...... i:i:i:i_ j::::::::. . . .. . .. . ..801 3. . .. . .. . ...7 0.. ..000 in lb clearance = clearance in inches SteD Use Table 7-5....:::~..454 x MI)].. S&. ..:... . page 7-24. .. ..~: . .. ... . .. .. . . . .. . ..~:~:~~... . . ... .. .. . .500 to 9... . . In lb. [For MIS above 40. .. ~.:::::::.... x tire factor axle + load clearance + 10 I wherein contact pressure factor = normal tfre pressure.....:~..6 tire factor: single dual tire = 1.. . .8 0.~:.. .. . .000 to 12. . . . determination of probable RCI that will permit a trailer to complete 25 to 40 passes without the axle or undercarriage dragging. . .. .....454 x A41)]. . . . ..499 lb 7.. ...:.. .. [For MIS above 40..~.. ..... .. to convert the MI to VCI. .:i . ...~:~:~.999 lb 10. .. .. .::....:... Use Table 7-4...::. .000 lb per axle or greater 12. weight factor Determine contact MobtZfty index _ o 64 ’ pre=-c.::: :. . .:..... . ....... .... ... ...500 to 14.::... ...:..:.. ..::. .. .....:.. . . ..::. . . ..::::. .. .. .. . MIS and resultant VCIs from trailers (towed. .:::. . . per square inch z weight factor: 15. .. tracked and towed. .. .:. Soils Trafficability 7-23 .500 lb tire = width In Inches 100 = = = = = 1. page 7-25.p_L Wheeled Vehicles..:.5 x width In inches 100 axle load = axle load 1.j::‘.999 lb less than 7. Step 2..9 0. .:. .. .. .. ... .i. Towed. ... . . the VCI can be obtained from the equation VC15o = 25. Vol 1 . ..‘:~:..~.

8 37.6 14.3 51.1 14. 1.0 79.0 50.7 57.3 20.0 22.3 31.8 84.8 38.7 78.5 20.8 67.2 24.8 24.6 58.2 71. 45.6 23.9 36.5 22.4 22.3 29.2 28.4 41.4 17.5 40.2 10.3 30.4 62.8 26.(92.6 54.8 8.9 9.8 5.1 22.5 21.7 31.3 36.0 62.6 27.7 15.1 30.0 10.7 34.2 67.1 26.3 8.1 44.3 16.3 31.6 34.0 13.5 28.3 33.74)} (50 Passes) VCI.7 MI 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 vq 33.4 25.7 37.7 8.5 10.1 53.8 24.1 68.6 79.2/(Ml t 3.8 31. 30.5 MI 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 VCI.7 53.1 8.8 32.4 18.5 13.2 25.2 78.2 36.6 25.1 65.7 85.5 6.3 70.2 23.1 72.7 35.9 20.3 13.7 28.4 14.2 27.0 26.8 27.7 4.2 7.4 38.0 23.5 26.0 11.8 71.3 20.8 MI 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 VCI.3 63.6 72.4 73.0 15.9 46.7 21.2 37.4 80.9 32.2 17.8 47.7 64.3 77.4 8.8 19.7 11.2 15.Table 7-4.8 81.5 62.7 6.6 24.7 36.0 3.4 15.6 38.9 51.4 VCI.5 32.3 16.9 59.4 69.2 64.3 2.2 9.2 13.5 31.7 21.8 18.3 32.6 61.4 58. = 11.3 29.5 72.4 23.7 29.4 76.1 31.0 40.67/(Mlt 3.7 48.7 30.8 25.1 16. Tracked vehicles Moblllty Index vs Vehicle Cone Index For One and FlRy Pa8ws MI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 VCI.4 26.9 vcl.6 12.7 23.4 27.9 12.9 66.0 76.4 50.0 25.4 54.3 34.2 23.1 85.5 79.4 40.5 29.6 44.6 18.9 87.0 45.1 75.9 35.5 35.3 21.1 6. 26.0 39.8 28.3 32.8 63.4 11.4 86.1 35.5 65.2 MI 99 100 101 102 lo3 lo4 105 lo6 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 VCI.0 20.7 11.3 5.5 34.2 81.1 12.67)) eqUatlOnS: 7-24 Soils Trafficability .6 23.6 65.9 70.8 vcl.1 33. 60.3 55.4 37.9 22.{39.1 49.6 11.2 35.4 83.9 55.2 19.2 74.2 18.1 34.9 31.6 86.5 9.2 56.4 25.6 27.6 19.0 86.1 20.8 74.1 9.8 52.4 15.0 24.5 50.1 61.7 82.2 27.9 77.8 7.7 20.8 13.3 30.9 73.2 3.8 15. 12. the VCI Is obtained from the followlng (1 Pass) VCI.1 32.2 28.0 54.0 58.1 38.9 14.3 59.5 7.5 16.6 76.5 4.9 17.6 69.9 34.6 45.0 18.5 30.1 21.1 29.23 t A3 Ml .7 43.8 42.4 24.9 30.0 37.3 33.8 18.7 68.0 27.2 48.3 NOTE: For MIS above 160.7 10.3 35.8 56.48 + 0.3 42.9 16.0 38.1 36.0 17. = 28.7 33.6 38.4 66.7 16.9 41.8 29.1 6.1 17.2 VCI.2 52.8 35.1 57.0 69.5 83.6 26.4 46.9 21.5 33.6 39.3 84.1 82.7 28.2 43.7 13.6 37.6 49.7 32. 0.0 1.0 19.8 60.2 38.6 17.3 22.0 83.9 29.2 Ml .0 25.4 VCI. 19.0 12.3 4.8 33. 75.3 47.2 37.7 19.2 11.9 80.6 36.0 28.3 34.4 14.

0 96.:~‘:: .‘..48 + 0.0 37.: .6 96..9 30.6 74...4 27.A..2 45.9 31.2 56.‘.3 91.4 66.6 14.6 44.8 12.I .1 57...0 35.::.6 35.1 47..1 29..‘...4 MI 33 34 35 36 37 36 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 46 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 VCI.7 32.7 64.8 91.4 14..1 31.0 21.3 36.. ..:.4 40.A. 17./ ...7 46.2 38. :.2 22.:::.5 MI 99 100 101 102 lo3 lo4 105 106 107 708 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 116 119 120 121 122 723 724 125 726 727 728 129 130 131 VCI.2 60. 69.6 26.67)) Soils Trafficability 7-25 .1 66.4 36. .0 6.6 36..4 93.3 77.:. ““.6 15.7 21.:.. :.5 23.9 77.:.4 64.0 40..::::.7 23.3 20.6 14.4 42.8 71.2 35.2 10.6 65..1 79.1 46.6 23.6 42.2 36.9 49.4 35..9 66.0 93.6 41...4 28...:.7 16.‘..3 31.. :.i .4 62..0 8.5 46.2 27.. . . :.: ..1 52. . = 26.~:..1 31.{3@.‘..4 15.2 19.3 33..9 29.2 71.6 93..4 63.7 17.7 22.A.1 89.3 30.7 30..2 41.6 37.2 76.5 76.4 16. .9 33.3 43.5 24.9 33.3 44.6 47.7 68.....6 57...4 41.6 43..6 72..5 33.9 41.. .9 23.:.0 3.0 17.4 39.0 42. 24.3 32.9 32..0 46..:~:~ FM 5_43()_00_1/AFPAM : . :.7 25.1 23... .5 29..‘.‘.1 62.. ::.0 41.4 40. .3 13..‘.2 22.2 40.6 19... ..8 36.9 42.:.3 63.6 40.:c.7 86. :::::. 3...5 31.6 39.9 59. 55. = 11.23 t A3 MI.2 VCI.0 22.1 92.0 28.. 30._ .7 VCI..: :.4 73.6 66.9 20.1 24..2 75.6 vcl..2 88.0 25..2 64.6 Ml 66 67 66 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 76 79 80 61 62 63 64 65 66 87 86 69 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 96 VCI.1 30. .3 37.0 76.6 42.9 70.1 15.3 67.....5 73.. Wheeled vehicle Moblllty Index vs Vehlole Cone Index For One and Fl?ty Pas-s MI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 26 29 30 37 32 VCI.:.{92.6 89..7 10. 32-801 3.0 56.:.7 62.6 15.4 22.I: :.:.6 36.0 38./.0 13. .2 95.0 80.6 76.:_:..:> .8 26.:.::::i:i:I::j.3 23.5 NOTE: For Ml8 above 160. 39.:.7 92... :/. .: .7 65.. .8 61.6 79.4 56.....1 61. 64...4 42.74)) (50 Pas-s) VCI.6 39..9 vcl. .9 40.4 31.2 17...3 24.5 90.0 39...1 32. .6 25.1 16.0 27..6 37.6 16.:.0 63.4 26.6 34.6 16.5 80. .6 13..9 39.7 45...1 65.9 94..6 41. .7 52.7 9.6 21.: . .4 36.6 11.6 27.9 54.2 26..‘~.4 60.2 37.0 34.6 76.. .2/(Ml+ 3.5 65..0 19...~‘.7 31. the VCI is oblalned from the followlng equations: (1 Pass) VCI.‘.6 60.7 34.7 13.2 6....5 46.“‘. ..3 70.7 19.7 34. :.0 38.9 19...0 69.8 25.0 66.5 32..6 63.5 58.3 29.2 42.5 19.. ...2 25.1 33.“‘:::.‘.i:j:.::..7 29. .8 35..7 32. ((..2 21._i: .4 34..3 29.1 14.8 27..7 12.8 40.9 MI 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 146 149 150 151 152 153 754 755 156 157 756 759 160 vcl.4 11.. .4 25..5 66.. :...5 34.0 8..1 72.4 41.2 MI . . .6 35.0 73.6 27.4 5..5 62.6 37..l ~.~~~...6 53.6 67.3 50.5 17.1 20.3 76.3 74.67/(Mlt 3.2 28.6 69..: ...6 57..6 22.3 64.5 30.3 32...3 7..0 43..3 67.5 53.7 56.9 15.6 28. .‘. .3 59.:.4 49.6 26.2 9..~..8 36.4 21..4 12.‘.:.6 21.7 24..2 34.4 38..0 11.:.2 65. . vol 1 Table 7-5..4 VCI.9 87.‘i. 37.:.6 61.2 35.9 36. :.8 50.:.0 26.0 29. :“‘:‘:“:.3 55..7 75.3 94..2 39.:.. .4 90.:.. ::..6 43...0 90.4 87. .0 62.‘.0 36.6 26.s.5 20.5 26.0 12.6 83.7 95.6 17...“‘. 1..8 78..0 53.:y.9 16.(.2 51.

Since most natural. vehicle characteristics. SC. Therefore. Furthermore. and they compute a minimum soil strength requirement for traffic (VCIl) based on measured CI (RI is considered 1. Wheeled-vehicle performance is affected more by tire-inflation-pressure changes on coarse-grained soils than on finegrained soils. Other sandy soils with appreciable quantities of fine material (SM. Some important differences are* Coarse-grained soils do not respond to the remolding test (except for highly saturated sands). sandy soils contain fine-grained materials that cause the soil to behave like a fine-grained soil. and the soil condition (in terms of soil strength and moisture content). coarse-grained soils encountered. If the color of the soil near the penetrometer immediately becomes lighter. Because coarse-grained soils do not remold there is no need to conduct the remolding test. these relationships cannot be simplified to a point where they could be displayed as figures in this chapter. OPERATION IN COARSE-GRAINED SOILS Coarse-grained soils present trafficability problems different from those encountered in fine-grained soils. l l ALL-WHEEL-DRIVE VEHICLES TERRAIN ON LEVEL l Coarse-grained soil in the dry state is easily recognizable. SM-SC) are treated in the NRMM as fine-grained soils. The need to evaluate the interplay among terrain and vehicle characteristics requires that the coarse-grained soil predictive relationships be computerized into the NRMM. tire pressure. and subsequent passes are usually assured if they are made in the first-pass ruts. This effect is reflected in high CI readings. the number of tires. Another test is to confine a soil sample in the remolding cylinder and attempt to penetrate it with the cone penetrometer. One-pass performance of all-wheel-drive vehicles has been determined.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The prediction of the performance of a wheeled vehicle in sands is a complex interplay among many vehicle characteristics including tire size. It is the round.) Use the following procedure to ensure the soil in question is coarse-grained: Push the penetrometer into the soil. If the soil is coarse-grained. only dry-to-moist. it will be difficult or impossible to penetrate.0 or greater for these 7-26 Soils Trafficability . In most cases. it may be confused with remoldable sand or even finegrained soil. poorly-graded sands (SPI are evaluated using coarse-grained vehicle performance relationships in NRMM or CAMMS. tire construction. The presence of vegetation in coarse-grainedsoil areas indicates the soil is stabilized and is of high trafficability. the internal drainage is good. Level. granular material found on most beaches and in sand dunes. Use RCI for finegrained soils and CI for coarse-grained soils (assume RI = 1. the effects of soil strength on the performance of a given tracked vehicle are minimal. date has not permitted development of CI performance relations for tracked vehicles because all tracked vehicles have been able to travel on all level. coarse-grained soils seldom cause immobilization of tracked vehicles or allwheel-drive wheeled vehicles when operating at low tire-inflation pressures. When wet. the first pass is the most critical. however. which signifies a coarse-grained soil. Testing to The ability of a given vehicle to travel one pass in a straight line over level terrain is generally assured if the CI of the area is greater than the VCI. and subsequent passes are assured if the first pass is successful.0. The relationships do follow the trends of the fine-grained relationships. The first pass over a coarse-grained soil area is the most critical.

. even for remote areas. j : :. :’ . . Speed predictions can then be made for these areas. and area topography are generally known. In general.:j : . Vol 1 -- soils). ::.. Soils and topography data may be obtained from topographic. Performance predictions in the NRMM are made for two categories of tracked vehicles. Weather and climatic information usually are available.. ... Tracked vehicles generally do not suffer immobilization on level SP soils. found on most bulldozer-type vehicles.. DATA geologic maps: aerial photos: or interrogation. sand. Vehicles with girderized tracks generally produce higher tractive forces on SP soils than do flexible-tracked vehicles. at a minimum. vehicle ground pressure is decreased from on-road.. wheeled vehicles operating in sands should use the lowest tire pressures possible and all-wheel-drive for maximum off-road performance. The maps produced by the techniques described in the following paragraphs are elementary compared with the complicated and comprehensive maps now in production for use with the NRMM. : : :: : ..:. The user should be aware that immobilization can easily occur in these soils.. The accuracy of the trafficability estimate depends on the type.. : .‘. FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. : 3 : : :.: . . ... TRAFFICABILITY The objective of mapping trafficability data is to provide commanding officers with an estimate of an area’s trafficability prior to actual operation. and snow pressure. from meteorological records.. : ‘.” Dry Season. The analyst’s ability to interpret the data is also important. humid climates.. Weather Conditions For estimating trafficability. page 7-28.:. the dry season is from about the first of May to the first of November.‘. especially if soil types must be deduced from geological maps and air photos.. .: ... in general. tire pressures should be reduced to mud./. coarse-grained soils regardless of soil strength. flexible. found on most military vehicles. especially if the soils are dry and loose. and accuracy of the available data. :. In coarse-grained soils.... and Soils Trafficabiiity 7-27 . In this manner.: :. or personnel interrogation. For temperate.. low soil moistures. or gir- Calculation of a coarse-grained VCI for a vehicle configuration is considered beyond the scope of this manual.j: . the performance of wheeled vehicles is generally affected most by tire pressure. These predictions are made using the comprehensive NRMM... soils.“. or to the emergency tire pressures if speed is not a requirement.:.. . To optimize vehicle performance.. The estimate consists of placing symbols that describe the trafficability of a small area at strategic points on existing maps as shown in Figure 7-12. In this season. CALCULATIONS OF VEHICLE CONE INDEX TRACKED VEHICLES TERRAIN ON LEVEL As a general rule.. soils. and should prepare for such emergencies. quantity. such as the United States east of the Mississippi River.: . A dry season is defined as a time when climatic and vegetation factors combine to produce. derized.:. 3:. evaporation of water from the ESTIMATING Trafficability can be estimated if weather conditions.:. consider only two general weather conditions-the “dry season” and the “wet season. climatology textbooks.:. tracked vehicles are able to travel on all level. and vehicle traction is maximized for the terrain conditions encountered.

Vol 1 7-28 Soils Trafficability .FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

or irrigation.. During the dry season. The techniques for identifying soils from aerial photos are so complex that only welltrained personnel can fully use aerial photos for this purpose.~~. material and age data. For example. and few clouds. high temperatures. In temperate. :/ : . plowed fields. Locations of rivers.. ::. In a given photo. light color tones generally indicate higher elevations... With that information and a general knowledge of climate.. Melting of snow and thawing of previously frozen soils may also produce wet soil conditions.. in general. or any other cause.:. the same color tone may not signify the same conditions in the same photo and may signify an entirely different condition in another aerial photo.. frequenl rains..‘:. :: . forests. escarpments.. trained analysts can estimate the soil types likely to be found in the area.:..:i FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.:.‘:. :.. . Aerial Photos. Wet seasons may occur at any time as a result of prolonged rains.. topography.:. Information from agricultural maps must be translated into engineering terms before a trafficability estimate can be made.. and water is rapidly extracted from the soil and transpired to the atmosphere by growing plants. but analysts familiar with the classification systems can usually make good translations. A dry season may also occur at other times of the year as a result of long periods of fair weather. trafficability of any type of soils is affected by a high water table that results from underground springs./ ::.:. vcrlical cuts are evidence of deep loessial (silty) soils. :. and vegetation.. the wet season extends from about the first of November to the first of May. >:. and embankments can also be obtained from aerial photos. Wet Season. For example.. and tile drains in agricultural areas indicate the presence of poorly drained soils (probably silts and clays). Elevations and slopes can be estimated by personnel who are properly instructed to read (with the aid of stereopairs) and interpret information in aerial photos. sandy soils. humid climates.:..j/‘:‘:‘:jj: I.:j:. . natural soil tones may be obscured and modified by tones created by vegetation (natural and cultivated). . Geologic Topography and Classification of Soils The configuration of the soil surface and soil types in a given area are determined from the sources that follow.:. cultivation. forests. In addition. Physical features such as rivers.. Vol 1 soil is high because of long days. The more common types of soils maps are those using an agricultural system of soil classification. and Soils Trafficability 7-29 .I. coarse-grained soils is poorer than that of all wet.. Areas of arid climates may be considered to be constantly in a dry season..:_:. fine-grained soils and remoldable sands of any type usually are trafficable and. some general information can be obtained by personnel with a minimum of training.. and the absence of growing plants tend to keep soil moisture near a maximum value..:. sandier soils.:.:. A wet season is defined as a time in which weather conditions combine to produce high soil moistures. coarsegrained soils except quicksands. j.‘j’j. streams. Accurate elevations and slopes can be obtained with mechanical equipment by operators trained to use such equipment...::::F:.‘.j: ‘. Even in the dry season...j. coarse-grained soils... heavy cloud cover..’ . During the wet season. . floods.. and lower soil moisture than those signified by dark color tones. . No exact method exists for doing this. Topographic Maps. low-lying and poorly drained soils. although these maps are scarce. orchards are usually planted in welldrained. Adding moisture to a soil affects the strength of that soil. However. Geologic maps show parent Maps.. However.:+ .j:~:..~(. are of higher trafficability than dry.. the term “loam” in the agricultural classification system usually includes CL and ML soils in the USCS. the effect differs with soil types. The trafficability of dry. low temperatures.. Soils Maps.:::. : . and cloud shadows. Trafficability can be estimated rapidly from maps that delineate surface soils according to the USCS.

As an example of hard-copy outputs from the mobility models. choke points. The different cross-hatched areas are used to depict cross-country mobility rates of O-10. soil types: vegetation type.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Figure 7. such as with different tire pressures. terrain slope. Low-topography areas are usually poorly drained and have water tables occurring within 4 feet of the surface at some time during the year. For trafficability classification purposes. 20-30. to precisely plan the optimum configuration. and these crossings will require 30 minutes except for a few crossing points which would require “zoom” techniques to locate. and greater than 30 kilometers per hour (kphl for the tank. route selection. together with changes in vehicle configurations which may result as a consequence of offensive or defensive actions during tactical or combat operations. Vol 1 roads can usually be identified from a topographic map. This data is used by the models with input vehicle data to make speed or GO/NO GO predictions for each individual terrain unit (on a quad sheet1 formed by the complex interplay of the input variables. topography has been divided into two classes: low topography and high topography. or with different load configurations. and high-topography areas are those at comparatively high elevations. as they would appear on the console of a CAMMS computer. three graphical products are presented in Figures 7-13 through 7. The shading and the speed increments are arbitrary. obstacles. The models may also be used by materiel and hardware developers to determine the effects of proposed designs or changes on manual vehicle performances. The derived displays can lhen be enlarged via “zoom” techniques w d 7-30 Soils Trafficability . density. Input terrain data includes land use. linear and hydrologic feature data: and road and trail data. Thus. The potential landing-zone map indicates primarily unfavorable landingzone sites. Absolute elevation has no significance in identifying the topography class. with favorable sites located in the northwest third and southeast corner of TRAFFICABILITY MAPS A wide variety of mobility-related products can be obtained from computerized mobility models such as the NRMM or CAMMS. 10-20. with and without towed loads. operational planning. The initial assessment of the display in Figure 7. Scallered NO GO areas should be avoided. especially those concentrated in the upper portion of the quad. the uses and displays achievable through the NRMM or CAMMS computer models are basically limited only by the imagination or requirements of the user. route for the Cross-country traverse or route movements can be configured to show the additive effccts on vehicle speeds of mined areas. High-topography areas are usually medium-well to welldrained and do not have water tables within 4 feet of the surface at any time during the year. Comparison visual products can also be obtained to show quad-sheet-sized differences in the mobilily performance levels of red or blue vehicles to contrast the performances of a vehicle in a variety of configurations. convoy planning. On-road mobility in most areas should exceed 10 kph.13 would indicate the platoon can move across this quad at greater than 30 kph except for scattered areas where speeds will drop to 20-30 kph. Estimates of surface slopes can be made from the contour lines (lines passing through points of equal elevation). or unit-movement preparation. Visual displays or hard copies of the video displays can be used for such Casks as vehicle and terrain analysis. and spacing. River and stream crossings will be required in west-east movement across the quad. Low-topography areas are those at comparatively low elevations with respect to surrounding terrain. Figure 7-13 depicts the cross-country speed performance of a US Army MlAl tank in Germany. or gap crossings.14 is a display of potential landing zones from CAMMS for the same areas as in Figure 7-13. surface geometry.15. obstacles emplaced. pages 7-31 through 7-33.

: :...... . : ::...:I .: ...: ‘::‘. . . .. . .. :...:.......:.!. :....: . :..‘..: : . .....‘...j:..: .... ‘:. .. .::. Vol 1 Soils Trafficability 7-31 .. :..:...) c .. .. ... : FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.. y.:. .. .. ....._.. ..j:.. .. .:..7.:. ... .:::j :... :...:..:: ...:..: :.... :... .::...:::.. :....

Potential landing zones (. i ..Figure 7-14.

:‘Y : :. : :...:$....$:‘.: : >...:.i ::j :.. -.... : : : . ...:: :.:... . Vol 1 Soils Trafficability 7-33 ..f’:.:... ..:.: : :....:. :’ . .: .: FM 5-4301OOWAFPAM 32-8013.

and slipperiness is shown by N.: ::..80 25 .S.” <x~‘: < y::! . consecutively to Y. or combat soldiers in the field to plan real-time red and blue actions in terrains around the world. Thus. the mobility analysis is now a very powerful tool for the military planner. the RCIx for the three vehicle types on 25-percent slopes. and slipperiness.:. .i.i:il::_i:i . The RCI of 50 for area 3 will allow passage of all 50 tanks but not all 50 trucks. tracked vehicles. From Appendix D: Vehicle VCll vc150 Solution: MANUALLY MAPPING SOIL CONDITIONS AND TRAFFICABILITY Although mapping soil conditions and trafficability through manual means is rarely done since the development of computerized mobility models.12. Y:‘:“.< . . the operations officer should order all wheeled vehicles to be equipped with traction devices and should expect some sliding and steering difficulty. or D (as defined in Table 7-6). The soil-type condition is shown by A. The tanks can proceed in single file from X through areas 1.500 lb) are to be moved from point X to point Y in the area shown in Figure 7. Thus.12 shows how areas can be delineated in this manner.:.‘: .FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM 32-801 3.:. slope. Example: Fifty M60 tanks (102. For wheeled vehicles. is a display of USCS soil-type descriptions from CAMMS for the same area as in Figures 7.17). is shown by a single number. 3..:::. tracked vehicles with vck. Movement must be cross-country because the roadnet is heavily mined. This display helps guide the user to the most suitable sites for landingzone construction. RCI...:. The photomap in Figure 7. :. it is important that the procedure be presented should the need ever arise.._::.RCIx or VCI5o = 80. However..000 lb) and 50 M923 trucks (32.. RCIx = 17.:.80 25 . and 6.. .. Example: In the fraction B . This display indicates the locality of soil types that may be useful in scouting for construction materials or sites more suitable for road and airfield construction. RCIx = 11.:?i.12.:!:. planners. for each type of vehicle. :_::. - 7-34 Soils Trafficability . B . in percent. All vehicles can negotiate areas 1 and 6.::Y:?. and it is desirable to present basic terrain data that can be compared directly with VCIs. . for conventional... page 7. P. find the VCI5o. RCI is shown by a single number.. Figure 7-15.(. the quad. the area is trafficable for wheeled vehicles with VCIBO less than 63 WC150 = RCI . The four basic terms describing trafficability are: soil type. B. . and for long-grousered. first find in Figure 7-7.jzi~xiiz< . :.::. pages 7-31 and 32. for conventional. tracked vehicles.13 and 714. The following paragraphs describe the proper procedure in detail: VCIs vary widely.. and S is a slippery surface. slope.. (Stickiness effects are not considered significant enough to include on maps. tracked vehicles with VCI5o less than 67. Examine the possibility of singlefile travel through flat terrain. Tank Truck 20 30 48 68 Step 2... . To interpret the meaning of Since the slope may be slippery. war garners. Solution: Step 1..o less than 69..) The four factors may be presented (as in Figure 7-12. It integrates natural features of the landscape with vehicle parameters to produce mobility products which can be used by materiel developers. RCIx = 13.S B is the soil type condition (from Table 7-5. 80 is the RCI.:y:. Vol 1 .. Then. page 7-28) in fractional form with two items in the numerator and two in the denominator. page 7-251.‘. or S. . page 7-33. 25 is a 25percent slope. C... and for long-grousered.

gravel-sandclay mixtures Clayey sands. organic silts GC SC CL 65 to 175 0. Moist sands are good. gravel-sand silt mixtures Silty sands. Often will not permit even a single pass. Going will be difficult in most cases.35 65 to 140 Severe to slight Severe to slight Usually will support more than 50 passes of military vehicles.75 45 to 125 Severe to slight Moderate to slight GM SM Ml_ CL-ML 65to160 0.25 to 0.85 25 to 120 Moderate to slight Slight MI Usually will not support 40 to 50 passes of military vehicles. Wet-season trafficability characteristics of fine-grained soils and remoldable soils Group A Soils Well-graded gravels Poorly graded gravels Well-graded sands Poorly graded sands uses GW z SP Probable Cl Range 35 to loo Probable RI Range Not applicable Probable RCI Range Not applicable Slipperiness Effects Slight to none ness Effects Concepts WIII support continuous traffic of tracked military vehicles or all-wheeldrive trucks with highflotation tires. micacaous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils. Going will be difficult in most cases. rock flour. elastic silts Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity Organic clays of medium to high plasticity. sand-silt mixtures Inorganic silts and very fine sands. Going will be difficult at times. Cften will not support 40 to 50 passes of military vehicles but usually will support limited traffic. OL OM . inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity. sandy clays. silty clays D Silty gravels. dry sands only fair.45 to 0. silty or clayey fine sands or clayey silts with slight plasticity Inorganic silts.75 to 1. Performance wilt increase with a decrease in tire pressure. lean clays. Clayey gravels.i Table 7-6. Wheeled vehicles with standard tires may be immobilized in dry Sad% Inorganic clays of high plasticity (heavy clays) CH 55 to 165 0. sand-clay mixtures Gravelly clays.

~. trafficability data for that vehicle can be generalized and considered applicable to all vehicles with a VCI of 49 or less.:.:. The slipperiness of area 3 may present an insurmountable problem for the trucks unless traction devices arc available. the trucks will have to fan out and use more lanes with less than 50 vehicles in single file to ensure passage through area 3 (VCIi to 30. This example indicates the usefulness of mapped trafficability data in planning operational exercises. Vol 1 ..:. 50 Passes Vehicle Slope RClx 15 20 RClx t VCll 15 20 t t = l%IRqd Tank Truck 30% 30% 48 = 68 = 63 88 The tanks can negotiate the 30-percent slope in single file (available RCI of 80 is greater than the required RCI of 63).::.: . if the vehicle selected has a VCl of 49 and the information on that specific vehicle is presented. Slope 30% 30% RClx 6 11 RClx + VCll 6 11 + + 20 30 = = = RCIR+ 26 41 .~::“..j:. 5.~. and obstacles that cannot readily be shown on the face of the map.‘~:~~:. respectively.. The presentation of trafficabllity data for strategic purposes is most effective when one vehicle is used as a standard..“i:~::~. 5. when necessary. Step 3. For example.. and 6. RCI less than 50).. The four soil-slope combinations should be shown as trafficability symbols.. or Appendix D) or computed. (See previous weather conditions. page 7-19. The reverse of the trafficability map should contain an inset map of the principle physiographic provinces.’:~~~. Forests should be indicated by appropriate open-type patterns in strong green.. The base of the map should be a standard topographic map printed in a gray monochrome with streams in a strong blue color. 7-36 Soils Trafficability . the topog- CLASSIFICATION raphy (high or low1 has been identified.:’_::~.~:_.::. geologic areas.) Obstacles should bc indicated by red added numbers circled in red.y :. This route is shown as a dashed line. and related data used in making the analysis. as previously described. and the VCI for vehicle category has been determined (from Table 7-3.:~j. All trucks cannot negotiate the slope in single file (available RCI of 80 is less than the required RCI of 881.:.:.:. SOIL-TRAFFICABILITY Soil classification of a specific area can be accomplished rapidly for seasonal (highmoisture) conditions when the sol1 has been classified in terms of the USCS.:..:::. landforms.. The inset map should show in detail all important data on soils. reference vehicle. provided caution is used with the trucks.~~i’~.~~~:~.+.~.131 of both vehicle types in area 5: 1 Pass Vehicle Tank Truck through areas 1.~~~.. provided the slope of area 5 can be negotiated..:‘:‘i. For this example.FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.:~. The conclusion is that all vehicles could travel from X to Y . as indicated in Table 7-7. topography. but they can fan out and negotiate the slope on a one-pass basis (available RCI of 80 is greater than the required RCI of 411.~:..:. it is assumed that the combination of 60-percent slope and other terrain obstacles in areas 2 and 4 would not allow travel through them.:.II’:. Check the slope-climbing ability (using Figure 7-7 and Figure 7-8.:..~:~. pages 712 and 7. and 6. consecutively. Recommended techniques of mapping trafficability data follow: .~.-~ .. An alternative route that would be safe for all vehicles would be through areas 1.

: :’ i :::: ..i..~. 90 percent. but less than 84.: :‘.‘.:g::i+::>::::::::. :. Vol 1 Table 7-7..‘.:..:..(. ..::.: .. Figure 7. but less than 5 percent... .. Trafficability symbols Dry Porlod Wet Period Letter Symbol Color PaSsable Passable Passable DoubtfulAmpassable Doubtful/Impassable Doubtful Impassable Impassable Generally impassable due to steep slope or rough terrain.) . page 7-38..:.16 applies to wheeled vehicles only.:. but less than 56.:.:... ~ .:..::.::::. .5i.A.. identify only the coarse-graincd soils (location and origin) and determine the VCIs from the equation presented earlier in this chapter. High Moisture Condition” graph of Table 7-8 for a level area of MH soil follows: l greater than 75 percent. pretation is the same as for the trafficability of fine-grained soils from Table 7-8.. COARSE-GRAINED SOILS Vehicles with a VCIso or VCIi equal to or greater than 84 will have a less than 50 percent probability of traversing the area. Soils Trafficability 7-37 . :. Vehicles wilh a VCISO or VCIi equal to or greater than 56.iil:‘. A E E Dark Green Liiht Green or Green Stripes Orange or Yellow Red Red Stripes FINE-GRAINED SOILS l The trafficability classification of finegrained soils is shown in Table 7-8. of traversing but less than the area.~..:.:. :.:..:: ..:.:..::‘::‘:‘:: :. :.:..‘.:.:.:....: .::‘:. The effect of the strength of coarse-graincd soils on tracked-vehicle performance is negligible.‘.‘.::i:.~:::~::::~~:~:‘~~:~~::::.~:~ :... of traversing the area.‘::.“: .:::: : ‘.~:~~:.~.. FM 5-4301001l/AFPAM 32-8013.:g..~~:. . Vehicles with a VU50 or VCll equal to or greater than 18.. but no more than 100 percent..: .i. will have a probability equal to or l l The trafficability classification of coarsegrained soils can be obtained from Figure The classification inter7-16. To use Figure 7-16..: . . ::~:. Vehicles with a VCI50 or VCIl less than 18 will have a probability equal to or greater than 90 percent.. The interpretation of the example shown in the “Low Topography.:‘:. j.:..:::: .::~.C .~ . page 7-39. Soil not evaluated. :. of traversing the area.:. .f.::i. will have a probability equal to or greater than 50 percent..

‘Applies only to wheeled vehicles without traction devices. and organic properties of soil under given moisture condition.69 0. ‘Estimated from textural.165 95-135 Z:$ 69-167 150-162' 63-151 71-165 61-183 61-171 71. WET-SEASON CONCMllON iii 99-194 0.45 .97 .0.92 0. [.0.14 0. page 7-19. Soil-trafficabilitv classification in USCS terms 20 1 40 1 60 1 80 1 100 1 120 1 140 I 196-m I I I I I I I I I I 1 160 1 180 1200 I I I I I HGH TOPOGRAPHV.61' 4e-146 - LOW TOF’OCRAPHY.. wet-season condition.46 _ 0..59-121' 66-w’ 43-123 B-117 12-m P-69 26-66 49' 21-49 41 * 51' NOTE: Vehicle category and Cl range are given In Table 7-3.z 90% 50% <Pr < 75% 0% 5 Pr < 50% reliability.46-0.g:. :%a 105 125' 111 96 z z 46' 97-257' 160-216' 94-170 los.45.66 0.0.166 la?-200 95.99 029-m 0.45.HOHYOSTURECOIUllON NONE I I I I I I I I II I II 1 I II I Isw.45 .69 14-q 41 -51 - NONE I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I T%:’ 130' .0.26 .74.%' 0. based on analysisof data Fair reliability.155 g:+yi KG-1..15-0.1. 0 Probability Excellent (Pr) of a vehicle (or 50 vehicles) TGccd x traversing level terrain lEased on tl and -1 standard deviation from the mean.39 . based on $gement .0.60 0.0.lw m Fair m Poor 90% s 100% L 100% 75% 2 PC . ‘+A vehicle with a VCI of 60 would have a 50 to 75% chance of “GO” on an ML soil of low topography.32-0.63 ' 0.31 .02 0.217 90..74 0.Table 7-8.31' 0.51 .76 0.0. plasticity.61 0.27 _ 0.169 46-146 34-134 34-96 41.94 0.66 0. 1. ‘Based on analysis of less than five samples.42 .g O.67' 34.

Trafficability classification of dry-to-moist. coarse-grained soils .Vehicle 0 20 40 cone index 60 (VCI.S) 80 100 120 Coarse-gralned soll I I I I I I 1 Probability (Pr) of wheeled vehicle traversing level terrain I] Excellent Good 19o%<.< 90% 100% pa Fair Poor 5o%IP. P .<75% 0% IP. 75% <.p.< 50% Figure 7-16.


Based on this manual. AIRFIELDS. AND HELIPORTS CHAPTER Maintenance is the routfne prevention and correctton of normal damage and deterioration (from use and the elements) to keep road and airfield surfaces and facilities In usable condftion. plan and perform maintenance and repair activities to permit at least partial use of the facility. base course. surface repairs made on a defective subgrade are wasted. The purpose of all maintenance and repair activities is to keep roads. and texture. Prompt and adequate maintenance is important. AND REHABILITATION OF ROADS. When it is necessary to close the facility to all traffic. and surface. appearance. airffelds. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR CONSIDERATIONS periods of reduced activity. it can proceed very rapidly. REPAIR. Use the following guidelines when performing maintenance and repair work: . accidents. Rehabllltatton resembles war-damage repair except that It Is accomplished before occupancy. To ignore the cause is to invite the prompt reappearance of damage. Repair includes the resurfacing of a road or runway when maintenance can no longer accomplish its purpose. or other installation surfaces in as usable and as safe a condition as the situation permits. Whenever feasible. Ignore the cause only when making temporary repairs to meet immediate. uniformity simplifies maintenance and repair operations. and Rehabilitation 8-1 .FM 5-430~OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Repair. select alternative facilities or perform repair work at night or during l Maintenance. Once surface deterioration or destruction has started. Maintain and repair existing surfaces as closely as possible to the original construction in strength. Ensure that maintenance and repair activities interfere as little as possible with the normal flow of traffic. hostfle forces. Also. . Repair fs that work necessary (other than matntenance) to correct damage caused by abnormal use. minimum needs under combat or other urgent conditions. Spot strengthening may create differences in wear and traffic impact that can harm adjoining surfaces. All maintenance and repair jobs should include an investigation to find the cause of the damage or deterioration. and severe weather. rehabflitatton is the restoration of captured airfields and heliports to usable condition. Remedy the cause before repairing the problem. Vol 1 - MAINTENANCE. Postponing minor maintenance jobs can result in the development of major repair jobs involving the subgrade. For example. Reopen the facility as soon as practicable.

and premixed. structures. stockpiling. One pothole in a heavily used road that is in otherwise excellent condition takes priority over repairs to less heavily used roads in poor condition. Surface defects can usually be attributed to excessive loads. For example. l Maintenance and repair of the actual pavement. cold patching materials at convcnicnt places and in sufficient quantities for emergency maintenance and repair. Frequent inspections and effective follow-up procedures prevent minor defects from becoming major repair jobs. Surface inspections should include a complete inventory of the current pavement defects. Maintain small quantities of aggregate in dry storage for concrete patching. Investigate water ponding on or adjacent to surfaced areas. thoroughly inspect the system in late fall to prepare for winter and in early spring to ensure minimum spring breakup difficulties. or a combination of these conditions. sand and gravel. 8-2 Maintenance. Ponding or delayed runoff of surface water allows seepage into the pavement structure unless the surface is tightly sealed. Vol 1 l Prioritize the needed repairs based on the tactical requirements. including the maintenance and repair of necessary buildings. Inspect surface and drainage systems carefully during rainy seasons and spring thaws and after heavy storms. and the operation of necessary utilities. inadequate drainage. MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OPERATIONS Drainage Inspection Ensure that all drainage channels and structures arc unobstructed. Careful investigation of the causes of the defects will allow for timely maintenance to prevent the pavement defects from requiring repair. Inspect cheek dams for debris and cxccssivc erosion. poor subgrade or base conditions. the traffic volume. MATERIALS FOR MAINTENANCE l MAINTENANCE INSPECTIONS The purpose of maintenance inspections is to detect early evidence of defects before actual failure occurs. materials required in the maintenance and repair of roads and airfields are the same as those used in new construcOpen pits and prepare stockpiles of tion. Miscellaneous tasks. and the hazards that result from complete failure of the facility. and base materials. of all related l l Maintenance and repair drainage systems. To ensure a comprehensive maintenance and repair operation. roads used for tactical-operations support take priority over less essential facilities. Repair. gravel. base material. cold patching material may be prepared as explained in Chapter 9 of TM 5337. Inspect the system drainage during or after cvcry storm. and Rehabilitation .FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Build one of the several types of trap-and-chute combinations described in Chapter 5 of TM 5-332 for sand. including dust and mud control and snow and ice removal. Also. and utilities. DRAINAGE MAINTENANCE Defective or tnadequate drainage causes most pavement failures and deterioration. Arrange stockpiles for quick loading and transporting to the road or runway. Surface Inspection Generally. inferior surfacing material. Maintenance and repair operations include many tasks bcsidcs improving the pavement condition. incorporate the following tasks: l Routine Material inspections. Check culverts and drainage lines for structural damage. Inspect subsurface drains at least twice a year. Prcmixcd.

Culverts Keep culverts clear of debris and sediment (Figure 8-3. Ihe edges of the pavement and should slope away from lhc pavcmcnt to prevent water seepage into the subgrade. brush. Inspect culverts frequently to determine whether they arc func-tioning properly. compacted surface. or concrctc. For proper design considerations of cut slopes.1). Material clcancd out of ditches can often be used to rebuild shoulders. The weir notch of a check dam must be kept clean or water will cut into the surfaced area at the edge of the dam (Figure 8. Figure 8-2. Cut-slope interceptor ditches must be considered for all side-hill and through cuts to prcvcnt gully washing and erosion from the top of the cuts. Maintain ditches as to lint and grade. Side ditches can usually be maintained with graders. page 8-4. and paving material must be replaced when washed out. illustrates proper terraced side-hill-cut drainage. sediment. Repair. Correct sags and minor washouts as they occur. Dikes or berms may be required along the tops of high-fill slopes to prevent gullies and washes. avoid unnecessary blading or cutting that destroys natural ground cover. Cleaning by hand is usually necessary after heavy rains. Shoulders Keep shoulders smooth and graded so water will drain from the surfaced arca toward the ditch. Vol 1 Surface - Drainage Water undermines road Mark arcas where ponding occurs on surCorrect such problems by fillfaced areas. If benching or terracing has been used in the design of the cut. and other debris that obstruct water flow. A good rule of thumb is to make benches at least as wide as a dozer blade. page 8-4). Shoulders should be kept bladed flush to. erosion may bc corrected by lining the ditch with riprap.1.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. or slightly below. The aprons of check dams must also be maintained. and Rehabilitation 8-3 . asphalt-coated membrane. Also ensure that each bench top is wide enough to maintain that drainage with earthmoving equipment. Control penetration of storm water through pavement by sealing joints and cracks. Maintenance. Drainage Ditches Clear weir notches Figure 8. This prevents water from cutting around or undermining the culvcrts. ing or raising depressions and by providing outlets for water blocked by high shoulders. Maintain crowns and superelevations with graders or drags. Inspect check dams in side ditches and clean them regularly. Check dam Keep drainage ditches clear of weeds. Replace eroded shoulder material on paved surfaces with new material. ensure that the top of each bench is sloped back into the cut to provide for proper drainage. When cleaning and shaping. NONPAVED SURFACES Basic maintenance of nonpaved surfaces includes shaping the cross section to maintain adequate drainage and a smooth. Keep unpaved roads and airfields crowned to prevent water from remaining on the road or airfield where it will saturate and weather the surface. Where possible. refer to Chapter 10 of FM 5-410. develop dense sod to stabilize open ditches. Where vegetation is not cffectivc because of soil or moisture conditions.

Work from the ditches to the center of the road to ensure good drainage and proper road crowning. ::: . Pt).:::Y:. heavy timber may be used for normal scraping. Since loosened. Procedures Keep traffic areas and shoulders free of potholes. dry material cannot be compacted. and all organic soils (OL. and irregularities. Materials One type Materials removed from ditches.: . other than silt. OH. of drag is shown in Figure 8-4. Multiple-blade drags of iron or iron-shod. and Rehabilitation . Repair.FM 514301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. blading or dragging should be done during or soon For prolonged dry spells or after rains. Side-hill terracing Equipment Most surface maintenance consists of light scraping with grader blades and drags. Light blading will prevent corrugation or washboarding. Culvert entrance 8-4 Maintenance. when surface material will not compact. add water or moist subsurface material Figure 8-3. Vol 1 . Dispose of silt deposits when removed: they are not suitable for conAfter heavy storms and spring struction. Drags are frequently used to float mud and water off a road and to prevent corrugation or washboarding of the surface. ruts. thaws. additional material may need to be hauled in. may be used on shoulders and traveled ways.:: Figure 8-2. some clays.

:.... :....~.... Spraying with water or a bituminous stabilizer is the most commonly used method of controlling dust.‘.::. 2.6x19) Crossbeam \ NOTES: 1.:j . Figure 8-4.::... page 8-6.:...:::.... . ......:.:~.‘. or scariffer before compaction.: . OILED SURFACES The routine maintenance of oiled surfaces consists of shaping and patching..:.. ..:..~ : ....:. soft spots can be temporarily reinforced by addfng crushed rock or clean gravel.:....y...:‘:‘::. Beams and crossbeams-8-Inch I-beam channel or 8C& to 90-lb RR rails.~.:... plow.. Cross brace-112 x 4’ flat Iron... . :......C.... Maintain the crown and superelevation with drags or graders. are generally caused by excess moisture.. Intensive maintenance is required when the surface is first open to travel. All joints ars welded.:.....:..:‘. poor subsurface drainage.. 4. On traffic areas... Bumps compacted at this time remain in the surface and can be corrected only by scarifying or adding more material. : :. Keep nonpaved surfaces crowned to prevent water from remaining on the surface and saturating the soil..”.. .’::. Blade or drag the surface soon after rain until all ruts and holes are filled.:::. blading (or dragging).. .‘. .:::.. it may be necessary to remove the GRAVEL SURFACES Maintenance procedures for gravel surfaces are much the same as for nonpaved surfaces. :. Determine the source of excess moisture and correct the drainage..... : y..:.‘......... cobbles may be used to stabilize small areas of failure..:... Surface Maintenance Heavily-traveled...:::.. The type of roller used will vary with the material compacted..:‘~.: ....:. 3.. Dust control is discussed further in Chapter 12 of FM 5-430-00-2/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 2.:. Shaping is done with graders or drags.... ::.: :.:.:_.. Soft spots.: .:: FM !j-43&00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.):....:....:.. or unstable material.: .:..:.:.::.-. VOl 1 objectionable material and replace it with a more stable material. Holes burned In front beam to receive tow cable.. : .: . When adequate repairs cannot be made. Continual shaping is needed to maintain a smooth surface and a uniform crown. Compaction of the graded surface material will reduce maintenance and repair for nonpaved surfaces.:....:.:. .‘. Patching may be done with a mixture of the soil and oil. :.... Oiling is necessary each year because oiled surfaces frequently break up in the spring and become very rough... Where surface failures are caused by pockets of mulch or peat...:. Dust control may be a problem under some conditions.‘. 12” cable W.. and Rehabilitation 8-5 .(..:‘:~:. .... .:..:... Repair..: ::.:.( .... :....R.. Do not work on a dry Maintenance.....:.:.: .... and the drainage system must be kept functioning.I... :.:: .:..: . .... indicated by rutting or shoving of the surface. and reshaping is necessary before oiling each year..:...... Examples of road repairs are shown in Figure 8-5... Thorough scarifying.:~: .:.:.::.... Improvised road drag with a rototiller..:F::..... :.‘::‘.:...:.:....::>:: ..:..i.. The correct moisture content will result in the most economical compaction... .:... graveled surfaces require constant attention by maintenance patrols.::.:.

Initially they are shallow and are readily filled by blading when the surface is moist. Corrugations can be prevented to a considerable extent by frequent maintenance and by the careful use of maintenance equipment. they become major grooves needing extensive repair. Other contributing factors are a soft subgrade. Material added or spread on the surface during warm. 8-6 Maintenance.. Bring road to grade 111 t I Haul material to bring road to grade Figure 8-5. Repair of Potholes All gravel surfaces tend to develop transverse or nearly transverse waves.. poor grading of the gravel.:.FM 50430-OO-l/AFPAM 32. and Rehabilitation . Repair. Road maintenance problems and proper corrective action surface. Deep holes require filling with additional material. they can be Most potholes are caused by material displaced by traffic. Stockpile additional materials in advance of fall and winter and prolonged wet periods. dry weather is of little value. heavy reshap- Treatment of Corrugations Keep a slight excess of gravel available at the edges of the roadway and blade it uniformly over the surface in wet weather. and an insufficient amount of binder. Some blade equipment inherently chatters and starts slight irregularities. especially when the operator attempts to move a heavy cut. New material should be moistened and compacted. called corrugations.:.:::.8013. poor binder. :. . Maintain a crown of inch per foot. Multiple blade drags can be used for routine but graders are necessary for ing work. After this stage. at least l/2 drags or sled maintenance. Corrugations often appear to start from small holes or depressions made when the road is wet or from an obstruction such as a stick or rock.. . which may progress into ruts as deep as 4 inches and from 1 l/2 to 3 feet apart.. Once corrugations form. vol 1 .

Grade shoulder material flush against or slightly below pavement edges to restrict water seepage to the subgrade and to prevent breaking of the pavement edge caused by traffic driving off the pavement onto the shoulder. Repair. Repairs require cleaning the holes down to the solid subgrade and ensuring that no silt. and the character of the gravel affect the quantities required. or water remains. the amount of summer season. Calcium chloride is corrosive to metal surfaces and may require more maintenance for aircraft and vehicles. Such repairs also interfere with traffic. or slag) are maintained by methods similar to those used on gravel surfaces. If the application cannot be deferred until rain occurs. mud. and equipmenl. Surface repairs should consist of a well-tamped or rolled-in-place. coarse-graded aggregate of the same gradation as the original surrounding surface. FM 5-4309OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. processed materials . Regrading. as this is called.: :. Patches All patches should be trimmed square or oblong with straight. as explained in Chapter 9 of TM 5-337.:I.. resulting in pavement failure unless promptly corrected. Use of Calcium Chloride Calcium chloride may be applied to a gravel surface to control or eliminate dust. Maintenance. continuing across the entire roadway.::. surface failures are usually in the form of sharp-edged holes caused by poor drainage. Large. Some considerations applicable to bituminous-surfaced traffic areas follow. For best results. Inspection Maintenance patrols should frequently inspect bituminous pavements for early detection of failures. Replace material displaced from shoulders with material hauled in. In extreme cases. . prevent the loss of material under the whippIng action of traffic. Temporary Repairs Any stable material may be used for temporary repairs in combat areas or where suitable material is not available and the traffic area must be patched to keep traffic moving. Maintenance of Shoulders PROCESSED MATERIAL SURFACES Traffic areas composed of processed materials (crushed and screened rock. the volume of traffic. All such patches must be thoroughly compacted and constantly maintained with replacement material. Small crews using hand tools can quickly make minor repairs with a minimum interruption of traffic.. and aid in maintaining a dense surface. personnel. Subgrade repairs are then made with a well-graded soil aggregate. water the surface before applying the calcium chloride. such as concrete rubble.are used. The usual method is to apply 1 pound of calcium chloride per square yard in the late spring and l/2 pound per square yard twice during the However. bituminous repairs require more time. BITUMINOUS SURFACES The maintenance and repair of bituminous surfaces are discussed in Chapter 9 of TM 5-337. reshaping. Good-quality soil and masonry. rain.j: . Small defects quickly develop into large ones. gravel. should begin with a thorough cleaning and reshaping of the shoulders and ditches. More permanent patching should be accomplished as soon as possible. The best time to apply calcium chloride is following a rain and after necessary blading or dragging is completed. and compacting. detours may be required to avoid complete traffic stoppage.j:. When coarse.:. and Rehabilitation 8-7 . Vol 1 removed only by thoroughly scarifying. as required. vertical sides running parallel and perpendicular to the centerline of the traffic area. are suitable for this purpose. Blade shoulders so water drains from the surface and all ruts and washouts are filled. apply calcium chloride before the traffic area becomes dry and dusty.

Drainage may also be disrupted. one thin layer at a time. but explosions may displace or destabilize large areas of the subgrade. Use the following procedures repairs: for crater Edge raveling is caused by water softening the foundation material. Potholes Occasional blading and rolling a. and cratering charges can produce extensive craters in traffic areas. This material should be thoroughly compacted in place. Then build up the foundation. raw coral of the proper moisture conlcnt for the repair material. and base course to a 3. from 4. reconstruct lhe shoulder or lower the subdrainage so this condition will not recur. Ravels CRATER REPAIR Bombs. Maintcnancc is best done during or after a rain while the coral is necessary to maintain a proper crown and a In dry seasons. USC fresh. rills. a smooth surface. Before proceeding with the patching operations. Compaction is essential. Clean potholes and trim them rectangularly with straight. ful attention to shoulders and to the drainage system is essential. Frequently inspect concrete pavement to detect early signs of failure. 1. and potholes by shoveling or dumping coral directly from a truck onto the low spots. will bond onto the original material almost without a mark. Repair. as for pothole repair.. .:. if rolled while wet. Fill the potholes with a stabilized mix of the same character as the adjacent sound area. Procedures described for gravel surfaces are applicable to surfaces that contain considerable coarse aggregate. The patching mixture should conform to the surrounding area. This provides a shoulder against the movement of the patch. Careif dust and raveling become serious. Such patches. and salt water makes a better bond than fresh water. shells. Surface damage does not present any unusual repair problem. allowing water penetrating the broken surface to accumulate and further Satisfactory repairs resoften the subgrade. An asphalt treatment may be justlfled in prolonged dry seasons. Rcmovc. RIGID PAVEMENTS Maintenance of rigid pavements is covered in Chapter 15 of TM 5-337. and make prompt repairs to prevent minor defects from spreading. from around the edge of the 8-inch layers of suitable material to the original level of the subgrade. Salt water is usually available where coral is available. Fill the crater with successive 6. CORAL SURFACES The maintcnancc of well-built coral traffic areas is rclativcly simple. mud. STABILIZED SOIL SURFACES Maintenance of mechanically-stabilized soil surfaces and sand-clay surfaces is essentially the same as that for nonpaved and gravel surfaces. vertical sides running parallel and perpendicular to the centerline. and Rehabilitation . and soil-cement may require additional maintenance as dcscribcd in the paragraphs that follow. Fill low spots.. all surfacing that is damaged or not firmly bonded to the base course. vertical edge. and high stability and to minimize dust. Trim the surface sound. Remove water. sprinkling smooth surface. land mines. each layer must be thoroughly 8-8 Maintenance.. Procedurcs described for nonpavcd surfaces are applicable to surfaces that contain little or no coarse aggregate. quire the restoration of subgrade stability to support traffic and prevent undue surface settling after repairs have been comple ted. soils.: . Bituminous surfaces. 2. The traffic areas hold up well in wet seasons. Vol 1 . is necessary to maintain a proper crown. and debris the crater.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

or other select material 2 .Subgrade rebuilt with sandbags Figure 8-8. Crater backfill materials ROAD MAINTENANCE The importance of preventive maintenance and the necessity for prompt maintenance of all types cannot bc overemphasized. masonry debris. Progressive failure of roads is a serious matter. extensive repairs are often necessary before roads can be used. stable materials can be used to fill craters. temporary repairs are made hurriedly using the materials most readily available. or other suitable. After the material has reached a suitable level. Expedient repairs previously made arc supplemented or replaced by more pern. sandy soil. Vol 1 tamped with hand or pneumatic tamping tools. other engineer units take over the work of additional repair and maintenance. Under the pressure of combat conditions. rock. In an emergency. Repair. and Rehabilitation 8-9 . masonry debris. Expedient work is usually done by combat engineer units. the more quickly it deteriorates. Repair surface. sandy soil. Material blown from craters can be used for much of this fill. Crater line Wearing course I Base course \ / Crater line . Maintenance. When the situation permits and where enemy action may be anticipated. In forward areas. For a detailed discussion of specific crater repair techniques used in air-base damage repair. Such repairs are intended only to rncct immediate minimum needs.anent work. compaction equipment can be pulled through or driven across the crater. Wearing course Base ourse \ /-- 1 . as shown in Figure 8-6.Subgrade rebuilt with gravel. 5. The more serious a failure is. material from the shoulders of roads or airfields may be borrowed and replaced later. refer to Training Circular (TC) 5-340. rock. and tamped earth allow good subgrade compaction where other equipment or materials are not available. the base course and wearing Gravel. Surfaces are brought to a standard that will withstand the required use and maintenance becomes routine. As the advance units move forward. stockpiles or material pits should be prepared at conAlternate layers of sandbags venient sites. Neglect and delay permit the lraffic and weather to turn minor defects into major problems.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.

and inspect. or sur- Winter weather. One patrol consists of a normal squad equipped with a dump truck. Inspection and Supervision An officer or senior noncommissioned officer (NC01 is assigned several patrols to supervise. assist. a grader. and hand tools. The number of people in a squad can be decreased and more miles can be assigned to a patrol expected to cover a stretch of permanent pavement in good condition and not heavily traveled. and other conditions demand that the patrols be reinforced with additional personnel and equipment or that the assigned areas be reduced and the number of patrols increased. with each squad commanded by its squad leader and using its regular tablets) of organization and equipment (TOE). more personnel will be furnished by the platoon and fewer miles will be assigned. are presented for the organization of maintenance patrols. Vol 1 MAINTENANCE PATROLS Adequate maintenance requires a workable maintenance organization. The repair crew composition will be dictated by the needs of the particular job in terms of equipment and perFrequently. Consider the merits of each plan with respect to the maintenance problems of the situation and the personnel and equipment available for the patrols. Repair minor washouts and potholes. tenance patrol can work with the repair 8-70 Maintenance. thorough inspections of road conditions. eliminate ruts. Make frequent. or water-bound macadam road. Another plan calls for the assignment of a patrol of one to three people. the crew must be supplemented with a truck and repair crew Maintain the road surface: for example. severe storms. and report to higher headquarters any need for repair work more significant than the patrol is equipped or manned to handle. It is desirable to use squads as patrols and thus retain unit integrity. Assign each patrol to a specific area. If a patrol is to cover a poor dirt road accommodating heavy traffic. This crew can handle the routine maintenance on a 12-mile stretch of average earth. It is sometimes necessary in forward or heavy-traffic areas to provide enough patrols to put the maintenance function on a 24-hour-a-day 15-mile stretch of road. heavy.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Maintain road shoulders and ditches. Normal unit organization should be retained as much as possible. destructive enemy action. and hand tools. potholes. Duties The duties lows: of maintenance patrols are as fol- Clean out drainage facilities. Repair. Usually engineer units establish a patrol system to handle the roadnet for which the unit is responsible. and Rehabilitation . Mow grass and weeds. and washboards. Organize as many patrols as necessary to adequately cover the total area of responsibility. The platoon furnishes reinforcements (personnel or equipment) as needed. Special conditions often call for special equipment. the regular mainsonnel. gravel. However. Personnel Two plans and Equipment whenever material must be hauled face patching accomplished. A platoon leader should be responsible for the patrols composed of personnel from his command. a grader. This patrol can handle all the maintenance and minor repairs normally encountered on a 5. REPAIR CREWS The engineer sending out maintenance patrols should keep sufficient equipment and personnel available to send out repair crews to handle those situations reported by the patrols.

When single-lane traffic must be used. Traffic Control Repairs should be made on one-half the sur. Because increased maintenance is usually required to keep detours passable. all vehicles traveling in one direction are stopped. MAINTENANCE WITH TRAFFIC traffic flow should be carefully planned. Refer to Chapter 8 of FM 5-36 for the types and posting of road signs. Vol crew. Use existing roads when possible. carefully plan maintenance operations. If the need for a detour is anticipated.. The construction of a short bypass around an obstruction may be preferable to a longer detour on existing roads. Permanent repairs are often postponed so that temporary and emergency repairs can be made in order to maintain traffic flow. proper procedures should be selected. and keep labor and material constantly available. traffic. A detour may also be used while a bypass is being constructed. Install barricades at each end of the road section under repair.. After a suitable time interval. Upon arrival at the other end of the section. and equipment should be on hand to complete the work as rapidly as possible. the flagman on the open end of the section gives the baton to the driver of the last vehicle permitted to go through. and turns to direct traffic. and the time available. the work involved. stockpile surfacing material along the route. In such cases. Working under a prepared plan. Construct short sections of connecting roads. and all labor. Sometimes two-way traffic can be maintained through blocked-off sections by diverting one stream of traffic to the shoulder of the road. Bypasses and Detours Bridge or pavement failures or the destruction of part of a roadway by floods or combat action may make part or all of the roadway impassable to traffic. or hindrance to. but other maintenance and inspection of the patrol’s area must not be neglected. This process continues as long as necessary. Repair.1I . Post warning signs at dangerous points. Clean and repair culverts. Repairs to other drainage structures may delay traffic or slow other repair work. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Conduct a reconnaissance to determine the best possible route when establishing a detour. or be put in condition. With this method. Repairs to be performed during - Maintenance. a bypass or detour around the damaged or obstructed area is necessary. Maintenance of shoulders and ditches can normally be performed without interference from. to ensure minimum traffic delay. to handle traffic for the period when it will be used. face at a time when surface repairs will deny traffic the use of sections of the pavement. control traffic by the baton method. Block off short sections and post guides to regulate traffic and avoid delay. Detour roads are usually subjected to heavier loads and more traffic than their design specifications. Grading and stabilization of the shoulder with gravel or bituminous material may be justified in such instances. The road should be as short as possible and must be in condition. Vehicles are then permitted to travel In the opposite direction until all waiting vehicles have passed through and the driver of the last vehicle carries the baton to the other end of the section. road intersections. Place signs at detour entrances. and Rehabilitation 8. the driver of the last vehicle gives the baton to the flagman.. as required. Place other signs or markings. a flagman is placed at each end of the single-lane traffic section. complete this work beforehand. material.. Base the decision upon traffic interference. while those traveling in the opposite direction are permitted to go through. Check and repair bridges or reinforce them with timber or planking. The flagman at one end of the section has a baton or some other distinctive marker. if necessary. Give full consideration to the importance of keeping traffic flowing with a minimum of interference or delay.

and narrow places in the road with poles that extend Fences should be as long as possible without any holes or openings. In areas of heavy snowfall. Placement. frozen shoulder and surface material. erecting and maintaining snow fences.. Preparation for Winter Conduct reconnaissance before winter to determine where snow fences will be needed to control drifting snow. in wooded or brushy areas. or similar devices. Regions of heavy snowfall require special equipment and material to keep pavement and traffic areas in usable condition. Place snow fences on the windward side of roads according to prevailing winds (Figure 8-7). This distance is increased where winds are of high velocity. Organize snow-removal crews and place equipment in readiness. sanding icy surfaces. Continue with routine maintenance of ditches and shoulders as far into the winter as possible. Conspicuously mark maintenance vehicles operating in or on the edge of the roadway with red flags. ‘:. Keep earth and gravel surfaces smooth and shaped to prevent moisture from entering the subgrade. The effect of a snow fence in controlling drifts caused by a road cut is shown in Figure 8-8.’ Safety of Maintenance Personnel Give special attention to the safety of maintenance personnel working where traffic moves past or around them. drifts to the leeward side of the fence fall on the road. Instruct crew members to avoid stepping into the traveled way and to be continually alert to passing traffic. 8-12 Maintenance. and similar wind barriers. and mark these locations for maintenance crews. drifted snow obstructs traffic more than an equal depth of freshly fallen snow. open areas. Low temperatures cause icing of pavements and frost on subgrade structures. Similarly. Because it is fine and compacts into a dense mass. Drifts also form in the lee (down-wind side) of buildings. a 4-foot fence erected 1 foot above the ground should be placed at least 80 feet beyond the point where drifting is to be prevented. the proper distance is 20 times the height of the fence. In extreme cases.. and keeping drainage systems free from obstruction. signboards. high snowbanks left close to the road by snowplows furnish both the conditions and the material for extensive drifting. Snow fences are not normally required near high fills. Drifts form when wind-borne snow is picked up in open spaces. and is deposited in sheltered places. Stockpile abrasives and chemicals in locations where they will be required.‘:. or where vegetation prevents snow from drifting on the road. Winter maintenance consists chiefly of removing snow and ice. : : . are roads at ground level or in cuts adjacent to large. Perform late fall maintenance before the winter freeze. Alternate freezing and thawing may damage surfaces and tend to block drainage systems with ice. so that the drainage system will be in the best possible condition for the spring runoff. Spring thaws may result in both surface and subgrade failure. outline bridges. and Rehabilitation . If fences are placed too close to the road. According to the above ratio. Generally.!. above the snow.:. culverts. flashing red lights. Danger spots. Smoothing and shaping also prevent snowplow blades from being obstructed by rough. j::. Vol 1 ::. loses velocity. but one tall fence is generally better than two short ones. a distance as great as 300 feet may be necessary. and flagmen to control traffic and lessen the danger to maintenance personnel. barricades. Openings provide for dispersion of snow on the back side of the fencing..FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 3243013. The height of the fence determines the distance it is to be placed from the traveled way. If fences are set too far away. therefore. Repair. Snow Fences WINTER MAINTENANCE Winter weather may present special problems in TO maintenance. Two or more parallel fences may be required. Use restrictive speed and warning signs. they have little or no effect in reducing drifts.

The fences are frequently stored on dunnage at the drift location for use the following winter. page 8. such as corn stalks. Erect snow fences before the ground is frozen. Permanent snow fences include open-board fences on posts and evergreen or deciduous shrub hedges. Remove snow fences in the spring and repair damaged sections. In regions of heavy snow. may be used. Lowering of fences may be required after midseason thaws or long periods of settling.14. and Rehabilitation 8-73 .. Repair. Location of snow fences Maintenance. and coarse grass anchored in place by wire or wood. They consist of metal posts and wooden laths or metal pickets about 5 feet long. and straighten blown-down sections. Repair broken ties and braces. woven together with wire.:. vals along road sections or roadnets that are to receive early attention. use long posts so that fencing may be raised on the posts as the season progresses. and may be rolled up and stored in the summer. Raise fences to exceed the height of accumulated snow on the leeward side. This will increase snow storage to the leeward side. Snow fence control drifts of road cut windward side. Figure 8-7. shows three types of snow fences. Other types of snow fencing include wood slats or pressed-steel slats mounted on collapsible A-frames. Such fencing is portable. easily erected and dismantled. Types of Snow Fences. - Maintenance. and have operators ready to move promptly when a snowstorm arrives. Removal Snow Removal Prompt snow removal is essential to prevent traffic interference and ice formation on the road. store equipment at interstorm. Vol 1 Prevailing wind Prevailing Snow fence Drift formation with snow fence Figure Prevailing 8-8. Figure 8-9. Begin removal operations when the The amount of equipment snow starts. Erection. Install fencing with the bottom about 6 inches above ground level to prevent the ends of the pickets from freezing fast and to prevent the fence from choking with snow. Local materials.. worm fences. brush. and brush or branches suspended on wire. FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. Commercial snow fences are commonly used. Brace the posts according to the anticipated wind velocities. Plastic snow fencing is lighter and more efficient than wooden fencing. and Storage. Drive metal posts into the ground and mount wire fencing on the Inspect snow fences after heavy storms. necessary depends on the intensity of the If possible. Frozen ends make it difficult to raise the fence and may cause the pickets to break when swayed by the wind.

8-14 Maintenance. straight underbody blades. removes snow from the road before it is compacted.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. the snow may become too deep for available equipment to handle. and provides an open track for traffic. or hauled to a disposal point. Trucks with 2 l/2to 5-ton capacltles and equipped with one-way blades are best adapted for long stretches of roads. These items are described in Chapter 1 1 of TM 5-624. Use either straight or V-shaped plows equipped with side wings to push the snow beyond the shoulder line. This equipment travels at speeds of 15 to 25 miles per hour (mph). Types of snow fences Provide for relief crews. and rotary-type straight blades. Use V-shaped plows to break through heavy drifts. reversible. such as drags. heavier equipment to widen traffic lanes and for heavy snowfalls. Use snowplows to patrol areas or sections of roads that are subject to drifting in windy weather. leveled. drifting may worsen. Graders. dozers. Vol 1 fence Worm fence Figure 8-9. Continue snowremoval operations until the snow has been pushed back. When snow removal is delayed or interrupted. and rotary IO-ton trucks equipped with either straight or V-shaped blades for heavier snowfalls and to widen traffic lanes. and loaders are also useful in snow removal. to prevent drifting. Use comparatively light and fast snowremoval equipment for light snowfalls and Use at the beginning of severe storms. Repair. and to provide room for additional snow storage. Improvised equipment. or wet snow may freeze. V-type plows. Use 5. and Rehabilitation . since snow-removal equipment must frequently be operated on a 24-hour basis during periods of heavy storms. may be used in expedient situations. This equipment operates at about 15 mph. Standard snow-removal equipment consists of various attachments mounted on trucks or similar prime movers. These include one-way.

Surface Ice Control The formation of road ice resulting from packed snow. angular material embeds itself readily...::. Treat abrasives with 40 to 75 pounds of calcium chloride per cubic yard for stockpiling. coal stock.: :. .A. . .: : .:..A).:. Repair.:.. apply sodium chloride or calcium chloride to wet snow and sleet to keep it in a slushy condition and prevent it from sticking to the surface. .::. When possible. .. ::.. Vol 1 ... . i. Sodium chloride may be used in place of calcium chloride but is not recommended for temperatures below 10” F.... place bags of salts at drain inlets or catch basins so they do not obstruct flow..:‘::. . ... .:.... and add another 25 to 50 pounds per cubic yard of calcium chloride when applying it to a road. Use care to avoid damaging the pavement... and coke screenings.:.:.~~.. .: :. .. . .:.. Graders are satisfactory for light snow.~..::.. ..:.:.- Trucks used for plowing generally carry abrasives as a ballast for better traction. rotary plows and blowers may be needed..: : . Curves and grades are critical points under icing conditions. Make wider distribution with trucks by either hand or mechanical spreading.:. .. . Wet snow or slush.: :. or melting snowbanks is prevented if snow removal is effectively performed and drainage is provided.. Various conditions cause icing of road surfaces. . .. Use of Salts.. . Use plows and graders to remove slush from the road to prevent freezing and icing or to remove ice that has previously formed. . . . Exercise extreme care not to damage the road surface. Salts do not damage bituminous surfaces. Dry snow compacts under traffic but can usually be loosened and bladed off without difficulty. cinders: and crushed rock or slag screenings are commonly used. Limit the use of salts on concrete pavements to one or two applications per year or the pavement will pit and scale..:.:::: .. ..: : . . .. . . .:::::::::::: :. .: :::>.. . .. Tractors are sometimes required for heavy snows and drifts. . .. Correction of Spring Breakup Problems In regions subject to frost and snow. For the most effective use. : . Heating an abrasive material before placing it on the road will allow it to melt into the ice and prevent it from being forced out by traffic. sticks tightly to the pavement and cannot be easily removed without a period of warm weather or the use of salts. .... In areas of very heavy snowfall... .: . and dark-colored material absorbs the most heat from the sun.. . ... .:: ::. spring is a critical time in the maintenance of Maintenance. . .:::::::::::::i::~. . . if it is allowed to freeze in place.. .::::::::::::: :. :. . :.. both treated and untreated..:.. :. Store abrasive materials where they are quickly available when needed. push snowbanks away from pavements so that melted water will not run onto cleared surfaces.. or light. To prevent blockage of the drains by freezing. . Sand.:. .. wet snow falling on cold pavement can form ice films too thin to be removed by mechanical means and can make long sections of the road hazardous. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Dangerous icing is more likely to occur during the late fall and early spring when frequent temperature changes occur. mix calcium chloride with abrasive material. MechanfcaZ Removal of Ice. . ... .. ..:.::‘:‘-:::::. slush..m.: :. .:. .. ::::::x::::.. :. Midday thawing and night freezing is a common cause of icing. Graders can sometimes remove ice that is not tightly bonded to the road surface.:..:.: . Use of Abrasives.:..i:j:i:::::::::::::::. Treat icy pavements with abrasives and salts to reduce slipping and skidding.. :.:... . and Rehabilitation 8-15 . Establish stockpiles for hand application at critical locations such as steep grades and curves.:. . and high-crowned roads can become difficult to travel at any point when iced over. .:. . .:::.. . :. . Sharp. Other materials include pea gravel....:... .: : :.:.:.: : . .:.. . .: .:. The calcium chloride causes the abrasive to embed in the ice and improves surface traction.:. Rain: sleet. Untreated materials are fairly effective on compacted snow but are easily blown or thrown from the traveled way. The choice of materials is based on the availability and the length of the haul. : . Extremely icy conditions can be reduced by using scarifiers or rotary tillers equipped with special teeth..:.. .. At the beginning of a storm. . . .. .. ..

. Repairs may be made by one or a combination of the following procedures: FORDS AND BRIDGES The approaches and bottoms of fords must be kept smooth and clear of large boulders and debris. remove the material when the road thaws and dries. trestles. pavement and other traffic areas..:.. Frost boils are indicated by ‘the breaking up of a localized section of road surfaces and pavements when subjected to traffic.. Refer to FM 5-446 for additional information. Frost heaves are most prevalent in silt and clay subgrades. and Rehabilitation . . 8-16 Maintenance. Methods to eliminate or minimize the damaging effects of frost action are discussed further in Chapter 12 of FM 5-430-00-2/AFPAM 32-8013. . This in turn exerts an equalizing pressure in all directions..:. j:. or other suitable material. Damage occurs as a result of the heaving of the subgrade soil due to the formation of ice lenses.. although more time is required.: .. Vol 2. :::: . . : .. Remove soft material and dig an outlet ditch to one shoulder. corduroy. Frost boils are often large and deep enough to make the road impassable until repaired. the melted water produces a fluid subgrade condition with very limited or no supporting capacity.:: .or 3-day period. Such repairs are temporary.. Bridge soft spots with timber.. Vd 1 . :. gravel. Frost Heaoes. Drainage obstructions may raise the water table and make subbases unstable. open ditches at critical points so that melted water will not flow onto the road.. The excavated soft spot and the ditch are backfilled with rock. therefore. For best results. Melting ice and snow. or other available material.. Frost Balk. It is better to remove soft. Remove accumulations of ice in culverts and small drainage structures by hand or thaw them with truck-mounted steamers. Store materials in advance at or near load sections where frost boils may occur.. provide adequate drainage along with the repair work to correct the cause of the problem. Dftches. . water-soaked material beforehand. When the spring thaw begins. During the spring breakup.. Frost heaves are indicated by the localized raising of road surfaces and pavements. During thawing.. Place large rocks in soft spots and cover them with smaller ones.. and frost leaving the ground all have a tendency to saturate permeable surfaces. A temporary bridge of planks or other material permits traffic to pass... This pressure is relieved through the point of least resistance (up through the pavement surface) and produces a small mound similar in appearance to an oversized boil... snowplows or grading equipment may be required to clear snow from the shoulders to avoid erosion.:. the best maintenance of a road subject to frost heaves and boils is to prohibit all traffic during the critical 2. This expanding subgrade causes an upheaval of the surface and subsequent reduction in overall strength. Frequently inspect bridge abutments..:. Drainage tile may be installed in the ditch before backfilling..FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Abnormal and repetitive traffic loads during the spring breakup period may cause subgrade pumping of concrete surfaces and breakthrough of bituminous surfaces.. Preventive Maintenance The best maintenance of any road is preventive maintenance.. Handwork is usually required to clear the shoulders and open ditch outlets. sapling mats... Patch soft spots with crushed rock or gravel... Outlets of cuts and road sections next to snowbanks require special attention. The traffic imposes a force on the pavement and thus to the excess water in the subgrade.. The maintenance crew normally obtains help to rebuild or repair the bridge. piers.. landing mats. and trusses for damage and Repair defects at the earliest deterioration.: . Repair.. spring rains. opportunity. Replace marking posts that have been knocked down or washed out. As the snow begins to melt.

upon rcqucsl. Supplying construction materials and equipment. and rapid engineering deployable heavy operational repair squadrons. Operation and maintenance and installations. and trained to support Air Force needs. Air Force Responsibilities for ADR The Air Force provides military troop engincering supporl from its resources. The Air Force is primarily responsible for the cmcrgcncy repair or the air base. which is called rapid runway repair (RRR). engineering (RED HORSE) units. It ensures that units are equipped. and materials to meet Air Force needs as agrccri upon by the Air Force. and trained adequately to support its needs. to Maintenance. such mainlcnancc is normally done by an Air Force civil cnginccring squadron (CES) or similar unit. This is accomplished through the cmploymcnt of Air Force base civil eiiginecring troop assets. prime base engineer emergency forces (Prime BEEF). Managing force beddown and the emergcncy repair 0r war damage. Army engineer units will be assigned lo perform the work. Developing cnginccr designs. The Air Force ensures thal units are equipped. plans. This includes the cmcrgcncy repair of lhc air base paved surfaces. This support includesEmergency bases. manned. and Rehabilitation 8. Organizing seas). except for that provided by the Air Force. emergency-damage recovery of air bases generally is considered to bc the minimum work required to permit aircrall to land and lake off.FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM 32-8013. designs will be based on the Army Facilities Componcnl System (AFCS). excluding Army base development responsibilities. Join1 service regulation AR 415-30/ AFR 93. repair of war damage to air host-nation support (over- Army Responsibilities Damage Repair (ADR) for Air Base Force beddown of units and weapon systems. Airfield and heliport maintenance is the rcsponsibilily of lhc primary user. emergency repairs which cxcccd the Air Force’s capability. cmergency-damage recovery capabilily of the air base. Where practicable. Repair. Vol 1 AIRFIELD AND HELIPORT MAINTENANCE Repairing and restoring damaged air bases wilh beyond-cmcrgcncy repairs. This support includcs- and fire suppression. For Air Force air bases. l Assisling in cmcrgcncy repair of wardamaged air bases where requirements cxcccd the Air Force’s organic repair capability. assisting within their capabilities in the removal of UXO declared safe by EOD personnel and limited damage assessment operations.10 specifies these repair responsibilities for each service. The Air Force base commander scls the priorities for air base repair. Army airfields and heliports arc normally maintaincd by Army cngincer units. The Army is responsible for scmipermancnt construction. Crash rescue of facilities The Army provides engineer support to the Air Force overseas. Upon request.17 . Supplying malcrial and equipment perform its cnginccring mission. Managing and supervising the repair and restoration of war damage performed by Army personnel. manned. the beyond-emergency repair of the air base and. AIR BASE DAMAGE REPAIR The immediate. When the repair and rehabilitation rcquircmcnls ol Air Force bases exceed the immediate.

If the muddy areas are widespread.::: .by 12-inch hardwood moldboard over the cutting edge and extending 2 inches below it. and manpower assets. Muddy taxiway and runway surfaces decrease tire life and increase the wear and maintenance Flying mud particles may damof brakes. detailed discussion of general ADR. Grader operations for removing mud and slush from the runway are similar to those employed for snow removal. rotors. Repairs Localized soft or muddy spots in an otherwise satisfactory surface are repaired by replacing the unsatisfactory subgrade material with a more suitable one. surfaces may be kept in operational condition by removing the surface mud. Remove mud by hand shoveling.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013..:: . and jet engines. Repair. and fuselage den. and minimizes erosion. it may be necessary to stop all traffic until the surface dries. reduces dust. materials. VOl 1 >. Conducting damage assessment removal of UXO. When a grader is used on a landing-mat surface. Mud on airfield and heliport surfaces is either deposited by vehicular traffic from adjacent muddy areas or caused by subgrade failure because of excess moisture and the pumping of mud to the surface under traffic. biological. refer to TC 5-340. Table 8. In extreme conditions. is an additional maintenance bur- l l Providing nuclear. and Rehabilitation . age propellers. V. VII. or dragging. This provides a scraping edge with sufficient spring to remove the mud from irregularities in the landing mat. A satisfactory method is to bolt a 4. struts. chemical (NBC) collective shelters and establishing and operating personnel and equipment decontamination sites for the air base and the Army.1 gives the characteristics of many native grasses to aid in selecting proper grass seed or sod. The most satisfactory solution is to provide surfaced service roads to all hardstands. resurfacing may be necessary. Start in the Air base support agreements may be established in some theaters between the Air Force and the host nation where ADR support capability exists. A piece of l/2-inch rubber belting (or the cap from a worn tire) bolted between the blade and the moldboard and extending an inch below the cutting edge makes an effective squeegee for removing light mud and slush.::: . For a detailed description of personnel. refer to AFR 93-2. l Providing logistical support to the Army for all classes of supply except II. :‘j’l. TURF SURFACES Plant grass to provide a turf surface on shoulders and all graded areas. For a further. and IX. and 8-18 Maintenance. Mud Removal In some instances. remove mud from the wheels and undercarriages of vehicles before they enter the taxiway. Light mud or slush is blading.. and support to army units may be limited. take precautions to prevent the blade from tearing the surfacing. MUD CONTROL Mud on the runway creates slippery surfaces that impede takeoff and increase the difficulties and dangers of landing. Turf aids in camouflage. equipment. sometimes removed by hand or with rotary brooms. There are shortages of these assets on air bases. Enforce mud discipline by limiting access to taxiways only to required service vehicles. and material requirements and critical path schedules for repair of runways cratered by high-explosive bombs. Removing mud from wheels.::. These host-nation support agreements may include equipment. yet soft enough to protect the mat. Also. Turf surfaces are limited to areas where the climate and soil are favorable.

St_ Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) DRY REGION 7. Kentuchy bfuegmss (Poapmtensia) 2.Table 8-l. Common carpet grass (Axonopus affinfa) 6._ -_-_. Blues&m (brcomsedge) (Andropogan) 12. Fast Medium. Nuna of gmu grouped by r&m of suftablffty Characteristics Drought of grasses Acfd tolersnce Rate of utablfshm*nt of srtabffshment 1 I R8SlStStlU to tdlk war and mowing Prhrred sol1 teJctwe Mdtod resistsnce URF GRA5 SI ES - SIOW Fast 1 Fall or z%l Number 2 White dover and number 1 SPk9 CC0tq HUMID REGION 1. Common rysomss (Lofium muttifbrum and L perenne) 9. Buffalo grass (f3uchbe dadybkies) Sandy to clayey loam ---Fair Fair __-. fair Good %z to grave’ly Smooth brome (Bromus inermis) various ______ Medium. clayey barn Moist. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactybn) 5.____ Slow Seed. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron aiatatum) . Blue grama (Boutebug gracifii) 15. fdbx) Good Loam. various clayey loam to loam _______ Medium. Hairy crabgrass (Diibaria sanguinak) 11. creeping red fescue and chewing fescue (FestuCa Nbm and feStWX Nh 3. HUMID REGfON 4. Me bluestem (Andropogon scoporfus) 14. HUMID REGION 10. Spring Sead blue grama between buffaiograss-sod blochs ROUGH 1 COOL. hay seeding Soed spring Spring spring Other grasses suited to soil Seed behveen biocks of buffalo grass Cther native grExceltent Fair Excellent Loam to day Loam to day Loam to day Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Fast Medium Medium Hayseeding Hayseeding Seed Summer Fall Spring . fast Mb with nallw grass WARM. fast Fast spring or summer spring or summer spring or seedaloneorwith Seed atone or with carpet grass= Good Fair carpet w- Moist clays.Moist sandy to toamy Loam to day Clayey loam to loam _. @chard grass (Dadytis gbmerata) - IF AND Bl ii CH GRASS - Fast Fast Good Fair various Loam to day Good Good Good Excellent seed seed Fall or wing Fall or wng Number 9 Number 6 WARM.____ __. clayey bam Fair Good good Mowing. Korean lespedeza (Lespadeza stipulacea) DRY REGION 13. hayseeding Seed. HUMID REGION 6.

and rcvcrsiblc snow plows: V-type plows. rotary plows. coarse and hand brooms. wiIh the drag ahead of the rollers. lhc aircraft lo bc accolnmodatcd. The shell is supported on an axle by two structural frames. and hardstands with urea. Drifts may be opened by a truck or tractor with a V-type blade or by a rotary snowplow. For canioufl~~~‘i in undesirable to remove all snow from h i tInway when lhe surrounding terrain is blankctcd with snow.glc-\ving. or 843 Maintenance. rollers. the order of opcralions. Factors (o bc considcrcd in plannmg the srlo\v-halidlin. Supplcmcntary cquipmcnt niay include sin. and rhc assignment of equipment arc cstablislicd in advance of the winlcr season. The assignment of plows varies with the condition at each airfield and the lypc of cquipmcnt available. Ordinarily. Very light snowfalls can bc blown off the runway by the prop wash of scvcral aircraft lined up along one cdgc. Packing In rrgions 0r heavy snowfalls with prolonged cold wcathcr rclalivcly free from sudden thaws. shoulders. Remove snow near landing lights and olher obstructions with a blower. at the third points. and Lhc camouflage rcquircmcnls. Aircrafl wilh landing wheels cannot operate in more than 3 Inches of loose snow. Trucks used for hauling snow arc equipped with high sideboards. Snow is packed by rollers drawn bchlnd a tractor with snow lrcads. Usually one tractor is used to pull both the drag and lhe roll(. Abating Ice Conditions Eyuip~t~-n ~lscrd for handling snow ini clerics rrlbbcr-lircd tractors. snow may bc handled by pnckllig. Equip trucks with tire chains and carry ballasl for lraction while plowing. Tractor drawn sleighs built of lumber may be used as an expedient hauling device or to supptement snow-handling trucks. Vol 1 ccntcr of lhc runway and proceed progrcssivcly to rlic edge. Remove heavy snowfalls with truckmounted plows.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. One plate has a hole to permit filling the roller with sand to increase its weight. Aircraft may bc cquippcd with cithcr wheels or land. snow loader. ing skis. and as ttluch adjacent area as practical arc packcd. rotary brooms. cspccially if the surface is a landing mat. Rcmovc light snowfalls with a grader or rotary broom. one-way. fresh snow on previously packed snow. blowers. truck-mounLcd snowplows opcratc in cchclon to expedite snow removal. This clcarancc is accomplished by runners mollntcd at each end of the blade. the cquipmcnt available. The runway. sand. and olhcr snow-removal equipment. Repair. and Rehabilitation . rotary snowplows. This limitation applies to fresh snow on a clear runway. Rolling begins as soon as 3 inches of suow have fallen and conlinucs during the snolvfall. graders.$ program arc climatic~condiLions. or scoop loaders. one-way. Controlling with Equipment Rollers can be rnadc to any desirable diamctcr and length with a shell of lo-gage corrugated steel. Keep all blades about l/2 inch above the runway surface. or melting snow prcviouslv packed on a runway. scoop loaders. or by hand. rubbertired tractors. Ski-cquippcd aircraft opcratc succcssfully on packed snow. Ihc%avcragr snowfall. SNOW REMOVAL AND ICE CONTROL Snow removal methods. or spiders. The rapid removal of snow requires a rotar) blower. Arranging the plows into units simplifies coordination of snow removal with Lhc control tower. Smoothing is done with a drag equipped wilh metal cutting edges on the front and r-cat or with a grader. if available. or other special cquipment. and two steelplated bulkheads at each end. overlapping scvcral feel on each pass. Clearing and Removing Snow clearing and rcnloval arc rcquircd whcrc climatic conditions will not permit packing or whcrc snowfalls arc in excess 0r lhal which can be packed on the runway. Sprinkle ice coalings on runways.

and booby traps from the traffic areas. Repair. and plan lhc work for minimum intcrbxcncc with air and ground traffic. equipment. existing substitutions and deviations from specified Blowing craters and hardstands. and Rehabilitation 8-2 7 . The work is ordinarily accomplishcd by a combat-heavy engineer battalion. mines. Much of lhc maintcnancc work may riced to be done at night or during inclcmenl wcathcr in order not to interfere with flying operations.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Demolishing ments. with a minimum outlay of labor. Flowing Flooding drainage bombs. Mark repairs on taxiways so that they are visible to pilots while taxiing. must be recognized and ac- MAINTENANCE DURING FLYING OPERATIONS Coordinalc main tcnancc and repair work during flying operations. to the standard decided upon by the Air Force and Army. when to prioritize - When restoring a captured airfield. No large-scale relocation of facilities should be undertaken merely to conform to standard patterns. The damage to the installation includes war damage by our forces in any bat. Demolishing buildings. Do not use sodium chloride and calcium chloride for ice control without approval because these salts may promote corrosion of metal aircraft parts. Considerable discretion must be exercised in applying standard specifications to captured airfields. If practical. it is necessary to expend more effort to restore a badly damaged airfield than to construct a new one. Clearly mark construction or repair areas on the runway so that they are visible from the air. systems and pave- obstacles and debris in the run- turfed areas. Vol 1 - cinders. spread by hand or by mechanical spreaders. Sensible. This also includes removing UXO. Do not leave cquipmcnt hazardous to aircraft on the runway or other areas. in runways. utilities. cleardebris from those areas. An appraisal of the damage done to a captured field precedes the decision lo rehabilitate it. delayed-action bombs. Complete destruction of an airfield is a major undertaking. taxiways. Remove accumulated abrasives in the spring by brooming. arrangements cepted. areas. surfaced REHABILITATION OF CAPTURED AIRFIELDS The decision to rchabililalc a captured enemy airfield and the decision as lo the Cypc and construction standard of the rehabilitated field arc Air Force and Army rcsponsibilitics. if the existing patterns will serve the same purpose in a satisfactory manner. and Assume these damages were inflicted conducting such reconnaissance. the first priorily is to establish minimum facilities and utilities to include the establishment of a minimum operating strip for immediate operation of friendly aircraft. similar installations. and materials. the enemy will likely resort to one or more of the following less dcstructivc measures: Placing delayed-action and booby traps. Occasionally. Placing way. Use the criteria that follow rehabilitation operations: . therefore. Ice conditions on airfields used by jet aircraft arc a very serious problem because abrasives cannol bc used. and repaircraters on the runway and taxiway w w Maintenance. which arc usually damaged. The engineer mission is to convert the existing facilities. mines. heat abrasives before spreading. tle for the airfield and the deliberate damage that the enemy did before yielding the field to our forces.

. parking aprons.ji .:.~:. Promptly repair the drainage system.:. Chapter 7 of TC 5-340 gives detailed information regarding these areas.... taxiways. . * The second priority is improvements to the minimum operational facilities. communication centers. is the last phase of a rehabilitation project. ..~. :. access and service roads. I::j:ill:~l:~J:~~:~~~:~~~:~..:.. dining.::. . including the removal of debris and seeding and sodding. The third priority is the repair of buildings such as the control tower.. Repair.~~~~. surfaces.FM 5_430_0()-1/AFPAM 32-801 3. the restoration of utilities (making use of any utility map and any available citizen labor familiar with the installation’s utilities).. and the repair or estabishment of bathing. Vol 1 :j<. 8-22 Maintenance. The fourth priority is the camouflage of installations. less vital facilities... crew shelters. A complete cleanup of the grounds.. operational buildings... on other traffic areas.. Concentrate runway work first on a minimum operating strip: second. and Rehabilitation .~. . Give early attention to the provision of suitable sanitary and water facilities.: :.: Iill.. on an access route: and finally..~. hardstands. and other maintenance facilities. and fuel and bomb storage areas before rehabilitating other.~:~.jij. Restore remaining runways. and recreational facilities.

high-quality roads may be required in rear areas and near .’ In a combat zone. ..::::::.:::....maJor airfields.. Road design uses stage construction for the progressive improvement Road design also uses of the road to meet increased tramc demands.. . The completed design must then personnel..::~.:j :. :j.. . :+::::::. An improued network of well-surfaced.. the construction time available. and expertise available..~. ... .... page 9-2. .j:.. ::. _:... . ..:_:: :::. . y::.:. ports.. hasty work designed to meet pressing needs. 2. ... . the loud-carrying capacity of inadequately designed or improperly constructed roads can be dramatically decreased to the extent that failure may occur.. show terms used to designate roadfeatures and components.:. meet the requirements for the given load class and allow safe and emcien t traflc mouement. Figures 9-1. many technical terms... The design process can be described in the following steps: DESIGN 1... ‘y.:. ::..~:::~:~:i’l:.::. the geometric design requirement for given road classes must be met..~. the supply of local and imported materials. The load-carrying capacity of a road surface depends on continuous...:::‘... In addition to this chapter. and 9-2.::l’. .. In areas where seasonal freezing and thawing occur.: j FM 5-4300001l/AFPAM 32-8013.:: :+:i .:: .. . Subgrade stability requires adequate drainage and proper load distribution by the surface and base courses.. Draw the proposed centerline on the topographic survey.. In most cases. military urgency dictates rough. Plot the centerline paper.j .:) jy j : .: : . and supply installations......: .: . . TM 5-337 provides additional detailed inform&ion on the design of bituminous and concrete-surfaced roads. : ... Surface and base courses of suflcient thickness and qua&y to spread the wheel loads ouer the subgrade are necessary so that the applied stress is less than the unit load capacity of the subgrade. the traflc and drainage conditions.. a minimum 5-foot contour interval is required to clearly describe the terrain... For safe and speedy traflc movement.~. :.:.: .... Vol 1 ROAD DESIGN Road selection and design depend on the nature of the subgrade.:. .‘: : .“’ . . on plan-and-profile - Road Design 9-7 .::~:~.. and the engineer equipment. stable support furnished by the subgrade...‘... GEOMETRIC The geometric design process begins with good-quality topographic surveys.. j:.

s:~~:~ .:. :..i...~~:~l:~~~~~~~I:~::i:~i:l:i:i. if possible.>: . to and limit that exceed Width of clearing (roadway on each side .:::.. . ht8rC8~tOf + min of 8 ft) -4 Roadbed Roadway c ditch Figure 9-2.. Calculalc grades.. Compare lhc values military road specifications 9-1. Vol 1 :: : :. reduce any calculated grades horizontal and vertical curves the specifications.:.FM 5-430-0()-l /AFPAM 32-80 13.. 4.: :..:.:~::.1. Road nomenclature 3.:I. and curve lengths of vertical curves..:: :‘.i i. the degree of curvaturc of horizontal curves. Adjust the centerline.:. .:i:~~.~.:l.i.: Culvert: Figure 9. Road cross section and nomenclature 9-2 Road Design . of step 3 with the stated in Table 5.‘~.

5 (0. A v&e of zero percent indicates a” absokdeiy straight. compositb” Ill 3.nga Therefore. % Vertical C”rVes (7) 6 700 (213.048) 15 (4. R (m) Mlnimum gr&. It (m) 12 (3.154) 6 (1.5W tt(457. Sight distmue Minimum stop right diitance.152 m). rate Type.201 m) M LLW point on the road (3) If the anticipated t&tic inctude$ a significant number ot vehrks having widths in excess ot 6.5 tt (0 610 to 1. Vertical Grade argnment Maximum g&de.656) 12 (3. tiorizor*al atigwnent (5) (6) 5 5’ None t4 5. 3.0625 Campacled soil 4 (1.6208-0.762 m)] on each side. R (m) Bridge clesrance (permanent) width d the traveled way should be equal to the wktth of the lanes plus 5 R (1 524 ml (2.676 m) as the CuNatUre varies tram 2 to 26.656) 29 (6.7.762) 2.5 ft (0. n (m) 9.hould be provided (402250 m) intervats cm class-0 & 0.0 (0.591 f”). ft (m) Lateral cteAra”ce kom edge d traffk la-10 to obstructkxw. mph lkph) Average running speed.046) 0. Shoulders Minimum width w4 barrier curbs. discretion should be used in selec+tng design vatues by avoiding mulmums or minimuma whenever poaaible. C-x&v wed 0.Table 9-l. P*vrments Minknum width of traffi wthbmbrcwb (31 lane. Cku A (4 Lane) Geometric design data for military ChS c (2 La-It) roads Deign Dwign 1.780) 2.0417-0. multip&g k by the algebraic dlnercnces n grades (in percent) 10 (3.0104-0.t (2. % 2.0104-O MOB 10 (3 046) 10 I3 046) 25 (7. ft (m) Minimum pars sight dmtance. 0 The term uilical /mgth is used to indicate the &&urn tength of a d&ignded upgrade upon wheh a loaded truck can qxxate without a” unreasonabk reducbo” in speed Craifal lengths may be increased al an approximate rate of 50 tt (15. tt (m) Normat cross slope.610) Alignment Ebmewts 7.5 (0.534) 60 (24.676) 475 (144..591 ml. capacities are shown aa a raqe ot vatues.0106 12 (3.656) 53 (16.ZmWtU: (t) The DHV show” lor all roads IS in total vehicles per hour for all lanes in both directions.291 OOMB-o&t17 10 (3. ft (m) 6.5 . 1. R (ml No”nat cross rbpe (ctovm slope) rate 4.666) 26 (6. The DHV 8s approximately 15 percent of the ADT.572) 4 (1. Curbs . Curb offset for barrier curb.40 40 (641 35 156) Under 200 Under 30 100 30 (48) 25 (4q Average daity t&tic (ADT) (45% truckr) Design hxftj vokmle (Dtw Slpht diitn”ce rerbrtion. ASJ can be seen.75 h (4.004) 160 (54664) 160 (46766) 105 (32.766) 105 (32. tt (m) lmti (sag) vefticsl C”we k. mph (kph) I21 (2) The values show” for ths term indicate the combined effects ot horizontal (curves) and vertical (grade) atignment on capacity.046) 0.219) o.3te d 9upfele~a10” d 0 100.496 m) vellical clearance.364) Overt (c&j vertkd cwc k. (6) The minimum lengths of vertical curves we b&mined b.0417-O 0825 Stable 6 (1 s24 0.5~ 1457 20q 203 (m.W 0. Bridge clea”?~~e (pcrm)’ 6.700 5101.7’ 2-5. n (m) Absolute minimum length.@t17-0. Values obtained may be rounded on to the nearest 0 5 ft (0.240 m) per prcent decrease I” grade from the values show”.656) 12 (3. T&k Controts co”trde and Elements Chs* 6 (2 Lane) Chn 0 (1 L*nc) R.400-6.200) 3.061) 275 (63 620) 1. % CrUcal length.639) 6 (1.629) 0.400 140510 60-O 60 (97) 45 (72) 200-935 30140 60. the tatfic lanes should be widened in the amount bv rrhrh the vehicle wM CxdS 8. 2-4 (0610-1. will generally at l/4-mile mdr in open not be provided (6) 160 (46.364 0. Maximum horimntal curvature Pavement widaning. @erm r&l (4) (4) There should be 4 colol of texture cO”bast between traffic hne and shoulder OU~K~S.3 6 700 (213 360) 03 10 453 (137 160) 03 2 Turnouts e. A vakre Of 1CU percent indkXk?S a road mth numerous sharp curves and grade change4 on which the sight diance )6 less than 1.960) N/A Notes: 1. (s) Pavement widening for a class C or class D mad varies 2 to 5.0417-0. 14.5 (0 762) 20 (0610) 2. tt maximum (or minimum) deign value shown .ca 40-O 60 (97) 45 (7’4 9353.0417 without barrier curb Minimum dhtmwe between curb laces.6x)! 6 (t 6.048) 10 ( rigiity adhered to.76q N/A 475 (144. Rat alignment with no restriction on sight dwance.3 (76..0625 Compmcted SOI 5. fi (“I) 2.103 (640.1219) 26.610.219) 0.004) 160 (54 664) 55 (16764) 55 (16764) 120 (36 576) 35 ( then the resuttant upacity d the road witi be on the lower eida of the capacity r.5 ft (2. (5) Vatues show” are cakrrlated CM basii Or maximum r.0&25 Dusttess 10 (3. .

Plot newly designed and profile. the hourly volume = 500 vehicles (per day)/24 hours per hour. multiplied by a factor of two. If either anticipated DHV or ADT is known and the sight distance restriction can be estimated from preliminary plans. the actual DHV mined to ensure that the capacity quate. 7. page 9-3.15 factor clusters the traffic into rush hours. 11. orfactor is of an asis deteris ade- on the plan 9. Table 9.: . Design horizontal and vertical for all tangent intersections.. Figure 9-3 shows the relationship between DHV and sight distance restriction.. : . Draw typical cross sections.FM 5-43()-()&l/AFpAM 32-8013....: . 6.: . Balance the cuts and fills and optimize ruling grade and earthwork volumes.. which also has an allowable range for each type of road.. (per day) = 21 vehicles solution : The calculated DHV of 75 could be met by a class C road. Develop a mass diagram for the project. . If the maximum (or minimum) design value for the various criteria is always adhered to. After the sight-distance-restriction determined from the design plans sumed road class. the resulting vehicle capacity of the road will be on the lower side of the range. The first step in the design of a road is to estimate the daily or hourly number of vehicles in a military organization. the number of vehicles organic to the units that will use ADT = 250 x 2 = 500 and DHV = 0. sight-distance-restriction requirements can be determined from Figure 9-3. 8. SELECTION OF ROAD TYPE Structural characteristics should accommodate traffic volumes throughout the road’s design life. DESIGN CALCULATION The values in Table 9. : ‘.. Design superelevations (curve bankand widening for all horizontal curves.. 10. The 0. .:. A range of possible DHV values is given for each road classification in Table 9-l.. drainage struc- fng) 12.1..1 for each geometric feature must be attained to ensure that the desired road will have a capacity equal to or greater than either the average daily traffit (ADTI or design hourly volume (DHV) shown. Therefore.::.15 x 500 = 75. : :: :: :. Vol 1 ::P . . This conservatively assumes that each vehicle uses the road twice (one round-trip) per day. ::.:. C. Where this cannot be done. Only road classes B. Figure 9-3 shows this straight-line relationship.. Example: A road is to bc designed for a military ganization having approximately 250 vehicles.:. They are based on expected traffic volumes and show the values for the design control elements for each road class. The capacities are shown as a range of values. curves curves the road. . Otherwise.. Design the required tures and bridges. and D apply to TO construction. the necessary road type can be determined from Figure 9-3. Use discretion by designing the road to the best possible standard in a given road class. 9-4 Road Design . Plot new tangents (straight sections of road) on the plan and profile in those locations where horizontal and vertical curves exceed the military road specifications. The actual DHV for a road is a function of the sight-distance-restriction factor.. . assuming a class C road is used. plan-and-profile designs could be drawn and a sight-restriction factor can be determined from the design.. If ADT or DHV and the road type desired are known. The DHV varies directly with a change in the sight-distance-restriction factor. shows four possible road types. is suggested as a reasonable estimate.

is adequate for the geometric design of military roads. If a DHV of 75 could not be handled by the class C road. the maximum sight-distance-restriction factor for a class C road is 80 percent. use discretion in estimating the road type and ADT or DHV to which the data best conforms. Therefore. This provides a DHV for a class C road of only 30. ESTIMATING CAPACITY The information in Figure 9-3 and Table 9I. Using Figure 9-3. Vol 1 DHV 0 20 40 60 60 100 Sight distance restriction. However. the road is less able to accommodate the traffic Road Design 9-5 . the class C road assumption is adequate. If the data does not conform to that shown for a given road type. percent Figure 9-3. Since the sight-distance-restriction factor for the example (62 percent) is less than the maximum of 80. Interpolation of DHV for selection of road class (not to scale) From Figure 9-3.1. it would be necessary to construct a class B road. .. The volume and capacity values in Table 9-1 are for roads of a given class when they are new or in good condition.: : : . The information can be used to evaluate the capacity of existing roads by obtaining pertinent characteristics and comparing them to the values in Table 9. this meets the initial requirement of the DHV being greater than or equal to 75.: 600 FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. As the road surface deteriorates. page 9-3.. additional information is available in TM 5-822-2.. a sight-distance-restrlction factor of 62 percent is determined (based on a class C road and a DHV of 75).

A reverse or compound curve can be designed using the same basic equations.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. The radii of the curves may or may not be equal in length. However. thereby decreasing the tangent length. Plan and carry out a maintenance program to keep the road in good condition. Horizontal and vertical curves of all types are discussed in FM 5-233. because the shortest distance between two points is the connecting straight line. horizontal curves will increase the curve length. thereby improving the route capacity. and provide long straight stretches. the engineer should make each tangent as long as possible. most efficient route that requires the least construction effort. gentle curves increase the capacity of the roadway by permitting higher speeds. Tangents should intersect other roads and railroads at right angles. Define the route vertically in a series of grades and curves that fall within acceptable specifications and requirements. However. Their centers are on opposite sides of the common line. Define the route by a series of straight lines and curves to meet the stated mission and capacity. however. the reverse curve. the compound curve. Military roads normally supplement existing roadnets and have intersections at one or both ends of the military road. Horizontal and vertical alignment are interrelated and must be considered concurrently. and the spiral curve. This provides the shortest. Terrain conditions. HORIZONTALALIGNMENTAND HORIZONTAL CURVES The principles of horizontal summarized as follows: alignment are l Tangents (straight sections of road) should be as long as possible. seldom permit the construction of a route between two points in one tangent line. . GRADE AND ALIGNMENT Before building a road or an airfield. Frequently used horizontal curves are shown in Figure 9-4. Operating efficiency usually is improved when these intersections approach right angles. Types of horizontal curves 9-6 Road Design . the principles on each are best studied separately. Design both horizontal and vertical alignment to keep sight distance restrictions to a minimum. Making gentle. A reverse curve uses two simple curves tangent to a common line at a common point. Therefore. A simple curve uses the arc of a circle to provide a smooth transition between two tangents. They also provide a safer path of travel for the vehicle. Make curves as gentle as possible. This curve is used frequently in the TO because it fills the needs of the low-speed design roads normally used and is easy to construct. Vol 1 for which it was designed. Long. the engineer must determine the best vertical and horizontal alignment of the facility concerned. limit the number of curves. this reduction in tangent length is minor & Compound %* Spiral Figure 9-4. The most common are the simple curve. compared to the benefits gained by reducing the total number of curves.

Railroad engineers measure L as a series of lOO-foot chords. horizontal curve as shown in Figure 9-5: l The PC is the point where the curve begins or leaves tangent A-the tangent nearest the origin of stationing (station 0 + 001 or start of the project. The centers of these curves are on the same side of the common line. The central angle. The middle ordinate (Ml is the distance from the midpoint of the curve to the midpoint of the long chord. The long chord (Cl is the straight-line distance from the PC to the PT. The angle of intersection (I) is the exterior angle at the PI formed by tangents A and B. ELEMENTS OF A HORIZONTAL CURVE The following are elements of a simple. The length of curve (L) is the distance from the PC to the PT along the curve. between the radius points at 0. horizontal curve Road Design 9-7 . Detailed steps for the design and layout of spiral transltion curves are In FM 5-233.. The tangent distance (T) is the distance from the PI to the PC or from the PI to the PT. l l Figure 9-5. and the curves have radii of different lengths. The PT is the point where the curve ends or joins tangent B. The external distance (E) is the distance from the PI to the midpoint of the curve. The spiral is used only on high-speed roads (classes A and Bl.‘j :. is equal to the exterior angle.: FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. The radius (R) of curvature is the radius of the circle whose arc forms the curve from the PC to the PT. A spiral curve is a simple curve in the center with parts of a spiral on each end to smooth transition to the tangent.: . Elements of a simple. : : .i . measured as an arc or as a series of lOO-foot arcs. Low design speeds of class-C and -D roads do not require spiral transition sections. Vol 1 l A compound curve has two simple curves tangent to a common line at a common point. The PI is the intersecting point of two tangents that must be connected by a horizontal curve.

Vol 1 DEGREE OF CURVATURE The connecting curve between two tangents may be short and sharp or long and gentle. The degree of curvature may be stated in terms of either the arc or the chord. The difference between the arc and definitions is very slight and nearly chord insig- nificant (frequently well below 1 percent) for TO construction. a curve of D = 15” has one-fifteenth the L. and I is always known at the onset of the design process. a curve may be called a 150-foot curve. depending on the properties of the circle chosen.) This definition is used by state highway departments and the Corps of Engineers in road design. Arc definition for degree of Figure 9-7. gentle curves used on modern highways. only its definition will be used throughout the rest of the chapter. D. The only information needed to obtaln the L. E. is the angle which subtends a lOO-foot chord on the curve. 8 4 R Figure 9-6. Chord Definition The degree of curvature. Arc Definition The degree of curvature. Both methods may be used with the same degree of accuracy. 0 Q . and M values as for a l-degree curve ID = 1’). e EQUATIONS FOR THE SIMPLE. However. 0 -4 R 0 curvature . T. The l-degreecurve method requires the Functions of a l-Degree Curve table shown in Appendix F of this manual. The more practical and common reference term for defining curve sharpness is the degree of curvature (D). (See Figure 9-6. because the arc definition is the most widely used procedure in road design. However. Appendix F is based on the trigonometric relationships for a curve of D = 1”. For example. (See Figure 9-7. T. E. is that angle which subtends a lOO-foot arc along the curve. D. HORIZONTAL-CURVE DESIGN The two methods commonly used to solve horizontal curve problems are the l-degreecurve method and the trigonometric method. Sharpness is defined by the radius of the circle.FM 5430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Chord definition curvature for degree of 9-8 Road Design . and M values for a l-degree curve is the angle of intersection (I). a curve is seldom referred to by its radius because the center of the curve is often inaccessible on the long. For example. Curves of different degrees of curvature can be readily designed because of the proportionality between all curves and the l-degree curve. and it is used by the railroad industry and the Corps of Engineers in railroad design. The trigonometric method requires a calculator with trigonometric functions or trigonometric tables found in TM 5-236 or any surveying manual.) This definition results in a slightly larger angle than the arc method. The degree of curvature is established as a whole or half degree.

.. The tangent distance (Tl is found using the l-degree-curve method.::.. i..~....‘. . ..~.:. ...:::::::::::....:. .. .:......~...:. The central angle subtended by the entire horizontal curve has sides that are radii to the PC and PT...:.:.:....i:.. ...:..~. ....‘.:.i_.(......v./.~. Derivation of external distance Road Design 9-9 . D arc External Distance Using the l-degree-curve Figure 9-81.‘..‘.~... L= + In the right triangle shown in Figure 9-5.....~.. : “““‘W.. FM 5_430_0&1/AFPAM 32-801 3...... .. :. D is that angle subtended by a lOOfoot arc on a circle.:.58 D Solving for RR = (IOOl(360) 2xD = M = 50 D (arc definition) Tangent Distance Length of Curve (L) Measure the length of the curve in IOO-foot arcs.““‘....:..:...‘.. ((. the middle ordinate (Ml is found as follows: 5......:.:.......““““:‘:‘:‘:‘...::::::~:::::~::~:::::::........:.‘. vol 1 Radius of Curvature As previously described in the arc definition... ... ....:..:. ... Table F-l.C:..:.......:. .....‘... for a given I.....:.:...:.:.... ... . ~.:. an equation for R is developed in terms of D.:...... the total number of such arcs in a horizontal curve must be the number of times that D can be included In the central angle I.... Use Table F-2 to determine the chord correction.:.. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : ‘.:. Both of these radii are perpendicular to the tangents that form the - Figure 9-8.):. :i+h.. and 0.~.:...“‘...~. PI. page 9-7..~~.... the external found as follows: method distance (refer to (El is ’ = E!’ D (arc definition) 360’ 100’=..“” “““...~...~. Because D subtends a lOO-foot arc.......‘.....~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ... ....:...:.....~~..:. .. as follows: T= T1 o (arc definition) D x 100 Tl* is found in Appendix F....... .::::::::::::::::::: ““““‘. By comparing the lOOfoot arc and the total circumference of the circle.:.729.‘..‘. ... .... the vertices are at PC (or PT)..:...... ....:...:......2xR Middle Ordinate Using the l-degree-curve method (refer to Figure 9-81..‘. . ...:.

. . . Next. remember that gentle curves are more desirable. If a restriction exists. D. D= is restricted Tl” T(restrkted) whereTl* = tangent distance for a l-degree curve (found In Appendix F..OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013..: :.:. and effort required. by one If the curve D= is unrestricted. : :.. Round up the degree of curvature next half degree when possible. or there may be a limit on the external distance or the middle ordinate. determine the stations of the PC and the PT. . 3.. Find the degree of three methods: l of curvature.. Topographic conditions govern the final locatlon of the centerline and sharpness of the curve.. horizontal method: curves using the 1 -degree-curve 1. However.1 central angle is equal to the angle of Intersection I.:I>. page 9-3. the maximum allowable degree of curvature is specified by the road classification. PC (90”1. design the curve except for the calculations needed to locate statloning points of the curve between the PC and PT.. . D= El< Efrestricted) whereEl? = external distance for one-degree curve (found in Appendix F. . . This is defined by the radius or the degree of curvature.:. 4. these long curves may increase surveying and construction time.: . The quadrilateral formed by the four points of PI (180”-I).:. choose a degree of curvature within allowable specifications. Table 9. intersection angle 1.. However. . PC = PI . .. Determine the length T = TL D to the of the tangent. Hence.i.: :. There is no restriction on the length of the curve with respect to a minimum degree of curvature. 5.:. specifies the maximum degree of curvature for each class of road as stated in the row titled “Maximum horizontal curvature. i’.729.58 R DESIGNING HORIZONTAL CURVES The engineer designing horizontal curves must know two facts about the curve from the preliminary survey: the location and station of the PI and the angle between intersectlng tangent lines (Il. Vol 1 ‘:. . the I( 180-I) t 90 t I t 90 = 360..T 9-10 Road Design .<.. . When choosing a degree of curvature.. solve for the degree of curvature by transposing the equations previously given.: .: j :.c. based on the angle of intersection) E(restrlcted) a horizontal = restricted curve external distance for 2. 0 (Il. Where no terrain condition dictates the sharpness of the curve. The following steps show the design of where l R = the radius of the curve by the tangent If the curve distance. and PT (90”) must total 360”. .1. Find the stationing of PC. based on the angle of intersection) T(restrkted) = restricted tangent distance for a horizontal l curve is restricted by the external - If the curve distance.FM 5-430.” After the degree of curvature is selected. The curves can be designed after this information is obtained. A maximum or minimum tangent distance may fit the terrain conditions. The first step is to determine the desired sharpness of the curve. materials..: : I.

_:. Horizontal curve with no sharpness restriction Figure 9-10. the actual point of the PT is found by measuring a distance T (at angle I) from the PI... :.. Find the stationing T-5= 2.’ : . = 5. Vol 1 5.:‘( :‘:. :. .33’) = (18 t 16. not by adding T to the station of the PI. D. of 6’ is selected as a flat.. . . Figure 9-9. Terrain restriction tance..:: : :’ ..671.:.. 6. A degree of curvature..’ .30’ (arc PT = PC + L Horizontal-Curve Design Examples definition) L= 833.729. .71) PT = PC t L = (9 t 82. as measured along the ten terline..58 6 = g54 g3. else D = 6” R= 5. .‘.T = (14 + 28) . Figure 9-9 illustrates the following computations: Given: I = 50”. /.. .. which limits T or dlsdis- l of the tangent of the external * Terrain restriction tance.:...5” for class-B roads. gentle curve. PI at 25 t 87. Example: Degree of Curvature with No Terrain RestricLion... the following com- Given: I = 32”...29’) = (9 t 82.: . .58 D Tl’ 100 of PT.:‘:yii.: .58 6 = 445.: .729.::‘i. . D = 6’ is far below the maximum allowable of D = 14..5’ for class-C roads and is slightly sharper than the maximum allowable of D = 5.: :. .. Solution: Figure 9. Example: Terrain Restrfctfon of Che Tangent No terrain restriction E.33’ This section describes the horizontal-curve design procedures for three common situations: l PC = PI .041 The station of the PT is determined by adding the curve length to the station of the PC. The station is the distance from the point of origin at station (0 t 001. ::’ : FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. -_- Calculate the length L= 6 0 of the curve... PI at 14 t 28 of PC and PT Find the station and location for a class C road.10 illustrates putations: Dklance..711 + (833. However.(445.. . TR~S IS 282’ (due to bridge) Find the station Solution: Knowing thal T must not exceed 282 feet and that the D that will give this value is and location of PC and PT.j. Horizontal curve with restriction on tangent Road Design 9-l 1 .

it is necessary to first find which D gives 282 feet for TR~S and then round it off. Sta PI at 43 t will If E exceeds 85 feet. Figure 9.75 E < 85 feet.58 6 (arc definition) = 273 82.81) PT = PC t L = (41 t 03.33’ E L- = 83. Rounding D up to the next half degree (D = 6”) will slightly sharpen the curve and will reduce T slightly below the 282-feet maximum. D- Given: 32. Therefore. Find the station and location . D 282= 5.(273.11 illustrates the following computations: Building PI = 43 + 32.93’ = 272 83’ T = ‘s T= la642. the rounding is to the next lower half degree. L = .75 EC 86’ Figure 9-11.33’) x 100 = 380.729.95’) ’ PC = PI .8548 21 100 .(228. as shown.749. the value for D of 5-50’ must be used.58 21 T = p = 5*7r’58 = 5.51) t (533.18) = (28 t 46.83’ = 5”50’ Solution : D= % If the value of T was specified as exactly 282 feet (as opposed to a maximum or restrfcted value).95 .643 of PC and PT.81) = (44 t 84.76) Increasing the degree of curvature decreases the values of the radius and tangent distance and vice versa.18) PT = PC t L = (23 t 13.T = (25. If minimum value of the tangent is given.9300 6 D =EC= D :.6867 = 21 1. Use D = 6” R - ERes D= 1. it is necessary to round to the next higher half degree.33 I 85’ (check) -- PC = PI .82’) = (23 t 13. Example: Terratn Restrtctfon on the ExternaZ Dfstance.Tl” = Toes 1.e 228 . Use D = 21’ R = 5*72g. I = 80’. thereby decreasing T and E. + 87) .9 feet and 282 feet to 273.8 feet. When the degree of curvature was changed fiorn 5-50’ to 6”00’.75) = (41 t 03. the road centerline be closer than 25 feet to the building.94’) t (380.5 feet to 954. g4. the rounding must be to the next higher half degree.T = (43 t 32.59’ = 20’35’ Because the limiting value for the external distance and the value used to get this trial value of D are maximums.749. x 4t807. x 100 = T x 100 = 533. if the mtimum value of the tangent distance is used to determine a trial value of D.g 85 = 20. it caused the radius and the tangent distance to decrease from 983. = 954.probably not equal to a whole or half degree. respectively. Horizontal curve with restriction on the external distance -/ 9-12 Road Design .

taxiways. The equation will be written on the construction stake as follows: Equations most often will occur at the PT but may be used anywhere an adjustment to the centerline stationing is required. However. They do not adequately define the necessary construction. External-D&tame wherePT EQ BK AH = point of tangent = equation = correct station back = correct station ahead Deflecllon-Angle Method. the adjustments must be calculated. When the preliminary tangent alignment of a route is first determined and stationing along the tangent lines is accomplished. The following methods are applicable to military construction for locating points on the curve: Arc Method. the initial centerline distance from the PC to the PT is measured along the two tangents and is equal to 2T. For example. The equation will have a station which corresponds with the correct station to the rear (or back) and the correct station forward (or ahead). It is not necessary to calculate station adjustments required by the shortening of the overall centerline length by a distance of 2T-L. When a horizonlal curve is installed and becomes the centerline of the route. on the curve side of the PI is difficult to negotiate and measure. page 9-7. Curves with a small radius are seldom used except at street intersections and for fillets between hardstands. The method of adjustmenl will produce a stationing equation at the point of adjustment that will satisfy both the stationing back and the stationing ahead. when horizontal curves are designed in the office with data supplied by the preliminary survey. Equations normally are shown in the profile section of the plans as a gap in the grade with the back and ahead stations written out. In Figure 9-5. Method. the equation stake would look like this: K EQ :ti 13 t 00 12 t 00 The adjustments shown in the preceding equation indicate that the total length of the road has been shortened by the difference of 24 feet in the first example and lengthened by 100 feet (or one station) in the second example. say 13 + 00. When the radius of a curve is less than 100 feet and topographic conditions permit. the stationing distance from the PC to the PT is shortened by 2T-L for each horizontal curve. The equation indicates that an adjustment to the centerline stationing has occurred for some reason.FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM Station Adjustments lation Due to Curve Instal- 32-8013. When this is done. an adjustment is made to the construction stake at the PT. This method of curve layout usually is the fastest and most Road Design 9-13 . Field Methods of Curve Layout The location and station of the PC and PT of a horizontal curve constitute only two points on the curve. To prevent restaking the rest of the project centerline. the route is staked out and stationed progressively along the centerline from the point of origin of the project. the station of any point represents its distance from the point of origin as measured along straight lines only. At this point. Vol 1 Horizontal curves occasionally are designed at the site by the surveying team. or other operational features of an airfield. the centerline stationed ahead would need to be restationed or adjusted in some manner. the final centerline distance from the PC to the PT becomes L. When the curve is installed and the new centerline is created. locate the center of the circle and swing an arc to locate a curve or flllet. if the survey crew accidently placed two centerline stakes with the same station number. calculate the external distance and use it to locate the center of the curve. For short curves where three points are adequate for the construction standard desired. This method is not recommended for precise construction or for long It is impractical when the terrain curves.

...: ‘. 0 Figure 9-14.. In view of this and because the PC of any curve rarely falls on an even station.. the deflection angle is always one-half the intercepted central angle. : ::.. and the deflection angle will be one-half the degree of curvature D. exact method.:. With the addition of each lOOfoot arc... particularly for curves with a long radius. 9-14 Road Design .:. the curve continues by lOO-foot arcs..j: i. the first arc will be something less than 100 feet in length (called a subarc)..:. or D/2. as shown in Figure 9-13.: ..:: I. In the arc definition.. Once located at a full station.::.‘jjj:. Calculation of chord lengths Figure 9-13. j :.:j.foot arcs The length of the chord for a lOO-foot arc on the curve is equal to 2R Sin (D/2).::.1 When laying out a curve. Deflection angles for 700. For the first and last arcs. (Set Figure 9-12. the central angle will be the degree of curvature D.. the measured chord is equal to 2R Sin [(Dl21(Ll IOOj] where L is the distance from the PC or PT to the closest full station.:. the central angle increases by D and lhe deflection angle increases by D/2 (Figure 9-151. The deflection angle for the subarc to the first full station is the same proportion of D/2 thal the subarc is to 100 feet (Figure 9-14). it is common practice to locate stakes at every full station.ii . Vol 1 ::.12. . the total central angle increases by D and the total deflection angle increases by D/2.j. a deflection angle is the angle formed between a tangent line and a chord from the same point.:: ).. Figure 9.‘::: .j ‘::ji y::... which are almost always less than 100 feet. . Figure 9-15. Subarc deflection angles NOTE: InLother words.FM 543&()&l /AFPAM 32-801 3. Therefore.:iT. .: :..:::.:cjj ‘. If the initial arc is 100 feet long. Deflection In triangle OAB- angle Angle ABO (at Bl = 90 .t d= d= 180-(9O+B) 180-90-90+.

.. set the transit up at the PC..:~ : :... To locate the second point on the Table 9-2..04.:. :..........> j:::..::‘: ..........(l8 + 16...52336) c =2Rs+ c=2Jwh~ c =WS@ 2(954.:.$2(@54....... which is the PT...:.:.++..:...:..:.....:.:...................:.D+dn_....:..:.:.::.:...:.....:.. Deflection-angle de terminations and chord-length When using the deflection-angle method. .::..62336) PT 16tl6...y: :j: : 32-8013..52336) +f ( c=2!?&-2(654.:: .... This check is illustrated in Table 9-2 for d = 25” = I/2 = 50”/2 for station...........:. sight the PI (or take a backsight down the centerline).854 B9.::.:.......... 15031's.:.... I 12031's........:.......... Deflection angles and chord distances d 003l'V 3031'6- I c=2Rsil~j$ ! I I chordcamputalion 4% 17. :::..:.B54’ 89..26 1 1 =2(954...:.:.:... :.... 2 df- to PT station Figure 9-16...........:.............04 16....l/AFPAM .....:......~.............. the station of PT is 18 t 16.. ..............: ...‘.‘...63)(0.... This is based on the previously stated principle that the deflection angle (from PC to PTI is one-half the total angle subtended (I).. c = 2RsL.. ...:.... Measure the subarc distance along the instrument’s line of sight.......:....52336) 99.:.63)(0. : FM 5..:+::..041.:::~::....:.............2(654. .....430~00......:....:....:.... Set zero on the vernier.. 0031'6..... :....:... ..:‘:.83)(0.+6516" 6031'6.....63)(0. .71..16.:...... “‘~~‘:‘~:‘:‘:‘::::::::.854’ I 12+00 I (6=&+$ 3....:.. LOCATION ON ARC PC to StatiOn of the deflection-angle and calculations is shown in Mg- Example: In the example of a horizontal curve with no terrain restrictions.:...w @Q..:~:~:~:~:..‘. ..:.:.:.::::p.. A useful check on the long series of computations is that the final deflection angle from the PC to the PT must always equal I/2.:.........032' Road Design 9-75 .. Layout Techniques WECTION CHORD LENGTH firstfull dl-pigj 0 R Full station to full station Last full dn-.:....:.:... and the deflection angles and chord dlstances are shown in Table Q-2. .52336) .:.:.....:......:.. the station of PC is 9 + 82...............:......::........:..:.....:.. :............:.....:.@3)(0... ...:...............:..63)(0.............. Vol 1 A summary chord-length ure Q..’::’: ..: ..52336) ....2(854....:.:... and turn the first deflection angle..:.........

NOTE: The functions of a 1’ curve table are also applicable to metric design based on the relationship shown in Figure Q-18b. Measure the intersection of this line of sight and the lOO-foot arc from the preceding station to locate station 11 t 00. E. 9. The only difference lies in the relationships of arc length to the degree of curvature as shown in Figures 9.. The staking interval on horizontal curves should be based on the degree of curvature and can be determined from the following table: Degree of Curvature (100’) Radius (meters) Staking interval 100' 0 to 3’ > 1. Once the transit is tangent to the curve..17 shows that angle D must be turned for the transit at station 16 t 00 to become tangent to the curve at that point.18a. backsight the PC.910’ to 721’ 720’ to 360’ < 360’ 50’ 25’ 10’ Horizontal Curve Design Using Metric Units The design of horizontal curves using metric units is essentially the same as in English units. :. and R are in meters. Lay out the rest of the curve in this manner.17. The same deflection angles previously calculated may be used to locate the rest of the curve.. Figure 9. move the transit to station 16 + 00. M.. if designing using metric units. which is ds as originally calculated. and 9-18~. However.. move the transit to an intermediate station. Obstruction on a curve 9.910' > 3’ to 8’ > 8’ to 16” > 16’ 1. : .FM 50430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 . (See Figure 9.1 If station 17 + 00 cannot be sighted. Frequency P’eet] of Placing Survey Stakes (In Horizontal curves should be staked at a minimum interval of 100 feet. the lengths of T. angle D/2 must be turned to locate the next station because the arc is 100 feet long. turn the second deflection angle (the angle is measured turning from the PI to station 11 t 00) with the transit still at the PC.18b.: curve (station 11 + 001. and turn the angle 21”31’6” to sight station 17 t 00.16 Road Design .. The total angle turned is d7 t D/2. If the curve is long so that the transit must be moved or if an obstruction prevents a clear line of sight..: . Figure 9-77. Set zero on the vernier.

. ......:. .......:::.: .... :..:. Figure 9.:.:.. .:..:: ....> . Deflection-angle and chord length selection based on D20 m Road Design 9-17 .:. ... :.:. i:....: ...:. .:. Vol 1 - Qooa 360 looft-2xR Dtmrn 100rnIR 360 w 360 20mg2xR 5729.....: :. . .: . j . . ..... ...‘. _ ..... .:.:..... ..:..:.....:..: .......-.::.. ..:.:...i.18d.:.. :.: .:.. ...:.:. :..........56 Dz0mm R(m) Figure 9-18a.:....:.:.......:.( : :. .‘.? . .. ..a ... ..:. . ..2RSin 2 ( 1 Last station to PT full NOTE: R is the distance from the PC or PT to the closest hrll station.. but intend on staking at an interval of 20 m. D based on a 20-m arc If you design the curve based on Dloo m. you must determine the degree of curvature based on 20 m (D20 m) to determine the correct deflection angles.I... : ...............A:.. A summary of the deflection-angle and chord-length calculatjons based on D20 m is shown in Figure 9-18d.. ...... : : . ..:..:.. ... Frequency of Placing Survey Stakes (In Meters] Horizontal curves should be staked at a maximum interval of 20 meters (m)..“. The staking interval on horizontal curves should be based on the degree of curvature and can be determined from the following information: Degree of Curvature (100’) 0 to 3” >3” to 8” >8’ to 16’ >16’ Radius (meters) >585 585 to 221 220 to 110 <llO Cord Lengths (meters) 20 10 5 5 LOCATION ON ARC PC DEFLECTION ANGLE &!q& 2 d”_1 + CHORD LENGTH to first station full 20m p&n 2 G ‘2”““(+%4 him Full station to full station dn- C” . ......... .... ./... . ...:. ..: :. . FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013..I. D based on a IOO-ft arc Figure g-186...... ... . ~:..::.:: . . D based on a 700-m arc Figure 9-18~.. .A.‘.::....... i.: :....

determine the elevation of critical points along the centerline.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Along any proposed route will be points at which the elevation is already fixed. Unless the scale of the contour map is large. Vol 1 VERTICAL ALIGNMENT The capabilities of vehicles or aircraft using any particular road or airfield determine the maximum allowable grades that should be established. Whenever possible. page 9-3. It is impractical to balance a volume of cut with an equivalent volume of fill at a distance beyond the hauling capabilities of the available equipment. pioneer construction to follow existing contours with a little smoothing of rough spots. the allowable change in grade at any point. Such a route provides a rough and relatively unsafe roadbed that is not capable of carrying a large volume of traffic. However. place tangent grade lines so that earthwork is minimized. it is possible to obtain elevations for specific points from a contour map on which the proposed horizontal. The earthwork required in most road-construction projects is usually the largest. approaching tion. However. other factors may be considered. as abscissa (x axis) against the elevations at these stations. which are plotted as ordinates (y axis). When a horizontal alignment is set and the project stationed. These criteria inminimum allowable gradients. determine the tangent grade lines. PVT. additional profiles may be needed along the shoulder line. The centerline profile may not represent the typlcal or prevailing condition across the entlre section at any particular point. placement clude the maximum intersection cut or fill. These grade lines serve as the proposed final profile of the project. grades should be less than the prescribed maximum values stated in Table 9-1. Engineers usually calculate the elevation at all half and full stations. A break point where the prevailing grade makes an appreciable change should be stationed and the elevation ascertained. the engineer can usually do this balancing by inspection. These tangent grade lines can be determined with a good profile. keeping the profile area of cut equal to the profile area of fill. This error may be noticeable when the section is wide. - PLOTTING TRIAL GRADE LINES After studying the profile. the permissible depth of and the maximum gradients in bridges or points of intersec- PLOTTING A PROFILE VIEW The proflle of a road or airfield is a side view of the project. When drawing the grade lines. In such cases. Anything that reduces earthwork will improve job efficiency and economy. but they serve as a basis for comparison. It is possible for rough. Excessive grades can be installed where speed and capacity are not essen tial. In addition for grades. PVC. Attempt to balance the earthwork operations between cut and fill in any area. These areas are not necessarily proportional to the actual volumes involved. as for an airfield. A well-designed route has a series of tangent grades with a smooth transition between them. The most common procedure for determining existing terrain elevations is by a ground survey. single work item. this method is inaccurate and should be used only for preliminary planning and initial location. It represents the horizontal distance. Intersections with existing roads and railroad crossings present predetermined elevations that the engineer must meet when locating the tangent grade lines. 9-18 Road Design . and HP and LP elevations. It is also possible to make a typical profile that represents the average elevation across the entire section. or stations. to the controlling specifications other criteria may control the of grade lines. within the capabilities of available equipment. Within limitations imposed by various other criteria. alignment has been plotted.

. and the other grade line percentage is called G2. a plus sign is used to denote rising grades in the direction of increasing stations and a minus sign is used to denote falling grades. It is established as a relationship between vertical rise or fall for each lOO-foot horizontal distance and is expressed as a percentage (per 100). The parts of a vertical curve include the following: Figure 9-20. .. (See Figure 9-19.. grades is- (100) Figure 9-19..:::. :: . Both types are designed the same way but different specifications govern their dimensions...: :.:.‘j ::j. :.:.. .. The equation for determining c =. ‘.. . The grade line is tangent to the parabolic curve at this point. . define the route vertically in a series of grade lines (straight segments of constant grade) between points of vertical fntersectlon... :. the PVC is always one-half the length of the vertical curve from the PVI.) Overt curves are commonly called crest curves.::. Elements of Vertical Curves Figure 9-20 shows a typical vertical curve installed between two grade lines.. V and H must be in the same To differentiate between rising and falling grades along the centerline. The PVC is the point along the first grade line at which the vertical curve begins. The PVT is the point along the second grade line at which the vertical curve ends.. .: :. Types of Vertical Curves Two types of vertical curves must be considered: overt and invert... By convention.. It has the same properties as the PVC.:.. measured horizontally. Types of vertical curves where= percentage of grade V = rise or fall between the two points H= horizontal distance between the two points G The PVl IS the intersection of two grade lines. easy movement from one grade line to another at these intersections. This station is always read from the profile view... and invert curves are referred to as sag curves.. NOTE: units.I ..’ :.: . .. Vol 1 GRADE DETERMINATION The degree of steepness measured longitudinally is normally defined as the percentage of grade. VERTICAL CURVES After grade lines are placed.. The vertical curves used for this transition and its pertinent dimensions are easily calculated. These two grade lines.:’ . The percentage of grade (G) on the grade line nearest the pofnt of origin is called G 1.. which are tangent to the parabolic curve at the PVC and PVT.: .: yI .: / . intersect at the PVI.. Elements of a vertical curve Road Design 9-79 . Design a transition that provides smooth.: :c:: FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

the distance that can be seen ahead becomes critically short. It is equal to the horizontal distance. the distance from the PVC to the PVI is L/2. The PVI is horizontally midway between the PVC and PVT. The difference in grade between the two grade lines is called the change of grade. It is possible to design vertical curves to be long and gentle (flat) or short and abrupt.’ ‘. Allowable Rate of Change of Grade (I-). dure is compared to the absolute minimum . The curve installed between two z!ade lines with a large AG. . This factor is used when determining road vertical curve lengths. which might occur at the top of a steep hill. there are certain limitations on curve length.FM 5-4309OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. in feet. or D) and for the type of curve. length found in Table 9-l. U . The walkfng distance along the actual curve has no significance. Change of Grade (AC). The length of vertical curve (Ll is the horizontal distance from the PVC to the PVT. with a criterion of 0. from the grade lines to the vertical curve. Length Determfnatton. (S). page 9-31 for the given class of road (A. This is done by varying the curve length. Vol 1 . If a vertical curve is quite short. B.G2. When an overt curve is traversed. The selected points are usually at every station and half station. The maximum offset (MO) is the offset at the PVI. and the distance from the PVI to the PVT is also L/2. However.1. 9-20 Road Design . This difference. C. The heights of offsets are computed for selected points along the length of the vertical curve. Therefore. is not in whole stations. required to effect a l-percent change in gradient while providing the minimum stopping distance. the ability of the driver to see down the road or airfield is curtailed.0 percent requires a curve length of 1. . r is usually expressed as the allowable gradient change in 100 feet of length. Reduced speed is required to reduce the safety hazard. is longer than the curve required between two grades with a smaller AG. which is symbolized as AC. is computed as 1G 1 G2 1 which represents the absolute value of . It is always the greatest set along the vertical curve. Sight distance depends upon the design speed permitted. Design of Vertical Curves The design of vertical curves includes two tasks--determining the curve length and calculating the heights of a sufficient number of offsets to adequately define or locate the final grade line. as computed. Minimum lengths usually are specified. The factor “k” is used in the following equation: L where=i kAG L = length of vertical curve in lOO-foot stations k = vertical-curve-length factor (Table 9-l) AC = change of grade Criteria that the gradient curve is have been established to ensure rate at which the change in is made throughout a vertical consistent with the operating char- If length L. a AG of 1. One criterion (called “r”) is expressed as an allowable rate of change of grade for a specific horizontal distance. SLght Ofstance Factor /k). Offsets (a) are the vertical distances acteristics of the vehicles or aircraft using the facility. For example. Vertical-Curve-Length Determlnatlon of the VerticaZ Curve Length.5 percent change in grade over 500 feet. Depending on the facility to be constructed and the standards of construction desired. The term “r” is frequently used for airfield vertical curve design. round up to the next full lOO-foot The length derived by this procestation. off- Determine the vertical curve length by using the vertical-curve-length factor (see Table 9.000 feet.

. Since It is common practice to stake vertical curves at whole and half stations.. ...:.:... . ” I: . Elevatlork Along VertfcaZCurves..... ....:. (......~~.:..‘.... The following formula is used to calculate MO: The offsets at equal distances In other words. Therefore. ......::‘:.......:... compute the station of the PVC and the PVT.. AC = change of grade in percent Intermedtate in elevation .:.:.:.:: ..... . . ...‘A”..) Thus...:. ~.:...~:..‘.offset t $d in elevation t offset MO where- 3- LAC 8 Y= elev PVT f change MO = vertical height of the maximum offset in feet L = length of vertical curve in sections.:‘::.... Use the following formula to calculate the intermediate offsets: Oflsets..... (((... :‘..:.. . .:.:.......p where= elevation of point on curve in feet = horizontal distance of point on curve 2 from PVC or PVT in stations AC = change of grade in percent Gr = percent slope of first grade line = percent slope of second grade line ‘32 Elev PVC = elevation at point of vertical curve in feet High or Low Point of a Vertical Curve..~~ ....:. .. .:. ....(..‘. from the PVC or PVT in feet d = selected distance (in stations) from the PVC or PVT at which an offset distance is to be calculated L = curve length in stations AC = change of grade in percent Since AG and L have been determined prior to using this equation. .... .~..> : ::: :: :.( .. Finding the offsets is a simple matter of varying the value of d... ....L/2 PVT = PVI t L/2 of Offset Determfnatlons..~.‘. the offsets are symmetric about the PVI... i...:... For the curve to be defined.. intermediate offsets are determined at every whole and half station along the curve. Use the following equation to calculate elevations along the vertical curve: Invert curve: Y= elev PVC .... FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013....‘........‘:‘:~:“:‘:‘:‘:~: . the offset for only one side of a vertical curve needs to be calculated..:....i.:. .A. : :..:‘:‘:.: .. “‘. ._...‘..(. (. ._..:.:.~:~... .. ......:...:... . .:...:~:~:::::::..~.. Vertical curves have the shape of a parabola.A :... ....: .. ... .. ..:i...:....... .... ... the engineer must determine elevations at various locations along the curve.:... ... ‘... . /. ..~.. Hi h po nt B PVI Road Design 9-21 .. the term AG/2L is a constant.:..:::::. In order to do so..............::::..: :...: . When the tangent grades (G 1 and G21 are equal. NOTE: from the PVC or PVT are equal..:::::... .... ..:..:. .. ..... the above equation can be used to calculate the offset at any point within the vertical curve.offset Offsets at locations along the curve other than the PVI are referred to as intermediate offsets.:. ..\:.::. .:.. .. ...... .. (This does not mean that the resulting curve is symmetric (unless Gl = Gz). . ...Cld Y =elevPVT&Gadts2 Overt curve: Y = elev PVC t change Y =elevPVCtGl -s2 .:.. .. .... d. ... the engineer must determine the offset (0) which is the vertical distance from the original grade line to the designed curve. “. ”..( .:.:.. .... .. Maxfmum Oflset.. .. Y = elev PVT f change Y = elev in elevation *G 2 PVT f Gzd . ...““““. the MO will always be located at the PVI...‘..... a... .change in elevation t offset Y = elkv PVC . .:..t~r?. ....._.:. the high or low point of the curve OCcurs at the PVI. PVC = PVI ...i. Vol 1 Knowing the curve length and the station the PVI.( .. As previously stated.. .... ... (See the following example:) PVI &dc& where- 2L 0 = offset at a distance... . ....:.._.....:c. ...

.. .:: . (See the following example:) Design Steps..F... . Determine I G2( x (L/21 the maximum MO I....jj .i.. i. . if the ground elevation at a point on a curve was 86 feet and the curve elevation at that point was 82 feet.(L/2) To determine the location along the curve of the maximum (or minimum) elevation..:. Determine intermediate (%)d2 offsets (8).. PVT = PVI + (L/21 Determine the elevation of PVC. the high and low points correspond with either the PVC or PVT. Compute at every half station and full station along the curve...... :::: . ELPVT = ELPM f 7. ..:..:..::::::::.... The following steps show the design dure for vertical curve: 1... ..:.. Determine the PVT.:. of grade. The difference in elevation between the curve and the ground elevation constitutes the cut or fill value..(.~.....:.:~:...FM 5-430~OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. .....:. :. ..::::. 3. Cut or Fill Values.......... (See the following example:) ‘-6+ 2.:::::. the high or low point of the curve always falls on the flatter of the two grades.:.~::.:. Determine grade-line elevations (GLEN.::::::::::‘::::::. 8 8. i’..:...::....:.....:::::.. ... .:..j:...:.. .. use the following equation: 5.:.::‘::...i.. Determine the PVC..:..L. .I...\. i:. The ground elevations can be determined from the profile view established from the initial survey.:..:.:.... a..j: :::.::.:.(. 0 = MG+$or c.:::~.. ELPVC = ELPW f IGI I x(L/21 wheredistance along curve from PVC (or PVT) in stations L = length of vertical curve in stations G = percent slope of flattest grade AC = change of grade in percent d = horizontal Determine the elevation of PVT.82 feet)....... full station (if PVC = PVI ... 4..~:::::~ .:..i.....:. Elev curve = GLE f 0 9-22 Road Design .:.:.. we can determine the cut or fill values to place on the grade stakes for construction operations.I.::....:...L. the construction stake would indicate a cut of 4 feet (86 feet .~.i... . Compute the change jG~-Gzl curve length (L).v....: When the tangent grades are the same sign (both positive or both negative).:~....:. :.. Determine curve elevations...::i::::::.LAG offset (MO).:~:..:. ::y::..:. For example. Compute the vertical L kAG -100 Round up to the next higher possible). By using the calculated curve elevations and the existing ground elevations.. proce- AG= PVT When the tangent grades are unequal.. VOl 1 . ... Determine final curve elevations.:.j....:....~.:::.::... j:j:j:j:j:i:j:. PVC PVT GLE = ELpvc f GLE = EL~vT f 1GI 1 x d from 1G2 I x d from b. d GL =G 6.. . ...

.:.: :y.. . ...::. PVT... . :. .. .85% .’.. .. Determine the highest (lowest) elevation..106d2 Determine AG..50’ (7) Determine the maximum offset (MO). stations = 400’ (3) Determine the PVC.. :.... >..: . ..:..:.: . Compiling vertical data curve design Road Design 9-23 .. Ga = -5. The road is class D.. &fG _ !&? 8 (8) = 40 = 4...:..43’ 8 Determine final curve elevations.:.... y = -AGx2 ~ + Glx + eZev PVC 2L (6) Determine the elevation of PVT.:. (2) Determine L.. (a) Determine GLEs (Figure 9-21).-.. elevation = 73. .. d I. .. : . page 9-3. . From Table 9-1.. with cuts and fills determined every 50 feet (one-half station).... Figure PVT = PVI t L/2 = (7 t 00) = (5 t 00) t (2 t 00) 9-21.75 (4/2) Example: Complete the design of a vertical curve to include PVC. . . if required..-....:.. k for crest vertical curve on a class-D road is 35... I GI 1 x d from I G2 1 x d from GLE = ELpvc f GLE = ELPVT f PVC PVT (b) 0 Determine intermediate = offsets (0). .:.: ...10.:. .-.00 .a: .:.. (~)&($$d’= l...:..10 stations 100 100 Use L = 4.:.:. and offsets. ~..7511 NOTE: The term AG/2L becomes a constant (1.: ..: . :.-. L _ kAG _ 35(8..1%..05751 (400/2) or 73 .75% ( 1I = 61. ::.._/.:: . Determine the location of maximum (or minimum) elevation.:I:: :. . Given: The unit survey section has completed a centerline survey for a proposed vertical curve...: ...~.106).85) = 3.:. ELpvc = ELPW i IGI I (L/2) = 73. .. ELPW = ELPW i 1G2 I CL/21 = 73. :.:. . .:..:: .I-O. Solution: PVI = 5 t 00.L... PVC = PVZ ....:..::::::.1) (4/2) = 66....5..::?:: FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013....... ...:. ..00’ G1 = +3. ..: :.:.: ::::... AC= /Cl.031 1 (400/21 or 73 .(2 t 00) = (3 t 00) (4) Determine the PVT...(-5.: .. .>... Vol 1 u 9.G21 = l(t3.:.80’ AC 10... . . .. . .L/2 = (5 t 00) . ..: ... if required.:.:.(3.: : : .00 ....: : .GL (5) Determine the elevation of PVC.1) = 8.:.. ..-. .

28’ (at is When the known point is at a location other than the PVI. if y = elev PVC (or PVT) t Gd f 0 NOTE: + or .1(1.85 Once the length of the curve has been determined.80 t 3. the length of the curve can be determined using the following formula: n f WhereA = horizontal distance from PVI to known point 0 = offset between elevation of known point and GLE of known point 1.d) point = - Station maximum elevation point (3 t 00) + (1 + 40) = 4 t 40 ( 10) Determine required.) Station maximum elevation PVC t d (or PVT .106( 1.43’ (at (at NOTE: AG must be entered as a decimal.4) t 4. 1.8 feet.00 feet is to pass over a 24-inch culvert at station 11 t 00.4)2 Determine the length of the vertical curve required to clear this culvert with 1 foot of cover.5 StationJ = 1.) mo.2. Determine .106tO. Vol 1 Where.0 station) = 1.G2I AG = 0.11’ (at 2.5)” = stations 3 t 50 and 6 t 50) gi1. 106(1. = l-0.0’ Solution: y = 66.0’= offset from the GLE to d = distance. the length of the curve can be determined using the following formula: AG (as a decimal). Example: A new road with a PVI at station 12 t 50 and an elevation at 73. if required. the highest = elevation.97 VertfcaI Curve Through a Known Point.5 station) = 1. from the PVC tions @zero stations) = 1.5)2 = station 4 + 50 and 5 t 50) B72.106(2. 106(0)2 = no offset at the PVC and PVT. The invert of the culvert is at elevation 85. the location of the maxielevation. = 1.40 stations or 140’ ~=GL=(3.165 9-24 Road Design .17 = 68. PVI = 12 t 50 Elev = determined by inspektion. the remainder of the design must be completed according to the vertical curve design procedures previously outlined.0.1)(4) AC 8.1.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.0)2 = stations 4 t 00 and 6 t 00) Qil. When the vertical curve must go through a known point and the known point is at the PVI.100’ = 150’ (A) y = 66. (The maximum or minimum elevation is always on the flattest grade when grades have opposite signs.49’ 4. Determine the horizontal distance from the PVI to the known point.M0(8) AC AC = [Cl .0 station) = 1.0)” = station 5 t 00) (9) Determine mum or minimum the curve or PVT in sta 0 (There 0.0841 L-.250’ 2.80 . A = 1.081 .34 -y (1.

.... On extremely rugged terrain.: :. .. Determine the offset (0) between the elevation of known point and the GLE of known point.<j::jj.. . SUPERELEVATION The outer edge of a road is elevated to balance the overturning forces experienced by a vehicle rounding a horizontal curve. Determine curve.:::...85. : : . ’ The amount of superelevation is governed by the degree of curvature (or the curve radius) and the design speed. 0= THE CROWNED SECTION The typical cross section of a road is the crowned cross section.‘. the interval should be reduced. t The design of vertical curves using metric units is the same as in English units..15’ = 3. The only difference lies in the use of meters as units of measurement for elevations and distances... GLE = ELPVI t 1Cl 1 known point) x d (from PVI to GLE = 73.1.30’ t 246.:.I . .65’ the length of the vertical 6. y. clearing Roadway Roadbed 24-h traveled way _ I 124 traffk lane I . .12-ntraffic 6 R no obstructions NOTE: Ml mhoulder wldmlng Is rsquirad for guardralk and guideposts. ‘. the subgrade and the finished surface will have the same crown. . . FM 5-4301000l/AFPAM 32-8013. Determine the elevation of the vertical curve required to clear the culvert with 1 foot of cover (at the known point)..O’ (cover required) Vertical-Curve Design Using Metric Units.. .: : .. Determine the GLE at the known (directly below the culvert).8’ + 2. of Placing Survey Stakes..0’ (pipe diameter) ELCURVE 1. :::..82’ Width o..15’ 5. Vol 1 3.8’ . : ..0’ t IO._I:. = 85...::‘i.>.8’ point 4. If the road is to be surfaced.. Frequency ELcunv~ = 88. Figure G-22.48’ = 635..: .081 1 x 150’ GLE = 85... Normal crown slopes are provided in Table 9. page 9-3...‘jy . = 388.. Figure 9-22 shows a typical cross section for a class-A road. Vertical curves should normally be staked at 50foot (every half station) or IO-meter intervals. Detailed information for designing superelevation on 88. Normal crown cross section for a class-A road Road Design 9-25 . The amount of crown provided depends on the type of surface used.

Jcrl Figure 9-23.037 xl00 210 .021 026 034 :tZ . tion from a normal cross section on a tangent (A-A) to a fully supcrelevated.430 30. ~rdevdednormdorwm alop Tmmit~drir8bl~bulno(u umtld&ova w Mm .067 230 .484 E V=30mph(43kph) L ft 0 0 0 0 105 100 100 100 100 1w IW 110 IW 120 :: 140 140 160 160 170 In 0 x 0 30.005 64.430 30.016 ~~ 64.100 33. U Table 9-3.720 43.624 46.474 343.lW 180 .310 51.804 E V .105 33.710 2323.14. Figure 9-23 shows a class-A road section with a supcrclcvatcd curve. :Z 130 XL03 z . w :ii z: PW woo 11'w 12-w 13-w 149w 16-w *oQ 1FW PW a4. gradual change.lW 210 .100 33. Table 9-3 lists SIIperclcvation rates and appropriate lransilion lengths to dcvclop the supcrclcvatcd section as a function of the design speed and degree of curvature.070 .077 ifi . the pavement width on lhc inside lane of a curve is incrcascd. The length of highway needed to accomplish this transition is given in Table 9-3.061 x)Bl .a 532163 436.lW 210 .372 1746.340 63. Superelevation lengths and transition lengths v -60 mph (37Lkph) E i: a24 :Zi :Z ft 0 176 176 175 175 175 130 m 0 63.40 mph (64Lkph) ft 0 0 0 125 125 125 126 126 125 130 IO 130 160 m 0 0 0 36.327 73.340 63.576 36.869 436.763 51.246 72.330 Z:ii 64.w3 St33 is :z :it . D MAX - Width dr clearing Roadway 6 11 nc Roadbed I _~ ’ 6 rl no otmru ctions .340 63.6.312 :zi 70.340 63.173 36.361 156.6.633 103.105 36.6.FM 5-430-000l/AFPAM 32-8013.073 .430 30.335 873254 636.347 82. I.100 36. D-D~rndcunrature A-R&u d curwtur* V-D-bnW-@ E-Flabdqudwdbn kMMhkbby5bn RC-RWlDVO*aom.154 174.005 NC NC NC NC Rc Rc 021 .w 1310 1637 1432 1143 mi6 613 716 e37 573 z Ul 409 363 236 316 it 2mi R nl 6936. As a safety faclor.073 210 .4&I :z 36.301 231a86 rizz 134.417 124.736 it= 3&60 60.093 250 .430 30.507 1134.113 37.430 90.100 35. Vol 1 curves is in FM 5-233.lW I aszi 0 MAX .200 D ft w 16 0-w P46 1. Table 9-4 lists pavcmcnt widening rcquireAs shown in Figure 9-24. the lransimcnts.340 57.063 . widened cross section on a curve (D-D) is a uniform.mcl 180 .lW 33.lW 26:. Two-thirds of the specified transition length is affected on the tangent and one-third is affected on the curve.42u 3492.720 46.330 134.Ow :Z NC NC NC Rc .W 2PW 22316 11463 7(139 6730 3320 2365 22.430 30.601 146. The amount of incrcasc is govcrnccl by the dcgree 01 curvature and the design speed.W I' 3r TOO F3(y 3-W 53(r 4.100 210 D MAX .676 ii% 42.025 .077 . Superelevated cross section 9-26 Road Design .672 46.

: 3:o 43. - Road Design 9-27 . : . Most two-lane roads are surfaced with sand. 410 L I superelevation and widening transition Normal crown Cross sections indicate pavement cross slope condition L_ Figure 9-24. . refer to Chapter 5 of this manual.5 15-18 lQ21 22-2s 26-26.. Expedient surfacing methods are used when required. supplements the frost-design procedures in this chapter. few roads receive a bituminous or port-land-cement concrete surface. For subgrade and base-course requirements. Vol 1 Table 9-4. Included are some common methods of DESIGN expedient surfacing. ... or other materials. :(.. gravel.. and criteria to determine thickness requirements for bituminous pavements in the TO. crushed rock. The design of mixes and aggregates and the procedures for placing bituminous and concrete surfaces are in TM 5-337. . or the best locally available material. Method for transition (not to scale) STRUCTURAL In the TO. guidance. .*. Vol 2.. : FM 5-430-001i/AFPAM 32-8013. I- Pavement widening Wldenlng curvea for for 2Jane psvements on width of pavement on tangent of 20 fl 07- Dealgn Speed gh z$l 50 mph curve 9 lo-11 12-14.7 .::. This section describes the procedures to prove natural earth surfaces and to resurface them with sand.. .x: 415 f:$ :::i-8.. gravel.. Additional information in Chapter 12 of FM 5-430-00-2/AFPAM 32-8013... ‘.

Vol 1 Road surfaces in the TO consist of earth in the most expedient circumstances. 10 No. ecological implications of these methods must be considered. using these methods will greatly impair the ability of bituminous admixtures and surface applications to properly cure. Road tars have been used to some extent. Requirements for mechanically stabilized surfaces are discussed below: Gradation requirements for mechanically stabilized soils used directly as surfaces are shown in Table 9-5. Such a surface will TREATED SURFACE Earthen roads may be treated with bituminous materials to control dust and to waterproof the surface.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Slow-curing liquid asphalts are frequently used. Dust control must also be provided in dry climates or during dry weather. if applied later. and -250. they are used in combat areas where speed of construction is required with limited equipment and personnel. particularly grades SC70 and -250. Table 9-5. Their use is generally limited to dry weather and light traffic. STABILIZED SOIL Bituminous. They are also used as haul roads in construction areas and as service roads for military installations. Somewhat finer soil is desirable in a mixture that will serve as a surface compared with one used for a base. it may be chemically or mechanically stabilized or covered with a bituminous surface treatment. earthen roads can be improved for increased traffic loads by covering them with material from a borrow pit or with processed material. depending on the type and condition of the oil. The serious environmental. grades MC-30. Medium-curing cutback asphalts. The finer soil makes the surface resistant to the abrasive effects of traffic and to the penetration of precipitation. especially RT . Suggested grading requirements for gravel and composite-type surface course of processed materials No. Also. In only expedient situations. stabilized soil mixtures and soil-cement are used as road surfaces to carry light traffic in expedient situations for relatively brief periods. The bituminous material should be of low viscosity and should contain a wide range of volatile materials of light fractions. -70. As time becomes available. EARTH Earthen roads consist of native soils graded and drained to form a surface for carrying traffic.1. For continued use. Mechanically stabilized soil mixtures are widely used as surfaces for military roads under favorable conditions. They are designed to satisfy immediate traffic needs and provide a subgrade for surfaces of better quality. This helps prevent softening of the surface in wet weather. The amount of oil ranges from about l/2 to 1 gallon per square yard and is applied in two or three increments. Generally. 200 40-70 25-45 1O-25 9-28 Road Design . periodic maintenance by graders and drags is necessary to maintain a high crown and smooth surface for draining surface water. Treated surfaces are most successful with silt or clay soils. Many residual oils from oil refineries have been used in this work. Mixtures that have a maximum size of aggregate of 1 to 1 l/2 inches are preferred because the large particles tend to work to the surface under traffic. Earthen roads become impassable in wet weather because of the rutting action of heavy traffic. When in-place soil is not strong enough. have also been used successfully. 40 No. waste military oils (such as crankcase oils) can be used.

.. During wet weather. A natural pit. . Sand-clay roads withstand traffic better than ordinary earthen roads.. even in cold weather. ‘:‘:: ‘V. Tab/e 9-6..:.:. . These roads can be built dry weather. . Vol 1 - also more easily replace (by capillary action) moisture that is lost by evaporation. Organizational equipment of combat engineer units is readily adapted to hauling and placing a gravel surface.: :. As a base course for future surfacing.:. : . Like other untreated surfaces. . Although difficult to obtain.. It consists of a natural or artificial mixture of sand and clay that is graded and drained to form a road surface. to fine..::. blading..:.or bank-run gravels may require both screening and washing to meet the requirements... ..: . The amount of moisture these roads absorb determines their stability under traffic loads.: :. . SAND CLAY One type of mechanically stabilized soil surface is called a sand-clay road.... .:.. Gravel road surfaces with low plasticity make excellent base courses for later-stage pavements. but their use is limited to areas where a suitable mixture of sand and clay occurs naturally or where a deficiency of either is readily corrected.\. The gravel is graded from coarse Road Design 9-29 . .. and dragging are needed. the PI should be less than 5 and LL less than 25.. page 5-12. .. ::.. sandclay roads produce poor results.:. with a bituminous surface to be provided later. unless the plasticity can be reduced by adding a chemical stabilization agent such as lime....:.. Road surfaces require an LL of 35 or less and a PI ranging between 4 and 9.. as do mechanically stabilized soil mixtures..: :. : .. Suggested grading requirements for coarse-graded type surface course of processed materials Sl8vo Ddgn8tlon 3/4 in PwOalI P888lng by Wdght Elm k% No:40 No.. .. .. bearing value. .... For best results.. :..:. The gradation requirements for a typical sand-clay surface are in Table 5-4. the cohesiveness of the clay binder... the PI of a stabilized soil that will function first as a wearing surface and then as a base. The addition of fine gravel (slightly larger than the No.. .: :. :.: :. in case this layer becomes a subbase after placing additional layers above the sand clay..:.: :. especially under heavy traffic./ ::.‘(‘...y. River -run gravels normally require the addition of binder to the soil... under the column for l-inch sand-clay.j6:. .:.:. and frost action are important considerations for surfaces of this type.. .:. Recommended gradation requirements for a gravel surface are given in Table 9-6. sustained traffic depends on the strength and hardness of the gravel.:.. smooth surface characteristic of river-run materials... Sand-clay roads will carry light traffic reasonably well and heavy traffic except under bad weather conditions.-. should be 5 or less.. . : FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.. proper maintenance is difficult... ..: .: .. with a maximum allowable size of 1 inch.. ... .or bank-run gravel may meet these requirements without further processing other than screening.:. gravel roads require considerable maintenance such as blading and dust control.) .. ... :\/.... Dust control. and the stability of the subgrade. angular surface rather than the natural. River-run gravels may also require crushing to provide a rough.:.: :.: ..?. The LL should be less than 25.:. 200 %F GRAVEL Gravel roads consist of a compacted layer of gravelly soil that meets the plasticity requirements for mechanically stabilized soil mixtures.:... The ability to carry heavy. Compaction.:. Some pit... the thickness of the layer.. 4 sieve) usually adds stability..

:. Army track. The sleepers must be long enough to span the entire road. Standard corduroy Figure S-26. parallel to the centerline on about 3Lay a standard corduroy over foot centers.::1i.:’ ::j):c: .:~.i”::i.: . rubble. them. PROCESSED MATERIALS Processed materials are prepared by crushing and screening rock. Cover the whole surface with a layer of gravel or dirt. CORDUROY-SURFACED ROADS A corduroy road is an expedient road which uses logs or small trees as the road surface (decking).. landing mats.:... Standard corduroy . A composite-type surface material should meet the gradation requirements of Table 9-5. as shown in Figure 9-27. Along the edges of the roadway. snow and ice. shown in Ngures 9-25 and 9-26.:. or twigs. To give this surface greater smoothness..i. ROADS attach them in place with driftpins. The logs are placed across the road surface adjacent to each other from butt to tip..~. and prepare the surface as described in the preceding paragraph.. The information presented here about gravel roads generally applies to roads of processed materials. Corduroy with Stringers A more substantial corduroy road is made by placing log stringers. When gravel or sandclay is available. and sand grid.i::i:i’::.. Drive pickets about 4 feet long into the ground at regular intervals along the outside edge of the road to hold the road in place.i:~:. processed materials should not be used except when their use will save time and effort. centers. Types of expedient-surfaced roads include corduroy....FM 5_430_()()_j/AFPAM 32-801 8-inch diameter logs about 13 feet long. This method of construction is used in extremely muddy terrain when there is a sufficient supply of natural material.:.: . .I’. is built of 6. Standard Corduroy The most frequently used corduroy road. page‘II:. gravel. EXPEDIENT-SURFACED Several types of roads are considered expedient surfaced. page 9-29. on top of the sleepers. There are three types of corduroy construction: standard corduroy. chespaling.. j/o1 1 ~i:.oblique view 9-30 Road Design .:‘:.:~~. wire mesh. Heavy Corduroy Sleepers (heavy logs 8 to 10 inches in diameter) are used for heavy corduroy 8-inch-diameter logs as curbs and Figure S-25.. .~~~. A coarse-graded type of surface material should meet the gradation requirements in Table 9-6.. or slag. place 6.i:~~l:~::. These are unsurfaced roads and roads where some material has been placed on the natural soil to improve the roadway. as shown in Figure 9-28. Construct side ditches and culverts as for normal roads.ilil:ilililillil:i::~.:’I::::::l. Securely pin the corduroy decking to the stringers. corduroy with stringers. and heavy corduroy.~:~. Place the sleepers at right angles to the centerline on 4-foot Build a corduroy with stringers.:::::. fill the gaps between logs with brush. plank tread.

It is made from small. Chespaling is often rolled into bundles and carried on each wheeled vehicle. Corduroy with stringers Qo8s section CHESPALING corduroy Figure 9-28.- Croa aoctlon capacity of the decking. Diagonal corduroy is preferred for heavy traffic. softer ground requires a heavier type of corduroy. It is made by placing the decking at an angle of 45 degrees to the centerline. This modified construction is applicable to all three corduroy types. green saplings. keeping the road surface above the level of the surrounding mud. preferably about 1 l/2 inches in diameter and 6 l/2 feet long. They serve as a crib. the standard corduroy may be adequate. Figure 9-27.FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. Chespaiing Road Design 9-31 . The stringers and sleepers do not increase the bearing Chespaling is a hasty expedient used in either mud or sand. They are wired together to form a 12-foot-long mat as shown in Figure 9-29. On fairly firm ground. stringers are needed. Heavy Choice of Corduroy Type Generally. Portable corduroy mats can be prefabricated and put down quickly when needed. The angled decking decreases the impact load because each log supports only one wheel at a time and there is longitudinal and lateral weight distribution. They sink into the ground until a stratum capable of supporting the load is reached. on softer ground. Vol 1 . The mats are used to Figure 9-29. They are made by wiring 4-inchdiameter logs together.

place an impervious membrane under the mat to smooth and firm the subgrade. and keep the mats moist while they are in use. place the metal landing mats directly on the sand to the length and width desired. PLANK-TREAD ROAD The plank-tread road is shown in Figure 932. When metal airfield landing mats became a standard supply item in the TO.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. If pierced steel mats are used. Landing mats tend to curl at the edges. Bamboo mats are an excellent chespalingtype expedient for beach roadways. perpendicular to the centerline on 3. first place sleepers 12 to 16 feet long. they were quickly put to use on beaches as well as on airfields. depending on the loads to be carried and subgrade conditions. metal landing mats. Fill spaces between the timbers with select material to smooth out the surface. The track consists of 4. (If finished timber is not available. laid as a treadway over the initial layer. shown in Figure 9-3 1. Place the mat so that its long axis is perpendicular to the flow of traffic. If MO-MAT (a reinforced plastic material) is available. They arc still the foremost expedient for crossing sandy terrain. They also provide smoother surfaces and have a lower weight per square foot. They are made by splitting a-inch bamboo rods and weaving them into a mat in a manner similar to rug weaving. logs may be used as sleepers. it may be used as a roadway surface for vehicular traffic. An 1 l. The timbers resemble railroad ties. Another method of securing the edges is to use a curb of timber on the outside edge of the road and either wire it tightly to buried logs laid parallel to the road or stake it. each mat having its long axis parallel to the centerline. wilh a l-foot overlay at the centerline. dimension parallel to the centerline. Keep the road wet to prevent the saplings from becoming brittle and breaking. Soak the rods before weaving. Wire the mats together. Landing-mat designs fabricated from aluminum alloys can support heavier loads. Screw-type earth anchors furnished with the mat sets provide the best tncans of anchoring. ARMY TRACK A portable LANDING MATS The demand for rapidly constructed airfields led to the development of several portable. When used on loinch planks parallel to the line of traffic to 9-32 Road Design . If a width greater than the effective length of one plank is required. To construct a plank-tread road. One type of landing-mat surface is shown in Figure 9-30. These mats are light and comparatively strong. lay a double row of mats. This problem can be overcome by anchoring the edges properly. use half sections to stagger the joints. can be used to pass vehicles across sandy terrain. increases its 4-foot mat takes about 15 man-hours to conThe mats are placed with the long struct. Some mats are constructed from dimensioned timbers wired together to resemble a picket fence. and a cable runs through them on each side. thus improving the road. A variation slightly more effective for crossing sand is made by attaching chicken-wire netting to the bottom of the mats.) Then place 4. Drill cable holes at a 45-degree angle to the centerline so the cable will bend. The mats remain serviceable for three or four months on firm ground or sand. timber expedient called Army track. Space the timbers so that the smallest-wheeled vehicle using the road can obtain traction. Bamboo mats can also bc used over mud. To build a chespaling road. Vol 1 cross sandy terrain or to get out of mud. page 9-34. This practice will prevent individual timbers from moving together. Anchor the cables securely at both 4foot centers. A second layer of the steel 4-inch or larger timbers threaded at each end onto a l/2-inch wire rope or a 3/4-inch hemp rope.

. : . . . . .. FM +430=004/AFPAM 32-8013.:i.. .::..:+:::..:. . .. :..: .... :... .‘ >. .I . .:: .:. :.: .: : .>.y:: >.. _‘(: ...:. ... .....y... 1..... .....: ..:.:..y. . :. ..: . .. : : ::. VOl 1 Figure 9-30. .:...: “‘j ..:. . .... .. . :y:.: >:..._ ....:... Army track Road Design 993 . ... : . .: :....... .: ............:.i:. .. .....::‘:...:::. ?.. .: .: :::. Landing-mat road Sand 1/p wire cable 1OPe or 314”hemp Figure 9-31.:..:. . . . ...._+y ..:.. ...... : ...

The gaps allow for swell when the lumber absorbs moisture. If desired. 3by lo-inch planks (rough. Spike the planks to every stringer. plank roads last for several months. not finished) can rcplacc the 4. Use plank roads for crossing short sections of loose sand or wet. use corduroy or other cxpcdient cross sleepers spaced on w Staggered joints 3’ to 4’ Plan Croa8 Sectlon Figure 9-32. Where necessary. Rough 3. and at least 13 feet long arc desirable for flooring. Place pickets along each side at 15-fool intervals to hold the roadway in line. Place 6-inch-deep guardrails on each side.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 Sleepers 4” x 10” x 12’ to 16 form two treads about 36 inches apart. Construction details for a plank road 9-34 Road Design .by 8-inch and 3. stringers. Lay floor planks across the stringers with about l-inch gaps when seasoned lumber is lo-inch timbers shown in Figure 9-33. with staggered joints. and lo-inch planks can be cut to order. 8 to 12 inches wide. Stagger the joints to prevent forming weak spots. When built with an adequate base. soft ground. When desired. 6-inch curbs may be installed on the inside of the treads. Position stringers in regular rows parallel to the centerline. Plank-tread road Flooring \ 4’ x 10” x 13’ Guardrail 6” x 6” Pickets 6’ x 6’ Stringers 4’ x 10” X 13’ Cross sleepers 4’ x IO’ x 13’ (when necessary) Figure 9-33. on 3-foot centers. Planks 3 to 4 inches thick. with a 12-inch gap left between successive lengths of the guardrail for surface-water drainage.

Mesh surfaces should not be used on muddy roads because they prevent grading SNOW AND ICE ROADS In regions with heavy snowfall and where temperatures are below freezing for extended periods. Diagonal wires crossing the centerline at a 45-degree angle and attached securely to buried pickets reinforce the light mesh. they provide passage for a limited number of vehicles for a short time. such as chlcken wire or cyclone fencing. Vol 1 -- 3. construct the base for a plank road with a transverse slope instead of a center crown. Chicken wire. For drainage. WIRE-MESH ROAD Most wire-mesh surfaces are expedient measures. :: FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. multilayer or sandwich construction.:. Wire mesh must be kept taut. Any wire-mesh surface is much more effective if a layer of burlap or similar membrane material is placed underneath it to help confine the sand. When the road is 3’ (1 m) 3’ (1 . Applied directly to the subgrade.. Longer life can be obtained by proper subgrade preparation. To provide a smootherriding surface. place treads parallel to the line of traffic over the floor planks. require an extra layer. Anchor the edges of a wire-mesh road at 3. expanded metal lath (used for plastering walls). Often a sandwich type of construction is used-one layer of wire mesh followed by one layer of burlap. Wire-mesh roads should never be crossed by other roads unless planking or some such material is placed over the mesh to protect 4-foot intervals.. and chain-link wire mesh may be used as road expedients in 5-foot centers to hold the stringers in place and to gain depth for the structure. and reshaping of the surface when ruts appear. expedient roads can be constructed over the snow. then a second layer of wire mesh.m) Anchors Figure 9-34. Construction details for a wire-mesh road Road Design 9-35 . and frequent staking.) Lighter forms of wire mesh. (See Figure 9-34.

field fortifications. In order to improve trafficability. sand-grid base layers can be used. airfield crater repair. make grades and curves as gentle as possible. Each cell has a surface area of 39 square inches and a depth of 8 inches.:c laid 20-foot sections. up to 2 ln tons. Plastic grids 9-36 Road Design . Frozen lakes or streams can be used to move traffic. but the soil will displace under a load. The sand-asphalt surfacing is formed by spraying a suitable liquid-asphalt cement. erosion control.7 Ions &ton (gross) vehicles. maintain. artillery.FM 50430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. cracks. Determine the load-bearing capacity either by an actual test or by consulting Table 9-7. Sand grid involves the confinement and compaction of sand or sandy soils in interconnected cellular elements called grids to produce a load-distributing base layer. emulsion. Ico Thlcknoas (lnchee) 1 l/2 2 4 a Capacity Load capacity of ice MaxImum Spacing 20 paoes 5 paces 65 feel 65 feat lndiviiual soldiers Individual soldiers Single infantry columns Administrative vehicle. Wheeled vehicles arc particularly affected. thickness. Compact the snow until it is capable of supporting the weight of vehicles.000-pound pallets. Uses of the grid include road and airfield pavements. Vol 1 . (See Figure 9-35. Grids are delivered in 3.ton vehicles with maximum ada bad of 2.) Each expanded grid section is 8 by 20 feet and contains a honeycomb arrangement of cells. and shore conditions. or 4. Table 9-7. Add waler on the compacted snow and allow it to freeze to produce a hard surface. or cutback (rapid-curing (RC) 250 at 165+” F is preferred) on the surface of -_ Figure 9-35. and expedient dike repair. including loaded 2 1Blon lrucks 10 to 13 65 feet 12 to 15 14 to 16 20 to 36 lo-ton vehicle (gross) 2O-ton vehicle (gross) 40-tori vehicle (gross) 65 leet 65 feet 100 feet USE OF POLYMER CELLS (SAND GRID) TO BUILD ROADS IN SANDY SOILS Trafficability over sandy soils is difficult to The soil strength is adequate. 1 lopound sections. due to its cohesionless nature. A sand-asphalt surfacing is incorporated within the top portion of the sand-grid cells. Plastic grids (national stock number (NSN) 5680-01-198-7955) are manufactured and shipped in collapsed 4-inch thick. each containing 25 collapsed 8. but first carefully reconnoiter the route for quality of ice. Its function is to seal the sand into cells and provide a wearing surface for moderate amounts of rubber -tired traffic.

Avoid tracked vehicles traveling over this road. c--&?’ I 0 8’ / 20’ l l ?* 11 20’ * Y 4L 20’ l l 1 20’ c Strrlght road NOTE: I + Numbers indicate order of grid installation. See Figure 9-36 for layout patterns. bituminous distributors. such a sand-grid road is capable of handling over 10.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM the sand-grid layer. water distributors. Perform normal cut reach dcsircd road grade. the procedures for emplac- 32-8013. subgradc saturation EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDED GRID INSTALLATION Grid installation steps: includes the following Equipment recommended for the emplaccment of sand grid includes bulldozers. Set up slakes and string lines in S-foot by 20-foot boxes. Compact the sand turc contcnl approaching the vibratory roller. Deliver grid pallets with the forklift.000 pounds. round-pointed shovels. The following arc ing sand grid. curve Figure 9-36. The asphalt used should penetrate into the top l/2 to 1 inch of sand in the cells. 2. and 3/8-inch by S-foot by 4-foot plywood sheets. at a moisusing 3. long-handled. Over a sand subgrade. 1. Back blade the or fill operations surface for smoothness. Vol 1 SITE PREPARATION Site preparation includes the following steps: to - 1.000 passes of heavy truck traffic. Sand-grid layout patterns Road Design 9-37 . rough-terrain forklifts. smooth-bucket (no tcethl scoop loaders. including tandem-axle loads of up to 53. as their tracks will easily damage the grid cells. vibratory rollers. 2.

Level the joints the joints and having of the plywood. Vol 1 3.) Place the section whcrc string lines dictate. Expand each grid section using three people on each end. If water is readily available. 8. This will significantly aid in the compaction process. Compact the road surface with one two passes of the vibratory roller. To construct joints between grids. Overfill grids by 2 to 4 inches so scoop loaders can operate on the sand-filled grid layer without damaging any cells. Have scoop loaders vary wheel paths to achieve uniform initial compaction of the road. the rounded end cells from different sections should touch each other. 9. Plastic sand-grid section emplacement 9-38 Road Design . interlock the “wcldcd” cell portions of each section. or Figure 9-37. (See Figure 9-38. USC small. (8-foot by 20foot steel frames can be order-cd. Do no1 push the sand forward or the cells will be displaced. as if fitting a puzzle. For longitudinal (side-by-side) joints. 6. 5. Shovel sand from road shoulders into each end ccl1 and approximately every fifth side-cdgc cell to anchor the grid in place. Fill the jointed cells with sand.) Drop the sand vertically into the cells from a height of at least 2 feet. then shaking the section in midair lo obtain uniform cell openings (See Figure 9-37. pulling outward to slightly over 20 feet. 3/8-inch pl_ywood sheets to allow soldiers to stand on top of the unfilled grid.1 4.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. by placing plywood over soldiers walk on top 7. Completely fill each grid using scoop loaders. wet the sand using a water distributor. For end joints. allowing access to the joint cells.

: FM 5430=004/AFPAM 324013. Remove excess sand from the grid surface with a grader or by back blading with a smooth-bucket scoop loader. Sand-grid road . Apply and compact a 3-inch surface coat of l-inch (maximum) gravel. Road Design 9-39 . (See Figure 9-39.1 12. inch) of 14. 15. Apply a very light coat (l/4 blotter sand using shovels. This layer will add a protective cover material over the sand-grid road.filling cells with sand 10. Figure 9-38. page 9-40. Do not use a bucket with teeth. (See Figure 9-40. Vibrating the road at this point will break the asphaltic bonds. Vol 1 -. if available. significantly increasing the road life. Compact the road using one pass of a nonvibrating roller.) 13. Recompact the road with one pass of the vibratory roller. 11. Spray the asphalt product on the road surface and allow enough time for the asphalt product to completely soak into the grid structure (usually about 10 hours). as cell damage can result. page g-40.

_.. :..-- - .spraying asphalt coating 9-40 Road Design . - Figure 9-39.: --A-. ..compacting sand with roller Figure 9-40.. Vol 1 ..FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Sand-grid road . Sand-grid road .. - --- _- __- _ .

pave- l FIELD IDENTIFICATION Field identification consists of a series of simple tests designed to identify an unknown bitumen product in the field. Tack coat (binding bituminous ment to surface). and many other products as shown in Figure 9-42. Bituminous materials are often found stockpiled in unmarked or incorrectly marked containers. light applications of bituminous material to multiple surface courses made up of bitumen and aggregates. the procedure determine the proper equipment job.y s:.::::. and they are placed in the shortest period of time.:. diesel. heavy material left at the end of the petroleum distillation process.. This leads to confusion and delay in construction since the various types and grades of bituminous material are manufactured for a specific purpose. kerosene. treatment. . (carrying a positive Spray applications gregate l surfaces provide soil or agwith the following: Tars are the residue from the high-temperature conversion of coal to coke. Once the surface type is known..: : . They become soft and bleed at high temperatures and are brittle at cold temperatures. the type of surface that can be constructed may be determined. Crude oil is refined into gasoline. page 943. AND SURFACE TREATMENTS charge) or cationic charge). (See Figure 9-43. The safety procedures to be followed also depend on the material identification. Field-identification procedures are applicable to both tars and asphalts. motor oil.. Surface treatments range from single. Vol 1 SPRAY APPLICATIONS Surface treatments are the most economical troop-constructed surfaces. fuel depots. : :.) They may be modified by cutting them with a light to medium coal oil to form a road-tar cutback. page 9-44. roadtar cutbacks. Because of their susceptibility to temperature change. Uses of bituminous materials are shown in Figure Asphalt cement is the 9-41.: -: . The purpose of these tests is to determine the uses of a bituminous material and how to use it safely.: : j . Once established. They require the fewest resources and minimal quality control effort. l Multiple surface -_ Bituminous materials are either tars. page 9-42.: : ‘.. Tars do not dissolve in petroleum products.z:‘.i .. asphalt. and aircraft refuel points. asphalt cutbacks. and an emtilsifying agent together with variable-speed pumps to form an asphalt water suspension. gasoline. will for the Road Design 9-41 . such as tank farms. FM 54301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. or diesel. water. Bitumen with aggregate surface pavements will be either of the following: l Single surface treatment. rather than the exact specifications to which it conforms.. the construction procedure may be outlined and scheduled for a specific target date. abrasive. Asphalt may also become an emulsion by mixing asphalt cement..:i. Dustproofing. specifically naphtha. or asphalt emulsions. Surface treatments can be divided into two categories: sprayed treatments and sprayed bitumen with an aggregate surface. wear -resistant surface with no structural strength. Prime coat (waterproofing). asphalt cement. tars normally are used only in areas where fuel spills are commonplace.. Asphalt cement may then be further modified by cutting back the asphalt with some petroleum product. to form an asphalt cutback. Field identification is important military engineer becauseto the l Sprayed bitumen with an aggregate surface provides a waterproof. kerosene.. Emulsions are either anionic (carrying a negative Once the type and grade of material are known.

FM 50430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 942 Road Design .

3 aL LUSRlbATlNG 01’ MATERIAL This slmptltisd graphb chart shows the lntefrdatbnships ot petroleumproducts.011 and asphalt 1 r UOUID ASPHALTIC MATERIALS SC-260 SC400 RESIDUAI FUEL OIL SLOW CURING’ ASPHALTS ASPHALT CEMENTS MEDIUM CURING ASPHALTS I PETROLEUM SAND AND WATER OXIDIZED ASPHALTS Figure 9-42. Vol 1 ELD STORAGE PUMPING STATION KEROSINE UGHT BURNER 011 DIESEL -. ..... :. :.. wlth gasoline. Petroleum-asphalt Mowchart Road Design 9-43 . FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

BROUEllES --- Figure 943. Seal coat and Road Mix c I I I / RmskWalTar 4 VARIOUS DEGREES OF DISTILIATION RT 1 Dust Laying RT 2 PrimeCoating RT 3 him Coating and Surface Treatmats RT 4 Ptitna CotsUngand Surface Treatments RT 5 Surtaw Treatments and Road Mixes TAR REFINERY . Solvent Naphtha6 II STORAGE LIGHT OIL 1 I \t5zumsroneResins‘ GAS llbminating Gas. Anhydtuus Ammonia &mnonium Sulfate FRACTIONATING COLUMN I CONDENSER Xi-l STORAGE TUBE STILL - I Cold pa&q. PLANT AquaAmmonia.2 BITUMNOUS COAL / / COKE Domeslic coke kmzeneTok-m Xvlene.Cyanogen Compounh I I I TAR COKE OVEN DECANTATK)N LIQUOR . . Seal coat and Road Mix Wd pakhing.Fuel Gas Sulfer. Tar simplified flowchart (.

: .000-grade MC or SC cutback. a chance to evaporate. The surface of the smear will then become tacky. An MC will not result in a tacky surface for a matter of hours. several days may be required. if liquid. By the end of that time. it is necessary to know something of their origin. This information may be sufficient for planning or. Since RCs are cut back with a very volatile substance. it will dissolve in the petroleum distillate.000. materials. nonabThis will give the volatile sorbent surface. asphalt cutback. If the material best to heat the unknown sample in a Road Design 945 . Note that at 77” F. Vol II Field tests may be performed to identify the bituminous paving material as asphalt cement. This is not true of the lighter grades of mediumand slow-curing asphaltic cutbacks (MCs and SCs). their physical properties. if solid) in any petroleum distillate. and the manner in which they are normally used. Asphalt cement is cutback with a petroleum distillate to make it more fluid.. Since MCs are cutback with kerosene and SCs with oil. if present. road tar. if the material being tested is an MC or SC. To determine whether a cutback is a RC asphaltic cutback or not. undissolved mass in the distillate. It is The first procedure in the identification of an unknown bituminous material is to determine whether it is an asphalt or a tar. actually starting emergency construction. is based upon the physical properties of these materials. uniform liquid. If the material is an RC 3. this fact may be employed to differentiate between them. Asphalts and tars may be differentiated by a simple solubility test. the sample will be a dark. To identify an 800.or 3. Since asphalt is derived from petroleum. However. If it pours. gasoline. whereas an RC 800 will take about 6 hours. The solubility test provides a positive method of identification. the manner in which it pours will furnish a clue to its grade.. an MC or SC will still be sticky. the smear will not be cured and will still be quite sticky. or enough to cover the head of a nail. if present. the smear test is performed. if the material being tested is an RC. This process is necessary because these grades of MCs and SCs contain such small quantities of cutterstock that they. may become tacky In the lo-minute period specified above. the smear will have cured and will be hard or just slightly sticky.. Even after 24 hours. If it is a road tar. Heat is used to drive off the kerosene. If the sample is an asphalt. or jet fuel is suitable for this test. even the softest asphalt cement will not pour or deform noticeably if the container is tilted. or road-tar cutback. If it is soluble or dilutable in water. asphalt emulsion. Kerosene. Asphalts and Tars does not pour.’ FM 5-4301OOWAFPAM 32-8013. a prolonged smear test is used. page 9-46. diesel oil. Grades of Asphalt Cement The various grades of asphalt cement are distinguished principally by their hardness. as measured by a field penetration test explained in TM 5-337. most of the volatiles will evaporate within 10 minutes. which remain fluid and smooth for some time. Asphaltic Cutbacks The pouring or nonpouring quality is one way to distinguish between an asphalt cement and a cutback or emulsion. and make it show up in the form of an odor. A thin smear of the material is made on a nonabsorbent surface and left to cure for at least 2 hours. . Road tar will not dissolve. stringy. it will cure completely in 3 hours.‘. In addition. simply attempt to dissolve an unknown sample (a few drops. In order to distinguish among the several asphaltic and tar products. it is an emulsion. A check can be made by spotting a piece of paper or cloth with the mix.. it is an asphalt cement. too. To perform the test. for SC materials. it is a cutback or emulsion. the sample distillate mix will consist of a dark. The identification procedure outlined in Figure 9-44. it is necessary to identify as closely as possible the viscosity grade of the bitumen. This is done by making a uniform smear of the substance on a piece of glazed paper or other convenient. in some cases. In addition.

mixes with water (Flame test) .will not burn Sand coating test Pour test I Fnotmix Will mix MS or SS . 1 Pour test Will not pour asphalt cement Will pour asphaltic cutback (Determine vrscosity 303. identification of unknown materials bituminous 9-46 Road Design .FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 Solubility test in petroleum distillate I Dissolves asphalt Beads emulsion Strings tar (Color testj .000) RT I I-3 1 4-7 8-12 RT I Penetration test 1 40-85 Hard AC 40 I 85-I 50 Medium AC 20/30 150-300 Soil AC 5110 Smear test I I Smear test Tacky RTCB Oily RT I I Tacky RC I Oily MC or SC Heat odor test II Kerosene/petroleum MC smell No odor SC Figure 9-44.dark brown (Water mixing test) .

The best way to tell if the emulsion is a mixing grade (slow-setting (SS) or medium-setting (MS11 is to try to mix a small amount (6 to 8 percent. no kerosene or petroleum odor will be detected.. and durable.. the emulsion can be detected by the appearance of small black globules or beads which fall to the bottom of the container. since both MS and SS grades are largely used for the same jobs. which is a mixture of asphalt.::.. a small piece of cloth saturated with it will not burn if a flame is applied. coating the sand. Vol 1 closed container in order to capture the estaping vapors. gumming up the spoon with the relatively hard original asphalt cement.:.. if the sample is an SC. The ability to distinguish an RC from an MC and an SC from either. .::.. The desirable characteristics of an aggregate used in bituminous construction includel Angular and rough.. is perhaps as important as any other part of field identification. AGGREGATE IDENTIFICATION The aggregate must also be tested to determine its suitability for bituminous construction. By comparing the flow to that of common materials. length of haul. the viscosity of the tar may be closely estimated. No apparent change in consistency after 10 minutes indicates a road tar. Be careful not to add too much emulsion to the sand. . . This will saturate the sand and not give conclusive results.‘... Angular and Rough The aggregate in a pavement must transmit the traffic load to the base. the material is a tar.j-.:. a smear test must be performed to determine whether it is a road tar or a road-tar cutback.. After it has been established that the material is an emulsion. If mixed with water.. A rapid-setting (RS) emulsion cannot be mixed: it breaks immediately. usually by the interlocking and surface friction of the different particles. If the identified tar has a viscosity in the range of RT-4 to RT-7 material. An aggregate meeting most of the requirements is usually selected.. FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. No further identification is necessary.. as shown in Figure 9-44. such as water or honey. since it is usually distinguished by its dark brown color....::..:. by weight) with damp sand using a metal spoon... It does not matter which grade of cutback is available. . The smear test is performed in the manner previously described for cutback asphalt. or difficulty in conducting borrow-pit or quarry operations.:. Angular particles with a rough texlure arc best for this purpose since they do not tend to slide past each other.. . More binder may be required since Road Design 9-47 .::. The other bitumens will burn or flame..::. water.. Hydrophobic. On the other hand. unless rejected for reasons such as availability. since both are used under approximately the same conditions.:i.. Asphalt Emulsions Another asphaltic material used in paving work is an asphalt emulsion. Tough.:~:.:.>>$...: .1 to RT12..:.. being careful not to apply too much heat. .:.. it will have a strong petroleum or kerosene odor. while the other bitumens are black......:.~:::?:: ::::‘:‘.::... an emulsion will accept the extra water and still remain a uniform liquid.. and an emulsifying agent.:. Clean and dry.:.::i:i~ji:~::::::-::::: : :. It is easy to identify. Road Tars If the unknown bituminous material did not dissolve in the solubility test but formed a stringy mass.. The other bitumens will not mix with water. If mixed with kerosene or some other petroleum distillate. l l l Available aggregate may not always have all desirable characteristics. It might smell somewhat like hot motor oil.. The grades vary from road tar (RTI. hard. A great increase in stickiness in about 10 minutes identifies a road-tar cutback. . it is still important to know whether or not the emulsion is a mixing grade./. :. If the sample is an MC. ij’i::::::.: :.. .. Since an emulsion contains water. A SS or MS emulsion mixes nicely.:-.:‘:. The next step is to determine its viscosity grade by the pour test.: .

Resistance to weathering is also a function of the durability. Some common materials and their hardness are: fingernail. The Moh’s scale ranges from 1 for talc or mica to 10 for diamond. the aggregate must be hot as well as dry. The Moh’s hardness scale may be used to determine the hardness of the aggregate.:::. The specimen is allowed to soak for a specified period (usually 24 hours) or until there is no further swelling. nail. One of the following three tests can be used to determine the detrimental effect of water on a bituminous mix: StrlppIng Test. sound stone. The equipment for the above test is usually not available for field testing. The equipment and procedures are detailed in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) method T96.. and knife blade. The jar is closed tightly and allowed to stand 24 hours. the angular shape has a greater surfacearea-per-unit volume than a round particle.5. the hardness of each is the same. Tough. Hard..: : . For hot mixes. A visual examination is made to determine the percentage of exposed aggregate surface which is reported as percent stripping. copper coin. The resistance-to-wear of an aggregate can be determined by the Los Angeles Abrasion Test. it is considered to be hard. An initial reading is taken. leaving exposed aggregate surfaces. if the equipment is available. Stripping is the loss of the bituminous coating from the aggregate particles due to the action of water.. the binder can be forced out of the pores. If it cannot be scratched. If both materials scratch each other. Asphaltic mixtures containing fines of doubtful quality are sometimes measured for swell as a basis for judging the possible effects on a pavement. A representative sample is placed in a jar (up to no more than one-half of its capacity) and covered with water. dry screening may remove a great deal of dust and clay. Coated (with clay or dust) or water-filled aggregate will prevent the penetration or the adherence of the binder and result in stripping of the binder. thin layer and air-cured for 24 hours. .: . Clean and Dry The bituminous binder must penetrate into the pores of the aggregate and adhere to the surface of the particles. it is possible to establish which is harder. from this analysis the hardness of the aggregate can bc determined. If the material can be scratched with one of these common items. The difference in reading is the swell of the mixture. the jar with the sample is vigorously shaken for 15 minutes. . This test is more frequently used with densegraded mixtures using liquid asphalts. and Durable The aggregate must withstand loads without cracking or being crushed. The mixture is spread in a loose. At the end of 24 hours. Be sure to rub the “scratch” mark to see that it is really a scratch and not a powdering of the softer material. Swell Test.. When this happens. or gravel aggregate and 9-48 Road Design . When washing is impractical. about 2. A sample of the mix is compacted in a metal cylinder and cooled to room temperature. about 5.’ . The specimen and mold are placed in a pan of water and a dial gage is mounted above the sample in contact with the surface. Experience has shown that bituminous pavement made with clear. By trying to scratch the aggregate or the common materials and vice versa. Another reading of the dial is taken. it should be washed either as part of the crushing operation or by spreading it on a hard surface and hosing it with water. slag. and window glass.. Hydrophobic and manpower Affinity for water can make an aggregate undesirable. If the aggregate is porous and absorbs water easily (hydrophilic). it is considered to be soft. Vol 1 : :. Hand picking may be necessary if no other method can be used. A test sample is prepared by coating a specific amount of aggregate with bituminous material at the applicable temperature for the grade of bitumen to be used.. . between 3 and 4.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. The aggregate should be made as clean as pos- sible with the equipment available. If the aggregate is not clean. the bond between the aggregate and binder weakens and breaks and stripping occurs.

cracks may develop and a heavy rain may then cause swelling and loss of density. MC-250 is usually satisfactory for coarse-grained sandy soils. have proved more satisfactory. the bitumen acts as a bonding agent.. Vd 11 mineral filler produced from limestone will show test values of less than 1.. particularly in hot weather. filling the voids.. . and swept clean. In cold climates. if the base dries out completely. . The prime coat should penetrate the base about l/4 inch. MC-30. Plan priming operations so that there will always be an adequate amount of cured.5 percent. :. ..y/. . subbase. Materials Bituminous materials used for prime coats will depend on the condition of the soil base and the climate.. Aggregates of doubtful character should be tested for conformance to ASTM tests..:. and base-course preparation. RT-2.. See Chapter 5 of this manual for subgrade. cationic slow-setting emulsified asphalt (CSS). it will not take the prime properly and the moisture will tend to come oul.:.. compacted to the specified density. depending on the condition of the base. the temperature. shaped to the desired cross section. If the base is too wet. On the other hand. binding the particles of the base to the wearing surface.. :. In general. the prime coat may be eliminated because it is likely to be extremely slow in curing. and the humidity. well-drained..:y . apply a prime coat to the base and lightly roll it with a pneumatic roller.. such as well-graded sand. SS.: . The prime coat acts as a waterproof barrier to prevent moisture that may penetrate the wearing surface from reaching the base. but not so far ahead that the base will become dirty or completely cured (dead).3 gallon per square yard. the lowest acceptable moisture content for the upper portion of the base course prior to priming should not exceed one-half of the optimum moisture content. or use a light sprinkling of water to settle the dust.. and strip the prime from the base during construction.. The surface of the base should be broomed if it contains an appreciable amount of loose material. the prime coat will lose its effectiveness as a bonding agent if the wearing surface is not placed soon after curing.1h. CONSTRUCTION PRIME COAT A prime coat is used when a surface treatment or pavement is placed on a soil or aggregate base. MC-70 is generally used on loosely bonded. When brooming is omitted.2 gallon to 0.‘:f : ... primed base ahead of the surfacing operations. a prime coat should be applied as soon as the base is ready. RT-3.:: . such as RC-70 and RC-250. Heavy rains may also strip a properly primed base to some extent. lightly apply a spray of water at the rate of approximately 0.1h are satisfactory. The formula used to determine the quantity of prime coat material required isL x [W t 2) x AR x LF 9 (ft’/yd’) = Qp Gallons Road Design 9-49 . fine-grained soils. RT-2 and MC-30 are satisfactory for a prime coat used on a densely graded base course. In moderate and warm climates. To preserve the base.. Also.::. and CSS. however.: : : : . Rains also tend to strip the prime from a base that was too wet when primed. MC-70.1.I: y: i . . or if it is excessively dusty. free from excessive moisture but not completely dry. Completely cover the base with a minimum amount of water and allow it to become dry or almost dry before applying the prime coat so that it will absorb the METHODS prime material. FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.: ... SS.:. Base Preparation The base should be well-graded.1. RT-4. . If the climate is very cold. but less than an improperly cured base. rapid-setting asphalt cutbacks. Sprinkling is usually undesirable: but when it is necessary.:. either fine or coarse.:..

05 . brick. Figure 9-45 shows the sequcncc of operations for the applica- 9-50 Road Design . rough.2. rough.05) Qr = quantity of tack coat material in gallons The tack coat is generally applied only over the width of the existing area that is to be surfaced. bituminous material. Operation of asphaltsurface-treatment equipment is explained FM 5-434.) AR = application rate of prime coat in gal lons per square yard NOTE: AR for dense soils = 0.05 and 0. The formula used to determine the quantity of tack coat required isLxWxARxLF 9 (ftLlydLl where= Q gallons in L = length of treated section in feet W = width of treated section in feet AR = rate of application of bitumen in gallons per square yard LF = handling loss factor for bitumen (usually 1. The proccdurc for cslimating the bitumen required for a tack coat is similar to that described for a prime coat except that the tack coat is generally applied only over the proposed width of the pavcmcnt. A tachometer chart may be used to establish the rate of application. and cracked. On a smooth. The surface is 1. or binder course before a new bituminous pavement is placed over the existing surface. Use a loss factor of 1. 9 (ft2/yd2) or 327 gallons TACK COAT A tack coat is a sprayed application of a bituminous material that is applied to an existing wearing surface of concrete.1. Solution: L x (W + 2) x AR x LF Qp = 1.25 gallon per square yard. Roll the surface lightly with a rubber-tired roller or truck tires for uniform distribution of the bituminous material.10) Qp = quantity of prime-coat material in gallons Example: Compute the quantity (in gallons) of primecoat material (&.05. The surface is 1. AR for soils with a lot of cracks = 0. dense.000 feet long and 12 feet wide.05. and cracked surface.000 = __ = 326.000 feet long and 12 feet wide.5 LX = handing loss factor for prime coat (usually 1. existing surface. The usual rate of application v?ries between 0. Vol 1 whereL = length of untrcatcd surface in feet W = width of untreated surface in feet (“t2” in the formula is to include for ovcrspray of shoulders 1 fool on both side of the road. A tack coat is not required on a primed base unless the prime coat has completely cured and become coated with dust.I required to prime an untreated surface with dense soil. Example: Compute the quantity (in gallons) of tackcoat material ((&I required to cover a worn. An extremely heavy tack coat may be absorbed into the surface mixture resulting in a bleeding and flushing action and loss of stability.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. If the surface is worn. Use a loss factor of 1.05 gallon per square yard should produce a satisfactory bond.67 9 (fP/yrPl x (12t2) x 0. the minimum rate of 0. The purpose of the tack coat is to provide a bond between the existing pavement and the new surface.05 tion of a tack coat. The tack coat should become tacky within a few hours. the maximum rate of 0.2 x 1.25 will probably be required.

000 x 12 x 0. When using an emulsion. nonasphaltic base. slow-setting asphalt emulsion or a low-viscosity cutback. Tack-coat sequence of operations Solution: Q. dilute it with up to five parts of water by volume. The asphalt and dilutent penetrate the fine soil particles and adhere to the dust particles. This is an effective treatment in very dusty areas where one application of cutback asphalt is insufficient. Road Design 9-51 . Dustproofing is usually a short-lived solution and project plans should include regular inspections and maintenance. surface treatments.0 DUSTPROOFING Dustproofing consists of spraying an untreated surface with a diluted. With good aggregate.05 with either an asphalt distributor or something as simple as a common watering can. as required. Apply these surface treatments on a primed.5 gallon per square yard (gal/yd2). lay a test strip to determine what application rate will be the most effective.= Q _ t- LxWxARxLF 9 (ft2/yd2) 1.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. An asphalt cutback is usually sprayed at a rate of 0. the resulting surfaces are referred to as double. and so on. This type of surface treatment. with a good prime coat (see preceding paragraph).1 to 0.25 9 (ft2/yd2) gallons (gal) x 1. provides the lowest-cost waterproof covering for a road surface. Apply -- SPRAYING ASPHALT WITH COVERED-AGGREGATE AND SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SURFACE TREATMENTS A sprayed asphalt with a cover-aggregate surface treatment consists of an application of asphalt followed by an application of aggregate. = 350. quadruple. depending on the number of applications. In all cases. If the process is repeated. Vol II Swwplng TackQwime appllcatbn Curing Figure G-45. The dust stirred by traffic between applications eventually conglomerates and no longer rises. an asphalt base course: or any type of existing pavement. this type of surface treatment will economically provide a wearing surface to meet the needs of medium and low volumes of traffic. triple. Diluted-emulsion dustproofing treatments usually require several treatments.

Limitations in the use of sprayed asphalt with cover-aggregate surface treatments are* l tempt surface treatments ture is below 50” F. The amount and viscosity of the asphalt must be carefully balanced with the size and amount of cover-aggregate to assure proper retention of the aggregate. RC-70 or RC-250 may be used with coarse sand for a surface treatment to seal cracks in an otherwise satisfactory surface. the maximum size of the aggregalc should be about 3/4 inch. Vol 1 . The three requircmcnts ment arc as follows: when the temperafor a surface treat- The quality of the bitumen must be sufficient to hold the slonc without submerging il. Material RC and MC cutbacks. road tars. This type of surface treatment is very uscful as a wearing surface on base courses in the staged construction of highways pending placement of asphalt-concrete surface courses. rapid-setting emulsions. Surface treatment will not withstand the action of metal wheels on vehicles. Single Surface Treatment A single surface treatment usually consists of a sprayed application of a bitumen and an aggregate cover one stone thick. the minimum size should pass the No. The purpose of the surface treatment dictates the size of aggregate to be selected.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. high-speed traffic tends to dislodge the aggregate from the asphalt. constructed in multiple layers with little interference to traffic. gravel. and dry for the surface treatment to adhere properly. Surface treatment may be referred to as a seal coat. is usually less than 1 inch thick. A single surface treatment. and sprayed asphalt with a cover aggregate (single and multiple surface treatments). or slag may be used for surface treatments. For example. or nonskid chains on vehicle wheels. For a badly broken surface. Surface treatments include the following: dust pallialives. 4 sicvc. To assure uniform distribution. the bitumen should bc applied with a bituminous l l Because of these limitations. consider using plant-mix surface treatments when the above conditions arc anticipated. and used as the first step in stage construction. Heavy. Although they are not recommended for airfields. existing surface. shown in Figure 9-46. Uniformly graded sand or crushed stone. armor coat. RC cutbacks arc most widely used because they evaporate rapidly and the road can be opened to traffic almost immediately after applying the surface treatment. Do not at- 9-52 Road Design . Surface treatments serve only as an abrasive and weather -resisting medium that waterproofs the base. or carpet coat. Sufficicnl aggrcgatc cover the bitumen. clean. Viscosity grades of the bitumen depend on the size of aggregate used as cover stone. They are particularly suitable for TO construction because they can be laid quickly with a minimum of materials and equipment. The surface on which the asphalt is sprayed must be hard. For example. they may be used as an expedient measure. They are not as durable as bituminous concrete and may require frequent maintenance. The base course on which the surface treatment is laid must bc sufficiently strong to support the anticipated traffic load. prime coats. and asphalt cements may be used for surface treatment. RC-800 or RC-3. must bc used to Weather conditions must be favorable. tracked vehicles. coarse sand may be used for sealing a smooth. The larger particles of aggregate require a bitumen of higher viscosity so that the bitumen will hold the aggregate.000 may be used with 3/4-inch aggrcgatc. For resurfacing a badly cracked or rough surface.

Single surface treatment distributor. 3/8-inch aggregate. The weight of the aggregate.. in gallons per square yard. weighing it. one stone deep. the unit quantities of bitumen and aggregate can be determined by a lest strip. required to cover 1 square yard is determined by spreading the aggregate to be used a depth of one stone over a measured surface. 43 percent. The quantity of the bitumen required is based on the average particle size of the cover stone. Approximately 1 gallon of bitumen is usually used for 100 pounds of aggregate. The recommended rate of bitumen application is given by the following formula: wt of aggregate (lbj area (yd2) x I gal bftumen 100 lb aggregate 30 pounds of aggregate are required cover an area of 1.O square yard. or by adding approximately 1 gallon of bitumen for every 100 pounds of aggrcgatc or 0.30 gal/yd2 Requirements for a Surface Treatment = quanlity of bitumen in gal/yd2 Example: Compute the recommended rate of bitumen application. The bitumen must be sufficient to hold the aggregate in place without leaving a sticky surface.j : FM S-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. by the specifications of the job. 32 percent: l/2inch aggregate. One-quarter -inch aggregate should be submerged approximately 30 percent. Solution : ‘9 x 1 gal bitumen loo lb agg to = 0. and computing the amount in pounds per square yard.1 gallon of bitumen for every 10 pounds of aggregate. 35 percent: and 3 /4-inch aggregatc. Vol 1 Figure 9-46. Road Design 9-53 . The aggregate must not be completely submerged in the bitumen. if In bituminous surface treatments.

12% gal/lb lb/yd 9 ft2/yd2 = 393.125 Vow determine lb/yd2 the binder quantity. The aggregate used in the second application should be approximately one-half the diameter of that used in the first application. they are still considered surface treatments because each layer is usually less than 1 inch and the total surface treatment does not add to the load-carrying capacity of the base.05. it is ready for traffic. if necessary.05 Weather rt x 12 x ft 0. For the second layer. It should also be rolled with a pneumatic roller so that the aggregate will become embedded in the bitumen.01 gal per lb of aggregate and a loss factor of 1.000 feet long and 12 feet wide.75 or 394 gallons Weather conditions are an important factor for success in the construction of sprayed asphalt with covered-aggregate surface treat- 9-54 Road Design . more resistant surface is desired than that obtained with a single surface treatment. The final application of aggregate should be swept clean. Qb = L X W x AR. The surface is 1. a multiple surface treatment may be used. After the surface is rolled and cured. the bitumen will usually be reduced to one-third or one-half the amount of the first application. Smaller particles of aggregate and correspondingly less bitumen are used for each successive layer. Vol 1 The formula used Lo determine the quantity of binder material required for a surface treatment isL X W XARB XARA X LF = Multiple Surface Treatment Q~ Gallons 91ft 2/yd2) whereL = W = ARE = per lb of aggregate length of treated surface in feet width of treated surface in feet application of bitumen in gallons aggregate (usually 1 gal per 100 lb or 0. ERA = 100 lb/ft3 x (3/8 in) x (1 ft/l2 in) x (9 ft2/l yd21 = 28. Final sweeping is also recommended for roads. the size of the aggregate and the amount of the bitumen will decrease for each successive layer. x AR. Use a bitumen application rate of 0. A multiple surface treatment is two or more successive layers of a single surface treatment (as shown in Figure 947).FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.0 1 gal per lb) ARA = application of aggregate in lb per square yard LF = handling loss factor for bitumen Qb = quantity of binder material required in gallons 9 = square feet per square yard (ft2/yd21 conversion factor Example: Compute the required quantity of binder material needed for a single surface treatment. Although multiple surface treatments are usually more than 1 inch thick. loose aggregate must be swept from the surface so that it will not damage the aircraft. tion : letermine the application rate of the ag{regate in pounds per square yard.000 = CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE TREATMENTS USING SPRAYED ASPHALT WITH COVERED AGGREGATE x 1.01 x 28. If the multiple surface treatment has been laid on an airfield. so that an even layer of aggregate will remain. Loose aggregate remaining on the first layer must be swept from the surface so that the layers may be bonded together. x LF 9 ft2/yd2 1. The first layer of a multiple surface treatment is laid according to instructions previously given for a single surface treatment. SOlU When a tougher. As stated previously. The aggregate is 3/8inch crushed stone with a unit weight of 100 lb/ft3.

For best results in aggregate retention. After completion of the surface treatment.^^I_ 1 gal/l00 lb aggregate coat Figure 9-47. is required even with the heaviest liquid-asphaltic materials.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.Flrst First prime/tack coat Second . This curing takes place best when the air temperature is well above 50” F and the relative humidity is low. Vol 1 Second blnder First aggregate .A yj .“~~Ox whereL = length of treated surface in feet W = width of treated surface in feet LF = handling loss factor for aggregate LF = Q. The aggregate size (not quantity) must be cut in half for the second layer and each layer thereafter. Aggregate Once an aggregate has been selected for use based upon the desirable characteristics. traffic should be controlled until the surface has cured. the pavement temperature should be relatively high during the application of the seal coat and considerably lower before fast traffic is allowed to use the new seal coat. Every effort should be made to plan the work for placement in summer weather. ARA = application rate for aggregate QA = quantity of aggregate in tons The materials for a multiple surface treatment are determined by the same method as above except that the results are multiplied by the number of treatment passes.10). A survey of surface treatments rated excellent shows more than 85 percent were placed in the hot summer months. Road Design 9-55 . A certain amount of curing. it is then necessary to determine what quantity of the aggregate will be required for a specific job. or setting. When placing a surface treatment with an aggregate cover. the quantity of aggregate required can be determined from the following formula: L ’ ~.Tons (10 percent or 1. Multiple surface treatment ments and seal coats.

Normally. but if they are all that is avail- Figure 9-48. to very efficient.:’ Spreading Aggregate. Before the application of asphalt begins. The more effi- cient. units are most Standard. this is the width of one traffic lane. Rolling.FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. either in the truck or in the spreader. It hooks on the rear of a 5-ton dump truck and the truck backs up. self-propelled desirable. Pneumatic-tire rollers should be used for surface-treatment construction. Hopper-Type Aggregate Spreaders. the spreader has either two or four wheels. at any time. thus preventing pickup of the bitumen. In addition. An adequate supply of aggregate should be on hand to cover the asphalt that has been spread. con trollable gate box attached to the dump truck. in the shortest practical time after the asphalt hits the surface. The spray-bar width of the bituminous distributor should be equal to the width of the aggregate being spread in one pass. As a safety precaution. The rate and depth of application depend upon The width of spread may the gate opening. self-propelled units which apply the larger-size aggregate on the bottom and the finer on top. Steel-wheeled rollers are not recommended for rolling. Typical hopper-type aggregate spreader 9-56 Road Design . Aggregate spreaders vary from a simple. A common fault is to operate the distributor too far ahead of the aggregate spreader. Vol 1 . the aggregate spreader should be filled. The standard aggregate spreader shown in Figure 9-48 can handle aggregate which ranges from sand to 1 l/2-inch gravel.. without interruption. men should not be allowed to stand on the aggregate. and ready to spread aggregate before commencing the asphalt spray. be varied from 4 to 8 feet in l-foot increDepending upon the manufacturer. ments. an adequate aggregate spreader should be available and properly adjusted for the aggregate actually to be used. This allows the aggregate to be spread on the bitumen ahead of the truck tires. . in place.

The rollers should be heavy enough to properly imbed the 4.. A connection should be available to attach a hose for a single. road speed l l l Before beginning work. One method of controlling traffic is to form a single line of traffic behind a pilot vehicle with a red flag between stops at each end of the work area. slab pavements. Distributors are made in sizes ranging from 800. cold-application liquid asphalt to heavy asphalt cements heated to spraying viscosity. Spray bar coverage The Asphalt Distributor thermometer should be installed in the tank to readily ascertain the temperature of the contents. For best results in surface treatments. rollers should not be so heavy as to crush the aggregate particles. but rolling should be stopped as soon as crushing becomes evident. The fan of the spray from each nozzle must be uniform and set at the proper angle with the spray bar (according to the manufacturer’s instructions) so that the spray fans do not interfere with each other. These spray bars should hav? a minimum application width of 8 feet. Single lap Double lap - Triple lap Figure 9-49. with direct heat from the flue passing through the tank. usually oilburning. Trafllc Control. . Vol 1 .__ able. the spray bars will cover as much as a 24-foot width in one pass when equipped with a suitable capacity pump.. check the spread of the distributor spray bar.‘. suitable to handle products ranging from light. FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Pneumatictire rollers are essential to firmly embed the aggregate into low areas or graded deformities that would normally be bridged over by use of steel-wheel rollers and to produce conformity across the width of the roadway.000-gallon capacity. The height of the spray bar determines the type of coverage: single lap. It consists of a truck (or a trailer) equipped with a mounted. Ensure that the distributor is uniform. It is essential that the distributor be capable of distributing the asphalt uniformly over the surface to be treated. Attached to the back end of the tank is a system of spray bars and nozzles through which the asphalt is forced under pressure onto the construction surface. It is extremely important that traffic be controlled to prevent loss of aggregate. particularly over the outer quarters of the surface where there is the least traffic. Maintain the spray bar at the proper height above the road surface (according to the manufacturer’s instructions) to provide complete and uniform overlap of the spray fans. as shown in Figure 9-49. When an asphalt fog seal is used. insulated tank with a heating system. The construction of the spray bars should bc such that there will be full circulation of the asphalt through the bar when not spraying. -or triple lap. When double or triple surface treatments are used. A suitable Maintain uniform pressure and temperature on all spray nozzles. each course should be rolled before subsequent applications of asphalt. it should be applied after the rolling is comple ted. observe the following points: .or doublenozzle outlet to cover areas not reached by the spray bars or as a means of forcing a stream of asphalt to a desired point as in subsealing rigid. double lap. . Some maintenance distributors as small as 400 gallons are available. It is further supplied with a power-driven pump. On larger equipment.- The asphalt distributor is the key piece of equipment in the construction of surface treatments.. Road Design 9-57 .

Minor repairs are quickly made with small crews and hand-tools.:i.G) designation to the road based upon the number of vehicle passes per day.j. and equipment.FM 54309000l/AFPAM 32-8013.. All such patches must be thoroughly compacted and constantly maintained with replacement material... Ruts and washouts are filled. :: . : : : : : :: _: j.:iii: Valve action should be instantaneous. The design procedure for each type first involves assigning a class (A .:‘:ii . and may result in interference with traffic or. Good-quality soil and masonry or concrete rubble are suitable for this purpose. :‘:“:. ..’ :: : j :: : . both in opening and closing. in extreme cases. Larger bituminous repairs require more time. Patches All patches should be trimmed square or oblong with straight.. More permanent patching should be accomplished as soon as possible..:ii’i::i. This design index is used to determine either the CBR strength requirements of the unsurfaced roads or the thickness of the aggregate surface or flexible-pavement system required above a soil with a given CBR strength.j:..i. Shoulder material is kept graded flush against pavement edges to restrict seepage of water to the subgrade and to prevent breaking of the pavement edge by traffic driving off the pavement onto the shoulder.. CLASSES OF ROADS The classes of roads vary from A to G. An otherwise good job may be spoiled if one or more spray nozzles are clogged. aggregafe. : . GENERAL ROAD STRUCTURAL DESIGN TO roads will normally be designed as unsurfaced.iii:. Maintenance of Shoulders Shoulders are bladed LOfacilitate drainage of rainwater from the surface. Small defects quickly develop into larger ones under the effects of weather and traffic and may result in pavement failure unless promptly corrected. i. . Material displaced from shoulders is replaced with new material as required. or Jexfble-pauement systems. A design index (1 . the road class and design index will change. 9-58 Road Design . . NOTE: As mission requirements change (a forward-area road becomes a rear-area road). The design procedures outlined in this section allow for the easy upgrading of roads as the mission changes. Vol 1 :.10) is determined from the design category and road class.VII) is then assigned to the traffic based upon the composition of the traffic.’ : : . Temporary Repairs to the centerline MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF BITUMINOUS SURFACES Inspection Maintenance patrols frequently inspect bituminous pavements for early detection of failures. parallel and perpendicular of the traffic area. personnel. requ!re construction of detours to avoid complete stoppage. Selection of the proper class depends upon the traffic intensity and is determined from Table 9-8. A design category (I . The spraying operation should be inspected frequently to ensure that the nozzles are the proper height from the road surface and working fully. with a minimum interruption of traffic. This ensures the ability to easily convert an unsurfaced road to an aggregate-surfaced road to a flexible-pavement road without major changes in the design procedure. vertical sides running Any stable material may be used for temporary repairs in combat areas or where suitable material is not available and the traffic area must be patched to keep traffic moving.

For designs involving pneumatic-tired vehicles.. Traffic containing as much as 25 percent Group 2 but with not more than 10 percent of the total traffic composed of trucks having three or more axles (Group 3 vehicles). . single-axle. Group 3.360-8. 10. cars and panel and l Group 2. No trucks Design Index Category Category Category Category Category Class A 6 C D E F G I 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 II 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 III 4 4 4 3 3 2 1 IV 5 5 5 4 4 3 2 IVA 6 6 6 5 5 4 2 l Road Design 9-59 . Pneumatic-tired based on traffic traffic categories composition e of total traffic for Number Road Class A .400 2 100-6 300 E : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : . . The design index to be used. Category II. and five-axle Traffic composition will then be grouped into the following categories (summarized for easy reference in Table 9-9): l Table 9-10. . if designing a road for the usual pneumatic-tired vehicles. . Traffic containing as much as 15 percent Group 2 but with not more than 1 percent of the total traffic composed of trucks having three or more axles (Group 3 vehicles). dual-wheel load. Traffic composed primarily of passenger cars and panel and pickup trucks (Group 1 vehicles) but containing not more than 1 percent two-axle trucks (Group 2 vehicles). traffic is classified into three groups. . . Two-axle trucks pickup trucks). .10 based on Group 1. . Three-.400-l 0. Category IV.000 E ::::::::::::::::::: 6. .‘210-2:100 70-210 : :::::::::::::::::::::. . . and containing as much as 10 percent two-axle trucks (Group 2 vehicles). . . Road-class selection criteria Table 9-9. . . Design index for pneumatic-tired vehicles Category I. .000-pound. . (excluding l four-. .: FM 514301001l/AFPAM 32-8013. Category WA. Vol 1 Table 9-8. trucks. . of.‘tinder70 10% 10% DESIGN INDEX The design of roads will be based on a design index representing all traffic expected to use the road during its life. as follows: l having three or more axles (Group 3 vehicles) are permitted in this category. .000 8. . Traffic containing more than 25 percent Group 2 or more than 10 percent trucks having three or more axles (Group 3 vehicles). . will be selected from Table 9. Category III. Traffic composed primarily of passenger cars and panel and pickup trucks (Group 1 vehicles). The design index is based on typical magnitudes and compositions of traffic reduced to equivalents in terms of repetitions of an 18. Passenger pickup trucks. Vehicles Per Day I 1Traffic Category Category I Category II Category III Category IV Category WA iGroup 2 99% 2 90% 2 84% 5 65% Any 1 Group 2 51% 5 10% 5 15% < 25% > 25% sl% < > I . .

001-15...000 pounds but not 40. Tracked vehicles exceeding 15.: ... Design Life The life assumed for design is less than or equal to 5 years.. the following three considerations apply: l Tracked vehicles not exceeding 15..000 pounds but not 10.000 60.000 Category V VI VII Regardless of the design class selected for hardstands.....000 pounds has been divided into the three categories shown in Table 9. . .j: the road class (A to Gl and category (I to IVA). Traffic composed of tracked vehicles exceeding 40. round up to the next higher number.. For a design life of more than 5 years... G-60 Road Design .001-25. . :: . and Segments l l Table 9-11.11. ..: .. and other heavy-traffic areas. Where tracked vehicles or forklift trucks are involved in the traffic composition.000 pounds will be designed according to the traffic intensity and category from Table 912. Ta@ie 9-12. Exits....001-90......:..:.. : ~ .-..000 pounds and forklift trucks exceeding 6.000 pounds and forklift trucks weighing less than 10.000 lb and forklift trucks not exceeding 6. Pounds Tracked Vehicles 40.12.:.000 lb are treated as two-axle trucks (Group 2 vehicles) in determining the design index. ..001-60. special consideration should be given to the design of approach roads. ‘:. Design indexes below 3 need not be increased..:/:. j :.000 Over 90.. Roads sustaining traffic of tracked vehicles weighing less than 40. Roads sustaining traffic of tracked vehicles heavier than 40.. the design index used for the primary road should be used for entrances and exits to the hardstand. page 9-59. the design indexes in Tables 9-10 and 9-12 must be increased by one.: . ...000 Forklift Trucks 10. Vol 1 . . exit roads.000 pounds and forklifts heavier than 10. Entrances.000 pounds and forklift trucks exceeding 10...FM 5-4301001l/AFPAM 32-8013. . Traffic Category 500 V VI VII NOTE: If number 6 9 10 Design index for tracked vehicles and forklifts Number of Vehicles 200 6 8 10 loo 6 7 9 40 6 6 9 per Day (or Week as Indicated) 10 5 6 8 4 5 6 7 1 5 5 6 1 Per Week __ 5 5 of vehicles is between values.. : . .000 pounds will be designed according to the pertinent class and category from Table 910.000 15. NOTE: DO NOT include any wheeled vehicles in the total number of tracked vehicles and forklifts when using Table Q.:. Since these areas will almost certainly be subjected to more frequent and heavier loads than the hardstand.. :.000 pounds are treated as three-axle trucks (Group 3 vehicles) in determining the design index. Failure or poor performance in these channelized traffic areas often has greater impact than localized failure on the hardstand itself... Tracked-vehicle and forklift traffic categories Vehicle Welght..000 Over 25.

.:. . 2. 100 To illustrate the procedure for determining soil-surface strength requirements. Estimate the number of passes of each type of vehicle expected to use a road on a daily basis. 4.. Designing unsurfaced roads consists of the following steps: 1. Determine the traffic category based upon the traffic composition criteria shown in Table 9-9...‘:::.::+. 7.. FM 514301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.jj . Read the soil-surface strength required to support the design index from Figure 9-50. The immediate benefits that would accrue include economy through elimination of excessive design in some areas and better organization of vehicles and equipment. . i:. Example (Unsurfaced-Road Design): UNSURFACED ROADS An unsurfaced road is one in which the inplace natural soil or borrow soil is used as the road surface. soil treatment. j. Check whether the design (compacted) CBR value of in-place soil exceeds the CBR value required. page 9-59.1 :j :. Determine the required unsurfaced-soil thickness.:.y..j... consideration should be given to partitioning and using different classes of design.:. Vol 1 In the case of large hardstands having multiple uses and multiple entrances and exits. ::j ..j. I l111111 I111111 2 I 1 I I I111111 I I Irlllll 3 I II 4 I I1111111 I I I11111 5 1I 6 I Design index Figure 9-50... or Table 9-12.‘:: :‘I .. 6. Given the required CBR from step 6 and the design index from step 4.:‘. page 9-62. the engineer must decide whether to decrease the design life or improve the in-place soil to meet the CBR required by one of the following methods: soil stabilization.:: . 3.:.. ...:. Select the proper road class based upon the traffic intensity from Table 9-8.. . or placing aggregate.z. the required unsurfaced-soil thickness or depth of compaction can be obtained from Figure 9-51. page 9-59.::. The road will be subjected to the following average daily traffic: SO 40 a JO t? 20 G 2 ii '5 s 10 2 I 1 I I I 11111111 I I I l11111 I I 11111111 I I I111111 I ! 1 I I I. If the in-place design CBR value is less than the CBR required. the construction effort required includes only clearing and grubbing followed by scarifying. 5..: ‘... Unsurfaced-soil strength requirements Road Design 9-61 . Typically.:..: ‘k. Determine the design index from Table 9-10. grading. . page 9-59.. assume that an unsurfaced road is to be used one year.. . and compacting.:j ..

The soil-surface strength requirement for a design index of 3 is 10. the average daily traffic AGGREGATE-SURFACED ROADS 2. Given a design index of 3 and a required CBR of 10.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.10. soil M929 5-ton dump truck 50 (three axle) 7. Select traffic category IVA. However.8. in aggregate-surfaced roads. Select road class E from Table 9-8. 5. Solution: 1. based the percentage of Group 3 vehicles. upon The design of aggregate-surfaced roads is similar to the design of unsurfaced roads. The materials should have greater strength than the subgrade and should bc placed so that the higher-quality malerial is placed on top of the lowerquality material. page 9-59. index is 3 from Table 9. 4. If not. the required thickness from Figure 9-51 is 6 inches. 3. Determine (given). Check to ensure the design CBR value of the m-place soil exceeds the 10.8 CBR re- 9-62 Road Design . Layers of high-quality material are placed on the natural subgrade to improve its strength. Determine the required unsurfaced-soil thickness from Figure 9-51. Unsurfaced-soil Vehicle M998 HMMWV (two axle) Average Daily Traffic 180 quired.8 CBR. The design page 9-59. based upon 230 vehicles per day. Vol 1 3 6 thickness requirements Design Index Figure 9-51. consider using either stabilization or an aggregate road. Materials Materials used in aggregate roads must meet the requirements as stated in Chapter 5 of this manual and in the following paragraphs. 6.

..:::::.. Percent compactlon is compared to the CE 55 curve according to ASTM D1557.: : : . .. .j’: <.::....50..:. Specifications for graded. : : j’ . lime rock: and stabilized aggregate may be used without qualification for design of roads.: j. Vol 1 .: i:‘:.:I . Maximum permissible CBR of Base Cpurse.:.. Base Course Only good-quality materials should be used in base courses of heavy-duty aggregate roads.. The construction unit has the equipment and expertise to place a macadam surface (wet or dry) to acceptable standards of smoothness and grade. Design Gradation Requirements.:. the base course CBR must be at least 50 and the material must conform to the gradation and Atterberg limit requirement for a 50-CBR subbase as shown in Table 9-14. A cohesive soil is one with a PI above 5. Specifications for dry and water-bound macadam base courses may be used for design of heavy-duty roads only when the following two conditions are satisfied: l subgjade (SCIP) Uncompacted subgrade Cohesionless: 95 - 100%/ I l The cost of the dry or water-bound macadam base does not exceed the cost of a stabilized.:.. :: : FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013.. .j. 2.‘:‘. ‘:..::. aggregate base course. and parking areas. Compaction criteria and CBR requirements for an aggregate road structure CBR requirements . 100 Layer Base course Compaction requirements 100 . A coheslonless soll Is one with a PI of 5 or less. 4.: . . .._- Table 9-13.‘. Otherwise. page 9-64._:: .:::i’.. the design CBR of the base course must meet the requirements of Table 9-15. . 80. .:.:.105% aggregate. . .:.:. .. . NOTES: 1... Gradation requirements for aggregate-surfaced roads and for macadam base courses are given in Chapter 5. Where subbase material is used for base-course construction. streets.i’. 3. values for subbases and select materials Maxlmum Pormlssabk Values for Gradation and Attorbsrg Llmlts Gradatbn Roqulnments Ysxlmum Dsalgn CBR SlXS In s f No 10 SlWO 50 80 __ 100 No 200 Slovr :: __ 15 Porosnt Passing Llquld Llmlt 3: 35 25 Plastklty In&x 5 5 1: Mats&l subbase Subbase Select material Sullbaae 50 : 20 Road Design 9-63 .. All lifts in a road design must be at least 4 inches.:‘..::g. crushed Tab/e 9-14..:... Select and Subbase Materials Select and subbase materials used in aggregate and flexible-pavement roads must meet the requirements of Table 9-13..:‘.

Thickness Requirements. the subgrade must (11 be compacted from the surface to meet the densities shown. Compaction Requirements Compaclion requirements for the subgrade and granular layers are expressed as a percent of maximum CE 55 density as determined by using MIL-STD-621 Test Method 100. The procedure is the same as for the subgrade. Vol 1 . Where this is not the case for cuts. LL125). The minimum thickness requirement will be 4 inches. provided the top 4 inches meet the gradation requirements. for cohesive soils (PI > 51 and Table 9-17. The procedures for compacting subgrades of clays that lose strength when remolded. and soils with expansive characteristics are described in Chapter 5 of this manual. subbase. Figure 9-52 provides the thickness of aggregate based on CBR and design index. page 9-63. page 9-65. Thickness requirements for aggregate-surfaced roads are determined from Figure 9-52. Compact the subgrade to the depth specified in Table 9. in cases where the moisture content is out of the specification range. .. page 9-66. Subgrades. Subgrades. The granular fill may consist of base. Depth of Compaction.. Select Materials. Base Compact the base course to Course. The layered section must be checked to ensure that an adequate thickness of material is used to protect the underlying layer based on the CBR of the underlying layer. for cohesionless soils (PI 5 5). and base so that the uncompacted subgrade is at a depth where the in-place densities are satisfactory. Subbase. in which case the requirements given above for fills apply. and select material. or (31 be covered with sufficient select material. Special NOTE: It is recommended that stabilized-aggregate base-course material not be used for tire pressures in excess of 100 psi. 9-64 Road Design . : : .: ::i i.16. LL>25) and 95-percent for cohesionless soils (PIs5. subbase.16 or Q.aggregate-surfaced road in its natural state. page 9-66. Compact the subgrade to go-percent CE 55 density for cohesive soils (PI>5.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. silts that become quick when remolded. However. for a given soil strength and design index.17 is not feasible or attainable in cut sections. NOTE: It may be possible to compact the subgrade material to the required density Compact the subbase to not less than loo-percent CE 55 density. the maximum degree practicable but not less than loo-percent CE 55 density. (21 be removed and replaced. Subgrade in cuts and fills must have densities equal to or greater than the values shown in Table 9-13. This process is called scarify and compact in place (SCIP). Normal NOTE: When depth of compaction from Table Q. perform a 6-inch SCIP and continue design based on the uncompacted subgrade CBR. except that fills will be placed at no less than 95 percent density for cohesionless soils or 90 percent for cohesive soils. Table 9-15. The thickness determined from the figure may be constructed of compacted granular fill for the total depth over the compacted subgrade or in a layered system of granular fill with subbases for the same total depth. Assigned CBR ratings for basecourse materials . it may be necessary to scarify the soil (thereby aerating the soil to adjust the moisture content) and then compact.

... inches Figure Q-52... ...:p .:...:I.....i...:I: :’ :::‘:. ‘.. Vol 1 3 2 i 1 l 1 4 : 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 I 6 7 6910 15 20 30 40 60 Thickness. .. . ..._ roads Road Design 9-65 . Design curves for aggregate-surfaced .:.. :.: .: FM 514301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013..I.L:::..’ ::.. : . ..:. . .. .:.: : .(.:... . ‘..:.:. :...:.

and 9-15..FM 5. Table 9-17. in inches. page 9-65.16 or 9-17.: . 5. for each layer of the aggregate road structure. b. . 9. : ::.. Vol 1 . Determine the total road-structure ness and cover requirements. Determine the depth of compaction for the subgrade soil from Table 9. page 9-63. cohesive soils (Pb5) Percent Compaction Depth of Compaction (In Inches) for Indicated Design Index 1 2 7 6 3 a 6 4 9 6 5 10 7 6 11 7 7 12 a 6 13 9 9 15 10 10 I 90-95’ 95-1 oo2 6 6 17 11 w- ‘Normally used. -Design CBR values for subgrade.. cohesionless soils (Pk5) Compaction 95-100’ 90-952 Percent Depth of Compaction (in inches) for Indicated Design Index 1 2 8 12 3 10 14 4 11 16 5 12 6 14 20 7 15 22 a 17 24 9 19 28 10 21 30 7 10 18 ‘Normally used. Estimate the number of passes of each type of vehicle expected to use the road on a daily basis. Determine the traffic category based upon the traffic-composition criteria given in Table 9-9. 7. page 5-12. 3.4304&1/AFlW’Ul 32. ‘Use if on-site test strip results show the 95100 range is not attainable. Check soils and construction aggregates using standard criteria in Tables 5-4.: Table 9-16. select.. : .. and subbase materials. or Table 9-12. %se if on-site test strip results show these ranges are attainable. page 9-63.8013. page 9-59. page 9-59. Design Steps for Aggregate-Surfaced Roads 1.: <.: . 4. Determine the required percent compaction in terms of CE 55 for each layer from Table 9-13.. 8.. ... . page 9-64. page 9-59. . Enter Figure 9-52. Determine the minimum cover thickness.: . page 9-60. 2. Required depth of subgrade compaction for roads. for each layer of sofl or aggregate with the following information: -Design index. Select the proper road class based upon the traffic intensity from Table 9-8.14. Required depth of subgrade compaction for roads. and shear failure is unlikely. 6.: :. Determine the design index from Table 9-10. thick- a. 9-66 Road Design .

. as shown following. (Suitable for subbase CBR 30.. . Select road class F from Table 9-8.::. 3. resulting in a required total thickness of 12 inches. The road will be subjected toAverage Daily Traffic 10 25 I L 16 inches of cover CBR=5 I 1 1 I~~~Natural subgrade M998 HMMWV M929 5ton dump truck (dual axle) combat engineer vehicle (CEV) (604on tracked vehicle) M729 35 b. In this case.. based upon average daily traffic of 70.Y or 4”. page 9-65) Y = minimum cover over select (Fi ure 9-52) Z = minimum cover over subbase f Figure 9-52) Total thickness above compacted subgrade = A t B t C NOTES: 1. ... whichever is greater D = Depth of compacted SCIP X = minimum cover over compacted subgrade (Figure 9-52. Select design index of 9 from Table 9-12.. look at the required thickness when the subgrade is compacted.. Select traffic category VII from information previously given. Depth of compaction based on CBR 5 for compacted subgrade is 15 inches.. Draw the section of the aggregate road structure.) 6. NOTE: You must round the average daily tracked-traffic value of 36 to the next higher value (40) in Table 9-12. a..... Vol 1 9. This results in a required total thickness of 16 inches.. Example (Aggregate-Road Design): An aggregate-surfaced road is to be used for two years. page 9-60. Number of daily passes = 70 (given). meets gradation requirement for maximum size aggregate of 1”. Minimum reauired Laver Compaction Solution: 1. based upon the presence of the 60-ton tracked vehicle.::. as shown. .. Determine the road-structure thickness required to support a design index of 9.. (Suitable for base course. as shown. 4. ..... :.A or 4”. After all posslble desl n sections are determined.. First.:i::. the natural subgrade CBR 5 is used in Figure 9-52.. the flnal sect7on used should be determined on the basis of an economic analysis.. (See Table 9-17... Now.. 7. PI = 15) Design (compacted) subgrade = 8 Clean sand subbase = 30 Lime rock = 80.. Road Design 9-67 .. Clean sand CBR 30.. In this case. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.. 2. 5. .:.. page 9-59. Available material CBR: Natural subgrade = 5 (clay.. the design subgrade CBR = 8 is used in Figure 9-52. look at the required road thickness if the subgrade was not compacted to the design CBR. All layer thicknesses should be rounded up to the next full Inch for construction purposes.. Natural subgrade CBR = B = Y .) Crushed rock CBR 80. 2.. whichever is greater C = X .

~~~~ / above compacted subgrade (Figure 9-52 compacted subgrade = A = 12” Total thickness b. page 9-65.:_:_:::::. look at the total thickness and required cover for each layer when the subgrade is compacted and a clean sand subbase with CBR 30 is used. as follows: Crushed rock base course: 100-l 05 percent Clean sand subbase course: 100-l 05 percent Compacted subgrade-since the PI = 15..:::i::. the design subgrade CBR 8 is used in Figure 9-52. B=X-A = 12” . Next. ::. design the section without the subbase layer.. it is a cohesive soil: 90-95 percent 15 inches design subgrade CBR = 8 Natural subgrade CBR = 5 Notice how compacting the subgrade greatly reduces the required thickness of the cover material.:. Minimum required cover Layer thickness E..::~:. The required percent compaction of each layer is determined from Table 9.13.4” = 8” Total thickness Z = minimum cover over subbase (Figure 9-52) X = minimum cover over compacted subgrade (Figure 9-52) above compacted subgrade = A + B = 8t4 9-68 Road Design ..i.‘:...~~:~i. Now. 9. This results in the section.: :.: .: .:i.::i.. 7 12 inches of cover 8.:.:. as shown. .:.. page 9-63..~..equired :over A=12” Layer thickness Layer .. a.:.!~. both should be drawn.i: :. ..-t#action Layer vlinimum . First....j.:.. First.:.i.i..105% CE = 100 ..:.y.:~. Draw the section of the aggregate road structure.. one with a subbase and one without...: .. design the section with the subbase layer.::.:..FM 5-430-00-l/AFPAM 32-801 3.. Ainimum equired :over Natural subgrade CBR = 5 A = Z = 4” B=X-A = 12” _ 4” = 8” Total thickness Layer thickness A = 4” Laver Base course CBR = 80 Subbase optional) & BR = 30 Compacted sub rade CB w = 8 Natural subgrade CBR = 5 Compaction Effort CE = 100 .. Since two sections were designed. Finally.> . Vol 1 .~.105% B = 8” Z = 4” = minimum cover over subbase (Figure 9-52) X = 12” = Minimum cover over compacted subgrade above compacted subgrade = A + B = 8+4 = 12” E-=95% A = Z = 4” Notice how the addition of the clean sand subbase reduces the required thickness of the more expensive lime rock.. to determine the la-inch total thickness required above the compacted subgrade. This is why the subgrade is always compacted. the clean sand CBR 30 is used in Figure 9-52 to determine the required cover of 4 inches above the subbase. C. ..

000 A typical flexible-pavement structure is shown in Figure 9-53.. Where hot-mix. Vol 1 - Given that the base-course material is more expensive than the clean sand subbase. ..) :.:.. bituminous-concrete mixtures are well-suited for paving heavyduty traffic roads with volumes of 3... ::::::::::>::. or Sand-Tar Mixes. based on laboratory tests.. Sheet Asphalt. section b would be the most economical design.:.. Dense-graded... i .: . ::x:: . TM 5-822-6 covers rigid-pavement designs. and illustrates the terms used to refer to the various layers. uses. . Thus.y:. use cold-plant.. bituminous-concrete mixtures are not available.~:~.L. Penetration Mac-. mixtures made with these aggregates should conform to the criteria for low-pressure tires ( 100 psi or less). . . Fine-aggregate mixes may be used for binder and surface courses of roads with traffic volumes of 2. the quality of road mix approaches that of cold-laid plant mix. ~: .. that all possible design sections for the available materials must be evaluated economically.. There may be rare instances where the subbase material may be more expensive than the base course. ...::::::l:i:l:!. or flexible-. When the existing subgrade soil is suitable or satisfactory aggregates are nearby. Bituminous-Concrete Pavements.. they permit greater flexibility in responding to changes in the tactical situation. vehicles or more per day. .: . ..z.. .000 vehicles per day...A’.~:~:~:~:~:::~:~:~:~:~:~:~:~:~:~:~:~:~..:.:x. pavement designs permit the maximum use of readily available local construction materials.: FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. .. Chapter 12 of FM 5-43000-2/AFPAM 32-8013. Road mix is used for binder and surface courses. Flexible-Pavement Structure BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS Bituminous-. depending on the climate or season. : .. Do not use penetration macadam for paving any areas subject to traffic from tracked vehicles.. use these mixtures to pave roads having traffic volumes of less than 3... Select exact percentages of bituminous materials on the basis of design tests described in TM 5-337.(.. Stone-Filled Sheet Asphalt. rubber-tired vehicles governs the bituminous-pavement design. rubber-tired or steel wheels..x::: :.. :::::.: : : : ... ). bituminous concrete to pave areas subject to pneumatic-tired traffic only. Cold-Laid. It is generally considered inferior to plantmix pavements manufactured in standard plants because of the less accurate control.. In that case. hot-mix. .:.:.. Flexible-pavement design procedures are different from airfield design procedures. . Bituminous Road Mix.~ :. Most often the number of passes of tanks and solid.. advantages. .. Sand Asphalt. . ‘.:. however. and disadvantages of bituminous pavements and surfacing presented in TM 5-337 are applicable to ‘I0 construction except as modified in the following paragraphs.~ . However.. .. Where conditions warrant.000 or fewer vehicles per day when sand or other suitable fine aggregates are the only aggregates available. use an asphalt cement with a penetration grade of 50-60 or 60-70. They are easier to construct and upgrade than rigid pavement designs.. only the base course would be used. Pavement Type6 and Uses The descriptions. .:. when surfacing for steel treads is necessary.:. rubber-tired vehicles. :. Use road mix as a wearing course for To roads or as the first step in stage construction for more permanent roads...:. page 9-70..: .:~:~:y:~:~:.:. Hot-Mix.. . When properly designed and constructed.:..::::. Special consideration must also be given to the design and construction of bituminous pavements that will be subjected to traffic of tanks and solid. ..:::. This chapter is limited to flexible-pavement designs for roads. Vol 2 covers airfield flexible-pavement designs..:. These mixes should not be used as surface or binder courses for roads or industrial-use pavements designed for solid. . Note.. Bituminous-Concrete Plant Mix.:. In all cases. road mixing saves time in handling and transporting aggregates as compared with plant mixing. -- Road Design 9-69 .:.:j ....

investigate subgrade conditions: borrow areas: and all sources of select materials. Table 9-18. page 9-63. Base Course Gradation Requirements. The pavement should consist of a surface course.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Flexible-pavement design A bituminous pavement may consist of one or more courses depending on stage construction features. page 5-12. base. and to minimize differential settlements. Otherwise. Sources of Supply If time and conditions permit. conduct test borings deeper than the frost penetration depth. job conditions. and a leveling course. These should be thick enough to prevent displacement of the base course because of shear deformation. The minimum boring should never be less than 4 feet below the final grade. Vol 1 Materials E g * Surface course y 1 Tack coat Materials used in flexible pavements must meet the requirements as stated in Chapter 5 and in the following paragraphs: Select Materials and Subbase I iE I t Base course Subbase Select course I 1 Select materials and subbases used in bituminous pavements must meet the same requirements as for aggregate-surfaced roads as indicated in Table 9-14. Tack coats may be required on the surface of each intermediate course. Where subbase material is used for base construction. subbase. except as noted below. In determining subgrade conditions in cut sections of roads. Design CBR of Base Course. NOTE: It is recommended that stabWed-aggregate base-course material not be used for tire pressures In excess of 100 psi. Figure g-53. and paving aggregates before designing the pavement. the design CBR of the base course must meet the requirements of Table 9-18. to provide long life by resisting the effects of wear and traffic abrasion. 9-70 Road Design . Assigned CBR ratings for basecourse materials .bituminous-surfaced road material subgrade Compacted Uncompacted subgrade (subsoil) I NOTE: Not all layers and coats are present in every flexiblepavement structure. an intermediate (binder) course. intermediate courses may be placed in one or more Ha. The gradation requirements of the base course are as indicated in Chapter 5 of this manual. when needed. to be waterproof. and the economical use of materials. the base course CBR must be at least 50 and the material must conform to the Atterberg limit requirement for a 50-CBR subbase as shown in Table 9-14. since the flexible pavement will transfer most of the shear stress caused by the load directly to the base course. Base Course The base course used in bituminous pavements must meet the same requirements as for aggregate-surfaced roads as indicated previously. The base course for a flexible pavement must meet the same gradation requirements of Table 5-4.

Bituminous-Pavement Design de- Design Requirements.... Thickness design requirements are given in Figure 9-54.. :... underlying underlying layer based layer. .. The minimum allowable thickness of the base course will be as shown in Table 9-19: except that in no case will the total thickness of pavement plus base for classes A through D roads be less than 6 inches.. ..... :.. :. page 9-72....: .: .. of pavement and base for conventional pavements CBR Design I’ II I ..:.: ..: ... . . 3:!2 j ‘. ... Adequate drainage of the base course. :.:... . :.: .:.A.. .. ... an asphalt base course and pavement must be compacted to CE-55 density The compaction criteria of 98-100 percent. ... . In addition. .. :. .. %uttiple bituminous surface treatment (spray application). :_:::: . blending aggregates to conform to the selected gradation.. on the CBR of the Compaction Requirements Compaction of the subgrade. Bituminous-Pavement Thickness Requirement.... Bituminous-pavement-mix design consists of selecting the bitumen and aggregate gradation...: ... . ‘Minimum total thickness of pavement plus base for classes A through D roads and streets 6 inches. FM 5-4309OO-i/AFPAM 32-8013. .::: . .: . Bituminous-mix design is beyond the scope of this manual and is described in detail in Chapter 4 of TM 5-337.::.2 1 1 ‘In general. will be Road Design 9-71 ... :. in inches. .: . determining the optimum bitumen (asphalt cement) content.: .:. .. ...: ... >.: ...:. and calculating the job mix formula. in terms of CBR and the design index determined..:. 1 7: 1 4. .. >. and CBR requirements for a bituminous pavement are summarized in Table 9-20. .. . .:. .. . Vol 1 Minimum Base-Course Thickness.:...::. . . .....:.::. and base course must meet the same requirements as for aggregate-surfaced roads. ...... Minimum thickness requirements are shown in Table 9-19.:!.. ....... / . . Note that each layered section must be checked to ensure that an adequate thickness of material is used to protect the Table 9-79 Minimum thickness.>. . Bituminous-Pavement Mix.... subbase.. .::. ... page 9-73.j :. Flexible-pavement sign must provide the following: Sufficient compactlon and testing of the subgrade and each layer during construction to prevent objectionable settlement under traffic.... . :. . ‘Bituminous surface treatment (spray application)....:.. when frost conditions are a factor..... 11 3 3li2 4 4 I I .> ...:.... to provide for dralnage of the base course during spring thaw..... 50-CBR base course will only be used for classes E and F roads and streets...2 / 1 1 a.: .. :...:.

inches Figure 9-54. Thickness design requirements for flexible pavements 9-72 Road Design .50 40 30 20 30 20 15 tOQ6 7 6 5 4 3 2 Thickness.

2. 3.j:.. select. 3. page 9-71. 4=w 3=X-A . Determine the design fndex from Table 9-10.>: :::: . when frost conditions are a factor.:. subbase. Design CBR values for subgrade.:. l Adequate thickness above the subgrade and above each layer together with adequate quality of the select material.. -6.95% 95 90 .20 for a flexible-pavement Compaction criteria and CBR structure Compaction requlrsments 98 . 8.100% Asphalt: Soil: 100 . weather-resistant.:.17. 4. requirements CBR equirements 50. A co Reslve soil Is one with a PI above 5. and subbase materials. j:::. page 5-12: 9-14. Select the proper road class based upon the traffic intensity from Table 9-8. A stable. should be rounded up to the next full Inch for construction purposes. All lifts (excluding the pavement) In an Army flexible avement must be at least 4 Inches.. Determine the required percent compaction in terms of CE 55 for each layer from Table 9-20.) Compaction effort NOTES: 1. waterproof.50 3 .: . Minimum required cover Layer thickness Layer l Design Steps. to control or reduce the effects of frost heave or permafrost degradation. 100 20 .j.:. thick- Layer Pavement Base course Subbase course Select material Design sub rade (SC 8) P . inimum cover over subbase Figure 9-54) Y = 6 inrmum cover over select (Figure 9-54) Z = Minrmum cover over compacted subgrade (Figure Q-54) Total thickness above subgrade = A + B + C + D NOTES: 1. Percent Compaction Is compared to CE 55 compactlve effort. nonslippery pavement. in inches. ...z. After all possible desl n sections are determined.. (See below.105% 100 .:.:>:j.: j. and 9-18. Use Table 9-16 or 9. All layer depths. page 9-59.j > :. 80. page 9-66. wear-resistant. Determine the total road-structure ness and cover requirements. Determine the minimum cover thickness. 2. ::::: FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. the final sect1on used should be determined on the basis of an economic analysis. Determine the traffic category based upon the traffic-composition criteria given previously. 5. :.::.=Y-A-B I=Z-A-B-C Natural subgrade CBR = W = Minimum cover over base Table 9-l 8) X = rs..:.: j::::.chyionless: 0 Cohesive: ~o&sionless: 0 90 . A coheslonless soll Is one wlth a PI of 5 or less. 9. Draw the section of the bitumlnouspavement road structure. Road Design $73 . page 9-59.:.. for each layer of the road structure through Figure 9-54 and Table 9-19.105% Cohesive: y.. page 9-63. Enter Figure 9-54 for each layer of soil or aggregate with the following information: l Design index. page 9-60. .. :.+: . y.100% 98 ... Vol 1 T&/e 920. 4. Estimate the number of passes of each type of vehicle expected to use the road on a daily basis. ~xfzfzt for the surface AC.:j:::::. l b. 2. to determine compaction depth of the subgrade. 1.ted g a.95% 95 - 7.or. Check soils and construction aggregates using standard criteria in Tables 5-9. page 9-70.. and base courses to prevent detrimental shear deformation under traffic and.:. or 9-12.

105 percent . CBR 30 Base. er Compacted subgrade.105 percent . a. Layer Compacted subgrade PI > 5 (cohesive) Select. CBR 20 Subbase. Determine the total thickness and cover requirements. CBR 50 Surface AC 8. indicates this material can be used only as a select material (CBR 201 because the PI exceeds 5. page 9-73.95 percent . Check soils and construction aggregate.100 percent 9-74 Road Design . 10 sieve.560. 20 sieve Base: tion) GP material at CBR 50 (meets grada- b. Total average daily traffic = 1. Design the most economical bituminous pavement for a 3-year design life capable of sustaining the following traffic: e a. The required depth of subgrade compaction = 15 inches. PI = 8 90 percent passing No.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. page 9-72. 10 sieve. Solution : 1. From Figure 9-54. CBR 50 Surface AC 90 . page 9-60. Select road class E from Table 9-8. 200 sieve CBR 35 at lOO. based upon average daily traffic of 1. CBR 30 Base. From Table 9-19. Select traffic category VII based upon the presence of the MlAl tank. Select design index 9 from Table 9-12. page 95percent CE 55. CBR 7 Select. 10 percent passing 105-percent CE 55 W = 8 percent. 3. 7. Where can the CBR 30 material be used? Table 9. W = 14 percent Natural CBR = 5 Compaction at 95-percent CE 55 W = 8 percent. page 9-63. CBR 20 Subbase.560 (given). page 9-71. From Table 9-20. 12 percent passing No. the required cover for each layer is determined for design index of 9. LL = 15. b. Vol 1 ‘: Example (Bituminous-Pavement Design): 5.95 percent 90 100 100 98 . Notice that the number of vehicles per day (20) in this table refers to the MlAl only. since the Ml 13A3 is considered as a Group 3 vehicle because of its weigh t . PI = 12.14. CBR = 50 Required Cover 18” 8 l/4” 5 314” 4” After Rounaing 18” 9” 6” 4” Avw 1. 6. Where can the CBR 35 material be used? Table 9-14 indicates that this material can be used as a subbase with a CBR 30 design because of the percent passing the No. 4. the required compaction is determined for each layer. CBR = 7 Borrow: CBR 30 at 90. the required minimum thickness for the base course and surface asphalt is determined for design index of 9.000 truck 500 40 20 M998 HMMWV M35A2 2 l/2-ton (dual axle) M113A3 (13 tons) MlAl The soils data are- Subgrade: CL material. PI = 5 40 percent passing No. 2. 10 sieve. Laver Minimum 4” 4 l/2” Base. LL = 20.

. Select CBR 20 I 90 . and geotextile design. Equivalency factors are determined as shown on Table 9-2 1. Vol 1 9. vehicular traffic areas. To design a road containing stabilized-soil layers requires the application of equivalency factors to a layer or layers of a conventionally designed pavement. page 9-76. The use of stabilized-soil layers (as described in Chapter 5 of this manual and in FM 5-410) within a road structure provides the opportunity to reduce the overall thickness required to support a given load. Shoulders will not block base-course drainage. In repair yards.j’.equired :over thickness Layer I I IC = 4” ISubbase I CBR 30 I CE = loo. Mixtures in such areas will contain approximately 50 percent coarse aggregate.1054 I zl 1 8” D = 6” I Areas. bolts. Special Considerations for Open Storage . the shoulders will be designed as a class F road or street. In the design of open storage areas. Stabilized-Soil Design Total thickness above subgrade = A+B+C+D Shoulders and Similar Areas. An equivalency factor represents the number of inches of a conventional base or subbase which can be replaced by 1 inch of stabilized material. Dust and erosion control will be provided by means of vegetative cover. Normally only shoulders for class A roads will be paved. the stabilized layer must meet appropriate strength and durability requirements. Draw the section of the bituminouspavement road structure. for instance. These areas are provided only for the purpose of minimizing damage to vehicles using them accidentally or in emergencies. for materials stabilized with Road Design 9-75 . and tiny parts.5” B=X-A = 4” C=Y-A-B = 4” D . for bituminous-stabilized materials and from Figures 9-55 and 9-56. consideration will be given to any special requirements necessary because of the use of a particular area. anchored mulch. an outline of the frost-design procedure is included in Appendix G of this manual. they are not considered normal. or liquid palliatives.95% CE = SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Special design considerations include frost design. However. Areas subject to an appreciable amount of foot traffic will be designed to avoid the occurrence of free bituminous material on the surface. page 9-76. : :: FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. $- W= Minimum cover over base = 4pble 9-18. the final-surface texture will be one that will promote quick drying and will not contribute to the easy loss of nuts. To qualify for application of equivalency factors. particularly where frost conditions are a factor. Where paving of shoulders is deemed necessary. page 9-70) X = Minimum cover over subbase (FI ure 9-54. stabilized-base design. page 9-73) = 6” (8 cannot be < 4” lift) Y = Minimum cover over select (Figure 9-54) = 9’: (f2 cannot be e 4” lift) 2 = Mmlmum cover over COmpaCtec sub rade (Figure 9-54) = 18” 9D cannot be < 4” lift) A -B-C Normally. frost effects are not considered as part of the design in TO road construction. Others will be surfaced with soils selected for their stability in wet weather and will be compacted as required. Frost Design 15” A=W = 4. therefore. in the event that extremely severe frost conditions exist or that frost design is directed. coarse-graded aggregate.

4 2. psi Figure 9-55. The use of equivalency factors requires that a road be designed to support the design-load conditions.2 1. psi Unconfined compressive strength.7 0. The selection of an equivalency factor from Figures 9-55 and 956 requires that the unconfmed compressive strength (as determined according to the American Society of Testing and Materials Standard (ASTM) D1633) be 2. lime. Thickness criteria EquivalencyFactors known. GP. and those from Figure 9-56 are for base materials.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. or cement and lime mixed with fly ash 9-76 Road Design . or cement and lime mixed with f/y ash Figure 9-56. SC Base 1. GM.oo -- cement. Equivalency factors for base soils stabilized with cement. If using a stabilized base or subbase course.50 1. lime. Equivalency factor for subbase soils stabilized with cement.0 0 200 400 600 a00 1000 0. Vol 1 Table 9-21. page 9-71.6 1. the thickness of a conventional base or subbase is divided by the equivalency factor for the applicable stabilized soil. Appltcatton of EquluaZency Factors. or a combination of fly ash mixed with cement or lime. The following are examples for the application of the equivalency factors: Material All-bltumlnous concrete GW. SP.4 0. SM.30 2. M[nlmum Thickness.0 fnches. The minimum thickness requirement for a stabilized base or subbase is 4. lime.00 1. The mfnimum thickness requirements for an asphalt pavement are the same as shown for convention pavements in Table 9-19.15 Subbase 2. The equivalency factors from Flgure 9-55 are for subbase materials. The selection of an equivalency factor from the tabulation is dependent upon the classification of the soil to be stabilized. GC SW.5 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Unconfined compressive strength.

Filtration. 4 inches of crushed stone base.15 = 3.: .. Drainage. ::. soil. and the thickness of the subbase is 10 inches.:~:::. :. rock.: . or any other geotechnical. The thickness of asphalt concrete required to replace the base is 4 inches/l.: < . However.j .- Road Design 9-77 .30 = 2. . : . : .:::.. It is desired to replace the base and subbase with a lime-stabilized gravelly soil having an unconfined compression strength of 950 psi. j : i ::.5 inches and the thickness of asphalt concrete required to replace the subbase is 6 inches/a. . gravelly soil having an unconfined compressive strength of 890 psi. the equivalency factor for the base is 1. and from Figure 9-56. Solution: The equivalency factor from data in Table 9-21. engineering fabrics. The minimum thicknesses of the asphalt concrete and the base are 2 and 4 inches. Geotextiles are commonly referred to as geofabrics.0. It is desired to construct an all-bituminous pavement.6 inches. for a base course is 1.:‘.:j FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.. gravelly soil. Separation.0 inches instead of 3.~.36 inches is rounded up to 7 inches. the thickness of the stabilized subbase is 7. the equivalency factor for a subbase having an unconfined compressive strength of 890 is 2.18 inches..: : .. the final thickness is 7.5 + 2. since the minimum lift thickness is 4 inches.:j:::j:. Solution: From Figure 9-55 the equivalency factor for the subbase is 2. Therefore.0 inches of base + 4.0 inches/2.. structure...0 inches. or system. earth. and 6 inches of subbase. Example 3: Assume a conventional flexible pavement has been designed which requires 2 inches of asphalt-concrete surface.~. It is desired to replace the base and subbase with a cement-stabilized.:. . Example 2: course is 4 inches/l..1 inches..: y::. which would be reduced to 8. Solution: From Figure 9-55.. the stabilized base lift must be rounded up to the nearest full inch.y: . :.6 or 8..0 inches of lime-stabilized gravel.: . : : j . the stabilized subbase must be 4..c. Therefore..:..18 inches. engineering-related material as an integral part of a human-made project. :j.: j j . From Figure 9-56.: j’: j . They serve four primary functions: l Assume a conventional flexible pavement has been designed which requires a total thickness of 16 inches above the subgrade.20.. Gcotcxtile8 The term geotextile refers to any permeable textile used with foundation.:.:::‘.0 inches of subbase = 11.10.p: :.0. and the thickness of the stabilized base Reinforcement.: :.:. .20 = 3.yj :. 0 l l .15 and for a subbase is 2. In addition...:.: j : : :..36 inches.30. The minimum thickness of the 80 CBR base is 7 inches and the 15 CBR subbase is 7 inches. The base-course thickness of 4.0 = 5.: i.:.0 inches. or just fabrics. gravelly soil. 10 = 6.0 inches would also have been required due to the minimum thickness of the stabilized base. Therefore.0 = 4. The final section would be 2 inches of asphalt concrete and 9 inches of cement-stabilized. Therefore.0 inches. Vol 1 Example 1: Assume an aggregate-surfaced road has been designed which requires a total thickness of 14 inches above the CBR 6 subgrade.. The subgrade still has an equivalent cover of 16 inches within the newly designed 2 inches of asphalt concrete and 9 inches of cement-stabilized. the equivalency factor for the base is 1. the thickness of the stabilized subbase is 10 inches/2..: ::j. respectively.::. and the thickness of the stabilized base is 7.0 inches/l. the total thickness of the all-bituminous pavement is 2 + 3. so 6.

.. each geotextlle manufacturer uses its own design procedure.: : :. the use of these fabrics can replace soil. and the particular geotextile used in construction may require alterations to this procedure. materials.:.. Nonetheless. the primary concern is with separating and reinforcing low load-bearing soils to reduce construction time. ::.FM 5-43&0O-l/AFpAM 32-8013.. In TO construction. : -. . As such... 9-78 Road Design .: ‘. Vol 1 . :. Appendix H of this manual outlines a typical geotextile design procedure. Additional details on geotextiles and their use are in Chapter 11 of FM 5-410. In many situations.::. saving tfme. and equipment costs..: . and a general design procedure using the design criteria established in previous sections has yet to be established... Geotextile design is an emerging technology. Note that Appendix H describes only one design procedure.

6818 1 1. ..02356 0.7 15.960 x cubic meters gallons cubic feet per set gallons per set grams liters meters minutes radians seconds grams liters meters grams ounces BTU feet meters VEIES decigrams deciliters decimeters degrees (angle) degrees (angle) degrees (angle) dekagrams dekaliters dekameters drams drams ergs fathoms feet feet feet feet of water feet per min feet per min feet per min feet per set feet per set feet per set feet per set feet per 100 foot pounds foot pounds foot pounds foot pounds foot pounds foot pounds foot pounds foot pounds foot pounds furlongs .5 144sqinxl In 0.7646 202.233 x 1 O-5 0.260 x 1O-5 40 3.205 x 3.1 0.228 x 0.36 0.286 x lo..4461 136.:.560 43.06480 0.85 0.645..1337 231 3.- 0.928 x 1 W4 0. .097 0.01732 1 xl06 35.642 x 1O-4 10-3 2.39 5.102 x lo-’ 1 x10.01 0.7 10 1 x 10-s 7.02832 0.356 x 10’ 5050 x 10-r 3241 x 1O-4 3766x10.4335 0.047 1.308 2642 27 feet per per per per min min min min yards lb per sq in cm per sq in feet per set miles per hour km per hour knots per hour meters per min miles per hour percent grade BTU ergs horsepower hours kilogram calones kilowatt hours BTU per min horsepower kg calories per mln kilowatts rods cubic cm cubic feet cubic inches cubic meters cubic yards cubic feet per set liters grams (av) grams pennyweights (troy) dynes grams (troy) kilograms milligrams ounces ounces (troy) pounds BTU gallons gallons gallons gallons gallons gallons per min gills grains (troy) grams (troy) grajns (troy) grams grams grams grams grams grams grams gram calories i c3 10-3 1o-3 1O-3 1O-3 Metric Conversions A-l .03215 2.1934 0.38 4.’ 1.:.367 0.32 472.951 x 2.5921 18. :::.244 1 cubic feet square feet square meters square miles square varas square yards cm of mercury inches of mercury feet of water pounds per sq in gallons cubic Inches kilogram calories foot pounds kilowatt hours horsepower kilowatts watts cubic feet square meters grams liters inches meters mils millimeters meter kilograms pound feet atmospheres feet of water kg of sq meters pounds per sq ft pounds per sq in meters per min square mils cubic feet cubic feet cubic inches cubic meters gallons liters cubic cm cubic inches cubic meters cubic yards gallons liters cubic cm per set gallons per set liters per set lb of water per min cubic cm cubic feet quarts (liquid) cubic cm cubic feet cubic yards gallons cubic feet cubic cubic cubic cubic yards yards yards per min yards per min 0.241 x lo-” 2.6 0.832 x 1O-4 1.0 0.‘.3937 0.01316 0.: .5080 0..560 4. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.707 x 1 o-4 0. ..01757 17.1183 1 0.90 14.45 3.29 0.785 x 4.562 x 1C3 5.7854 4ftx4ftxlft 8ftx4ftx4ft 6.333 0..481 28. .486 x lo”’ 6 0.: ..2520 770.0 27.4720 62.01667 0.43 10’3 103 0.92 33.57 1.1247 0.31 1.0 0.::: ‘.600 10 10 10 1.3048 0.01 393.01745 3.1 0.03527 0.772 0 0625 9.206 x 1 O-3 1.2 2.70 31.3 3.4 16.030 x 10-s 3.04167 980.840 76 0 29.728 0.METRIC CONVERSIONS MULTIPLY BV TO OBTAIN TO OBTAIN acre feet acres acres acres acres acres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres barrels board feet BTU BTU BTU BTU per min BTU per min BTU per min bushels centares centigrams centiliters centimeters centimeters centimeters centimeters centimeter grams centimeter grams cm of mercury cm of mercury cm of mercury cm of mercury cm of mercury cm per second circular mils cord feet cords cubic cm cubic cm cubic cm cubic cm cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet per min cubic feet per min cubic feet per min cubic feet per min cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic meters cubic yards 43.785 0. Vol 1 APPENDIXA MULTIPLY BY .03704 7.01136 1.01 0.6 2.1 60 0.

540 103 0.:i~~:.07355 0.878 x 1 F5 3.:..823 knots per hour BTU per min 11pounds per min horsepower BTU foot pounds kilometers per hour miles per hour inches inches cubic centimeters gallons quarts (liquid) cubic feet per set gallons per set centimeters feet inches kilometers millimeters yards meters feet kilometers yards feet per second kilometers per hour knots per hour kilograms grams liters centimeters inches mils centimeters inches radians seconds (angle) kilograms kilometers kilowatts miles Yards drams grains grams pQunds cubic inches grams (troy) grams pennyweights (troy) pounds (troy) cubic feet cubic inches cubic inches dynes per minute par minute of of of of of of of mercury mercury water water water water water atmcepheres feat of water poundspersqft atmospheres inches of mercury ounces per sq in pounds par sq ft pounds per sq In BTU ergs foot pounds kilogram calories kilogram meters wan hours dynes grams pounds tons (short) BTU foot pounds horsepower hours kilowatt hours kilowatts BTU ergs grams par cu cm pounds per cu ft atmospheres feet of water inches of mercury pounds per sq ft pounds per sq in liters centimeters feet meters miles meters meters meters meters meters meters microns miles miles miles miles per hour miles per hour miles per hour milliers milligrams milliliters millimeters millimeters millimeters mils mils minutes (angle) minutes (angle) myriagrams myriameters myriawatts nautical miles nautical miles ounces ounces ounces ouncaa ounces ouncea ounces ounces ounces e (fluid) (troy) (troy) (troy) (troy) perches (masonry) pints (dry) pints (liquid) pounds A-2 Metric Conversions .87 444.909 x 1 o-4 80 10 10 10 1.:::~~j.000 550 1.70 0.08333 24.152 12 7.5781 5.281 x 1C3 2.027 8 437.076 x 10’ 100 100 100 100 42.1020 2..805 480 31.06243 9.422x 1g3 103 105 3.102 x 10s 3.204 0.5396 56. j/o1 1 .~.486 x 1 D4 107 0.:.~.37 0.35 0.014 10.37 10’3 103 1.--r/ METRIC CONVERSIONS MULTIPLY BY TO OBTAIN MULTIPLY gram centimeters gram centimeters grams per cm grams per cu cm hectares hectares hectograms hecloliters hectometers hectowatts horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower horsepower inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches inches joules joules joules joules joules joules kilograms kilograms kilograms kilograms kilogram calories kilogram calories kilogram calories kilogram calories kilogram calories per min kilogram meters kilogram meters kilograms par cubic meter kilograms per cubic meter kilograms per sq meter kilograms per sq meter kilograms per sq meter kilograms per sq meter kilograms per sq meter kilditers kilometers kilometers kilometers kilometers 2.341 3.43 2.10 20 0.4 980.896 x 1 O-3 0.r (continued) BY TO OBTAIN .03937 39.665 1 x103 2.6093 1.73 0.60 28.403 x 10” 100 3.92 103 0.588 x lo-3 1.280 1.390 x 1 g4 0..03 0.7376 2.j.807 x 1 O7 1 x 10-s 0.133 70.06972 9.2048 1.75 33.002458 0.92 4.002540 1gs 2.0936 10-B 5.344 x 1 o.0625 1.:..FM 5_43&()()_1/AFPAM 321801 3.::.655 x lo6 1.5 28.778 x 1 o.162 x lo’3 0..968 3.6093 0..* 10-s 5.2046 1.-::.~ :.471 1..03342 1.853 1.302 x 10-s 9.6214 kilogram calories kilogram meters pounds per inch pounds per cu ft acres square feet grams liters meters watts BTU per min ft pounds per min ft pounds per set horsepower (metric) kg calories per min kilowatts watts centimeters mils VWES kilometers per hour kilowatts kilowatts kilowatts kilowatt hours kilowatt hours knots knots links links liters liters liters liters liters (engineer’s) (surveyor’s) 0.600 x 10’s 62.j:J::.088 1.44 33.467 1.03613 9.425 x 1 O4 1.2808 39.8684 103 163 10-s 0..760 1.7457 745.1 0.281 103 0.415 2.2642 1.7 2.152 2.:.057 5.885 x 1 V4 4.

...1296 0.~....555 1. :.:.587 x 1 o.20 57.::::‘: :....471 10.‘.).1 10..8 0.:..i:::::.1550 100 2. x 10’ grams ounces poundals centimeter centimeter cubic feet cubic inches gallons kg per cubic meter grams per cu cm per meter per sq meter kilograms kilograms dynes grams square square square square square square meters miles miles miles miles miles 1.745 2.:.....~:~~~~.196 640 27..764 3..: ..::.68 1..944 247.:j.1 144 90 5..228 1...’ x 10.’ 0.:..88 2. ..05692 10’ 44.::....296 x 10...::....590 3.8 0..01667 .09290 3.430 0.571 67..‘.6 16 32.75 57...765 13.341 102 3...016 2.::::::~:~..488 0. .356 13.‘i’iil’~:‘::..i.205 907....:......:..02 27..:.:( ..01602 4.196 2.861 x 1W7 x lo6 x 1O-4 x 10’ x 10..111 6.283 per minute per minute per minute per min per min per min per min per min per min per second per second 6 0.400 1..~ FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM 32-8013.... ....‘.098 2.i...:...9144 x 10-3 x lo6 kg per sq meter pounds pounds feet BTU per min per min per sq in per sq in kg per sq meter (short) (short) watts watts watts watts watts watt hours weeks yards yards Yards yards ergs per second foot pounds horsepower kilowatts BTU hours centimeters feet inches meters rev per radians rev per rev per degrees radians feet radians square square acres square square square square square square acres square square square square acres square square second per set per set min per set set per set per second per second inches millimeters meters miles varas yards centimeters feet feet meters miles yards feel miles square feet square feet square feet square square square square square square square square .::...i:.040..5 (angle) centimeters centimeters feet feet 4.~...:..:. Vol 1 METRIC CONVERSlONS -MULTIPLY (continued) BY TO OBTAIN BY TO OBTAIN MULTIPLY pounds pounds pounds pound feet pound feet pound feet pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds of water of water of water per cubic foot Per cubic inch per foot per square per square per square per square per square per square per square (angle) (angle) (angle) foot foot inch inch inch inch inch 453..2 2..1383 0..:..000 2...17 1....‘I’.....~ ::: ~~..44 3 36 0.....) .:..~...452 6........‘..~.406 2.0637 500 360 4 6.283 16..89 1.32 quadrants quadrants quadrants quarts quarts radians radians radians reams revolutions revdutions revdutions revdutions revolutions revdutions revolutions revolutions revolutions revdutions revdutions rods seconds square square square square tons (metric) tons (metric) tons (short) tons (short) tons (short) tons (short) tons tons VFUaS (dry) (liquid) per sq ft per sq ft per sq ft per sq in 9.......1664 0.066 9 0.:.000 x 1 O-7 x lo6 x 1V4 x 1 O6 square acres square square square square acres square square square square liters yards feet kilometers varas yards feet meters miles varas meter kilograms square yards square yards square square square steres temperature temperature temperature temperature tons tons (long) (long) meter yards yards yards steradians hemispheres feet of water atmospheres feet of water inches of mercury kg per square pounds degrees minutes radians cubic inches cubic inches degrees minutes quadrants sheets degrees quadrants radians degrees radians per second per set per sq ft absolute absolute kilograms pounds kilograms pounds kilograms pounds temp (deg C) (deg F) (deg C) temp (deg F) temperature temperature .882 0.307 2... :::::..~~.1198 16......68 0.’ x lo’3 x 1O’4 0.~..: “““‘“*‘.........76 1 x106 0...:..45 3.:r.~...30 3...:.._-_square square inches inches kilometers kilometers kilometers kilometers kilometers meters meters meters Metric Conversions A-3 ..1592 1 o3 (deg C) + 273 (deg C) + 17..415 168 91....7777 0.8 (deg F) t 460 (deg F) 1..:.26 1....:.825 0...~... .01667 1.....06804 2..613....~):...... . .848 0...:~.1047 0..01602 27..‘.. ..‘..778 360 6..:.: ..8361 3.‘.240 103 2..036 703.......~.3861 1.

82 3.148 0.94 9.28 2..73 9.835.333 0.825. t + 0. 1. I 3.52 3.‘:.75 7.20 3.548 2.59 14.O 53. 216.080.22 2.0 15.91 3.:‘.265 2.83.02 13. .333 3.037 0..0 2.43 32.>.74 3.67 2.88 317.53 Length Inches l Volume L Ir cm cu yd IIcm Feet m m l .07 44.1 0.12 1.97/ 2.61 7.11 0.05 33.28 96.22 36..09 0.80 10. .0 850.0 54. 1.21 0.4 56.23 15.05 6.0 5.22 31.07 0.101 2.28 32.25 0.0 3:82 176:: :z 1::' 135.765.90 0. :.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.76 2.43 17.65 76.o 1.2 283.. 0.82 45.5 1.91 2.1 162.43 63.E 243. Vol 1 ::.81 3.620.36 1.61 18.91 1.81 24.8 255. 3..441 4.35 247.: 2.68.74 31.55 ii 19.0 Metric_ Ian 1 Short ton 4 Units of centimeters Cm 11.35 11.49 / I i/ !31.111 1.82 11.:.:.18 110.63 4.0 7..66.430.14 65.62 1.0 6.47 54.852 2.87 18..32 176.11 8.28 0.52 2.31 IO.07 13..09 55.701.86 4.02 22.671 8.44 5.12 66.48' 9.35 Inch 0.23 1...491 19..54 5.18 0.14 27.0 108.32 0..370 0.47 4.C 2.83 4.O 61.48 0..62 l 43.271 7.d 1.28 0.09 66.47 2.05 44.o 38.08IO.1 198.71 1.10 18..10 0.700.72 8.13 4.30 10..81 2.51 6.412.58 1.178.37 198.0 1. : .56 0.28 154.94 1.25.350. :.7 85.40 1.491 6.87 2. METRIC CONVERSIONS (continued) Weight '9 l Ounces 9 Pounds kg Short ton l l l >unces kg 'ounds Metric ton ..18 I ’ 2.75 36.0 189. 2.481 1.:‘:>I.36 54.19 1.118. 28.07 80.703 0.36 0.97 12.14 0.212 0.20 !0.26 8.04 0.0830.83 6.57 .21 16.00 IO. .160.85 64.2010.12 2.962 3.41 5.14 77.07 18.56 65. j .61 8.29 45. 13.35 7..45 0.984.16 9.20 4.621 12.::.o 30.661 6.4 226.268.051 5.46 0.32 26.50 72.16 88.16 Fractionsofan inch 1.91 1.. .8501 810.40 10.0 113.14 22.56 5.700 1.12 10.059.35 0.42 220.8321 2..04 0.29 706.30 1.37 3.074 0.741 1.5661 540.06 1.O 45.24 3.890.54 9.84 8.461 31531.40 22.417.185 0.f 81.4 141.7010.982 1.: 27.63 4.68 27.0 68.84 0.72 3.. 0. :..82 9.61 1. :.92 11.7587.17 3.61 1.09 10.12 282.18 3..57.5 567.:.472.: 1.0 22.29 40.16 2.22 16.29 32.14 88.59 211..600.71128.31 4.74 9.o 1.65 353.259 0.01 76.811 6.222 2.68 37.81 2.44 6.5 6.66 6.5 2.53 70.8 170. Feet 1 ml Ituft 4 cuyd --_L_fliles / 1 ’ I I .23 132.5 1.37 43.240.08 4.23 29.53' 2.551.0 4.44 328.:~.592 2.5 2.E 1.76 35.50 10.72 3.41 6.19 21.0 270.39 10.28iO.64 48.134.296 0.50112.84 22.4 i L I I A-4 Metric Conversions .41 1.: 2.64 19.111 0.

or 173. .1416 L = length of arc K = length of chord (6) Regular polygons.GEOMETRIC FORMULAS of circle: (4) Segment (2) Right triangle: a-m b-m -GZ-? (3) Circle: A-32 A = 0.! parallelepiped a (7) Rectangle A = ab -7 (11) Prism or cylinder: and parallelogram: /!.366 11.. The area of any regular polygon (all sides equal. See factors in table.. I .694 9. all angles equal) is equal to the product of Area of a regular octagon having 6-inch /I 1 No. 10 m b b (10) Rectangular V = ablb. =-----a b a = angle in degrees 32-8013. Vol 1 B .FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM APPENDIX __ (1) Any triangle: A = 1/2bh or: Shy c Sin Q.720 2. of sides ii ! /j i.828.81 square inches.828 6. of sides POLYGON FACTORS Factor 4.182 7.634 I I . Example problem: the square of the lengths of one side and the factors. 1.196 I i ! Factor i No. sides is 6 x 6 x 4. 7 y:.Y (8) Trapezoid: A = 1/2a(bl + b2) V = a x area of base b (12) Pyramid or cone: V = (1/3)a x area of base “j? b2 (13) Sphere: V = (4&T? 5 $ A=4i? Geometric formulas B-1 .7854 C=xD D2 A C a b (5) Segment of circle: rl_ L Pa A = -? = 360 A = area h = height b = length of base c = hypotenuse C = circumference V = volume r = radius D = diameter z = 3. 1 II I (9) Cube: V = b3 b I / jI .598 3.

::i:.FM 5-43’)()O- 1 /A FPAM 32-80 13.: ..:~‘.c s. j/o1 1 ~:~+.(AtB) a sin B sin A a sin C sin A b sin C sin B da2tb2-2abcosC a2sin Bsin C 2 sin A -ab sin C 2 B-2 Geometric formulas .i::i:::~::::ii:::.y:~j::j::: :::.:‘j.:::.~. :‘ii”‘:‘.q?:jT:.: 3.. :.:j::ji~~:?:~.. i::““‘:..:::.j.:.A a.A. .::::‘..Sin a+b+c c .Sin C d-b2+c?-2bcCosA t?-a2+C2-2acCosB t?=$+$-2abCosC I Given Oblique triangle To find b area qs(s-a)(s-b)(s-c) 1 a.a2 t t? Right triangle To find a Sin Sp2 b .~.i:i..j.I:.i::~..:.n B _ bsin a tanA----a sin C b-a cos C 180 .b..B a.:i::i(i.i.b.i’ (continued) SinA-! CosA-i TanA-: C GEOMETRIC FORMULAS a2-C2-b2 t?-Z-a2 a c2 .i.i .

...115 6..314 5.705 4. :....‘..:. .’..““‘...‘. .‘....141 0..1......040 1.~....‘....( ::::.....:. ..019 1..... ..~.732 3...206 7.:: ...420 I 0.026 0..::.134 3..:~::...176 0....i...:..: ...........985 0.. .022 1...‘..988 0.‘:‘..._. . ..392 5.~....259 0.. .‘..010 1..139 0...:.:....::::..306 I 4..:‘:.......... i. ..““‘. .:...:..:...864 3.........185 6.... .: GEOMETRlC Degree of Angle 0 FORMULAS (continued) Degree Slno 0..‘(‘.271 I 1.............241 4..970 0.... .~:~~ . ::. .“..::.......174 0. .. ~.... .......993 0.......:...000 Cowcanl Tangent 0... . /..._...046 I 0.759 5.. :::::..292 I 4..208 0..~. . .~. .‘.‘: :: ::.:.031 1...... . .144 7....(.810 4... ..: .... .:.....‘.145 4...~~: ..::........ ..035 1..‘..i.628 3..:.~.~.. .....191 0.. .....966 0..:. .i.000 Cotangent Secant 1.213 0.287 0.671 5..158 0...445 0... .. . ... .. . ... ... . .....956 I 76 75 74 73 Degree of Angle Degree Codne Secant Cotangent Tangent Coeecant Sine of Angle TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Geometric formulas B-3 ..~~~...194 0.978 0.....242 0.:.249 0.. ...982 0. ““‘..: .225 8..“. _.. .......... .....276 0.....‘..../.268 0...I...000 of Angle 90 7 8 9 10 11 0../...... >:.. .961 0...._.. FM 5_43()_0()_1 /AFPAM 321801 3..000 Cosine 1..974 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 II 12 13 I 14 15 16 17 0.~. .008 1. ... .~.. .C.I~~~.. .. .~....015 1.....::.:...:...011 3.122 0... .156 0..:...012 1.~.231 8... ..‘. vol 1 ..331 1. .. .487 3. “““““.123 0.990 0.

j:: (continued) GEOMETRIC FORMULAS Degree of Angle Cosine Secant Cotangent Tangent Cosecant Sine Degree of Angle TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS i B-4 Geometric formulas .j..:.~~:.i:.. .~~.I ..j!(.>.i.. ~lI~~.:.:... .:..i: .: ::Ij.::.:.~.:.j:I:: :::. .l:‘::~..~:.:i:~...~..I:::.: . :.<.j’~‘.:~ .i. Vol 1 :.::.::j..l~~. j...i::‘.:.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-801 3.:..::‘:~:i.

..... . ....:::.. with cross-section areas and hydraulic radius.:.:... .04 and hydraulic gradient S = 1 percent..1..‘.~./.... .‘..:..:: ...~~~~... ..:..:....‘....... page C-2. /. to facilitate selection of ditch size and shape...............:... .... .. ...:..~.:..~.:_i.:... :w>: . HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED DRAINAGE CHANNELS Tables C-2 through C. . :’ 1.A>...:.:.:.......i:.. provides local data for use in designing drainage systems as discussed in Chapter 6.:....:..i.. HYDROLOGIC SUPPLY CURVES FOR OVERLAND FLOW Figures C-l through C-7....l..... .....:...I . ...:.x:‘....:../.:e..(‘..:.. ...........:...:..... .... Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves C-l ..... all of which have the same average frequency of occurrence......... These curves are computed from Horton’s equation given fn Chapter 6..:. pages C-7 through C-13.“’ ““““““’ ::. ..(.:~ :.~.. .:+:...i::il:31ilil~llii: FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013..A.... ::‘:..........:... ...y. ..:‘:‘:.. ... .. ... ......:. .........::::::::::.: ..:::: ..... . Vol 1 APPENDIX C HYDROLOGIC AND HYDRAULIC TABLES AND CURVES PRECIPITATION TABLES Table C... .... ..~...::........... .i. using a retardance coefficient in n = 0......::~:~::::::::~. represent the peak runoff rates from individual storm events of various durations. pages C..14 through C-22. .:.:.. present commonly used ditch sections.: ..10.. .:::.:..... :.

99 1.80 026 0.94 6.45 2.70 0.90 Mean 24. Mean monthly.50 0.46 19.80 0. 8-13 6-10 5-9 19-23 19-23 19 23 - 15 52 57 73 SOUTH AMERICA Puerto Earrros.22 6.63 18.20 23. NewfoundIan Id: 5.50 2508 494 18.03 0.12 020 2.26 3.80 56.11 2.10 2.61 13.36 2.50 2.11 3.40 9 45 9.92 2.06 18.60 8.70 6.20 10.35 18.36 7.62 5.81 3.55 3.90 0.10 1213 5.61 26.47 1050 4.70 0.83 1.67 040 6.82 12.57 216 247 268 1.hour maxmum 3.76 0.58 2.35 6. maximum monthly.20 0.13 0.34 0.20 19.80 11.44 508 1284 3. 166" 20 w 1.40 150.84 100 0.30 0.39 11.15 0 70 2.70 470 10.39 3.59 s.14 0. and maximum 24-hour precipitation throughout the world for selected stations 4.79 2.53 058 710 0.15 53.18 7.06 0 20.86 2. Guatem Iala (15' 35' N.39 5.36 0.55 15.30 1.43 070 0.54 0.60 Jan Feb ~_ Yk3WS Mar Apr May JWl JUI Aw SOP act Nov oec Annual Recorded s Q s Q 3 f 0.26 220 3.82 300 T 1.70 0.62 2958 520 7.70 0.62 050 0 186 100 0 146 110 0 1.87 1000 11.72 1590 350 213 1043 2. 88" 35' VI): Mean Maxmum 24~hour maxrmum Fortateza.67 2.84 1.80 69.73 0.17 0. 0.27 7 40 6.74 7 72 228 3.78 11.69 7.67 0.28 2.94 2.52 0.05 3.42 2.75 1970 4.15 425 16.79 0.45 208 0 5.73 0.33 7.99 3.3O'w) Mean Maximum 24.92 2.hour mawmum Mean Kerchrkan 13.76 154 3.39 13.99 18.69 7.55 8.73 snowfall CANADA Edmonton.06 12.40 089 0.27 3.76 1.75 69.69 0.07 334 0 11. cl I I h ALASKA Barrow Mean 24.70 17.00 26 18 19 21-23 30-32 29-30 I I z c.43 5.s Q Table C-l.80 6.75 8.47 32.22 5.89 160 0 2.71 0.81 425 8.62 3 54 783 201 3.14 0.61 807 0 12.10 11 18 7 19 13 9.00 33.80 3. Etrazil(3"42 38.hour Mean Maximum 24.46 32.33 2.74 0.74 1.50 5.86 26.08 0.58 9.80 0.90 4 23 1.61 3.12 701 11.hour Mean Mean 24 hour maxrmum Mean snowfall Teller (65" 16' N.74 2.90 15.15 3.32 3.95 5.80 110 661 2 76 0.30 3.70 4.67 2.68 807 3230 maxmum snowfall 0.00 0.57 0.67 0.20 023 2.77 26.19 3.18 124.20 52.hour maximum Mean Dutch Mean 24.36 5.61 10.05 362 Alberta.77 158.26 4.54 7.40 1.93 11.72 7.30 0.20 5634 10941 961 72 72 59 1146 25.61 9.56 0.51 0.53 T 7. .40 0.70 0.41 7.80 0.37 0.00 0.97 655 3.80 15.20 0.16 5.31 10.96 7.60 2.92 14.54 6.20 0.70 1465 4.20 0.36 0.60 snowfall Harbor 6.hour maximum CENTRALAND maxrmum St Johns.14 575 4.50 0.93 25.51 3.49 1.86 5.44 0.46 6. Mean 24.00 6.98 5.10 12.12 3.60 0.60 425 0 8.81 1.86 4.75 0.35 4.80 6.31 4 53 0.13 2.04 0.

98 1.08 3.81 2.45 0.10 56.60 1.17 1.27 2.51 1.12 3.91 5.12 1.60 1.73 1.77 4.02 21. Greece Mean Maximum 24.07 2.40 2.38 1.73 3.11 1.43 7.56 1.03 7.14 3.53 1.45 1.23 62 68 65 Bo 80 15 70 70 15 35 31 30 71 87 36 50 44 31 38 26 26 51 51 38 50 19 19 .87 1.71 1.64 1.27 236 6.75 5.28 2.05 2.90 0.73 2.95 0.28 3.50 7.34 1.60 2.54 4 17 1 55 1.95 1.37 7.91 1.64 2 95 640 2 23 056 4.08 1.76 1.66 19.30 3.94 1.00 1.28 2 62 1.27 0.98 6.26 1.20 50.58 50.59 484 2 69 2.75 4.69 34.24 4.99 1.86 31.13 5.17 2.32 6 57 2.65 7.33 1.31 1.66 2 24 4.65 1.54 4.65 5.13 1.17 1.58 9. Sweden.53 3.05 15.18 9.67 2.93 3. Mean Maximum 24.82 2.44 3.24 5.59 1.95 3.38 1. maximum monthly.23 0.42 3.57 5.59 2.43 11.16 2.61 1.71 1.31 1.21 1.89 5.89 4.29 3.35 2.87 1.68 7 72 17.80 1.13 3.24 7.56 5.27 6.70 2.87 2.70 1.91 2.82 6.28 3.66 3.89 4 63 1.54 1.05 3.97 5.35 0.01 4.83 2.79 2.20 37.17 25.13 2.28 0.94 1.44 5.90 1.47 0.50 2.59 3.84 3.09 1 85 1.83 2.29 1.38 4.20 1.25 1. Czachoslavakia: Mean Maximum 24.73 2.18 3.22 2.74 6.62 0.61 0.37 0.23 6.60 5.06 2.36 1.58 3.97 0.01 6 49 1.01 0.87 1.09 7.89 4.07 2.20 2. NorwayMean Maximum 24.99 1.81 6.hour maxlmum Reylqawk.96 4. Iceland Mean Maximum 24hour maxlmum Feb Mar Apr May JUll Jul A”g -P act Nov oec Annual Y6W-S Recorded 1. Finland.77 5.18 1.10 1.60 3.88 2.82 1.Table C-l.94 0.15 1.39 5. England: Mean Maximum 24-hour maximum Berlin.77 1.80 2.19 2.52 2.82 1.73 4.77 4.99 38.24 8.66 0 28 1 14 102 2.37 33.90 0.61 2.69 4.hour maximum Helsinki.91 6.54 13.11 11.69 1.16 1.56 2.91 3.82 1.50 1.22 2.81 4.31 9.12 31.54 1.29 335 2.60 1.10 2.12 3.88 2.67 2.91 18.46 3.86 6.23 1 75 5.95 5.91 1.65 3.89 2.57 2.24 4.57 1.98 3.20 1.40 1.64 2.22 4.94 0.46 3.40 0.91 650 1.hour maximum Stockholm.07 130 2 45 4.67 1.61 1.44 2.78 2.94 3.31 3.21 2.94 1.85 1.72 7.77 4. Mean monthly.16 1.50 1.69 3.08 1.30 2.50 1.56 8.46 1.91 8. and maximum 24-hour precipitation throughout the world (in inches) (continued) for selected stations Jan EUROPE AN0 ICELAND London.30 2.07 9.31 24.61 5.48 66.53 3.03 0.61 2.39 6.90 1.35 2.23 1.52 5.88 4.83 1 07 3.87 8.hour mawmum Corfu.22 3.96 2.35 1.88 0.18 1. Mean Maximum 24-hour mawmum Trondheim.28 1.90 2.40 22.62 0.80 1.17 23.31 2.29 6.98 1.36 5.31 2.69 4.30 1.01 4.33 1.99 3 70 13.88 1. Germany Mean Maumum 24.76 6.42 2.25 27.50 1.64 28.26 3.98 2.75 1.54 1.28 0.64 1.09 5.69 1.48 150 4.09 180 1.hour maximum Prague.79 1.11 9.48 5.07 1.54 5.36 0.49 0.38 4.50 5.hour maximum Budapest Hungary: Mean Maximum 24.52 2.30 1.57 4.46 2.04 3.60 5.05 4.26 1.83 2.56 1.85 0.63 5.

67 2.61 4.hour maxmum mawmum Honshu (Jai pan) 1.33 6.90 Gensan.40 7. Chma (25” 017’ N.68 260 1150 48.40 5.18 61.10 2.60 6.16 0.90 2.02 20.40 5.50 2.16 0.31 0 34 1 35 0 67 0 96 3 40 107 2 91 6 47 2. maximum monthly.20 14 a0 5 90 7 70 22 30 4 30 4 74 1226 4 a0 5 10 1580 580 600 630 9.37 0.70 4.00 14 46 4 77 858 15.Table C-l.10 10.50 11.61 0.94 2.20 5.43 3.02 16.80 3.76 5.50 5.80 55.80 92.90 2.80 4.90 2.20 500 420 2 70 4.09 0.84 20.10 0 a9 069 7 68 13 69 2.13 043 1. Mean monthly.22 4 21 12.69 0.50 0.03 0 13 0.26 1a1 6 85 2 87 1.39 4.50 I3 20 2.80 lo.10 3.14 5.80 2 80 7 30 4 70 3.20 0 66 0 33 0 15 138 0.00 2.90 330 3 33 17.80 3.80 390 1.80 4.22 0.78 0.32 1.09 1.10 2.06 1.02 9.70 1.96 11.60 ii.62 0. Chma: Mean Mtimum 24.60 6.91 0.60 4.90 9 60 390 341 5.70 400 780 2 90 40 09 53.60 4. Mongolia (47” :i5’ N.10 2.91 1.50 4.00 1.90 7.80 2. Korea Mean Mawmum 24.63 1.M) 9 10 2.89 32 32 32 53 47 53 44 20 22 4.60 7.60 1.50 1.39 7.11 4.88 0.00 1.46 026 40. China.30 41.61 85.60 260 1.60 1.55 2.50 4.27 a.49 14.60 7.73 1.50 890 52.13 2 28 1.90 12.47 5.60 4. Hokkaldo (Japan) Mean Maxtmum 24.80 1.30 2.00 5.60 9.09 0.10 3.16 119.60 4.09 9.16 6.90 30 22 44 Urakawa.30 1.00 11 00 4.30 65. 102” 54’ E) Mean Maximum 24.86 1.40 a.65 3.55 23.60 11 .14 5.60 0.90 3.91 7. 106’ 50 E) Mean Mawmum 24.W 2.60 1.75 2.40 1 60 4.00 2.90 2.60 6 6 6 a.98 11.30 a20 490 3 70 1120 430 5.80 4.hour mawmum Yunnan.29 15 01 30.10 1.75 7.50 1.60 BOO 1046 16.58 0 15 0.90 2.30 3. Hokkaldo (Japan)’ Mean Maxlmum 24.31 2.30 i a0 490 9 a0 3 40 4.hour mawmum Kobe.15 490 3.18 0.92 0.22 3431 11. Mean Maximum 24.20 1.20 3 26 290 0.60 7.50 690 2.80 64.90 500 3 40 7 40 2.23 28.00 1.70 4.56 2.20 7.17 0.00 2.53 10.08 4.70 4.70 a 82 5.10 550 1 40 E$zl 3.22 0 79 0.hour maximum Hongkong.60 4.89 0 04 0.26 2.17 1.80 2.hour Hamada.10 2.37 1.07 3.50 4.11 2.90 1.50 500 a60 250 2.08 21 02 7.67 4.60 1200 8.86 15 15 10 .60 7.89 1.40 2.30 6 22 22 56 9 61 1552 34 38 12.70 2. Mean Maximum 24-hour maxtmum Urga.63 2 46 6 96 309 0.50 1.60 6.43 9.80 53.59 164 1.20 5.50 4. Honshu (Japan Mean Maximum 24.40 7.30 1.hour maximum Tientsin.15 79.26 2.40 3.a0 460 750 18.hour mawmum Feb Mar Jutl Jul Aw ckl NOV oec Annual Years Recorded 3. and maximum 24hour throughout the world (continued) precipitation for selected stations Jan ASIA Sapporo.hour maximum 21 21 29 035 2.74 18.00 5.80 400 4.20 20.76 7.80 8.91 4 33 2.64 0.76 2.22 1.44 17.39 i a9 1.96 1.11 30.72 21.56 2.81 1.94 a.50 0.09 21.90 5.20 7.33 7.37 0.38 0.06 0 06 0.70 6.78 533 3.00 8.93 11.

40 0.50 190 1 40 0 10 0.60 2.45 8.10 1.50 2.77 1726 5.02 1.10 2.08 3.80 0.01 57.71 1.87 19.76 7.15 3.30 6 40 2.10 1.14 1 70 1.48 3.10 0.30 0.11 33.. Arabia: Mean Maximum 24.23 0.hour maximum Trichinopoly.60 3.70 4.62 0.93 0.40 16 00 7.92 1.39 1.83 2.92 36.90 6.40 2.31 2.20 0.68 3 74 6.90 0. Indra: Mean Maximum 24-hour mexrmum Karachi.94 1.66 0.70 3.40 2. Angola.70 0.03 0.20 1.56 9.72 5.50 0.62 0.00 95.83 22.83 0.42 2 19 1 80 0 82 2 48 0.20 2.65 1080 3.10 15.16 0.10 18.96 8.60 98.48 366 1.55 1.44 21.10 44.12 0 48 336 0.01 011 0 0 0 01 0 16 0 04 0 09 0 36 0.20 0.57 3.56 1.40 0.60 0.10 1.10 1.30 150 1.14 8 71 1740 1 31 0 24 1.60 2.80 3.65 2.68 6.50 0.63 0.19 52.65 10.57 3.98 4.10 0.30 1.75 0.58 1.11 4.30 2.97 1.00 0.36 130 37 98 99.30 0.57 10.20 4. Pakistan Mean Maximum 24. and maximum 24-hour precipitation throughout the world (continued) for selected stations Jefl ASIA (mntmued) Singapore.90 0.38 19.76 7 26 2.15 0.70 1.80 8.34 95.86 1.28 3.10 1.10 0.60 28.91 6. Mean monthly.10 0.93 24.20 0 78 2 62 3.70 1.59 7.6 1 1 69 14 15 5.80 0.92 15.64 14.00 424.93 2 63 0.62 24.02 1 50 1 24 3.87 6. Mean Maximum 24-hour maximum AFRICA Casablanca.11 12.30 190 0.08 3.93 1.02 4.86 7.74 4.00 9.85 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 16 2 48 1.96 1 24 6 06 10.40 5.02 1 10 230 1.92 2.56 0.18 10.02 3.70 4.86 0 65 15.00 8.77 12.10 0.30 1. India.98 5.13 8.43 12.60 0.30 0.63 7.21 10.55 0 57 2.79 7.10 1.37 7 02 0.46 1. maximum monthly.39 0.35 0.30 1.07 12.40 1.79 4.70 .90 14.21 3.hour maximum Cherrepunji.10 0.30 7.34 1.41 3 88 961 3 81 6.97 140 79 84 97.56 52 21 21 25 19 25 20 20 7 20 20 5 83 83 18 61 18 18 1. Morocm Mean Maximum 24-hour maximum Huambo.00 2.00 22 28 10 6 6 2 26 21 26 .30 0.06 6.61 0.20 0.04 0 08 0.03 4.27 36.07 560.15 4.20 0.28 0.41 24.23 14.50 0.10 0.40 0.40 7.60 1.52 7.31 9.49 0 0 0 1 21 4 68 1 27 5 14 1053 3.51 147.73 21.40 19.11 4.27 16.42 12.94 12.32 6.77 13.35 8.76 8.06 685 14.60 0.Table C-l.30 1.20 0.10 0.56 28.20 21 26 51.21 040 1 26 067 7.59 2.92 169.06 27.40 0.20 1 06 1 15 15 61 21.hour maxImum Cairo.28 128.61 2.30 3.59 0 38 2.13 4.86 554 13.69 2.32 0.38 243 0.40 0.21 2.hour maxrmum Feb Mar Apr JlJn JUI Aug SeP act Nov DeC Annual Years Recorded 988 14.07 1.07 14.26 8.47 3 30 2 12 7 95 10 al 4 17 5.01 1.05 10.91 4.67 2.90 0. China Mean Maximum 24-hour maxrmum Oaken.30 3.61 87.10 1.93 0 28 0 22 0.40 6.10 0.54 8.56 3.06 1. Mean Maxmum 24.15 0.23 2.02 100 2.08 0.13 6.68 51. Manchurii: Mean Maximum 24-hour maximum Manchouli: Mean Maximum 24-hour mawmum Aden.40 48.50 1.87 104 0.50 0.08 6.66 0.50 9.00 1270 4 10 1.20 0.98 4.10 1.89 0.92 1.30 2.20 3. Egypt Mean Maximum 24.48 14.55 16.26 0 0 0.04 1.36 2.58 9.70 1.03 6.

FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. : :: .. Vol 1 . 3 C-6 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves .

147” 52’ E): Mean Maximum 24-hour maximum Darwin.42 3.97 0.80 Feb Mar L Years *Y Jun JUI Apr act NOV 14.18 0.34 3.25 3.85 17.40 40.44 0.56 2.50 3.70 8. 1.36 7.46 0.37 43.56 0.65 26.42 1.34 1.39 10.39 22.73 1.10 5.Table C-l.70 34.12 6.30 2.16 1.05 1.83 1.20 3.lr2 10.90 1130 2.21 23.66 21.84 -.30 12. Australia: Mean Maximum 24hour maxknum Weltington.27 1.44 9.60 0 79 4.42 0.46 3.65 6.56 0.56 2.96 2.94 3. Australia: Mean Maximum 24-hour maximum Daly Waters.40 4.79 14.16 1.22 19. .61 9.56 7.30 103.70 14. 8 0 .19 12.06 4.95 7.70 17.60 3.46 3.69 3.90 4.17 23.07 0.17 12.03 0.00 2.01 2.17 6.79 2.50 3.60 3.11 2.60 0.30 12.86 11.27 0.65 5.34 0.83 4. 7.98 4.60 4.90 2.16 0.96 21.66 6.60 1 69 4.94 8.62 29.10 1.80 2.87 4.57 0._.41 0.90 15.50 4.w 13. New Zealand: Mean Maximum 24hour maximum ARCTIC (not included previously) Jan Mayen (70” 59’ N.73 0.30 3.15 4.05 3.00 4.45 13.66 8.14 0 0 2.82 35.80 12.10 2.36 4.76 11.14 0.60 4.55 12.40 2.53 1.70 24.66 3.17 4. Canada: Mean Maximum Mean snowfall U&n.74 6.50 27.00 1.76 3.90 0.89 6.69 0.50 2.56 1.11 _.79 2.66 0.88 4.70 13.60 0.28 2.94 3.05 1.65 5.16 1.22 11.63 2.65 61.64 6.26 5.68 0.50 1 . maximum monthly.43 2.39 0.50 0.50 0.70 4.00 5.60 16.93 0.73 87.03 6.43 1.20 6.00 4.99 2.49 0.25 5.95 4. AUSTRALIA AND NEW GUINEA Finschafen.59 4.57 2.09 4._ 52 56 28 43 12 3 63 91 63 69 69 63 154 3.10 3.44 29.51 2.13 7.76 3M 0.38 8..66 2.09 5.64 9.62 0.31 2.56 1.60 5.70 1.60 1. Mean Memum 24hour maximum Brisbane.67 9.36 23.19 8.32 0.12 3.00 17.30 48.22 3.26 0 2.08 17.60 5.31 1. Australia.06 10.20 11. New Guinea (6” 03’ S.44 0.80 0.28 3.74 3.82 4.90 5.99 11.20 a.99 3.88 7.70 0.30 0.45 6.28 12.61 lg.23 7.67 4.23 9.34 2.06 0.30 0. 8’ 20’ W): Mean Maximum Coopermine._ 7 16 5 7 _. Mean monthly.11 67.61 12.09 0.08 2.04 11. Siberia: Mean Maximum Average thickness of snow cover at Anadyr ANTARCTIC Lii America: 1929 snowfall (unmelted depth in inches) 3.10 165 6.51 1.99 6.43 9.50 15.70 0.80 12.63 27.61 2.56 17.08 15.83 0.50 9.23 181.65 2.50 5.00 14.72 18.56 130.30 10.50 3.06 0.40 1.64 252 4 75 1 19 1.86 14.53 3.25 1.90 13.34 ____ 10.30 3.50 9.M) 7.60 0.11 15.80 1. and maximum 24-hour precipitation for selected stations thrc ghout the world (in inches) continued) 1 Jan NEW ZEALAND.30 0.29 9.60 29.70 4.43 31.76 3.40 68.53 0.46 ____ 58.84 0.50 0.20 4.94 5.74 4.76 2..54 0.39 2.26 18.43 6.67 20.96 0.67 10.87 22.17 3 10 19.13 4.30 15 15 -.49 10.20 5.70 2.59 1.70 41..41 0.94 1.82 3.80 13.20 8.60 45.62 0.

~j.0 1.i:::i:G’< tc-‘i r 8..40.0 Duration of supply in minutes 4 1 SUPPLY CURVE NO.. supply curve number 0.J.. Figure C-l./.~\. assuming surface tc = critical duration of supply. Rates of overland flow corresponding to standard supply curves. 0.S 0.FM 5_430_00_j/AFPAM 23 32-8013.::::::j:i::. u = rate of supply.i’. :‘:i. in inches per hour.::.. .... storage as negligible.‘.effective length of overland or channel in minutes.i.: : /:.S 1.6 1 Duration of supply in minutes Note: L . .4 and 0.::.:.:.:. flow. . j/o1 1 .. in feet..0 0..:‘. S = 1 percent C-8 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves . n = 0.::::~..6.::.

...>:.: :. Figure G-2.:.. S = 1 percent Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves C-9 .Z.. .. ? .. : . :. Vol 1 IO 20 30 40 80 TO lO &ration of supply in minutes - Duration of supply in minutes Note: L = effective length of overland or channel flow. . ‘_‘ “.. ... :.(.. . in inches per hour.:: j .:.>:.:..:: ... : .... :... .... : ..:.... u = rate of supply.. . : .. ... in minutes. .::...:.: ..:::.::..:.. . assuming surface tc = critical duration of supply. .....: FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. .... .40... .:’ :‘. : .. supply curve numbers 0. . . .::..: :..... .8 and 1. storage as negligible..>.:. in feet.0.. .. . . .:.... ..:..A.. n = 0. Rates of overland flow corresponding to standard supply curves.. .....::.(...: .. :.y.. ....:.

:.. : ::‘:::._ 50 60 70 m of supply in minutes Note: L = effective length of overland or channel flow.:.. in inches per hour. 8 a _c h 0 0 IO 20 30 Duration of supply 40 70 IO in minutes SUPPLY I CURVE I NO.::::..:..40. Rates of overland flow corresponding to standard supply curves.~:‘~~..4 0 IO 20 __ -_ 30 Duration 40 ... .: :...:l. Figure C-3.:’:.:~~.4.:>. j/o1 1 :. storage as negligible.:.:T’l. :.:::.:..:i. in minutes..I~:.2 and 7.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-801 3.j:.I..~l:”i....:::. supply curve numbers 1.::i:.::i::.:: . in feet. CT= rate of supply.~..:.. n = 0..: .: . I 1.. assuming surface tc = critical duration of supply. ~..:. S = 1 percent C-10 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves .

..:::. . . S = 1 percent Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves C-l 1 ... Figure C-4. :.:. : ‘:..j.. :. .40. . Vol II IO 20 30 40 50 00 TO 80 Duration of supply in minutes 20 30 40 SO Duration of supply in minutes Note: L = effective length of overland or channel in minutes. .... :... :..‘. .:...:. .. n = 0.: .‘~:::‘~:.‘.... j ::~.. :. supply curve numbers 1.j ‘:...8.. assuming surface tc = critical duration of supply.. ..ii’i:‘..:: .‘:i::+?.“.. . :..... ... . u = rate of supply.. . ......::‘... . -. in inches per hour........‘.. . :.6 and 1.:!:....‘.: ....::::‘.....:::‘i..:: .. .’ .‘: ..“.. . j.‘.:. .“‘.. ... storage as negligible.. :j.. flow. .... .. ...~‘..‘...... . Rates of overland flow corresponding to standard supply curves. in feet. ..‘. ::::. . .... FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.. .A. ...: . . .

.‘..0 and 2.. in minutes. storage as negligible.2. :.. Vol 1 : ‘..... in inches per hour. . Rates of overland flow corresponding to standard supply numbers 2.. assuming surface tc = critical duration of supply.. S = 1 percent curves..40.. Figure C-5. 0 IO 20 30 40 50 80 70 01 Duration 71 1 1 I of supply I in minutes I I I Duration of supply in minutes Note L = effective length of overland or channel flow. n = 0.. ::.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. :.. in feet.. u = rate of supply. . supply curve C-12 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves .

.. assuming surface length of overland or channel in minutes...: .: ..::.. Rates of overland fiow corresponding to standard supply numbers 2. . :. S = 1 percent curves. .I . . .: .. .c. .. : :.::::.. .‘. .. supply curve Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves C-13 .:: .. storage as negligible.::. . ....: :. . :I::‘l:. ::..: :y::i:: :.. : FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM 32-8013....:.: . .:‘::.:.. tc = critical duration of supply. . in feet. Figure C-6..I :. : . o = rate of supply.: .:.. ... :. 2.: ..... Vol 1 Duration ‘r1 of supply in minutes 0 0 IO 20 30 40 50 b0 70 b0 Duration Note: L = effective of supply in minutes flow..6.v.: . ::. : ‘.:: . in inches per hour.4 and 2. ... .. n = 0..i:i::::‘..:..: :.:....‘: . : :.:..:II:y:(: ..: . .40.( +: .:::. ...:::.: . :.. ..

8 and 3.0.~~:. 0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 Duration 9 II of supply in minutes I 0 IO 20 30 40 50 60 70 00 Duration of supply in minutes Note: L = effective length of overland or channel flow...~~. in feet. a = rate of supply. in minutes.40.:.~~~..~.:i:.. Figure C-7. supply curve numbers 2.. n = 0.i::. Rates of overland flow corresponding to standard supply curves... . S = 1 percent C-14 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves ./..:ii:i.43&()()_1/AFPAM 32-8013.FM 5.: . in inches per hour. j/o1 1 :: . storage as negligible. assuming surface tc = critical duration of supply. : i.. ...

68 0. 0.37 0.W 0.o.60 2.31 8:: 0.83 0.60 4.50 0.0 ::: ::: 0. 3.* .W l.P 17.60 0.81 1.t!O g:Zi 0.:i R 0.bO 0.38 9.72 0.63 6.34 0.58 0.95 1.40 A R 8:Z 0.33 0.81.78 o.69 0.84 0.67 ::: 0.bO 9 lc 0.n o.82 2.89 0.42 i:E 5.52 2.: f&8 0.h 1.55 0.74 0.07 .74 0.54 I:$ 1.42 0.4 0.84 0.67 2.42 2.4 .96 X:$ )::g .50 0.39 o.7 0.44 l6.46 0.66 l&u L 1 6 R A I.8 1.h t:.50 0.83 l.l 24.19 1.60 0.46 A 0.03 g:g 22.FM 5-4300001l/AFPAM 32-8013.43 0.45 0.90 6.8 Oh9 A A rati f4 A A 3 R ::EZ 0.0 1.14 :z 0:49 0.00 0.10 l0.65 0.4s 1.72 ::g Z:$ 1S.42 0.25 16.50 2.25 ::g 0.00 l2.72 85.90 1.30 0.63 4.57 0.67 9.7L 1.38 I.87 0.h6 0.4b 0.23 1.a 0.64 0. .7P 0.lo.49 1.74 122.3P 1.4 i:t 1.P7 Zi 1.76 7.45 0.98 .6 8.60 1~83 13.50 lu.45 0.03 2.95 1.67 X 1.96 0.37 0.98 1-A 1.69 0. 9.50 1.a 32.38 0.54 0.93 1.98 MO.62 0.oB ::iZ 4.00 ZL.78 EEI %.23 1.W 62.45 0.4 0.50 0.35 OAO A R 0.75 o.54 0.28 0.64 g:FZ z-2 32:49 ::: 81.25 1.64 .2b A b 9:: .56 ::tZ 4.69 E-g .74 0.55 0.33 0.":: 98.42 6.00 0.69 1.63 0.79 0.w 2.e 0.84 9.99 1.52 0.85 0.00 U8.00 1.39 0.92 o. 0.40 I:Z 9.00 1.W O-99 1.52 3.73 1.44 0.:z 0.75 O.50 0.l6 2.70 1.62 1. ____wp Hydraulic radius (R) and area (A) of symmetrical triangular channels R= A/WP Slope R 0. 0.g6 ?$I 1.00 10.99 1.B O.1 i:: 1.63 O.24 U.21 1.59 0.44 1.0 0.22 0.72 10.* 0.75 2.zs I.47 0.L.59 0.76 6.92 R ::g 0.W 43.00 3.93 o.06 Z:E 7.50 9.58 0.00 0.56 32.Pb 0.32 X:$i 0.97 12.85 O-PO 0.75 63.43 3.>2 ::6"2 0.79 0.- 0.9 9:.lS 48.32 5.29 0.60 0.64 0.70 0.56 0.00 1.35 1.53 0.25 0.54 0.99 1.24 1.75 lkoa 1.23 a.00 9.90 5.41 i:g ::2 4.00 1.66 1.72 1.4 0.40 8.38 0.22 R f depth.1 t:: 1.00 .53 0. 4O.94 3.23 0.47 1. 8.5 1.28 1.9 ::g 0.51 .66 1.94 .79 9.71r 1.16 2.4b l.45 0.55 25.58 0.40 0.8 0.83 X:C O.50 0.00 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves C-75 .69 0.b2 O.92 2.99 1.23 4. 0.64 0.54 0.89 1.90 0.36 O.32 0.48 1.59 0.98 L):: 1.72.78 0.00 g:: kE.4 1.49 0. 7.M o.4 1. d (fedt) 82 0.9 0.63 0.50 o.7 2 0.04 P.0 1.24 18.00 1.70 0.83 0.85 0.64 lo.84 5.35 O.28 0.84 0.7 64:Ei 7.64 0.54 0.65 0.35 0. R l- l- 7 A 8: R o.40 20. 0.% 12.35 0.70 :g 0.62 2.73 0.55 0.:g.16 1.43 .':Zf! 0.39 0.88 3. cii.Bb 0.75 1.65 19.00 &b7 lO. Vol 1 Table C-2.68 51.47 1.63 0.00 1.64 0.96 14.a A ::ii 3.00 1.50 PO.6 i*% r:p 2.60 0.27 0.ti 1.

47 0.96 lo.42 2.1 1.96‘ 16.5 2.24 3.:: moo a.h 0.82 9.69 0.57 3.00 1.03 1.66 1. : . 5.00 15.6661 6.41 0.53 0.84 10.96 0.74 x*z :*.Ok u.23 1.o6 lg.48 5.10 1.30 2.5 0.27 1.46 3.75 23.63 0. .82 2.58 l. d vmv)rm I"I.12 0.50 0.30 2l.9o 12.2 1." l:l. 4.13 1.42 0.23 1.04 -13.1 2.33 t.99 1.48 2.02 1.64 16.u l*l" a.75 3.3 2.56 0.50 1.30 0.92 9.32 1. Ll8 a.92 0.61 4:l .34 1.w 14.2 .52 0.72 0.22 18.50 1.38 0.25 20.4 1.96 2. R 0.44 3J.8O 4.72 0.92 0.3:l 2:1.34 24.65 5.44 1.17 1.36 31.16 l.36 0.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.00 1.03 1.s 0.28 0.45 0.n 2.52 1.36 z162 8.36 '1.50 0.52 3.97 12.70 0.73 0.98 0.32 0.13 1.8 0.58 0.39 6.00 1.90 0.31 1.33 0.00 0.56 0.30 27.25 27..22 0.35 l&l .5 1. 1.10 1.03 0.66 5.76 2.90 Lzo 18.29 0.16 2L6-7 1.sY-s 1.2% 0.41 .59 0.92 0.52 1.%7_ 9.25 2.40 0.~4 0.3:l A R Feet) 0.2 2.14 15.0 2.38 0.81 1.oL.3:1 A R 0.21 1.73 A R 0.72 3.50 1.2 .31 1.68 0.23 0.6 A 0.63 0.55 1.15 23.95 Il. .87 0. 9103 0180 R -0.54 0.19 7.44 2.39 2.3:l A 0.88 0.31 1.44 1.50 0.86 0.s 0.39 23.94 l..0s 1.13 LOO 12.82 0.16 27.27 18.23 0.g 29.2 .56 1.67 12.36 22.84 o*43 3.7 0.94 0.35 31.99 1.58 7.59 1. Vol 1 :.00 8.37 2.9 1. . 0.09 1.61 4.60 1.41 1.44 1.04 0.56 3*24 4.3:l 2&l.22 1.’ Table C-3..91 lo.31 2l.o$ .24 0.68 0.l.04 25.25 1.92 C-76 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves .04 R 0.44 1.63 0.93 3.32 1.6o 0.27 19.6 0.42 0.51 .31 20.35 1.86 0.12 2.g g.69 6.68 0.00 17.20 25.05 1.00 0.89 0.88 0.07 lo.03 0.44 1.63 0.0 1.23 1.97 0.36 14.27 0.03 0.3:l A 5:l .82 1.39 . Hydraulic radius (R) and area (A) of nonsymmetrical triangular channels ti R=A/Wp Iepl h.62 0.00 0.50 0.34 0939 :G .23 ::g 0.6 8.3 1.4 2..23 2.02 13.00 0.m 0.28 0.26 1.

82 16.77 0.56 3.52 1.56 0:86 '1 ..9s 1.57 3.4 I. Vol 1 Table C-4. .16 5.SG rjo.96 16.74 8.60 0.03 1.72 1.46 24.54 6:30 Tl * 0:39 0.53 2.25 67.64 0.60 0.92 20.50 $87: 8.08 1.57 i 1.57 A 2.42 2. .62 11.89 0.09 8.70 12.49 0.80 5 0:41 6.98 6.31 J.54 0.96 0.02 25.05 1.75 I.70 0.92 0.54 Tr 2.00 1.24 15. 5:J $.85 0.88 0.60 10. FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013.30 55.05 8.00 6.44 0. .63 9.63 II.-a 1.00 i3.90 4.65 0.61 0.72 7.00 36.64 12.0 12.00 11.: I .29 6.45 0.25 1.00 61.31 16.35 0.52 16.06 i2.91 '3.44 2.50 9.86 0.07 28.41 0.52 32.47 0.63 2.00 4...76 0.51 0.00 0.70 0.5 3.89 13..10 !5'% .6 1:.80 19.41 0.75 10.77 14.88 4.47 5..13 2.40 25.92 0.39 0.57 0.01 3.67 5.67 0.81 0.79 0.52 0.77 5.75 0.71 0.09 2.03 4.61 0.30 I.00 7.80 0.79 0.32 0.84 7.00 3% k 0.83 7.75 18.50 0.96 1G.9 4.28 10.63 I .41 32.00 3: -c L L R 0.90 12.47 7 I R - SiOW 2:l A I.37 1.0 0.00 1.25 51.74 0.91 i*.51 0.32 lit.54 0.76 1:: 2.G 0.00 0.00 0.10 I.91 .40 0.70 0.94 0.84 0.00 0.52 29. .48 21.00 30.05 0.74 0.00 l.45 0.96 1.03ff0.36 0.35 0.41 0.96 1.45 0.50 6.35 I.76 36.6C 8.68 26.74 0.04 1.00 42.62 9.05 A I.67 0.90 0.ot 1.52 7.02 4s 5.00 I.80 0.00 0.05 1.07 I .52 4.72 8.76 6.00 1.29 1.74 19.6 I. .2a 2.04 1.00 II.01 '9.75 0.16 9.89 0.68 9.66 0.36 9.65 0.8 0.00 1.50 1.00 14..83 14.5 I.47 9.50 0.25 0..85 0.72 5.59 0.02 I.30 I.28 0.00 7: 8: 9: 10 ti 0.63 0.85 0.23 5.76 0.56 017 % 4:83 7.04 0.50 n rzi A -.25 :*i.14 0.75 33.38 9.07 13.81 0.I2 17.04 21.28 0.00 7.24 20.24 29. .30 cl.69 0.80 0.85 0.34 0. 7:67 8. Hydraulic radius (R) and area (A) of symmetrical trapezoidal channels (Z-foot bottom width) L-1-2’d I R=A/WP w 0:6 0.7 1.55 0.00 0.75 0.72 0.30 0.08 0.72 0.62 0.56 0.85 0.74 0.00 23.60 0.50 22.80 :x 39:w 44.46 0.81 0.59 0.23 6.14 5.92 16.80 0.64 0.00 1.46 6.04 6.42 0.63 r8.60 0.4 I.74 0.56 0.46 6.99 1.43 3.00 1.84 0.00 1.32 14.00 0.8 I.44 23.20 / R 1.00 0.90 0.97 23.52 0.67 12.55 0.00 0.0 2.50 4.33 I.55 11.60 I .05 I .oo 8..68 t:: 14.29 40.36 4.‘.08 1.24 0.69 0.56 18.98 1.76 5.36 0.00 I.86 .63 0.40 5:81 0.61 0.20 0.56 0.68 j.30 1.67 4.25 5.55 72.10 2.20 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves c-17 .62 3.86 5:32 3% -k 0.50 5.50 o. 16..50 8.91 0.62 3.18 0.5 I.10 1.50 36.51 8.65 0.84 0.95 1.64 0.IA R 2.OL 36.7 I R A 1.00 67.50 28.44 14.95 1.25 26.87 9.43 L 1.63 3.12 18.71 0.70 8.95 10.OO I.51 0. 0.42 1.25 0. 20.00 1.9 2.93 0.00 to.81 0.51 3.25 0.75 2.00 13.90 0.86 0.80 0.00 9. 4.88 0.00 13.85 1.46 9.22 0.41 2.88 12.35 0.71 0.87 3.33 I.04 11.44 0.60 0.66 0.9 1.47 0.

75 0.06 36.73 0.67 12.89 0.84 0.29 0.64 18.15 32.00 0.00 41.44 15.67 0.71 0.40 7.62 93.44 0.78 0.94 21.8 0.0 2.20 0.76 0.14 I.98 27.56 9.5 1.66 13.24 10.01 33.55 0.00 1.82 0.28 24.20 14.3 1.68 8.87 0.70 14.62 11.03 9.63 12.00 1.09 1.43 IO.70 0.50 6.0 A R 4.64 4.84 8.0 I.20 28.63 6.17 6.52 9.84 0.00 15.17 I.12 1.34 72.65 0.81 0.22 6..58 1.60 0.96 7.10 1.02 1.69 lo.00 1.8 1.92 1.43 0.02 I..9 2..87 1.88 21.60 0.FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.12 1.00 05 0:6 0.00 8.6 1.00 16.05 1.60 a.96 I..25 1.00 1.25 0.74 : R A 7: I 0.41 1.75 I.20 kg 12.22 6.64 0.75 1.62 102.00 0.0 1.44 11.43 9.08 16.50 10..53 0.‘..05 40.40 25.3 1.66 0.‘.::.32 0.03 15.50 1.2 1.3c 53.68 0.22 20.81 19.73 0.50 6..96 1.89 13. Hydraulic radius (R) and area (A) of symmetrical @-foot bottom width) trapezoidal channels R=A/WP 0.05 9.52 11.50 1.32 0.50 11.75 0.94 0.20 8.00 1.y:.80 0. .25 1.7 1.23 A 4 5% 8:) R 0.50 8.00 24. .27 0.08 15.10 44.96 13.65 0..00 0.08 1.90 6.00 1.25 29.5 3.32 10. .98 I.00 0.89 19.38 0.06 13.10 1. 7.70 0.63 3k.15 13.38 21.32 0.68 0.91 0.50 7. .04 1.67 - 7.68 I.89 0.94 6.81 1.*sx 43170 0.74 23.62 0.00 26.09 h8.61 6.37 GD.43 0.80 0.49 0. .63 0.76 0.84 0....50 1. Table C-5. 7.89 5.:yi ..82 7.00 8.64 17..58 0.38.00 I.::::i: .: :.56 0.25 0.46 0.oo 1.00 l.35 66. 0..82 1.00 1.42 3.7 0.50 32.).90 4.00 14.36 0.1 1.71 15.03 I.97 1.00 0.87 0.94 9.09 I.65 0.04 1.20 0.16 22. Vol 1 .24 6.15 1.95 8.75 0.25 16. ..32 18..00 :.50 1.40 47.9 2.00 0.86 0.7 1.68 25.71 39.38 I.48 25.49 0.37.88 9:) A R 5.69 0.36 1.24 14.43 8.92 0.20 22..00 10.00 I.65 28.02 I.71 0..76 0.27 1148 12. :.51 7.24 26.59 IO:1 A R 4.:.6 1.74 13.47 28.84 17.08 32..01 1.14 12..84 0.12 1.88 0.25 23.82 1.ih 36.58 0.1 1.45 X:$ 5 0.69 12.72 34.50 19.92 18.32 0..45 a.00 &XX .‘“.50 1.76 17.79 0.00 I..65 9.56 11.40 0.33 0..04 0.4 1.00 36.61 11.47 19.64 75.08 12.77 17.25 57.00 I.9 1.44 0.03 29.05 26.10 25..99 1.72 0.03 7.96 29..93 24.66 0.04 24.63 1.‘.76 0.72 21.48 22.14 1.10 12. .46 h:92 00:39 75 34 6.00 9.0 2. .72 30.40 9.63 0.2::.36 5.03 0.50 0.75 14.85 0.65 66.83 lg.86 21.68 0.24 I.07 1.89 0.91 10..2 1..00 16.00 5.48 l.79 0.12 IO..73 0.93 0.47 0.63 0.8 1.96 lo.86 0.72 14.89 0.21 0.94 0.54 0.79 0.00 I.4 1.95 32. .42 1.53 0.5 1.74 0.19 5.m 0.54 0. :’ j .00 C-18 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves ..47 16.69 20.LI ’ 7.76 0.00 I .24 18.65 0.0 5.43 8.5 3.64 : A 4:5: 3 5 5.25 6.05 11.12 40.00 16.30 16.21 1.34 I.9 4.:.25 0.25 1.10 29~26 I..41 0.64 1.72 8.00 6.80 14.82 5.03 0.15 1..79 15.99 1.58 0.44 0.55 10.60 11.34 0.36 20.

04 29.98 0.00 0.80 13.87 11.87 0.12 7.49 0.21 7.25 13.08 27.00 21.00 I .91 11.78 0.66 I.00 11..66 16. .91 0.38 14.27 1.00 10.36 10.09 10.j .7 0.00 52.63 40.50 108.09 14. . .18 1.50 5:l : 0.17 1.5 1. : .98 1.25 27.84 0.00 .70 0.08 0.72 24.26 0.06 I.92 Il.64 0.45 32.20 20.85 1.67 0.65 ~1.16 26.61 lo.67 0.: : ::.44 0.00 1.110 71.94 0.62 1.28 18.20 39.11 1.47 0.25 5.59 12.04 15..75 I.64 0.76 0.16 22.:.30 16.:. .51 0.88 0.25 22.1 ::: 1.14 4. .:.23 12.61 0.70 81.54 10..48 1.92 0.76 7.63 20.: .98 27.89 9.00 39.23 1..62 o*68 0..50 72.79 a.52 1.13 1.10 43.&i.44 12.00 0. >.77 17.87 22.61 II.75 0.:.36 20.92 24.85 0.36 0.96 1.00 I.58 0.95 II.78 0.63 17..73 0.50 35.43 1.90 6. .00 33.01 I. .8 0.00 I.25 I.72 15.j:.58 1.93 0.93 0.75 6.21 4.10 II.30 18.0 1. .34 1.8 1.90 0.97 i.12 0.70 0.63 5.55 0. > .0 2.52 14.29 1.51 0. .50 5.18 0.58 0.08 33.16 1.76 0.j .00 65.42 0.83 6.: . 18..82 19.44 12.65 13.j.16 1. .20 9.49 23.85 0.5 3.::y.00 77..0 6.50 1.:I: .:’ .:.. .43 22.32 1. 9.55 9.63 0.70 24..53 0.45 11.00 6.56 12.63 12.o$ R A IO:1 0.:::.12 16.00 31.52 22.00 54.87 0.20 I.98 1.02 8.61 27..16 11.96 l-01 1.07 I.45 0.25 17.12 1. ii::.00 14.03 30. I.28 15.75 0.61 24.25 8.28 0.06 1.09 1.38 31.37 1.88 22.::i’ :.76 16.80 8.07 15..67 I.76 25.62 7.19 1.95 1.72 0.79 0.12 I.6 0.10 43.77 0.08 13.49 8. :g .75 0.80 0.56 0. : ..20 15.76 23..00 1.03 12.54 30.::::.45 27.8 0..00 I.) y j: .46 0.36 12..15 1.12 2..82 0.28 21.57 0.75 17.83 0.20 .87 20.00 40.8 I.84 0.9 1.91 0.84 28.03 1.50 24.00 9.64 10.92 I.::.20 47..72 0.71 I .08 39.00 0.0 1.34 0.19 ko.33 1. Hydraulic radius (R) and area (A) of symmetrical (&foot bottom width) trapezoidal channels ----WD 0. A ?E 8:12 9.5 !.q.00 Xl 6 0.13 1.23 24.85 0.24 I.0 2.55 1.04 1.56 16.00 I.2s 32.00 36.5 : R A : OR37 0..95 R 9:l t. : : FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.’ I.66 5.7 1.: .14 36.32 36.9 1.85 6408 7.:.76 6.72 1.I?.81 9.97 10.>:z ..01 5.4 !:'6 1.38 0.50 52.86 0.: .00 7.6 1.70 0.65 0.67 0..54 15.69 IS.07 0. .08 33.00 17.48 R .00 I.00 9.43 0. .90 0.00 1. Vol 1 Table C-6.84 18.43 18.01 20.65 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves c-19 ..9 2.9 0.96 27.: .83 0.24 I.25 18.00 1.86 1.00 46.24 33.50 1.06 1.62 0.97 I.72 1.62 0.00 SO.96 I.79 0.31 I.00 21.36 0.45 58. 1.75 0.28 1. .50 1. .1 1:: 1.84 8.87 0.: j .02 0. i ..39 1.40 16.‘).64 0.63 0.86 0.60 28.‘.87 36.00 6.04 I.00 30.0G 3G.72 7.75 1.90 20.35 0.>.00 29.50 8.60 I.07 1.:.21 I.:..32 18. OR34 0.42 0.34 13. : .O 63.03 IO.00 12.24 19.70 21.14 1.83 9.49 A I 0. IS ~lC.00 1.14 14.82 18.32 1.45 0.50 7.89 .75 45..65 0..69 0.40 0.64 0.98 I.47 1.17 I.41 0.96 14.02 8..93 0.82 0.7 1.50 0.25 6.72 40.10 I ..28 Wt.68 0.74 0.28 I.61 7.66 13.28 17.22 0.79 0.::: ::.73 0.40 24.40 s*:: .4 A 4.80 0.65 14.73 0.::.

93 I12.08 18.25 1.18 56.73 0.00 I..46 i 1. ::.00 48.00 L2.63 13.11 I.95 30.10 17.2 I.97 I.86 0.09 1.:.61 0.57 L A 4.00 1 14.57 1. 0.75 1.:i 1.01 19. 7.53 8 10: i- X:‘6 5.47 1.14 .00 9.0 10.52 0.:::i:::.30 29.75 I.07 46.07 0.8 0.63 45.72 1.3 I.48 0.98 1.36 i 26.24 0.06 0.12 I .06 I.23 26.64 0.:.00 1.4 .91 0.00 GPO Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves .35 1.94 1.59 0..36 8.84 0.42 I.21 1 .FM 5_43()-()()1j/AFPAM 32-8013.92 0.6 1.04 13. j/o1 1 .:::.00 1.77 a7.78 0.50 28.: Table C-7.69 L 9.19 '52.11 40.00 1.22 I .80 0.75 17.00 J 17..58 is 0:sz OS9 56’.00 0.63 16.07 21. 1.53 0.48 21.36 16.58 10.:: 1.25 6.00 1.9 2.76 0.00 1. :.83 22.4 l .8 1.19 25.25 25.i~:~i:~::~: :.99 t2.75 0.93 0.12 51..28 1.22 0.22 10.03 30.02 42.60 0.55 0.38 1.44 12.GO 1.63 19.42 1.25 3.89 il.60 33.16 1.49 17.39 1.90 0.:~:::::~:.04 1.44 1.97 1.29 1.l2 I 1.48 22.88 0.68 16.00 I.62 0.25 I.7 0.74 0.54 D.01 1.50 1..80 15.92 0.0 I.00 16.00 35.43 13.33 to.04 & is3 4.64 15.84 18.80 .92 1.21 17.89 60.% 12.I0 20.~:~:.60 0.::.86 0.30 ~0.64 1.86 0.04 1.83 O-53 5.76 0.83 18.16 1.9 1.0 .58 g -%.7 1.84 27.48 0.14 1.54 0.65 0.27 29.80 I.52 _$ 0.88 1.84 32.65 13.68 0.33 1.00 1. .59 11.og 1..91 24.25 69.72 p-50 33.70 14. I .77 0.3 0.20 12.16 30.50 24.87 1.86 22.24 I 19.23 22.80 0.78 1.85 I .24 27.8 1.92 28.36 17. .16 1.14 16.79 0.08 33.03 A 5 bI.74 !%.22 1.41 Ilo.7 1.96 + 7 8.36 1.26 1.27 1.00 0.13 23.77 16.66 E 0.70 15.63 1.00 20.95 8.18 13.66 1.70 105.25 30.63 Il.32 9.44 I.97 12. 1.97 17.05 hii & D.45 76.24 0.69 0.27 18.88 21.03 7.75 51.96 25.5 l!I e’----+l R=A/WP c ra (feedt) 0.90 0.08 1.14 1.08 IS.54 1.50 0.00 57.9 1.71 14.00 o:g2 10.10 1.0 2..50 1 .83 1 17.02 13. i5.18 40.92 0.30 18.16 44.68 9.00 1.5 3.64 12.50 I.24 44.56 Il.60 6.83 13.00 0.:.42 20.00 0.0 2.87 III.0 k 0:52 5.06 1.47 6:96 8.48 0.16 1.16 1.7 0. 0.00 1.16 1.54 0.00 1.93 8.50 63.3 0..5 3.80 $% .20 20.74 0.50 t?zj 5:88 0:sr 0.04 1.94 33.::‘.92 15.00 1A5 14.64 18.32 9.00 &r-0:42 0.70 0. Hydraulic radius {R) and area (A) of symmetrical (&foot bottom width) trapezoidal channels ---__wp - l-dgq 0.90 24.63 46.1 I. i .48 0.01 11.76 O.40 12.00 70.00 6.71 0.38 56'2 .:.9 2.43 82.73 x-i: lo:00 0.80 0.96 I.83 0.88 * 10:50 12.76 i 19.32 I.:i.60 28.3 1.81 19.50 i!E 0.69 0.::.3 1. IE I.27 19.00 33.6 0.00 38.90 26.04 39.5 1.25 38.06 36.12 1.30 30.08 .00 1.65 0.11 1.I3 37.96 10.25 15.98 0.00 0.72 1.89 0.97 27.68 20..56 -i&i0148 0.4 0.68 0.69 26..81 0.85 0.03 28.00 0.24 7.38 I .64 0.06 0.43 0.84 36.61 I.25 I .23 1.79 0.oo I . .72 0.50 1.36 32.05 I.:.16 14.00 2.8 0.42 9.00 12.+.20 14.20 1.50 11.85 0.68 14.61 0. .81 1. 8.00 I .3I 1.30 I.75 7.00 23..28 1.12 23.25 35.88 I.50 7.

56 12. 1.9 1.n 102. Hydraulic radius (R) and area (A) of symmetrical (7O-foot bottom width) trapezoidal channels R= A/WP )wth.77 2.0 1.14 17.86 a.7 0.8 6.77 0.95 39.3 120.02 1.17 1.96 10.88 0.48 1.P JJ.0s 1.u 0.06 1.78 1.85 Il.00 U.73 0.68 0.Ls 5. O-95 1.05 1.9 ‘2.49 1.62 13.% g3.00 0.99 R i:g 9.47 g:: 39-W 1.64 o.19 1.07 1.93 30.05 0.72 z.88 1.6 .1 1.B *.00 1.41 1.36 1.n 0.28 0.63 0.19 1.19 lb25 1.:’ FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32.22 1.00 1.33 1.01 b7.47 0.48 14.72 0.67 17.71 a 3 -kg KFr 0.67 0.16 0.55 Il.81 2.01 :*si .2l 18.W 0.01 1.4 1.0 ::: 8.7 1.b 0.04 1.39 l.48 9’:: 0.32 1.82 2b:83 0.u 1.-P 0.74 0.95 1.93 0.90 14. R Slope :l 2:l rcIti r 3:l A r A b :l 1 R _ 0.96 1.37 0.00 L I 0.45 0.62 19.20 R -+ .52 0.89 0.55 0.& 35.83 2.:i 1.62 0. 0.0 1.00 x-E 12.53 o.63 o.99 1.:g 0. .03 12.60 11.48 18.54 0.93.60 17.25 52.68 2l.85 0.95 1.2b 1.76 12.8 1.36 26.63 1.79 0-a l( . 0.60 0.03 15.20 1.04 1. 3.81 .07 1.W 37.69 1.99 1.10 a.68 10.17 21.84 0.88 0. Lll. 1.81 0.3 1. Vol 11 .2 1.25 1.B 1.56 1.76 0.00 1.63 $:g 0.1 1.97 16.29 26.48 1.61 0.60 13.7 0.50 14.00 43.83 13.5 1.” 93.9 0.90 0.06 1.57 0.26 1.12 1.42 26.84 17.81 12. -I- 1 R o.8013.n 8.74 R 0.75 23.u -gr A 0.68 15.w 0.92 0.54 7:1 I I i R 0.w 1.75 g:.18 25.s 0.50 6.67 1.63 0.50 E-Z 15:54 ii:$ 19.13 1.a 1.92 a.80 G.14 ::z 1.P 0.86 0.:z 55:10 0.88 0.28 1.80 26.91 O.15 1':z 1.73 2.23 z-g 22:40 2:: z&o3 CZ:g 52. 11.54 7.60 Z:E .83 0.35 32. c.51 1.45 0:92 0.9 1.32 1.75 33.16 51.03 0.55 1.66 16.44 0.0 2.12 g:Zi 1.b2 0. R 0.g Et: 23:14 0:90 z:$ .13 1.h 9.00 0.76 19.01 1.50 1.52 0.30 .8 9.58 1. m.2 1.3 1.00 ii*. .46 0.00 1.34 E:Z $:i .a P.50 1.24 14.13 1.92 1.7.00 sz*E 29:90 33.12 1.29 0.38 1.8 0.00 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves C-27 .39 1.23 1.04 17.86 0. s-78: 1.87 27.6 l1:) 1 A 3:: .18 31.52 75.00 0.W 15.23 1.52 0.h 1.77 0.23 22.4 i:f S:Z a.26 1.16 1.25 0.49 0. 0.G O.01 lb. d (feet) 0.45 $:g" 5:.74 17.12 ::p.66 0.75 57.98 1.40 17.wc 0.76 0.05 :*z 19.00 0:70 g42 “O-2’: 13.62 0.45 1.w 15.09 1.69 14.72 0.12 15.34 1.00 43.56 16.61 4-z 0.00 14.10 19.Y7 1.93 13.53 1.68 0.76 0.70 0.9 5:.10 1.09 A R -E .39 0._ Table C-8.30 1.51 I r A z i90 13.05 19.

91 10.09 14..3: I I 2t II.71 1.16 13.19 8.89 1.64 I..20 1.86 1.FM &43&()()-f/AFPAM 32-8013.51 I.81 2.19 16.~:::.52 9.94 10.35 20.08 1.% II.90 1.08 0.16 1.63 I.00 13.38 1.75 8.50 I.54 28.04 1.21 0.88 0.j.~.19 23.37 23.04 12.76 34.25 I 0.79 0.89 9.38 28.85 7.18 0.24 la9 20.::.00 31.84 I.63 O.96 1.73 0.10 I.06 0.57 I.00 1.78 37.44 Z*$ .10 I.:i.: : .08 1.84 0.76 1.80 8.00 48.50 1.00 I.75 1.1-311 ) 2 : I .00 2.52 14.28 1*.52 26.:j: : .0) 33:.“:.94 16.74 0.96 0.32 18.63 0.00 14.76 7.10 15.03 1.73 I.43 23.97 44.83 0.00 21.02 52.85 6. Vol 1 .00 4.19 17.98 1.17 15.48 1. Hydraulic radius (R) and area (A) of nonsymmetrical bottom width) trapezoidal channels (2-foot lT I .40 0.95 IO.24.50 49.03 18.” .92 1.81 2.00 C-22 Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves .88 64..01 2.80 40.79 1.84 0.20 1.311 I 41 -3: l : .79 0.:::.88 12.29 1.ii:~‘::‘. ::.70 1.66 IO.60 0.90 0.37 I.94 o.34 5:l-3:) A R 6.g8 9.36 10.37 22.18 I.:.2 Sorae ratio 3:l 1 4.24 9.: .02 12. + .46 25.90 0.91 9.41 1.85 0..57 30.57 1.00 1.oo lo.75 56$ lo.93 0.g5 I.2 2.24 1.85 8.83 IA5 13.35 lo.8 11.00 1.4 2. :.29 24.48 :'s*:: .57 I.6 2.04 0..05 1.00 8 x3 5:: ok8 0.81 9..28 20..25 1.48 27.81 8.03 11.07 13.26 17.99 6.0 2..70' 0.01 12.9 2.19 0.57 42. :.90 O.00 11.64 12.00 1.32 0.00 2.28 27.0 37. 1. 8.81 56.19 0.I 1.00 1.00 I.& 7:50 0.28 16.48 33.50 40.76 A.44 18.76 7.72 'I.62 5.28 19.04 72. Table C-9.00 21.27 1.

54 20.12 12.63 8.3 I .94 2..50 48..47 I.44 14. .97 3.50 II. 15.84 II.8 1.82 16.51 1.15 1.07 I. .75 0.69 22.76 9.41 1.70 .81 0..18 1 4:l.. :.56 25.68 0.00 22.61 I.16 z!*:.86 0.41 1...:1 h7.95 1..64 9. .66 1.4 2. ::.00 2.:l A 5 :I.44 28.32 1.38 14.95 2.75 .90 4. .00 10.96 I.72 17.9 2.36 4a.01 I .12 1.92 18.04 1.68 I.48 21.64 7.00 0.43 0.00 1.92 0.36 16.01 I.81 0.6 2.81 Tk 0.73 8.44 :82.00 19.06 1.63 I.71 1.04 : 4.85 D.19 13.61 28.58 9.74 .00 '3.62 2.41 1.36 2 0.98 I.11 25.79 0.z 38k-4 43.92 2.74 0.51 I.6 I.1 ic2 3.06 I.17 1..88 72.93 0.11 17.80 0.8 1.00 38. .00 18.11 1.01 II .12 8.74 I' 0. .49 l-59 1.32 I.15 9. FM 50430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.76 0.57 52.96 1..10 I.18 - Hydrologic and Hydraulic Tables and Curves C-23 .52 12.24 22.17 6.0 8.3:1 .88 15.07 1.42 I..97 1.08 I. Vol 1 Table C-10.31 1. .69 1.51 I.99 12.22 1.04 77%7. .25 41.4 1.96 13.17 1.50 8.00 0.87 0.21 I.60 1.00 .91 0.12 1.80 4.12 23.51 1. : .7 I .75 1.61 1.z .17 1.63 2.70 0..*I L rk AT 1.76 0.00 0.90 0..31 1..85 0.58 13.16 32.50 56.50 3.91 0.78 0.85 IO.00 0.71 4.17 1.84 32.52 10.16 9.O / 0. .2 2.80 7.71 I.57 1.38 1.92 26..28 1. 4.72 0. :l A f R T I):1- 3:1 $- f ti +-2 :I.00 28.46 13.75 16.00 9.95 6.93 2.88 30..00 I6.59 1.13 I.0 .2 6:82 7.37 I.22 1. ::.53 19.64 I8.-b 553 m 0.21 1. Hydraulic radius (R) and area (A) of nonsymmetrical bottom width) trapezoidal channels (4-foot R = A/WP R -Pt -+7E.02 1.16 2.92 0.88 0.4.50 1. I .07 :to.44 I5.99 32.5 1.29 1.86 0.00 25.03 5.93 2.56 I1.13 1.18 I.06 12.


........: :..( :. ::..: ... Items listed include selected self-propelled vehicles as of January 1993.. M9 (tank..:...6 18 41 NOTES: 1.. .:...:.:. .: :. Certain items in final development or undergoing field testing have been included where the type of classification is pending. Vol 1 . M60. :. and crews as the conditions would be under full operational deployment in typical off-road movements.:.::::.:~..? .‘v....‘:..... 7 20 19 18 49 45 Bulldozer....:::...:....:. 105-mm gun... tracked....... .. The vehicle weight was based on normal design loads or combat weights... :: .. .. ~.: . Trucks which could operate at lower tire pressures would generate slightly lower VCI values with increased tire deflection..‘. . .0 23 53 35.:.. . : ....:. :: ..:. :.. ..:....:. .....‘(..8 . .._. and M60Al) Tractor... armored.. ..:.. combat...::.:::::.:. APPENDIX D CONE INDEX REQUIREMENTS Fine-Grained Soils Tracked Vehicles Vehicle Description us vehj&s Carrier.......(. .x>:.:.:..... and tables in NRMM.::.. cargo... combat earthmover (ACE).. earthmoving tank..~:...I’::::::::z . .~:~:~...‘. curves...~....::i:....:....9 97.....:. tracked......:.:...... 4..: :.+... :.:.... ..... Cone Index Requirements D-1 ........ tank-mtd.:‘P...:...:. tracked......... command. One kip equals 1....:.::i::....)..... crosscountry tire pressures...:..:..:.:::. 3.. 2.‘. The VCIs have been calculated from the formulas..:::‘::::>.:. .. personnel...>:....... .. equipment..:r.’ . M 116 Landing vehicle.:.. . .........: . amphibious....~:.....:. ‘:‘..:...i::... MS(LVTP5A 1(CMD)) Landing vehicle.:< ~:....000 pounds (US customary).... M9 116....::: :.:.i<:. Amphibious vehicles and engineer tractors have grousers greater than 1 l/2 inches: all other tracked vehicles have grousers less than 1 l/2 inches.:....:. FM 5-43&()0-l /AF PAM 32-80 13.:::....... >p:. M5 (LVTP5Al) Vehicle Weight (kips) VCl VCISO 10.:..:::..: ..: :..5 87.....

107-mm (4.2-in). 8-m. M 109 (T196E 1) Howitzer.Tracked Vehicles (continued) Vehicle Weight Vehicle Description (kips) VCI 1 VCI50 Armored reconnaissance airborne assault vehicle (General Sheridan). selfpropelled. combat. armored vehicle Mortar.0 105. 8x8. full-tracked.0 20 58. 90-mm gun.0 N/A 58 53.0 21 22 20 48 51 46 D-2 Cone Index Requirements . M48 M48C M48Al M48A2 M 48A2C M48A3 (M48AlE2) M48A5 Tank. self-propelled.0 105. M 108 LAV-25.2 25 57 46.0 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 47 47 49 49 49 49 50 110. self-propelled. 105-mm. 155-mm. M84 Tank. selfpropelled.0 104. combat. full. Ml 10 (T236E 1I Howitzer. full-tracked. full-tracked.8 15 35 47 98.0 53.1 N/A N/A N/A 46 46 54 72 46 32 N/A 99. 105-mm. light. heavy.9 27. M37 Howitzer.7 47.5 20 47 53. 8-m. heavy. M60 M60A 1 M60A3 35. M55 (T108) Howitzer.0 110.tracked.0 46.0 104.0 99. selfpropelled. light. M52 M52A 1 Howitzer. 105-mm.0 116. light. self-propelled. medium. full-tracked. M55 1 Howitzer. full-tracked. infantry. selfpropelled. light.0 106. 105-mm gun.

.: . 120-mm gun.. scissoring type.0 115.. . M60A 1 chassis.4 17 17 40 40 22... scissoring type.0 N/A 37 23... transporting.3 115. light. .:.j(::. M60Al chassis.. ::y .:. full-tracked. 60-ft Launcher..6 N/A N/A N/A N/A 48 49 49 49 Cone index Requirements D-3 .4 23. tracked.0 140.9 24.. 6-on. M48 tank chassis.0 125.(‘j:.. personnel..0 N/A N/A 49 65 86.:j. ‘..... Ml 13 M113Al M113A2 Ml 13A3 28...::.. full-tracked.4 23. armored vehicle launched.. tracked.9 15 22 36 51 Carrier.. M729 (basic M60Al tank) 115. Ml MlAl M lA2 Vehicle. cargo. transporting with bridge.: . transporting Launcher....I :’ FM 5430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.6 23.I’: +. command post. with bridge... :.)I: .: .:. class 60. armored. :: . . M48 tank chassis. . armored vehicle launched.. M548 Carrier.:. transporting Launcher. . class 60. M577 M577Al Carrier.0 128.. j .0 23 25 28 N/A 54 58 64 54 Launcher. combat.. fulltracked. 60-ft 96. combat engineer. 165-mm gun. Vol 1 Tracked Vehicles (continued) Vehicle Description Vehicle Weight (kips) VCIl VCISO Tank... ::.. : :.

medium. 6x6. 6x6. M88 Recovery vehicle. Ml51 Truck.2 32.6 9. utility. 4x4.2 66. l/4-ton. 1 3/4-ton.1 7. cargo. lo-ton. 4x4 M520 Truck. light. 1 l/4-ton. cargo. 6x6. cargo. fulltracked. 6x6 Ml25 M125Al Truck. 4x4. 6x6 M923 Truck. cargo. 8-ton. 5-ton. cargo.0 54. 1 l/4-ton.5 43. IO-ton. 5-ton.5 60.2 19.5 49. utility. cargo.4 27 26 30 43 61 59 68 97 49. cargo. cargo. M2Al M2A2 Multiple Launch Rocket System Recovery vehicles Recovery vehicle.2 15 16 15 35 37 35 Wheeled Truck.0 21 21 50 49 (kips) VCIl VCI50 50. armored.8 37 37 36 25 84 84 79 57 D-4 Cone Index Requirements .4 35. fulltracked. M578 112.3 19 20 19 31 44 47 44 70 17. 8x8 M977 Truck. 6x6 M 1084 3. 2 l/2-ton. 4x4 M998 (HMMWV) Truck. 2 l/2-ton. cargo. M34 Truck. M561 Truck. M35Al Truck.5 9.0 54.Vehicle Weight Vehicle Description iers (w Infantry fighting vehicle. M 1028 commercial utility cargo vehicle (CUCV) Truck.

..:i:i.. cargo.::j:....6 N/A 34 Cone Index Requirements D-5 .~:.j: . . 2 1 /a-ton..:.: . van.. ::. 2 1/2ton.. tractor..7 32.: : .. . wrecker. . . :A>:: : ::::‘. 6x6. 6x6 M52 (w/o payload) M52Al (w/o payload1 Truck.. . ..:. . 6x6... tractor..). M220 Truck..4 86. : . Ml08 Truck...“..: . 6x6.. . .:-:~. ....:’ . ::i:i. ::: .‘.::: ..... 6x6. 6x6. 2 1/2ton. tractor.~i j..2 30.. shop. 6x6.‘i:.:.:i::~.:..‘:::::~.. 5-ton. 2 l/2-ton.. Wheeled Vehicles (continued) Vehicle Description Vehicle Weight (kips) VCIl VCI5o Truck..j..i’::.. .8 44..: :. 10 x 10 34... M292 Truck..9 25 28 32 32 30 21 21 21 22 22 N/A N/A N/A N/A 57 64 72 72 68 48 48 48 50 50 76 65 62 63 73 76 77 30.8 32 Truck. dump.::9j~:.. 6x6 Ml23 (w/o payload) M123C (w/o payload) M123D (w/o payload) Truck. medium.. 4x4..8 19.. lo-ton.. 6x6._..~./:..... wrecker. wrecker..:?::‘:.‘>( j . shop. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.: :.. M47 Truck.:. 2 l/a-ton.7 32.2 32. M246 (w/payload) 21.:x.4 19..‘..“..:~:::. 5-ton.:.::. 5-ton.. expansible.:~. van.:. Ml078 Truck.::::::::: :.: .8 17.7 17.:...:.I.1 21. M543 Palletized Loading System. M109Al Truck. Vol II . ..2 25. 5-ton.8 28.‘:. 2 l/2-ton. dump..... x.‘.0 20.. medium..‘:~ . 6x6.:.‘. crane. M51 M51A2 M929 van.


. one cone penetrometer with 3/8-inch steel and 5 /8inch alumlnum shafts and a 0. L: FM 504301000l/AFPAM 32-8013.: :‘+.‘. : 1.‘. . CONE PENETROMETER The cone penetrometer is shown in Figure E-2..‘. two openend wrenches.: . This set consists of one canvas carrying case. ::.:. .:. “:‘.2~square-inch cone. a 5/8inch steel shaft with foot and handle. .:.::. a micrometer dial. Soil-trafficability test set Soil Trafficability Test Set E-l . :.1..y ..:. and a bag of hand tools (which includes one combination spanner wrench and l/4-inch screwdriver.. >:..:y .. Vol 1 APPENDIX E SOIL-TRAFFICABILITY Trafficability measurements are made with the soil-trafficability test set.. one soil sampler. a 2 l/2-pound hammer. l/2 by 9 / 16.. one 3/ 16-inch Allen wrench.:.>J . page E-2.. ..o: .: ::.. and one 2-inch screwdriver with a l/8-inch bit)..... /. Using an operator’s assistant II - I I Figure E-l. a steel shaft 19 inches long and 3 /8 inch in diameter. a proving ring. .j: :. Use of the Cone Penetrometer Inspect and adjust the cone penetrometer prior to USC. SC-6635-98-CL-E02-HR gives component lfstings and stock numbers.:: . ...: . and a handle.5~squareinch cone. . remolding equipment (which includes a 3/8-inch steel shaft and a 0. It consists of a 30-degree cone with a l/2-inch-square base area.:I:.:... The items are shown in their TEST SET proper places in the carrying case in Figure E.. one 6-inch Stillson wrench. I.: .’ :: . and a cylinder and base with pin).:jj:: :.

:::l.:.:::. This minimizes eccentric loading of the proving ring and helps keep the shaft vertical.~... Allow the penetrometer to hang vertically from its handle.. : :.i::.j.. To do this. Figure E-3. Zeroing.~~i’:.::. Apply force until ward movement occurs.:::. bolts. the dial will register about 2 to 4 poundsthe total weight of the instrument-or 4 to 8 on the dial.:.j. downward movement and take successive dial readings Figure E-2. j/o1 1 _.~.~:‘~.:I~:. steady down- 3... Inspection.:i::.~. and approximately at right angles as shown in Figure E-3. steady. Cone penetrometer can be made and diminishes the which measurements recorded and usually likelihood of errors.::i: Operation.. lows: Operate the penetrometer as fol- 1.. and joints are tight and that the dial-gage stem contacts the proving-ring bearfng block..::. then immediately shift the vision to the dial face...‘:. palms down.. Take a dial reading just as the base of the cone becomes flush with the ground surface. 2.. When the instrument is kept vertical between the fingertips and allowed to rest on its cone.‘.. watch the cone descend until an instant before the cone base is expected to be flush with the ground surface. Inspect the penetrometer before using it to make sure that all nuts. Using a cone penetrometer upright position in the d E-2 Soil Trafficability Test Set .. slow. Continue the slow.ii...:.: . .j::j.:::j:~.:.:. .. . ..~ ‘. Place one hand over the other on the handle.:.j... and rotate the dial fact until 0 is under the needle..FM 5-43&()0-1/AFPAM 32-801 3.:..

Slower or faster penetration rates will reflect lower or higher values. an average of such readings will not accurately reflect the average strength. He should practice penetration. If readings are made as little as l/4 inch from the proper depth and recorded as being at the proper depth. make another penetration nearby. The rato of progression recommended is such that four readings (surface. A damaged or overstressed ring might require recalibration. Read the CI only at the proper depth. and 18 inches) can be measured in 15 seconds during a continuous penetration in soft soil. when only one person is on the trafficability reconnaissance. progress may be resumed with no adverse effects on the cone penetrometer readings. Observe the following precautions when operating a penetrometer: l ques of operation. Withdraw the instrument by the shaft... Inspect the dial face to ensure that its position has not shifted around the dial’s shaft and that the needle is not sticking or has not slipped on its shaft. 6. Care and Adjustment of the Penetrometer Keep the instrument vertical. Precautions. If it is necessary to stop the downward progression of the cone penetrometer for any reason. The average Cls obtained by a trainee should be compared to the standard. The trainee should then make 50 sets of readings. : : FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. a 5-percent deviation is wide.- Train operators in areas that have uniform soil conditions. check to ensure the instrument was properly zeroed. Pulling the handle may stretch the proving ring. l l Training Penetrometer Operators ‘. it may be convenient to make two cone penetrometer readings. observed by a qualified instructor. check the possibility of cone-penetrometer mechanical imperfections. For example. then stop to record. The instructor should take approximately 50 sets of readings equally spaced over the area. The micrometer dial is a sensitive instrument that should be protected against water and rough use. However. The CI is also insignificantly affected by the variation in the rate of penetration for the same operator or between experienced operators. DIaf Care. Carelessness in making proper depth determinations is probably the greatest source of error in using the penetrometer. Finally. Ensure no grit is caught between the stem of the dial and the lower mounting block. This may overstress the proving ring. l Do not attempt to take readings higher than the capacity of the dial (3001. using an assistant to record them. If dial capacity is exceeded at less than 18 inches of penetration. stop the penetration to record the readings. inspect the proving ring. 12. if necessary. Vol 1 at appropriate 6-inch intervals to a depth of 18 inches. The cone may be striking an isolated rock fragment or other object. and wipe it dry as soon Soil Trafficability Test Set E-3 . The most probable cause of error is carelessness in determining the proper depth. Never immerse it in water. never by the ring or the handle. Secondly. until he becomes familiar with the techniques of operation. respectively. but the discrepancies will not be large. Any of these conditions could cause an improper zero setting. if deviations persist. Progression should be stopped between depths so that the next reading is taken only after downward progression has resumed. resume the penetration to obtain two additional readings. The trainee should be instructed in all proper techni- Keep the penetrometer free from dirt and rust and keep all parts tight. Frequently check the instrument and rezero.:. If the trainee’s readings deviate widely. The average CI for 6inch layers should be computed and used as standards or references. the causes for the deviations should be sought and corrected. In a uniform area. The micrometer dial stem may not have been in good contact with the proving-ring bearing block when the instrument was zeroed.

Use a drafting triangle or a carpenter’s square for this operation. noting the position of the needle after the removal of each increment. If a plate is used to hold the weights. 2. replace the cone. wrap 5. but it will not affect the accuracy of the instrument. If the ring needs recalibration. it in paper or cloth. note all readings made in the field after bearing blocks have been removed and correct them according to the calibration made later. Establish lo-pound intervals on the dial face and mark them 20. Replacement. When the dial is transported by truck. complete the followmg steps: Proving-Ring 1. turned in the instrument cannot be or the proving ring is severely the instrument will need to be for repair. The dial can be moved up or down by adjusting the two nuts on the threaded stud that holds the gage in position. Apply the load increments with a jack and measure them with the platform scales. Place the lower mounting block of the ring assembly on a smooth. Both blocks should be on the same diameter of the ring. Do not Instead. Recalibration. Bearing-BZock Adjustment. Zero the dial by rotating 0 is under the needle. to 300. ure E-4. Ensure that the stem of the dial bears firmly on the lower bearing block. as shown in Figsoil samples for E-4 Soil Trafficability Test Set . 10. Place the ring assembly on a set of platform scales.FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Expect some variation tion. 4. SOIL SAMPLER A piston-type soil sampler. Remove the handle and shaft. However. horizontal surface. Make the load run at least twice. Cone 6. is used to extract remolding tests. Mark or note the needle’s position on the dial after the addition of each load increment. its weight should be considered in the first lo-pound load. so on. 40. 8. NOTE: If calibrated damaged. calibrate while on reconnaissance. Vol 1 as possible after use in rainy weather. using the average of the needle position for each increment as the final point. in needle posiw Considerable use of the same cone may result in a rounding of its point. The bolts should be snug. Add the load in lo-pound increments up to 150 pounds. Remove the load in IO-pound increments. Both nuts should be tight when in final position. if the base of the cone has had excessive wear or is deformed by hard use. Use any of the load machines commonly used in laboratory work to apply the load. adjust them so that they lie on the same diameter of the ring. 3. Check the bearing-block alignment and tightness. The calibration will remain true for the life of the instrument unless the bearing blocks are moved or the ring is overstressed (deformed by a hard knock or subjected to extreme changes in temperature or other unusual strains). Ensure that the dial arm has sufficient travel available for the full range of motion (approximately l/ lo-inch deflection) of the proving ring. Each interval should be subdivided separately because the arcs for various lopound intervals are not necessarily the same. 7. Retighten them and recalibrate the proving ring. its face so that If either or both bearing blocks become loosened and moved. 30. 9. Any of the following loading methods may be used: Add deadweights to the top of the ring assembly. it will not be significant.

page E-6. the piston rod by turning twist the sampler slight- Care It is essential to keep the inside of the sampling tube. and the leather washer clean. Work the piston up and down five or six times in each liquid. Loosen the knurled handle of the soil sampler so the piston rod will move freely. and oil the leather washer. complete the following cleaning procedures: 1. Wipe off the excess fuel oil. VOI ‘I Figure E-4. 2. After locking the knurled handle. Do not twist the sampler while pushing it into the soil.FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Operating the sampler upright position in the 1. Soil sampler and sampling cylinder Operation The soil sampler way: is used in the following Figure E-5. Deposit the sample remolding cylinder. ly and withdraw. Figure E-6. If the sampler becomes stiff and hard tc work. Immerse the tube first in water and then in fuel oil. Sometimes two people are needed to force the sampler into firm soils. 3. Soil Trafficability Test Set E-5 . Tube walls and cutting edges are soft and should be handled with 3. remove the tube. Hold the sampler firmly in both hands and force it into the soil vertically (Figure E-51. and squirt light machine oil into the tube. disassemble and thoroughly clean the piston. After 5 to 25 samplings. depending upon the type of soil. for using the sampler directly into the shows the technique in a prone position. the piston ring. 2.

The penetrometer is used to measure soil strength in the cylinder before and after rcmoiding. screw the handle up or down to the correct position. The cutting pening from time Adjustment edges will require to time.5-square-inch cone (for fine-grained soils) or a more slender steel shaft with a 0. Remolding test The equipment for the remolding test. A cone pcnetrometer.2~square-inch cone (for remoldable sands). consists of the following: E-6 Soil Trafficability Test Set . Remolding test equipment care. To do this. and retighten the setscrew. pages E-7 through E-9. shar- A steel cylinder approximately 2 inches in diameter and 8 inches long. Vol 1 Figure E-6. A cone penetrometer may be equipped with an aluminum shaft (5/8-inch in diameter) or a steel shaft (3/8-inch in diameter) with a 0. shown in detail in Figure E-7 and in use in Figures E-8 through E-l 1. loosen the setscrew on the handle. Using the sampler position in a prone Figure E-7. mounted on an aluminum base.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The sampler (Figure Adjust the piston-rod length to keep the face of the piston flush with the cutting edge of the tube when the piston-rod handle (disk) is fully depressed. A 2 l/2-pound steel drop hammer sliding on an 18-inch steel shaft with a handle.

.. take the sum of the five CI readings after remolding and divide by the sum of the five readings before remolding. the full dial capacity (300) is recorded for each inch below the last reading obtained.:. Some remoldable sands with a large amount of fines (more than 12 but less than 50 percent) react very much like fine-grained soil.:.’ . y::. eject it directly into the remolding cylinder as shown in Figure E-9...:... 3. . However. such as a piece of timber.‘: .... Test Procedure for Remoldable Figure E-8.. page E-8. the CI measurements are made with the slender shaft and 0. FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol II push it to the bottom of the cylinder the foot of the drop-hammer shaft. and use the lower remolding index..’ ::+:j : :. .. Apply 100 blows with the drop hammer falling 12 inches as shown in Figure E. ‘1 : :. Measure the remolded strength from the surface to the 4-inch depth at l-inch increments.:~:‘... Soil Trafficability Test Set E-7 . :::: :: .... and the sample is remolded by placing a rubber stopper in the top of the remolding tube and dropping it (along with the cylinder and base) 25 times from a height of 6 inches onto a firm surface.+::.I:. :.:::::.:::.....: . page E-9. ‘. .11. Operating the remolding test equipment to obtain a soil sample E-4.: : . run both the fine grains and remoldable sands tests... .:.. as was done before remolding as shown in Figure E. ..::: : . In such cases.. . Continue to use the more critical test throughout the area.. ..:. ‘: j ‘..::. :.:. To find the remolding index.-‘x:::‘.. .‘:.:.: : . as shown in Figure E-10. .:::. Take a sample from the critical layer with the sampler as shown in Figure E-8. page E-9. Test Procedure for Fine-Grained The following remolding for fine-grained soils: Soils Sands test is performed 1..: : . : ‘.. 4..:.. with 2.:.: . to a depth of 4 inches. and The test procedure for remoldable sands is generally the same as that for fine-gralned soils.: : : 1....:. Measure the strength with the penetrometer (steel shaft) by taking CI readings as the base of the cone enters the surface of the soil sample and at each successive inch. _...10. page E-5) is used to obtain the soil sample from lhe critical layer and place it in the remolding cylinder.2-squareinch cone...+.. . When testing a remoldable sand with a large amount of fines. ...:. . .. >>p::*. NOTE: Some samples are so hard they cannot be penetrated the full 4 inches.

FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Operating test equipment to load the cylinder E-8 Soil Trafficability Test Set . Vol 1 : Figure E-9.

..::::..... :.‘....:.. ...: :::::‘.:..... . ......::.....:.: ...:..:.:........ ... .:: :.:.:. ‘........:.: ..~............... ...)..:.: .......:... ...:.. ‘.......... .. .::::. ..>:.&‘:....:... .........:...... Measuring cone index in a remolding cylinder - Figure E-11.. ......:.: .~(........:................: .... ... Applying hammer blows with remolding equipment Soil Trafficability Test Set E-9 ....:.~‘~‘~. ~“‘~.. ..... FM ...:i:.:(:.:>::j ..~.....:.~~~.....:. .. ...... :..~ .‘........:.. Vo1 1 ::.............:.. (........ Figure E-10.. .. j’..( .....: .: . ........::‘:::‘:‘i:::... ... $43&()()_1 /AF PAM 32130 13... ..............(I?::....i’j.):i.:....


2. 3. pages F-2 through F-30. and tangent distances (T) in Table F. pages F-30 and F-31. are for a l-degree curve.729. Curve Tables F-7 .578-foot radius). CORRECTIONS FOR TANGENTS DISTANCES AND Complete the following steps to determine the degree of curvature for all curves other than the l-degree curve: 1. Add the correction derived from Table F-2. middle ordinates (MI.‘j: FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. based on the arc definition (5. To find the corresponding functions of any other curve. Determine the value corresponding to the given intersection angle from Table F. divide the tabular values by the degree of curvature. externals (El. Divide this value by the given degree of curvature.1. Vol 1 APPENDIX F CURVE TABLES FUNCTIONS OF A 1 -DEGREE CURVE The long chords (C).1.

3878 0.8100 II II II II II II I I 3 I 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 I I I 266.317 249.0101 108.0961 4.7518 I 1.8726 1.0545 0.1515 0.9328 3.642 1 283.333 49.626 I 333.7136 175.6667 25.4908 0.3959 191.4624 241.4908 I 0.0241 1.2073 3.1877 1.6735 1 2..9633 2.6744 100.7333 0.000 16.884 466.3392 91.4238 I 2.0000 0.2055 3.5517 I 0.7544 5.0198 133.3736 166.5513 ---~-r 1.304 299.664 1 133.965 1 316.External Distance T.0969 0.7871 4.4903 3.604 383.4249 I 2.7896 4.653 233.0000 8.3574 141.0060 0.3878 0.261 399.190 1.4251 216.4207 4.1515 0.7381 200.1003 I I I I I I 4 0 10 II 20 30 40 50 F-2 Curve Tables .0544 183.918 416.3337 41.980 1 66.995 I 166.7513 1.6955 150.2181 YGii1 0.0243 1.0342 158.945 I 366.999 66.6060 0.0000 0.6696 75.332 99..998 I 0.537 483.6723 1 2.230 449.3634 1.6060 0.7700 225.330 149. Functions of a l-degree curve Degrees Minutes C.286 349. Long Chord M.0545 0:0969 0.3462 116.0012 1 0 II II II 2 I I I 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 I I I 116.989 216.Table F-l.660 183.0812 208.0242 0.2181 0.1884 2.325 199.0060 0.0991 4.7505 5.3333 16.666 83.6674 50.4924 3.0958 E.0042 83..Tangent Distance II 0 I 0 10 20 30 40 50 I 0.666 33. Mlddle Ordinate 0.4172 4.0242 0.1157 233.2969 1 0.1879 1.0001 33.9343 3.574 433..9640 I 2.6827 125.1875 2.8727 1.7332 0.3638 1.

:: . .:.Y.. .::...:.:.. f::).:.:.~ .:.... :::::.....::. . ... Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Curve Tables F-3 .. y.. .....:::>:.... .:.. FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.~.:..3...:. . .: . :y... .. ..I .:. .:.. Vol 11 Table F-l. .. .. .:... . ::.:.:.: > ..A.. . ......::... ..... . ... . ...:. . ....:.:..:::..:.::..:‘: .:. ..::.:..) .. .:‘c:..:::: . :...)(: .~~~...~. : :..: .:..... ..:...:.. :. .:(. .~..:..:.~..:. .:.A:::. ...:: .. .. . <.~~.: .::f.>:..~. . .:..... . ..:. ..._.::::(:.~.j:.::: ... .i’c:‘::::. .:::. . .. ::. ...::.

...:.... ::..‘... . .. .....‘. .. ..:.. Vol 1 . ..:‘.‘..:p...r ././ ..’ :.:...FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013..y:. .. ::..’ .‘...:::::.: Table F-l.. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) F-4 Curve Tables ...:..: .‘.. ....... .. i.

6060 55.743.611.7926 771.528.8124 873.242 1.808 r 1.0173 I 50.731 I-I 30 40 50 --I I I 1.545.1210 II Curve Tables F-5 .205 T 65.3078 57.627.790 1.761 1.4760 II 916.676 I 1.974 II II I 10 907.4869 I 933.3805 63.7492 II 839.522 lJ41.7735 856.7434 805.300 1.4219 66.4643 54.252 1..561.2425 II 830.6986 I 59.2753 779.2168 52.309 1.8990 66.5532 51.277 1.2507 796.710.7613 788.1722 Distance 49.5686 I 20 30 I I I I 73.1775 67..9573 I 69.1034 I 59.2595 II 847.644..4403 50.606 I 1.3345 53.809.726.7626 1 T.8663 II 890.285 1.6836 67.578.7730 I 70.1110 51.0203 11 924.1404 62.759.4949 61.3375 881.6787 52.304 r- Ordinate 49.594.7087 62.771 1.9355 16 0 10 I.9132 I 61.2396 813.3132 762.066 1.4968 58.776.External Degrees 15 Minutes I 0 10 20 30 40 50 Chord I 1.4688 I 68. Middle E.9679 55.4199 72.495719 1.677.9256 58. Tangent Distance 754.1315 56.825.6334 64.792.Table F-l.1717 74.3990 II 898.2931 60.2429 1.7393 II 822.5053 I 74.2911 864. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) C.20 --I 30 --7 I~~~~~ I 40 50 17 0 10 20 I 1.1183 75.9344 64.8169 53.0900 71.7598 56..806 1.693.796 1. Long M.143 I 1.660.512.

3539 137.153.7635 123.265 2.9288 94.3695 120.4074 97.4957 135.4669 99.6939 130.036.875 2.2258 1 1.044.0034 ’ 91.5518 102.3793 I 119.3982 1 92.235. Middle Ordinate 87.6903 118.1630 l(O87.5364 1.5719 1.0120 97.2050 1.191.398. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Degrees 20 Mlnutes 0 C.317.792 2.5762 99.1536 100.165.6958 1.941 1 .300.588 2.272 2.9230 94.0605 121.779 I 100. External Distance 88.7943 1.8593 1.031 M.137.9649 21 0 10 20 30 40 I II II II I I 2.082 2.2898 1.0021 129. Tangent Distance 1 .382.2791 II II I 10 20 30 40 50 1 1.481 134.284.121.Table F-l.006.4400 92.447.4729 2.0161 1 117.1522 1.6302 124.018.680 2.877 2J66.217.0626 1.7539 122.8198 131.0229 I 116.3479 103.3879 89.463.6845 1.4296 95.252.650 2... I 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 I I I I 2J33.917 2.4561 132.079.1980 128.226...1121 I 23 I 0 I 2.4609 96.4504 1.174.3766 1.9435 128.6509 133.562 1 2J49.4767 II II II 24 .4783 125.061.2972 1. Long Chord 1.071.087 II II II F-6 I I Curve Tables 40 50 I I 2.0133 1.377 2.492 2.9145 1.661 1 2.1162 120.8865 T.4304 I 1 91.989x%61 I 2.431.7441 102.055.4981 E.187 2.242 1 I 115.0764 1.0451 88.

y... :.l.....l:.:.:~‘::::::. ..:..: .‘.:.::. ...:.::.‘. Vol 1’ Table F-l..:. . Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Curve Tables F-7 .\l(..... :. ::.... ..... ..........( .:..I ..>.. ...:.:....::.....: :......:.‘..:. :.:. :: .:.:K:::.::::: :j: :.v 1 :yj:: ” FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. : ::.~:.: :..::....: :‘:c.. : . ::. ‘.:... .:..‘. ..~:::.: ..

::li:i.:il:l:i:..::i:.‘: .::l:i:i::I.:. :‘::‘:l”ii::i’:>...: .:l.:::~:~::.’~.: Table F-1.1::.~.. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) F-8 Curve Tables .:i:i.i’._:::~~_..~~:~~:~~.FM 5-430-00-1/AFPAM .::..:“.I::-‘.ic:.::.::1~:~:::.~. ‘:.~:~..i:.~. l/o1 1 i~::.~:i:.ili:lillili: 32-801 3.ii~.~~.

.6940 270.9296 1.8694 1..6913 ] 2.3950 304.8743 317.907.815. j::. ‘:’ : : :.1659 318.926.620.610 3.550 3.:.3463 I 323.445.1153 330..845 3.2855 312.8182 293.707 3.935.5148 348..1091 324.8519 1.3179 I 342.1848 T.5133 2.4482 312.: : :.5764 2.9499 2.0679 306.5753 1. ‘: FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 3208Oi3..237 II II II II II II 39 20 ~~ I I I-.: .592 I M.7335 301.30 ~~~ I I 40 I 50 I 1 I-~..7523 309.872.972.834 3.-::’~..777.991.714.982.903.922 3.047.3851 289.825.963.1421 333.. ” : : .726 3.417 I 3.5352 1.921 3m572.898.0994 325.144 1 I 320.5919 286..730.038.1936 292.1015 361.6527 1.2982 277..075. ...7115 300.0964 1.0836 298.851 1 3.596 ] 342.760 I 3J88.j.3686 309.490 3..493.5988 288.638 3.856..917.0514 280. External Distance 278.8640 328..1823 267.1779 1.793.2434 339. .2886 ) 364.0175 294.973 ) 1.010.’ :.5817 303. Middle Ordinate 265.0064 285.525.:.604.8561 280. .203 3.424 3m9.234 3. Tangent Distance l&06.636.1297 321.000.1287 2.4083 345...0 ~~~~ 1 10 I I 20 30 T- I 336.944.7519 275. ._ .8582 I 1 1 1 I 2.j.5411 II II I 40 50 I 3.870..7759 1 354.6400 331. Long Chord 3. Vol 1 Table F-l..809.556.9306 358. .8568 297.6406 1.834.3331 2.8281 1.430 3.683.477.461.887.7260 r--- 3JMO.4255 283. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Degrees 35 Mlnutee 0 10 20 30 40 50 C.:~.8140 283.:.5290 1.487 3q9._’~.2438 1‘852.2027 290..4274 334.667.:. :.2172 272.‘:.954.889..2278 1.2263 337.762.357 3.6373 3.:.066.019.3607 1.0366 339..651.8582 2. ~~r’~‘:~~.0899 1.541.6949 1.2125 II 50 0 IO 20 30 40 50 38 0 10 I 3.073 3.. “‘.240 351.219 3..2179 315.1043 327.028.::.::~~:.9635 Curve Tables F-9 .:.X314 36 0 10 20 II II I I 37 30 40 I 3.~‘~:‘:::..976r~ 3.0523 lJ43.736 3.043 3.057.6046 E.4919 I 2.:.: . : :: :.1555 314..:~.4674 306.4451 296.746.4439 lJW.~.824..8702 lJBO.

:‘...FM 5=430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.. Vol 1 . Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) F-10 Curve Tables .:‘. Table F-l. ‘.. : y:.‘.’ ..: ::.::.:.

Tangent Distance 2.9746 I 2..383.9641 II 4.3716 2.5802 483.416.102 I 439.651.400.381 4..:.229 M.797...622 4.:.812.: : FM s-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Middle Ordlnate 436. External Distance 472.1381 E.7430 I 546.: .006 4.641.676.7951 533. Vol 1: Table F-l..746 4.6076 -- 4. i 587 490.462. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) C.9837 452.7556 448.402.617 526... Long Degrees Minutes 0 Chord q385.4161 2. .431.7749 588.738 Curve Tables F-l 1 . ‘..5351 583.I.2231 I 475.: ::.827.8175 479.487 4.3008 529. .3605 487.373.5385 445..6114 2.0725 T.392.3327 a7 2.4828 2.422..0379 2.446.2689 II 45 I 10 20 30 40 4.412.0338 2.2965 2.661..::.079 I- 498.2328 50 ( lr T IO r 4. .3005 579.560.

.. :: . :jlj. Vol 1 : . Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) -- F-72 Curve Tables .FM 5-430=00=i/AFPAM 32-8013.. .. Table F-l. :.:L .

Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Curve Tables F-13 ._‘:j’. . . .::. . Vol 1 Table F-l. FM 514309001l/AFPAM 32-8013.:.....:.

I~~:~jj:j:J. :.FM 5_43(&00_1/AFPAM 32-801 3.~:.:i’l’.i~i::.:.~::i:.‘..ij:iij.~ Table F-l..::‘.i. j/o1 1 : ‘..~:‘. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) - F-14 Curve Tables .‘j :::.:. :.~:..~.

.:.. ::..‘...: p::::. L...:..:..: . .. ..:::. .. .:.: . Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Curve Tables F-15 ...:. ... ..:::.. .:..:.....:......: ..i ..I . .. : : FM 5430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013.. . ::. .( . .: .:. :.. ..:...: .. ... : ::.::.: :. . ..A. . : .. .:.’ ..:.. i. .:...:./.:. :..: x::.. .:_.&::. . .:...::. ....:. Vol 1 Table F-l.:: :i ...: :. .. .. . .... .

Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) F-16 Curve Tables .FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 Table F-l.

Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) .Table F-l.- Curve Tables F-l 7 .

. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) F-18 Curve Tables .Cj .: .FM 5-43&0&1/AFPAM 321301 3.j Table F-l.‘....~:~....:.::. ..: : . .: . :( .‘. .. Vol 1 :..

500.544.314.912.6104 I 2..0261 5. :.0174 2.573.602.405.055.5154 1.565.186 1 7.6142 1. : : .5094 5.468.9176 1.089 I 8.696.257..0832 5. ‘.3505 5.2892 11 5.936.590.019. Long Degrees Minutes Chord M.9071 11 5. ..579.: .556. Vol 1 Table F-l.2662 2.4889 1.9298 5.597.996.224X)96 1 2.6595 1 1.1625 5J89.614.2296 1.1272 2.532.453.235. FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.031.9539 I 1.303.654.484.142 I 5. Middle Ordinate E.712.516.569 8.091.7570 1.8700 11 5.630.4406 5. .043 7.625.201 I 7.3865 1.1437 1..864 7J87.875.9891 5.2894 I 1.OTangent Distance 10 20 30 40 50 87 0 10 20 30 7.7129 2.608.2527 2.5043 1 1.666.198 1 1.306 7.672.1173 1.550.328X369 2J38.437.8448 5Ji63.349.8011 2J61.932 8..8576 ( I 1.7373 1.839.079.827..863.6841 1 2.5077 II 5.9733 2.8777 5.9791 1.246.613.125.7949 5.679.‘. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) C.707 8.067.179 I I 7.948.596.3197 1.4701 lJB1.660.374.147.470 7.280.108 7.619.202.9804 2.562.4987 2.136.581. .960.19 .169.1349 2.646..1164 11 II II II II II I I 88 40 50 0 I I II II II II I I 10 20 lrI 89 r ~~~ --I---r~~ 30 40 50 0 I 10 20 30 40 50 I I 7.648.8487 5.213.1665 5.3412 5.4740 2.749 7.019 I 1~ ~ I-- 8.269.1945 I 2.358.4727 2.414 8.158.053 Curve Tables F.0645 1.2961 5.2795 2..984.828 8.::jj. ‘.962 7.115.9355 7..2800 1 1.549.008.584.900.637.7723 I/ 5.5189 5. . External Distance T.242 8.9440 1 2.155 I 7.972.642.851.924.421.180.7991 1.2094 2.1074 2.618 7.5780 5.191.3308 2.0339 lJ67.

684.724.Tangem Dletance 5.234.5355 2.695.4985 6.658.248 1.9083 8.180.7207 6..369.0513 I 1.126.840.846 Ordinate 1.8430 2.5780 5.5081 .382 8.796.437.9235 1 5.1545 Distance 2.373.737.1139 lq4.126X16 6.0152 1.707.6355 5.7241 1.746X89 5.198.144X01 6.4687 2.749.3367 6.403.921 I 8.493.7156 2.950.307 1.9151 2.5829 2.915.8425 1.9423 1 2.7931 1.763.689.5.849 8.755.557 8.0783 I .440 I 1.Table F-l.026 1.396.846.577 8.0086 5.393 8.0404 I 2.020 8..408.243.320 8380.678.518.4932 2.815X47 1.1517 5.053 8.2209 1.725.3361 1.444.2689 2q5.414.701.231.7974 5.102.215 92 I I 0 10 I I I I I I.671.696 8.4471 8254.457.4609 5JM7.830.719.184.779.5232 6J90.623 I 8.426.173.6636 1.697.4514 I 5JB1.5681 I I 2.713.481.743.684.4487 5J64.737.836 I 2. Long M.645.420.114..530.5913 2.4786 I 1.8568 2.711.219.4883 I 2.632.7377 5.357.108.1581 2.4871 II II I I 20 30 40 50 91 0 8.6116 I 1.516 8.5763 8.392.138.1653 6.852.506.7166 1.927 8.0797 I T. Middle E.5065 1 8.4773 1 2.i F-20 Curve Tables .216.729.813.4596 1.8236 2J32.9567 I 1.125 8.5089 2.469.161.822.8707 1.803.716 8.595 ( 30 40 50 94 0 10 20 30 40 50 8J46.898.933.2225 lJM9.9072 2.External Degrees 90 Minutes 0 Chord 8.1646 6.2190 I II II II II II II II I I 10 20 30 I I I 8..4734 1 2.7315331 I 2.828. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) C.

955 8.764..7489 3.688.571..8363 3.960..864.~:..2747 6.6488 3.6589 2.7074 3....538.629.681.5147 2.425 8..j:::‘~::::.9780 6.’ .0447 I 2Jx33.0241 6..1819 2.002.472 8.903.274 8.080 8J49.:.: : ..504.713.: .2747 2.964. ::.702.400.5025 6. External Distance 2.945X352 I 2.5602 2.759 8..1419 2JM7...9743 2. . :.651 8.0922 2.939.187 8.735.9244 2.877...1208 6. .:.482.... Middle Ordlnate E.826 8.970.062.8074 1..021.0740 1. ..168..2964 I 40 1 II 98 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 99 0 10 20 30 40 50 II Curve Tables F-27 . ..221 8.::..419.059 8.4739 6.307..363..:.1098 6..::::‘.::.648X4 8.::.0355 1.3694 6..::::::..691.604.092..5192 6. .7371 6. ‘: .2140 2.6040 2.::..1612 68476.7588 6.‘:.493.153.724.033.925 8.777 8.526.0931 6.3315 6.0049 1 2J60.3513 1..858..889. .0464 6.1238 6..347 8.576 8.2650 6.571.951.552. .983.788..871.027..610 8.: : : : .. . : : : .. :: :y:.874.808-l 110 I I I 10 20 30 40 50 I 1 1 1. .259 8.560.610..649.8047 1.471..945.448.. :..805.767...976.778.008.2364 1.5531 I 96 30 40 50 I I 6J44.433..7500 6n708.2309 1. .040. .:.917.4497 6pl38.435 I 8.0508 6. .451 I 8...908.7312 1.: ..931.457.. Tangent Distance 6.989..2702 2...055 8.033.391 8.429 8$X37.514.591.812 8.582.3143 2.748.8554 2.. Vol 1 Table F-l.5223 I ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ 2.500 M..914. .107.1704 3.669.3410 6.3724 1..7966 6.166 8.014.i..901.895..276 8.1439 1..745.289.6488 97 0 II II I I 10 20 1.1945 6.047.5320 6.974.~.271.:::‘:‘::.138.670.077...003.768.: .819.9311 2.6861 6.3066 3..8570 2.995. : :.9283 2. ..381.989.1255 6.791.9208 2Jt88..8792 II II II II II II 20 I I I I 1..018.122. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Degrees 95 Minutes 0 10 I C.626.449 8. Long Chord 8.5400 1.j.9833 6.1999 lJ83.751.756.::.615.2039 2.9389 1.252..593.999 8.: : :.3417 T. .7406 3.728.5433 1 1.926.400 I I 8..1084 3.5782 1.326.515.6600 3.659..933.6366 1. :..7617 2.920..7734 6. FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.8902 3..958.0359 3..2900 I1.3948 3.3570 1..459.9298 1.7419 1.:..495.

. Table F-l.FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 ... . Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) F-22 Curve Tables .

.. .: . FM 5430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. .. ::... . .. ..c..:. ‘. . Vol II Table F-l... . . . ... .:... __ Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Curve Tables F-23 .. . .. :! ‘. . .:.. .. .: . .’ .

Table F-l. Vol 1 : of a l-degree curve (continued) FUnCtlOn8 F-24 Curve Tables .FM 5-4300OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Curve Tables F-25 . Vol 1 Table F-i.32-8013.

0701 I I I 20 30 40 50 10.9221 6.5379 6.054.8032 3.644.061. Vol 1 Table F-l.014. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) II 50 I I 10.057.FM 5-4300000l/AFPAM 32-8013.8040 10.133.4410 -26 Curve Tables .5643 6.8329 6.967.301.928.609.4312 3.141.960 10.211 10.890.575.6815 10.440 10.156.1810 3.076.688 3.312 2J44.851.7079 10.9578 6.2987 10.1365 10.541.148.069.

A.036.963.244.:.3141 7..164.3134 6.:‘.270.180.:..8847 7..‘.073.: .6631 11.135..000.785.172.202.7038 3.187.9299 11.8963 1 3225.713..192 I 11.3478 3. Middle Ordinate 3.0259 11.- I 10 20 30 40 50 I 10..210.3889 1 3.:~. .313..8577 6. ‘:.6366 6.6375 6.179.878.148.7479 3.:> .747..124. .187..263.085. :: :.5750 I 7.1606 11.306. :.9926 6..458.‘:‘.. .y.: .3757 11.378. ::..~.143.989 1 10.: ~:.738 10.7289 7340.4090 3.1401 11...8700 11..‘:‘. : .106.661.575.202.217.‘.: ..7264 7224.8318 3..927.386 10. : :.: .716 10.0207 118491.::.::+::.467 1 3.5649 3.::::::‘.240.Tangent Distance 11.8625 6.i : . : .285. ii::l:iiiBi:i.~::i.272 10..0436 6..6071 Curve Tables F-27 ..6181 1 12.744 10.4348 11.277.247.: ~.111.450.765 10. .‘.6254 11.195.4199 7.7347 11.421 1 10.419. . j.9817 3.0502 7. Long Chord 10.819..299...‘.1480 3..704.006.262.j : FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 Table F-l.9270 3.0528 3..748.195.301...6842 T.408.284.1404 7.8963 I 7.225.006 10.~.6037 1 7. ‘.‘.204.:‘:.0328 126 0 10 20 30 40 50 127 0 II .‘I..113.5133 I 3. .255.890.‘.232.618.2585 11.790.External Distance 6.173.104 II II II II 128 I 0 10 20 30 I 10...379.098.9777 7.292.: .3900 I E.-:.6813 7.8070 7. .: : ..241 1 I I I I I I I I 50 I 10.186..4777 11.::.150.854.:.240.8868 1 3.182 10.: :..275 10.‘.533.:::.300.091.232..5977 3.9019 6.:.5247 11.326.6130 11.4040 3.9603 11.605 10. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Degrees 125 Mlnutes 0 10 C.618 I 10.120.i.6112 II I 20 30 40 50 I 10..9791 3.395 10.080 M..744 10.:_‘:$: .. .9533 3. pj j .678.4504 3.785 10.834.404 10..5277 11..2651 y..i::::::.:.‘.367.4169 11.1536 3.783..2744 11..321.165.022 10.

208 10.323.669 10.3075 8.467.6394 3n437.023 10.308.5434 8.1537 3.868.448.381.2690 3.548.709 10.333.5607 ---s.8343 3.376X322 3.567.498.5747 3.388 10.7088 3.5212 3.8112 13.8747 8.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.077 1 10.282.452.4148 8.697 I I I I I II 134 10.481.5382 3.490 I 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 I c F-28 Curve Tables .398 10.368.543..0208 12.460.5267 3.078 10.420.554 10.449.734 10.042.0245 12.502..827.335.1585 12.561.785.369 10.188 10.311.428.521.427.073.7138 13.736.1196 12..1462 3.768.663.0950 8.919.999.506.406.9141 3.934.227 10.131.535.361.5905 9.483.685 10.0094 3.399.229.9067 ~~~~ -1 T.422.399.338..3842 3.4111 13.287.870.9462 7.639.496.Tangent Distance 12.459 10.8873 3.520 M.2667 8.385522 10.138.9232 12.818.8246 8.9608 13.461.6548 13.1850 3.177.571 10.775.687.190.607.7367 3.6620 8. Middle Ordinate 3.524.265.1915 12.465 10. Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Degrees 130 Minutes 0 10 20 30 40 C.1394 8.4565 13. Vol 1 Table F-l.552.476.403.475.8428 12.912.383.669.3803 12.565 10.5437 8.1913 7.414.834.035.580.9802 1 E.621.6792 I 8.541.175.7518 12.llOO 12.021.392.8535 3.2743 3.9196 7.441.288 10.2743 8.4154 12.9501 12.719.554.495.515.086.508.529.8622 1 3.124.6152 13.389.167 10.139 10.429.2047 3.330.488.498.1272 13.973 3.0975 8.4926 13.0398 13.413.434.644 10.443X425 13.4139 8.2504 13.4047 3J45. -~I 3.7585 7.884.468.7640 3.454.528.4029 9.7457 8.490.554 10.8913 13.0023 13.970. Long Chord lo.719.857 10.1076 II II II I 131 I 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 I I 10.955.513.353.521.1577 8.406.1826 9.315.391.3032 I 8.981 10.1486 3.357.1001 8.574.984.5586 3.7204 I I II 132 0 10 20 II I 30 I 10.9328 3.444.5988 9.2080 3.220.2715 8.6345 12.591.9539 13.External Distance 7.1242 8.475.

j.:.:..j .:.j.>. :. Vol 1 Table F-l...:j..::::.:“. ...~:j:.:j: . .... Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Curve Tables F-29 .. .“:...jj.:l ..j . FM 5-4301OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013...jj:::.

Functions of a l-degree curve (continued) Table F-2. Vol 1 .’ : .: Table F-l. Corrections for Tangents and Externals F-30 Curve Tables .FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.

...‘... Corrections for Tangents and Externals (continued) Curve Tables F-31 .:::.. .. Vol 1 Table F-2.’ .. :. . ‘.: ..: ” ....../.:. ‘.. . ..:.:?. .:’ .:.. . :. :..:.I’. .. :‘: FM 5-430~00~l/AFPAM 32-8013.: ..j.::. :. .: j.:. . i .. .....:::i?..‘-:.. :...:‘::>.. :. ‘y: ... .. ..:: ..’ .. ....


soils have been divided into seven groups as shown in Table G. SM-SC CL..:. Fl. 3-6 Typical Soil Types Under the USCS GW.. The Frost-design soil classifhtlon % By Weight < 0. SM-SC. SP-SC GW-GM.’ SP SP GW.:.10 10-20 6-15 r3~~tly F3 a b iic (a b c iId Gravelly soils Sands. SP-SM. SC.. SC. banded sediments > 20 > 15 F4 > 15 NOTE: e = void ratio. or ML-CL 2: Sl s2 Sandy soils (e 5 0. SC. Sl. SP-SM. Soils are listed in approximate order of decreasing bearing capability during periods of thaw..M-SC CL’or CH la ered with ML.02 mm o-3 . SM-SC GM. NFS.:. II soils soils 6.:. GP % 2: GW: GP. the section thickness required will be determined according to the reducedsubgrade-strength method. Only the NFS group is suitable for a base course. Frost Group NFS grade soils. ML-CL ML.. The reducedsubgrade-strength method requires the use of frost-area soil-support indexes listed in Table G-2.25) Crushed stone Crushed rock (b) Gravelly soils SW. S2. a more detailed discussion of frost effects is presented in Special Report 83-27. Silts Very fine sands Clays (PI c 12) Varved clays and other fine-grained..‘. and strength curves shown in Figure G..C. SW-SM. .. For frostdesign purposes. GP-GM. GP-GC SW. REQUIRED THICKNESS Where frost-susceptible subgrades are encountered. GP-GM. GW-GM.:.1.. FM 5-430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.30) c II Sands (e > 0.1. The specific areas where frost has an impact on the design are discussed in the following paragraphs: however. SP-SC.. additional considerations concerning thicknesses and required layers in the road structure must be addressed. GM-GC SM.‘. page G-2. . M x . GC. SW-SC. GW-GC. SM. SW-SM. or F2 soils may be used for a subbase course...30) 3-6 Fl F2 Gravelly . GW-GC. page G-2. . CH.. . and any of the six groups may be encountered as subTable G-i.. . .: ):. Frost Design for Roads G-l ..10 o-3 . . SW-SC.. SP. ML-CL zy’ MX_. . GM-GC SM. Vol 1 APPENDIX G FROST DESIGN FOR ROADS FROST-AREA CONSIDERATIONS In areas where frost effects have an impact on the design of roads.. GP-GC GM. o-3 3. GC.30) (a) Gravels (e c 0.25) Crushed stEne Crushed rock b Sands (e 5 0. GP EZ Type of Soil (a) Gravels (e > 0. except very fine silty sands Clays (PI > 12). MH.

The layered system in the aggregate fill may consist of a wearing surface of fine-crushed stone. and the thickness is determined from Figure G-2. particularly during thaw periods. If the natural subgrade CBR is less than the frost-area soilsupport index.5 required thickness is determined by comparing the natural subgrade CBR to the frostarea soil-support index associated to the relevant first group. and a wellgraded subbase of sand or gravelly sand as shown in the following example: Fl and Si F2 and S2 F3 and F4 9. a coarse-graded base course. or geotextfle. and then moving vertically downward to determine the design thickness in inches. then the CBR value governs the design. the road section should consist of a series of layers that will ensure the stability of the system. The required thickness is determined by entering Figure G-l at the correct design index. moving horizontally to intersect the relevant frost-group 1 I A wearing surface of fine-graded A subbase of wellgraded sand. Frost-design reduced-subgradbstrength curves G-2 Design for Roads . Frost-area soil-support subgrade soils indexes of curve. frost group soils Sl and S2. If the natural subgrade CBR is greater than the soil-support index. 1 8 9 10 15 20 30 40 50 Design thickness in inches Figure G-1. then Figure G-l is used. Frost Qroup of Subgrade Soils Frost-Area SoilSupport Index 1 REQUIRED LAYERS IN A ROAD SECTION When frost is a consideration.0 6.Table G-2.5 3.

c::::‘.~::::.. . . a.j:::..: ... ... they must be either NFS. .L . ...::. . However. The presence of fines helps the layer’s compaction characteristics and helps to provide a relatively smooth riding surface.: ::. Determine the required compaction densities for each layer from Table 9-12..I. . then the CBR value governs the design.:.) 6. First. .. if the gradation of the base course is such that it meets filter criteria. moving horizontally to intersect the frost-group curve.. If the natural subgrade CBR is greater than the frost-area soil-support index.. The sand subbase must be either NFS.>:. y. . .. . 9.::y::: . ...:.:... Fl... as in nonfrost design. .. page G-4.):::.. If the subgrade consists principally of gravel or sand.: p:::p:y.. .j). :.::.:.::: .. COMPACTION The subgrade should be compacted to provide uniformity of conditions and a firm working platform for placement and compaction of the subbase. Frost Design for Roads G-3 . ... then Figure G-l.. . based on the applicable frost group.. ..: :.. compaction of the subgrade will not change its frostarea soil-support index because frost action will cause the subgrade to revert to a weaker state.. WEARING SURFACE The wearing surface contains fines to provide stability in the aggregate surface.\ .. Sl. .: . BASE COURSE The coarse-graded base course is important in providing drainage of the granular fill.::::: ‘y::. SUBBASE The well-graded sand subbase is used for additional bearing capacity over the frostsusceptible subgrade and as a filter layer between the coarse-graded base course and the subgrade. . page G.:::~:$y FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.:. However. .I .+:.. . If select materials are used. the filter layer may not be necessary and may be replaced by additional base course material. . .~~.‘:::::::::::. 8..:.: : . . the filter layer will be necessary... page G-4. (Refer to Chapter 9... Determine the required road-structure thickness. Vol 1 To ensure the stability of the wearing surface..::.. : y...~ :I... .. It is also important that this material be NFS so that it retains its strength during spring thaw... page 9-66. Determine the frost-area soil-support index from Table G-2. . .:. . If a geotextile is used. page G-l. .i .. the sand subbase or filter layer may be omitted because the fabric will be placed directly on the subgrade and will act as a filter. . page G-2. .. . . . .1.1.. If the natural subgrade CBR is less than the frost-area soil-support index.:.. The filter layer may or may not be necessary depending upon the type of subgrade material. .. . for finergrained soils. .:..:. ... compare the natural subgrade CBR to the frost-area soil-support index.. .. .: :: :::::::.:. THICKNESS OF BASE COURSE AND FILTER LAYER The relative thicknesses of the base course and filter layer are variable and should be based on the required cover (minimum of 4 inches) and economic considerations..:.. .::. . page 963. 7... :. .::I ::.. the width of the base course and subbase should exceed the final desired surface width by a minimum of 1 foot on each side.:... and then moving vertically downward to determine the thickness in inches..:: . Sl..... . or F2 from Table G-l.. . This process prevents the migration of the subgrade into the voids in the coarser material during periods of reduced subgrade strength.>:.::.. or S2. FROST-AREA DESIGN STEPS Steps 1 through 5 are the same as for regular aggregate-surfaced roads. is used. S2. and the thickness is determined from Figure G-2.. The required thickness is determined by entering Figure G-l at the design index. . . The material must therefore meet standard filter criteria. Its thickness will vary between 4 and 6 inches.:: . Determine the applicable frost group for the subgrade type from Table G. ....::‘. b.

Design curves for aggregate-surfaced road roads of the aggregate 2. 10. All layer depths should be rounded up to the next full inch for construction purposes. After all possible design sections are determined. NOTES: 1. 3.. .1 2 3 4 5 6 \ - - - 76910 15 20 30 L \ 40 50 Thickness.: :::j:.. inches Figure G-2.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Vol 1 - . The material should meet gradation requirements. the final section used should be determined on the basis of economic analysis. G-4 Frost Design for Roads .. Draw the section structure.: - - e \ f5 t \ t b ’ - - f 44 t t .

... rounding up to 7 inches as shown below. page G-l...‘:....~ t.......:::::: ::: :::::: ::: ::::::: .:. a. ....... ....:.... ... and the frost-area soil-support index = 3.:. In this case...” ” “““. FM 5-430-()&l/AFPAM ). the acquired road-structure Average Daily Traffic 1.~... based upon the presence of the 25-percent truck traffic. 8. Since the natural subgrade CBR is greater than the frost-area soil-support index. ..... ..‘.: ... .. page G-3. Determine thickness.‘.....‘.. index of 4 from Table 9-9.....:.... .‘..... . . 4..:.i(_\. crushed rock = 80 Clean sand subbase = 15 Solution : 1..he.:.~~:..“. crushed rock = 80 Coarse-graded....crushed-rock base course CBR = Percent compaction = Percent compaction = 6 inches-. .... ~~pactsd subgrade I i$ral =subgrade Percent compaction = Example (Frost-Area Design): An aggregate-surfaced road in a frost area is to be used for one year.. .~.‘. Figure G-l is used.5.. based on frost group F3...:‘.‘.... . look at the required road thickness if it was not designed for frost.~ ~:~~~~~~~I:::#:~:~:::::~::::~:::.25 inches..~. I ...‘./ ‘p:.v. 3.~::: .“.‘.. Compacted subgrade CBR = 8 b...:.. . based on average daily traffic of 2..(.““‘.. Now...... .. Select frost-area support-index of 3... 32401 3... ....:. . :.. 7.. From Table G... ....~.... This results in a required total thickness of 6.:..... Number of daily passes = 2...400.:. ““:‘:.....1.. . = Natural subgrade CBR=4 rock I subgrade compacted 2.. the subgrade frost group is F3 based on it being a clay (CL) material.. The road will be subject toVehicles M998 HMMWV dump trucks) 6. ..‘. .. Select road class D from Table 9-8.... ::.:..:...... A design index of 4 is entered into Figure C-l resulting in a Frost Design for Roads G-5 .... page 9-59. design the road for frost.. Select traffic category IV from page 959. .....:...:....“. Natural subgrade CBR = 4..‘. .I.::::'..:..(... .:.ln....800 600 M929 5ton (2 average Available material CBR: Natural subgrade = 4 (Clay PI = 14) Compacted subgrade =8 Fine-graded... 5. .:... the compact subgrade CBR = 8 is used in Figure G-2.. . . Vol 1 inches - Coarse-graded.hegagcrushed = . Select design page 9-60... In this case.i.‘... First..: :...... ...~~~~~~ _.....~:~:....‘:‘:‘:‘:’:’.5 from Table G-l..... ..:. the natural subgrade CBR = 4...400 (given).......:. . ..(...

. crushed rock CBR = 80 19 inches coarse-graded.. crushed rock CBR = 80 12 inches coarse-graded. . . crushed rock CBR = 80 Geotextlle 6 inches compacted subgrade CBR = 8 Natural subgrade CBR = 4 Percent compaction = at least 100% OR . An overall minimal thickness layer of 4 inches should be maintained.:. crushed rock CBR = 80 Geotextlle . crushed rock CBR = 80 21 inches coarse-graded.:. Vol 1 : . depending upon the subgrade material. as determined from Figure G2.. the subgrade is a CL: therefore. 2.. Two alternate designs using geotextile are shown in the example at the bottom of the page.. so long as the minimum thickness above the CBR=16 subbase is maintained at 4 inches.y:::’ design thickness of 24.. The total thickness above the geotextile must be a minimum of 25 inches. Subbase course: 100 to 105 percent. 4 inches wearing surface fine-graded. . page G-3. 10.. .. Subgrade: 90 to 95 percent for cohesion soil (P125). For economy.: .: :. page 9-63..::: .:... Draw the section gregate road structure..j:.:.. .: . rounding up to 25 inches. crushed rock CBR = 80 9 inches clean sand subbase filter CBR = 15 6 inches compacted subgrade CBR = 8 Natural subgrade CBR = 4 Percent compaction = at least 100% Percent compaction = loo-105% Percent compaction = go-95% 4 inches wearing surface fine-graded.. 9..::...: . Percent compaction = at least 100% 6 inches wearing surface fine-graded.:: :. Wearing course: at least 100 percent.::.. it is required.j . Base course: at least 100 percent.:...:.. the thicknesses of the base and subbase courses can be adjusted. . the design above could be used by deducting 6 inches of the clean sand subbase and replacing it with a geotextile.FM 50430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. The function of the subbase as a filter layer is not always required.::. .. : ::. Compaction densities for each layer are determined from Table 9-12.::‘. 6 inches compacted srbgrade CBR = 8 Natural subgrade CBR = 4 Percent compaction = go-95% Percent compaction = go-95% G-6 Frost Design for Roads .5 inches. of the frost-area. .. :‘j :.. Notice the rather large difference in design thicknesses between frost design and nonfrost design..:. ..::j . When using a geotextile as a filter layer.:. In this case.:.. ag- NOTES: 1. 3. .

use the nomograph in Figure H. C. S. psi iE1 10 - UNPAVED-AGGREGATE Site Reconnaissance DESIGN 20 - As with any construction project.O)C Figure H-1. each with different engineering characteristics from which to choose. a site reconnaissance provides insight on construction requirements and potential problems. If possible. in psi. FM 5410. Determining the soils’s shear strength by converting CBR value or cone index Geotextlle Design H-l .8)C l Permissible subgrade stress with a geotextile: S = (5. Determine Strength Subgrade Soil Type and 30 _ Identify the subgrade soil and determine its strength as outlined in Chapter 9. If you are unable to determine C.1 to convert CBR value or CI to C. Determine Permissible grade Soil Load on the Sub- 40 - 50 660 7_ The amount of loading that can be applied without causing the subgrade soil to fail is referred to as the permkslble stress. determine the soil’s shear strength. The design guidelines and methodology that follow help you select the right geofabric to meet your construction requirements. l Permissible subgrade stress without a geotextile: S = (2. CBR 0- Shear stren th.APPENDIX H GEOTEXTILE DESIGN DESIGN GUIDELINES The widespread acceptance of geotextfles for use in engineering designs has led to a proliferation of geotextile manufacturers and a multitude of geofabrics.

and Contact Area Estimate wheel loads.ooO 10. i 110 110 120 120 I 110 83 120 Qfl 1 82 130 75 I20 9.F Axle (CAT 651B) . we can use the Boussinesq theory of load distribution to determine the aggregate-section thickness required to support the design load.000 110. contact pressure.75 times the inflation pressure must be used for all dual wheels.ooO Q.F Axle (stone. Wide ranges of different inflation pressure lires are available for these vehicles. TN& used on.800 Wheel loader .R Axle : S S S S S S S S 25.ooO 10.008 88.480 120.CQO 89. The wheel load exerted by a single wheel is applied at a surface contact pressure (PI equal to the tire inflation pressure.OfXl 55.000 18.R Axle Wheel loader s S S S S S S S S S S S S s S S S D S S S S 48. Manufacturets’ specifications should be consulted for off-highway vehicles.0 I / . - Vehicle input parameters Axle Loads Ob) s .000 60.6 15.oGu 37.000 44.5 80 QO 68 50 50 60 60 60 60 85 8.tJfQ 32. concrete) S T S T S D S D 18. Boussinesq theory coefficients are found in Table H-2.R Axle 1 Off Highway VehlcksS ~-Ion IN!& - F AZ& (CAT 769C) .ooO 136.R Axle Scraper . Tandem axles exert 20 percent more than their actual weight to the subgrade soil due to overlapping stress from the adjacent axle fn the tandem set.F Axle JCAT 992) .F Axle (CAT 930) . single and dual wheels are represented as single-wheel loads (L) equal to one-half the axle load.F Axle (CAT 910) .COO 44.000 5JJfJfl 18.F Axle (CAT 966C) .4 26.Tandem Wheels s .3 18.5 22. Dualwheel loads apply a P equal to 75 percent of the tire inflation pressure.0 11. RAxle Tractor trailer .5 31.3 25. Vol 1 Determine Wheel Loads.cQo 65. Table H-l. 3.3 . Wheel load is one-half the axle load and increased by 20% if the wheel is on a tandem axle. For geotextile design.000 24.Slngk T .0 45.5 80 267 656 240 100 308 117 542 2G8 800 324 2071 1000 554 503 706 692 16.600 12.808 .xxl 14.6 10.0 17.600 lZ=J 68@fJ 27.GOo 290. Contact Pressure.200 24. 4.slngk D-Dual Whet LQads i L Ob) I\ypk& ml-e lnnatlon Contacl Pressure3 P (PSf) Pressure (psi) Wheel Contact AIW B2 (ln2) One Side of square Contacl Ana B (In) Highway Legal Vehlcks Haul Inrcks4 .6 23.R Axle Scraper .700 90 90 50 50 60 60 60 60 85 85 70 60 80 75 8.F Axle (18 wheeler) .000 120.5 70 60 80 75 8.5 10.CKIO 18.3 14.300 37.800 9.R Axle Wheel loader .8 23. H-2 Geotextile Design . 5.ooO 18.R Axle Wheel loader .R Axle Wheel loader .R Axle ::z NOTES 1.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.F Axle (CAT 9888) .500 7. Vehicle Type (Choose Category Nearest Ibe Actual Design Veltlcles) AXkS * Estimate the area being loaded (B2): B2 where B2 = length con tat t area +’ of one side of the square Determine Aggregate-Base Thickness Assuming that wheel loads will be applied over a square area.500 145.r. 2 Maximum tire inflation pressure is given for each class of vehicle.and off-highway generally use lower inflation pressure tires requiring only 75 to 90 Psi. Same as tire inflation pressure except that a factor of 0.F Axle (CAT 631D) .ooc) 10. Using tires with lower inflation pressures would lower the contacl pressurea and allow for less thickness of the aggregate structural seclion.4 28.4 8. and contact-area dimensions from Table H-2.7 11.608 75.6 26.

. Vol 1 Table H-2.. Without a geotextile: With a geotextile: GoteAk= ~geotextile If you anticipate more than 10. .240 $:E 0. increase H by the following percentages: 2. pages H-5 through H-7) at S (with and without a geotextile).8 without a geotextile and by 5.: FM 5=430=00=i/AFPAM 32-8013. contains typical compacted strength properties of common structural materials..50 1.. Geotextile Design H-3 . . First.00 0.. . or tandem..237 0. .084 0.000 passes 5. .000 passes. ..250 0. Without a geotextile: H= With a geotextile: B HgeokMk= l B (inches ) (2P4 (2)Mgeotextlle -- The difference between H and H geotextile is the aggregate savings due to the geotextile..75 3. you need to increase the design thickness by 30 percent and monitor the performance of the road. Adjust Aggregate-Base Thickness for Strvice Lift The design method assumes that the pavement will be subjected to 1. _ Boussinesg theory coefficients ThenM= 0. .00 ?% 10.. Table H-3..55 1% 1. .00 I .250 2...096 0... then divide H by that factor to determine the adjusted aggregate-section thickness. Then solve for aggregate-base thickness H and H geotextile..000 passes of the mardmum design axle load. Round design-vehicle wheel loads to the next higher 5.107 0.A...10 0. . Determine the permissible stress on the subgrade soil (S) by multiplying C by 2.048 KG: 0. then read the minimum required thickness on the left axis..... . Extract the appropriate thickness equivalent factor from Table H-3. If lower-quality aggregate is used. Select the heaviest vehicle using the road and the design vehicle for each wheel-load configuration: single.75 2.247 EZ 0.000-pound increment. If the traffic is greater than 1.. dual. .45 0. use Figure H-l to correct CBR or CI values to a C value. .000 passes 10.000 passes 8% 19% 27% E% 0. . . Use the greatest thickness values as (4P l Using the calculated values of X and Xgeotextile. the aggregate-section thickness must be adjusted..0 with a geotextile. solve for X. . H-3. . . L . .. . A second method of determining minimum required cover above a subgrade for wheeled vehicles with and without a geotextile requires fewer input parameters. . . .. .find the corresponding value of M and Mgeotetiile from Table H-2.50 0. . . These values are approximations: use more specific data if it is available.50 2. Again..25 2. .30 Adjust Aggregate-Section Aggregate Quality Thickness for 0.000 passes. Determine the intersection between the appropriate wheel-load curve and S (with and without a geotextile).. or H-4. Enter the appropriate graph (see Figures H-2.118 KG 0:146 The design method is based on the assumption that good-quality aggregate (minimum CBR value of 80) is used..00 4. . page H-4.~5 E:E 0....

FM 5-43&()()-l/AFPAM 32-801 3.:.r:j.i. Woven fabrics are generally stronger than nonwoven fabrics of the same fabric weight. Typical compacted strength properties of common structure/ materials Material Asphalt. Compare the cost of the material saved with the cost of the geotextile to determine if the use of the geotextile is cost effective. Now you must decide which geotextile fabric best meets your project requirements.~.: Table H-3.high plan1 stability Crushed rock hard Crushed medium-hard rock Well-graded gravel Shell Sand-gravel mixtures Soft rock Clean sand Lime-treated base1 Cement-treated baselp2 650 psi or more 400 psi to 650 psi 400 psi or less Range >lOO 80-100 60-80 CBR Thickness Equivalency Factor 3.. Equipment ground pressure (in psi) is an important factor in determining the geotextile fabric thickness: a thicker fabric is necessary to stand up to high equipment ground pressure (see Table H-5. Nonwoven fabrics have a high elongation of 50 percent or more at maximum strength.~:lj.I’:i .A. page H-9). Woven geotextiles typically reach peak tensile strength at between 5 and 25 percent strain.45 0.50 0.:.. ments..j:j::.00 0.l.::.00 1.40 1.i:.85 0.!li~ . page H-8.y:j.. Table H-4.00 1.05 40-70 40-60 20-50 20-40 10-30 >lOO >lOO >I00 >lOO NOW The wlucs listed above are general guidelines.: j. Up to this point in the geotextile-design process. pattern with fairly even opening spacing and size. i.::j. More cud lbiclmeu quivrlency fac~orran be determined by coopting ~hcCBR of Ihc wailable rggrcgak IO the deign CBR of 80.:i .~:. provides informatlon on important criteria and principal properties useful when selecting or specifying a geotextile for a specific application. you have been concerned with general design properties for designing unpaved aggregate roads.75 0.i.69.:::..60 1. usually rectangular. an aggrcga~cwith a CBR of 55 would have an approximate !hickncrr qtivrlacy factor of W80 I 0. The type of equipment used to construct a road or airfield pavement structure on top of the geotextile must be considered..Oo-2. The pattern and opening spacing and size are irregular in nonwoven fabrics..40 1.. typically needle punching or head bonding at intersection points of the fila- H-4 Geofextile Design . cOncrete mix.:‘I::.~j. Fa example.i.lili.. TYPES OF GEOTEXTILES There are two major types of geotextiles: woven and nonwoven. the design thickness with and without a geotextile.~.I:i.j~:.i::.ji jij::<.‘..i:. Woven fabrics have filaments woven into a regular.ii:.j j: i.:. Vol 1 ..::i::i..80 0.i:. Nonwoven fabrics have filaments connected in a method other than weaving.:.

.:‘:..:..............: 32-8013...... The compaction aids in locating unsuitable materials that may damage the fabric.. ....::. and excavate the site to design grade: fill in ruts and surface irregularities GeotexMe Design H-5 ..:..:...:‘....‘.j. ..:..::::....‘.:...:.. ...::::.:...:.....:...‘.~. ...:. ROADWAY CONSTRUCTION There is no singular way to construct roadways with geofabrics........ page H10).... .~. When you have determined the set of testing standards..:... . deeper than 3 or 4 inches (see Figure H-5..: ::..:..:. there are several applications and general guidelines that can be used....... grub........:::::::.. However...:......j..:. you are ready to either specify a geotextile for ordering or evaluate on-hand stocks.:.:.. ~ ::.:..:.~..:.~.:i...:..‘...:.: .:... Thickness design curve for slngbwheel load on gravel-surfced pavements Once the required degree of geotextile survivability is determined.........~. Vol 1 - Single-Wheel Load One-Layer System Tire Pressure = 80 psi Single-Wheel Weight 3 45 10 20 30 50 70 Permissible Stress (S) Figure H-2.:... the geotextile will be required to withstand to meet use and construction requirements.. page H-l 1)......:..:. .....‘..:... SITE PREPARATION Clear.“““” :I’.:...I.~. i.:::...... minimum specification requirements can be established based on ASTM standards (see Table H-6..:...:::: ::j...‘.: ::::::‘.. Remove unsuitable materials where practical...::....:..~.:.:....FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM .................::::::j::::j::::j..... .. ....‘.~...:... . Compact the subgrade if the soil CBR is greater than 1. ....../L..‘:....:. ......j....~..

Table H-7.. Use sand or sawdust to cover roots. In the case of wide roads. Thickness design curve for dual-wheel load on gravel-surfaced When constructing over extremely soft soils (such as peat bogs).. The fabric is commonly.::< Dual-Wheel Load One-Layer System Tire Pressure = 80 psi Dual-Wheel Weight ollllfi’ 1 ’ 2 iliiirlll’ 3 ’ 10 rlm’ “B1a’ar 20 30 50 70 45 Permlsslble Stress (S) pavements Figure H-3. or stalks. Nonwoven geotextfles are preferred when the soil surface is uneven. surface materials (such as the root mat) may be advantageous and should be disturbed as little as possible.. multiple widths of fabric are laid and overlapped. stumps.: :: . the fabric may be cut and laid transverse to the roadway. Vol 1 . :.:. LAYING OF FABRIC The fabric should be rolled out by hand. ahead of backfilling.FM 5~3()-0&1/AFPAM 32-8013. but not always. laid in the direction of the roadway. provides general guidelines for lap lengths.. Lap length normally depends on subgrade strength. Large wrinkles should be avoided. : ?. Where the subgrade cross section has large areas and leveling is not practical. .. page H-12. >. directly on the soil sub- grade. This cushions the fabric and reduces the potential for fabric puncture.i::.. H-6 Geotexti/e Design .::..

.:.:.......~... .A: >.. VOi 1 I ‘I ” “I ” “1 ’ 1 ’ “1 ’ If Tandem-Wheel Load One-Layer System Tire Pressure = 80 psi Tandem-Wheel Gear Weight Permissible Figure H-4..:..:..... . j .~..........):.:.... they are construtted after the pavement..~..... ..:..:.~.~..... compaction and grading can be carried out with standard compaction equipment..:.....’:. Small.....:...:::: >........... pushed out over the fabric......:........~::~ ..........~.“::........... The blade is also kept high to avoid driving rock down into the fabric.. .:..:. Vehicles must not be driven directly on the fabric because they might puncture it..: .:...... Base material is then end-dumped directly onto the previously spread load.:....~.. Geotextlle Design U-7 ..: :........ Thickness design Stress (S) load on gravel-surfaced pavements curve for tandem-wheel LAYING OF BASE If angular rock is to form the base..... :...:..~:_.:‘:‘:.....:... ::..:...... : :..:...:. and spread from the center using a bulldozer. :: ... ........~ :::::::.....: . ...::...~.....~.:‘:~~~::~.: :......:...:. “““‘..... After spreading.....:‘...:...: .:.... If the roadway has side drains..::..~...... ..... tracked bulldozers/ (with a maximum ground pressure of 2 psi) are commonly used for spreading.......~....~. I : : FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013.....:...:....:.::...:....:...:..:......::. it is common to first place a protective layer of 6 to 8 inches of finer material.::....:...:.~.:.:*::......:..

Vol 1 Table H-4.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. Geotextlle evaluation Criteria and Parameter Property F Application D S R Design Requirements Mechanical strength Tensile strength Tensile modulus Seam strength Tension creep Soil-fabric friction Hydraulic Flow capacity Piping resistance Clogging resistance i Permeability. X X X X X X ‘X X X X X X Wide-width strength Wide-width modulus Wide width creep Friction angle - X X X X - X Transmissivity I Apparenl opening size (AOS) Pommetry Gradient ralio ~ Constructability Requirements ’ Tensile strength Seam strength Bursting resistance Puncture resistance Tear resistance F D S R Filtration Drainage Sepalion Reinforcement Grab strength I Grab strength ! Mullen burst i Red puncture 1 Trapesoidal tear I X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X H-8 Geotextile Desigrl .

Placement of an excessive initial cover-material thickness may cause bearing failure of soft subgrades. 2. <8 psi <4 psi LUtf Moderate Moderate High 12. angular and sharp-edge few fines NOTES 6 to 12-inch Initial Lift Thickness LOWMediumGroundGroundPressure Pressure Equipment Equipment 24 psi. Required degree of geotextiie survivability as a function of cover material and construction equipment Cover Material Fine sand to &-inch-diameter gravel. may be angular Some to most aggregate with diameter greater than one-half proposed iii thickness. increase geotextile survtvability requirement one level. <8 psi ~8 psi LOW Moderate Moderate High 18 to 24inch Initial Lift Thickness Hiah-GroundP&sure Equipment 28 psi LcrW Moderate >24-inch Initial Lift ThiChesS Hiah-GroundP&sure Equipment ~8 psi LOW LOW High Very High High Very High High Moderate 1. For special construction techniques such as prerutting. .Table H-5. round to subangular Coarse aggregate with diameter up to one-hatf proposed Iii 18-inch initial Lift Thickness MedtumHighGroundGroundPressure Pressure Equipment Equipment 14 psi.

H. These values are normally 20 percent lower than manufacturer-reponed typical values. ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM D 4632 D 4833 D 3786 D 4533. Vol 1 Table H-6.FM 51430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. any roll in a IOI should meet or exceed the minimum values in this table). Minimum properties required for geotextile survivability Required Degree of Geotextile Survivability Very high High Moderate Grab Strength Ib ’ Puncture Strength ’ lb Burst Strength 3 Psi Ttap Tear 4 lb 270 180 130 90 110 75 40 30 430 290 210 145 ’ . either principal direction I Note: All valuea represent minimum average roll values (for example.10 Geotextile Design .

. Maintain at least 6 to 12 inches cover between the truck tires and the geotextile. : .. 00 not drive directly on the geotextile. Dump aggregate onto previously placed aggregate. Inspect the geotextile. . Compact the aggregate using dozer tracks or a vibratory roller..’ FM 51430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. . Figure H-5. 2. ‘. Spread the aggregate over the geotextile to the design thickness. Unroll the geotextile directly over the ground to be stabilized. . overlap the rolls. . Construction sequence using geotextiles .. 4.: ... and so forth. Vol 1 1.. boulders. 5.‘..‘. fill in low spots.. Prepare the ground by removing stumps. If more than one roll width is required..

1 < 0../ .:..(..3 feet 3 feet or sewn Sewn 3 feet or sewn H..:.. Recommended minimum overlap requirements CBR Minlmum Overlap >2 l-2 0. .:.::. . .5 feet 2 . .: . .... Vol 1 i.. ... .:.:. Table H-7.. .l/AFPAM 32-8013..:..1. . .12 Geotextile Design ..5 .:.FM 5430100. ......:. .5 All roll ends 1 .

..: .‘.:... >)( ...:..:>.. cohesive or ATTN Aug Glossary.:..:. ......::... Vol 1 GLOSSARY AABNCP MSHO AASHTO ABS AC ACE a4 ADR AFCS AFM AFP AFR advanced airborne control platform American Association American Association of State Highway Officials of State Highway and Transportation (plastic) Officials acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene asphalt cement armored combat earthmover adjusted air base damage repair Army Facilities Component System Air Force manual Air Force pamphlet Air Force regulation aggregate average haul distance airfield marking and lighting ammo APC approx Apt ammunition armored personnel carrier approximately April Army regulation ASCE ASTM Atterberg Limits American Society of Civil Engineers American Society of Testing and Materials Soil plasticity test used to measure soil cohesiveness: cohesionless.:..‘.... . :.:.I. .: .:..I ..::’::..:. .. attention August that is..:.. .-:.“.: .‘.: FM 51430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013.:.:.: :...:.:.:..: .:.>:::.: :.:.::::::::::.: j.....:: ::..... .:....:.i.: ..:...: :.

2 .. It is equal average running speed The speed expected to be maintained by most vehicles. banked cubic yardage (BCY) Soil measured in its natural state.::. Therefore.::::_-~::::.:. Glossary . A raised lip.. av absolute volume average daily traffic (ADT) The anticipated average number of vehicles per day that will use a completed facility. CDR CE 85 commander Laboratory compactive effort (CE) accomplished by the impact of 55 hammer blows per layer. it is made of higher quality material than subbase material.F:‘. usually of earth. benching berm The most common type of asphalt surface placed in the theater of bitumen or bituminous operations. bearing capacity The ability of a soil to support a vehicle without undue sinkage of the vehicle.. Bn borrow pit battalion An excavated area where material has been dug for use as fill at another location..::: . British thermal unit Bays Village of Maryland Celsius cut computer-aided design BTU BVM C C CAD CAMMS Condensed Army Mobility Modeling System California Bearing Ratio (CBR) A measure of the shearing resistance of a soil under carefully controlled conditions of density and moisture. Terracing on a slope. The base course is the most important element in a road structure. Base course consists of well-graded. granular materials that have a base course or base liquid limit less than 25 percent and a plastic limit less than 5 percent. ::: : :. It functions as the primary load-bearing component of the road. to the total traveled distance divided by total time consumed.FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013. placed at the top edge of a channel to prevent flow into the channel at places not protected against erosion.:.’ :::. ultimately providing the pavement (or surface) strength. . Vol 1 ..

j::>.:>:. continental captain United States CONIJS CPT Glossary . . normally by the application of a moving (or dynamic) load. .: > : : >j>>::. Method used to compact the soil. A number of tests will be taken and each specified interval reading will be averaged. j : F::. Vol 1 CES .. per second (LL<50) (LL>50) CI c CL cm cm/set CMD CMP co coarse-grained compacted cubic yards (CCY) compaction Process of mechanically densifying a soil..:: j :: . .:j : j::j:j:j:j:. >.:::: :j:x: j ::j . The number represents resistance to penetration into the soil of the 30-degree cone with a l/2-square-inch base area (actual load in pounds on cone base area in square inches). The CI reading is normally taken at the O-inch (base of the cone) and at every 3-inch interval down to 18 inches or until the dial reaches the maximum of 300. Gravels are not considered to pose a trafficability problem.:.. :. j : ‘: FM 5430=00=1/AFPAM 32-8013. .: . high compressibility cone index centerline clays. :. low compressibility centimeter centimeters command corrugated metal pipe company soil A free-draining soil of which more than 50 percent by weight of the grains will be retained on a No.: .- civil engineering squadron CEV cf cfs CH combat engineer vehicle cubic feet cubic feet per second clays. 200 sieve. 200 sieve. .:...::. using a dial calibrated to produce an index of 300 when 150 lb of pressure are exerted on the handle....3 . For trafficability purposes.. That average becomes the CI for the inch level.. these are dry beach and desert soils usually containing less than 7 percent of material passing the No...+j:::. A measurement of compacted soil. compactive effort (CE) cone index (CI) An index of the shearing resistance of soil.:.:.i:. The CI is obtained with a cone penetrometer.

. Generally.. whether sloped or level.4 . and grades.::‘. The terms sidehill cut and through-hill cut describe the resulting cross sections commonly encountered. : : .:. Sometimes cut 8lope CY DA DBH DD Dee deg dept at breast Department December degree department of Defense design hourly volume (DHV) The number to accommodate of vehicles that a road may typically be expected in an hour. cubic yard Department diameter of the Army height line (bottom of ditch). The DHV is 15 percent of the ADT. the critical layer for fine-grained soils is 6 to 12 inches below the surface when For coarse-grained soils. but permeable surfaces such as earth or gravel require a large crown. such design speed The speed for which as horizontal curves Glossery . The slope from the top of a cut to the ditch it is called the back slope. Vol 1 :“: : ‘:. The amount of crown Surfaces such as concrete or bituminous depends on the surface used. css cu cm slow setting centimeter foot utility cargo vehicle through a structure consisting of cu ft cucv culvert commercial An enclosed waterway used to pass water an embankment or fill. may be based on design speed. The crown expedites surface-water runoff on the road. crown The outside cationic cubic cubic top of the culvert. cut or cutting That portion of through construction produced by the removal of the natural formation of earth or rock. a facility is designed. Pertinent geometric features. The difference in elevation between the centerline and the surface edge. with the soil profile and the weight and type of vehicle. the critical layer is subjected to passes of a vehicle. critical layer The soil layer that determines the rating cone index (for fine-grained soil) or Its depth varies cone index (for coarse-grained soil) of the area considered. materials require little crown because of their impermeability.FM 5-43O-()&l/AFPAM 32-8013. :‘:. usually from the surface to a 6-inch depth for all vehicular passes..

. .:... .....074 millimeter in diameter). ... :::....A..5 . shallow arroyos or washes in semiarid regions subject to flash floods. .: .... wide.....:. FM 5-430-001l/AFPAM 32-8013. For example.:.:.7>.. ......... ... ..:.. cavity.\. passage. ..::.. :..:. The slope of the ditch extending from the outside edge of the shoulder to the bottom of the ditch. ....... ..:.:....(... This slope should be relatively flat to avoid damage to vehicles driven into the ditch and to permit easy recovery.: :.... ... .... soil A silt or clay soil of which more than 50 percent by weight of the grains will pass a No...:::.......:... .. demilitarized zone detention dia dip ditch slope diversion ditch DMZ drop DT E elev EM EM En@ EOD erosion EW F F Feb fill or filling A structure that absorbs the impact energy of water as it falls vertically to a lower level waterway....: :.... .... .... . material to fill a cavity or low place...A. Using of weathered materials by wind or water. . ...3.. .: . .>:. . .:..:. .:.:.:.. . ....:.:...:./.: .....(. diameter A paved ford used for crossing dry. :. . .. a “2-year design storm” is a storm expected to be equalled once in 2 years. :x.:.3:.:.:....... ditch time east elevation engineer manual enlisted member engineer explosive ordnance disposal The transportation east-west fill Fahrenheit February Material used to fill a receptacle.:.:... ..... . .... fine-grained Glossary . .. fill slope The incline extending from the outside edge of the shoulder to the toe (bottom) of a fill..::.... ... 200 sieve (smaller than 0. ... The storage of water in depressions in the earths surface.: ... . . ....::.: .... . A ditch used to transport water away from roadways or an-fields. .:. Vol 1 design storm The storm of greatest intensity for a given period..: ..... or low place. . ......: ...:.. .

. shoulder width. grade-line silty gravel gram poorly graded gravel horizontal of water or sloping surface. and alignment... feet Fort feet per foot feet per inch square gravel Large.:... : . . gallon gallons per pound per square gravel features of the yard feet per square yard the frost-susceptible ft FT ft/ft ft/in fP/ yd3 G gabion gal M/lb Bat/ GC yd= gallons clayey design geometric (geometry or geometric features) Refers to all visible road such as lane width. They are designed to solve the problem of erosion.:.:. Vol 1 j:::j.FM 5-43O-O&l/AFpAM 32-8013. usually rectangular in shape and variable in size.:: .\.: :: : . steel wire-mesh baskets filled with stones..:j:.<. soil Soil in which significant ice segregation will occur when necessary moisture and freezing conditions are present.:::::. ::: FM ford field manual A shallow personnel place in a waterway and vehicles. elevation GLE GM cpn GP grade To level off to a smooth An icing whose source ground icing is from groundwater flow above permafrost. _.: :..6 .::: .. :.j.\:: ... Glossary .. where the bottom permits the passage of fpm fPS frost action feet per minute feet per second Processes which affect the ability of soil to support a structure when accumulated water in the form of ice lenses in the soil is subjected to natural freezing conditions.

:..j:i:j:i:::. .:. .: . latitude pound length in place and the lat lb LIP Glossary . ..: ... Vol 1 groundwater .. . .. ..:. .. .. sand... ..:..:..7 .000 pounds) kilometer kilometers per hour The type of flow that occurs when viscosity forces predominate particles of the fluid move in smooth.. parallel paths... ...:.. ..:......:. . . ......:..: FM 5-430-00-l /AFPAM 32-8013.:.:.::. An irregular sheet or field of ice.:.:.:.. . ... .::::::. . .. .. :....... ..:... .:..:.:.:. January July June kilogram ktlopound ( 1...:.. ..::::‘... .. ... . and water sprayed from a high pressure nozzle onto a surface to protect it...:: .: . .‘: .:. ... ... .. well-graded gravel GW high mobility..‘.:. ... .:... .:....... :.: . from the oceans to The continuous process in which water is transported the atmosphere to the land and back to the sea...:... .I.::::j:...:::. :.. ..: .... ..... .:.._ table The upper limit of the saturated zone of free water.: .:..‘.:.........:. ...... . ..:..: :::::::‘..:..:..‘...:. .. The holding of rainfall in the leaf canopy of trees and plants..:.::...:.. ...: .. . .:.:.. :: : :: ::x+:%:. gunite A mixture of cement.:.. . inch iCing in infiltration in/hr in 8itu interception Jan Jill Jun kg kip km kph laminar flow The absorption of rainwater by the ground on which it falls.:. .: ..:....\..:. .. ./. .:..:........:. ..: .. “‘. .......:. .....:..... multipurpose wheeled vehicle HP high point high water hydraulic gradient hydrologic cycle The slope in feet per foot of a drainage structure...::. ...::.v . ..:.... .(....:.i::.:. ..... . inches per hour Soil in its natural (undisturbed) state..

. .::::..: .FM 5-430-()()-1/AFpAM 32-8013.:. maximum towing force (Tl) can exert.: :::: . Maryland silt.8 .::. mission-oriented miles per hour setting symbol meaning not slippery under any conditions.:. ...:.. .:.:.-:~. that results from a consideration of certain vehicle offset mobility index (MI) MOPP protective posture mph MS N N medium Slipperiness north not applicable WA Glossary . .: : .: liq LL LOC LP Y m Mar mass diagram max liquid liquid limit lines of communication low point silt meter March Earthwork maximum The maximum continuous towing force in pounds a vehicle It is expressed as a ratio or percentage of vehicle weight..:j:j: ~::~ij>:. showing cut and fill operations... Vol 1 . high compressibility (LL>50) mi min min mile minimum minute silt.:.. volume plotted on graph paper.. low compressibility (LL<50) mm MO MO millimeter maximum Missouri A number characteristics.

Nov NP North Atlantic Treaty Organization nuclear. frost susceptible index of intersection oils. petroleum. chemical officer noncommissioned northeast nonfrost number November number NATO of pipes Reference radio susceptible Mobility Model NRS NS NSN P. Vol 1 NATO NBC NC0 NE NFS No. biological. stock number Slipperiness point of curvature permanent Constantly possibly plasticity point frozen ground. Ott OL P PC perm permafrost PFS PI PI POL ponang POP Pr . The accumulation population probability prime base engineer emergency forces Glossary .Prime BEEF naval station north-south national offset October order length symbol meaning slippery when wet.9 . and lubricants of water at the upstream end of a culvert.FM 51430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.

~~:~. ‘:: .I. roadbed consists of both the traveled way and the shoulders.::. RI fiPmP remolding index Rocks or rubble placed in the bottom and on the sides of a ditch to prevent soil erosions.. or detrimental effects of remolding may change soil strength.. coarse-gralned soil. Soil conditions that permit the remolding test to be performed with ease will usually result in a loss of strength..~:~ +j Psi PT WC WC pounds per square inch point of tangency polyvinyl chloride point of vertical curvature point of vertical intersection point of vertical tangency QSTAG rating cone Quadripartite index Standardization Agreement (RCI) The measured cone index multiplied by the remolding index (RCI = CI x RI). icing An icing formed along rivers or streams and adjacent areas having a source of water above or below the riverbed. these soils react to traffic in a manner similar to fine-grained soils and are more sensitive to remolding. The beneficial.::::‘I:l :‘. 200 sieve.:::... neutral. j/c: ::::.: K: :i.FM 5-4 30-00 _1/A F PA M 32-50 1 3 .~::::~.~~~. The RCI expresses the soil-strength rating of a soil area subjected to sustained traffic.~.:::::.:i:‘:N:::::i:.i: .~.. Reqd required towing required force (T2) The force in pounds required to tow an operable..::~.10 . Vo 1 1 :: :.~:l:i:. When wet.:. The entire width of surface on which a vehicle may stand or move. engineering RC RED HORSE remoldable sand A poorly drained.cI. remolding index (RI) The ratio of remolded soil strength to original strength. Poor internal drainage increases the water content greatly influencing the trafficability characteristics and permitting the remolding test to be performed.. remolding The changing or working of a soil by traffic or a remolding test... powered vehicle on level terrain. rapid curing rapid engineering deployable heavy operational repair squadrons.<:: : < I.: :::: :::cI::j. The river roadbed Glossary . usually containing 7 percent or more material passing a No.:’.:i:l.c I .

...~:I:::::i:l:I:I:I:::i:::l’::~....(.. (. .L.. . roadway The entire width within the limits of earthwork construction and is measured between the outside edges of cut or fill slopes...... railroad RRR RS RT RTCB RTO 8 8 82 83 sand #id rapid runway repair rapid setting road tar road tar cutback radiotelephone operator Slipperiness symbol meaning slippery at all times.. Vol 1 road classification system An organized list of four road types based on the number of vehicles each is designed to accommodate in a 24-hour period.:....:. ..‘... or cut immediately adjoining the roadway that accommodates stopped vehicles in emergencies and laterally supports base and surface courses.( ..A. .....i.“...... . SC SC SCIP SEATO 6CC Bspt SFC shoulder Glossary ...A. sand Intelligence Officer (US Army) Operations and Training Officer (US Army) A honeycomb shaped geotextile measuring 20 feet by 8 feet by 8 inches deep when fully expanded._:.. ...j.L..~... .. . ... . FM 5-430-OO-l/AFPAM 32-8013.:: .. .. .._‘. ...:::i. .11 . Road characteristics are based on average daily traffic...~::~:~::::~:::::::::::~:: :.... ....~~:~:~:~:~:~~:~:~~:~:~~:~. It is used to develop a beachhead for logistics-over-theshore operations./.>: :.. . . .. (.‘.....:: . i. Roadway width does not include interceptor ditches if they fall outside the slopes.:.. ... It is also useful in expedient revetment construction.. .. and slope ratios.A..‘.. . ._..:...: ::..‘. ::...A..:.... ....... causeway..:..:... .‘~‘_‘.. . ....:.....::::~::::::::..: :::::. ... ...A....:: .:. .:..:... supply catalog slow curing scarify and compact in place Southeast Asia Treaty Organization second September sergeant first class That part of the top surface of an approach embankment. depth of ditches....._::. ....:... ... The roadway width varies from section to section depending on the height of cut or fill. . ..::::: 3.:..:_:.:::. . .

-. Thus.:. or heliport is built. .. ‘:‘:‘.. a 2:l slope ratio signifies that for every 2 feet horizontally there is a rise or fall of 1 foot. The value of the slope ratio used in construction depends on the properties of the soil and the vertical height of the slope.::.‘.:.’ jj: :. . .:. but usually they are greater because shoulders are more pervious than the surface course.:. slipperiness slope slope ratio SM SOP SP spring icing sq sq ft sq in Sr 88 880 sta STANAG stickiness stilling basin The ability of a soil to adhere to the vehicle undercarriage or running gear.:. Glossary .:.FM 5_43()_()()_1/AFPAM 32-801 3.500 feet. The low traction capacity of a thin soil surface owing to its lubrication by water or mud without the occurrence of significant vehicle sinkage.: shoulder slopes These may be the same as the traveled way. Vol 1 :::+i’:.... subsurface water Water beneath the surface of the land. The relative steepness of the slope expressed as a ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance.f:. sight distance restriction factor The percent of the total length of the road on which the sight distance is less than 1..12 .. subbase or subgrade Describes the in situ soil on which a road. +: :: :. A structure used to protect the culvert outlet against erosion.:.:.‘j:/:. silty sands and poorly graded sand-silt mixture standing operating procedure poorly graded sand An icing whose source of water is from subpermanent square square feet square inch senior slow setting staff sergeant station Standardization Agreement levels. :... Ditch slopes may also be governed by the amount of water to be drained and the possibility of erosion.. The subgrade includes soil to the depth that may affect the structural design of the project or the depth at which climate affects the soil. . :. airfield.yj:F>:. The inclined surface of an excavated cut or an embankment..::.. :.: .j.

:::::.:.:..:.. gravel.: :..:. .. .:. .:.‘. . ._:_: .:.:... . .‘.:. Vol 1 superelevation The transverse downward slope from the outside to the inside of the traveled way on a curve..~.13 . .. ..:.:..:............:....:.‘. the traveled way is the sum of the traffic lanes.:::::::::: .. .‘...‘.‘.... or compacted earth with certain types of binders. The use of treated surfaces is limited to roads that have a long design life.:.:..... :.~.I.‘..‘. .::::: :. A.:..:.:.. A divisional road with a life expectancy of 6 months or less will receive only an earth or gravel surface. the traveled way is the same as one traffic lane.:.‘.:. technical manual TN TO TOE air transport theater of operations table(s) of organization transition point The ability of soil to resist the vehicle tread thrust required for steering and propulsion.::. It may be constructed from asphalt or tar products. small-unit support vehicle southwest well-graded sand surface course susv SW SW Tl T2 maximum towing force required towing force temporary bench mark training circular temperature TBM TC temp time of concentration (TOC) The time it takes for an entire drainage basin to begin contributing runoff to a drainage structure...’. .:.A.:.‘.::::..:.. ..:.:......:.. Glossary . FM 5-430-000l/AFPAM 32-8013.. (..’. ..:. :.: :......:.. . :.~.:.. . .. .‘......:.‘.‘.‘.. . The process by which water that has traveled from the ground through the plant’s system is returned to the air through the leaf system.....-.:::::: :::... For a multilane road. .‘. and equipment m traction capacity traffic lane transpiration traveled way The traffic lane consists of the road surface over which a single lane of traffic will pass.‘....:.. .:.:.:. .:.:..:...:..‘. .:...‘..‘.>:.‘. If a surface course is provided......‘._. . . ... .:.:. ....’.I...:::. concrete. .. it normally extends only across the traveled way. .... ...:... :.::::.~Q~.::.: ... The surface course provides a smooth...‘.:..‘..‘. .: :.:.I... :..::::. hard surface on which the traffic moves.:.. For a single-lane road...‘.’.:_. .:.. :... .:. The road surface upon which all vehicles move or travel....:.:...:_:.‘i..‘.:. .j~ ....:. The surface course should be all-weather and should provide for the rapid runoff of water. It is usually expressed in inches of drop per horizontal foot or foot-drop per horizontal foot.. .....

.: turbulent flow The type of flow that occurs when viscosity forces are relatively weak and the individual water particles move in random patterns within the aggregate forward-flow pattern.:~~~:j:. . Vol 1 .: .::..<:.: :.L.:.~.~.FM 5_43()-()()-1/AFPAM 321801 3.:~.~.i:::.:: ..::t.:~:~~~:.14 .C..~..i:.j.:::~::~.. .. i.R.i. wt wetted perimeter wire rope cable weight weight type yd Yr < I > 2 Yard ye= less than less than or equal to greater than greater than or equal to change of grade AG Glossary .~.:.:::::~:j. United States US Army Engineer School Unified Soil Classification unexploded ordnance vitrified clay System US USAES USC8 uxo vc vehicle cone index (VCI) The index assigned to a given vehicle that indicates the minimum soil strength in terms of ratfng cone index (or cone index for coarse-grained soil) required for one pass (VCI1) or other passes (VCL) of the vehicle. Usually one and fifty passes are used as extremes.. VMC Vol Wl visual meteorological volume conditions weight of a towing vehicle weight of a towed vehicle with without waste factor w2 W/ w/o wp W..:..:~.: ..l:l::i’:‘:~‘..:...::I .:‘Y:. ::‘.






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FM 5-4309OO-l/AFPAM


Vol 1

SOURCES USED These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.

QSTAG 306. Fotij%xtionfor Parked Aircra& 14 June 1978. AirjeZd Damage Repail: 11 January 1989. STANAG 2929. STANAG 3346 AML (Edition 4). Marking and Lighting ofAirj?eZd Obstructions. 17 October 1988. STANAG 3601 TN (Edition 3). Criteria for Selection and Marking of Landing Zones for Fixed Wing Transport Aircraft. 2 July 1985. STANAG 3619 AML [Edition 2, Amendment 2). Helipad Marking. 7 October 1980. STANAG 3652 AML (Amendment 3). Helipad Lighting, Visual Meteorological Condi