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Light Combat Aircraft “TEJAS”

April 2010 I A Commentary on the Fixed & Rotary Wing Procurement, Design &
Development Programs

A look at the present

Aircraft procurement,
Development of Capability
The IAF has evolved from its humble beginnings in October 1931, when it consisted of
design and development
six officers, five pilots and four Westland Wapiti biplanes, into the fourth largest air
initiatives force in the world. It has done this through a gradual process of evolution,
modernization and learning from engagement in conflict.

India in 2007 is a vastly different place to the India of 1963, when the MiG’s were first
commissioned by the IAF. Modern India needs an air force capable of defending its
borders against terrorists, countering the nuclear threat of potential aggressors and
helping to fulfill its growing role as a world food donor and provider of international
aid. To achieve this goal, the Indian Air Force is undergoing a frantic modernization
process as it attempts to attain world recognition.

This commentary provides a quick round-up of some of the major procurement and
design and development programs underway.
Program: Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) “TEJAS” August, ’03. In all 2 technology demonstrator’s,
5 prototype vehicles (PV) and 8 pre-production
• Proposal finalized in 1983. aircraft were to be built. The IAF and the Navy
had then projected a total requirement of 220
• Initial Development cost: US$ 124 million.
• Present cost (till date): US$ 2.89 billion
• Estimated delivery: First squadron to be
Present situation: The TD-1, TD-2, PV-1, PV-2,
delivered to the IAF by 2015
LSP-1, and LSP-2 have completed 1,341 flights
in total. The maximum speed reached has been
1.4 Mach. The manufacture of PV-5, which is
Background: The LCA project was sanctioned
the twin seated trainer version, has been
to replace the ageing Mig-21 fleet of the IAF
completed. The IAF is projected to get its first
and to develop the indigenous Defence
squadron of LCA only by 2014-2015. At present
industry. Although approval for the
the IAF has only given a confirmed order of 40
development of the LCA was given in 1983, the
actual design and development did not begin aircrafts. The navy has given a confirmed order
of 9 aircrafts that are to be used on the
until June 1993. An entire decade was actually
indigenous aircraft carrier being built at the
used to establish the Aerospace infrastructure
Cochin shipyard.
that was almost completely non-existent till
that time. ADA was nominated as the program PV-4 which was to be the Naval variant has
manager, while Hal and DRDO were appointed now become the second production variant.
as principal partners. Phase-1 focused on For the navy, 2 separate prototypes are
"proof of concept" and comprised the design, planned, NP-1 (2 seater) and NP-2 (single
development and testing of two technology seater). The LS-3 LCA is slated for its first test
demonstrator aircraft (TD-1 and TD-2) and flight at the end of April, it will be fitted with an
fabrication of a structural test specimen Elta MMR radar.
airframe. This was followed by the production
The LCA has a maximum take-off weight of
of two prototype vehicles (PV-1 and PV-2), and
13,500kg. Its internal fuel capacity is 3000 liters
creation of the necessary basic infrastructure
that give it a maximum range of 3000 km. Its
and test facilities for the aircraft. Phase-2
maximum speed is 1.8 Mach and its service
consisted of the manufacturing of three more
ceiling is 54,000 feet.
prototype vehicles (PV-3 as the production
variant, PV-4 as the naval variant, and PV-5 as The LCA is armed with 1 cannon carrying 220
the trainer variant) and a fatigue test specimen. rounds and 8 hard-points. The exact
combination of missiles is yet to be decided.
Phase 1 commenced in 1990 and HAL started
work on the technology demonstrators in mid- The phase wise cost break-up in the
1991; however, a financial crunch resulted in development of the LCA till date is:
full-scale funding not being authorized until
• Full Scale Engineering Development
April 1993. The first technology demonstrator,
Phase-1, which was completed in
TD-1, was rolled out on 17 November 1995 and
March, 2004 – US$ 486 million
was followed by TD-2 in 1998, but they were
kept grounded for several years due to • Full Scale Engineering Development
structural concerns and trouble with the Phase-2, which is projected for
development of the flight control system. In completion in December, 2012 –
the meantime, the development of the Multi- US$ 550 million
Mode Radar was started by Hal and LRDE in • Continuation of Full Scale
1997. LCA’s maiden flight was successfully Engineering Development till
completed by TD-1, on Jan 4, 2001. The first December, 2018 – US$ 1.178 billion
supersonic flight of the TEJAS took place in
• Development of the naval version • Estimated Delivery: 2015 for
of the LCA – US$ 210 million. Russian version (PAK-FA) and 2017
for Indian version (FGFA).
In the 3rd week of April 2010, LCA-LSP-3 made
the first flight. The LSP-3 is a quantum jump in
terms of the equipment fit on the aircraft. It is
Detail: Although an Inter-Governmental
almost the final configuration including the
agreement was signed between Russia and
new air-data computers, Multi Mode Radar,
India in 2007, it took more than 24 months
(MMR) new communication and navigation
after that to freeze the design and other
equipment and radar-warning receiver.
contractual parameters. Eventually, the
In its path towards Initial Operational Capability commercial agreement was only verbally
(IOC), a pair of LCA Tejas fighters -- Prototype mentioned during Vladimir Putin’s visit to India
Vehicle-3 (PV3) and Limited Series Production-2 in 2010. The designated parties were ROSS-
(LSP-2) -- were deployed to Jamnagar for a TECHNOLOGY and HAL. According to the
period of five weeks for testing by the South proposed agreement a total of 500 aircraft will
Western Air Command (SWAC). The trials be manufactured. Whereas Russia will take the
entailed flight envelope expansion in various delivery of 200 Single seater and 50 Twin seater
stores configurations, as well as air-to-ground aircrafts, India will take the delivery of 200
weapon delivery trials in different modes of Twin seater and 50 Single seater aircraft.
weapon delivery.
Sukhoi Design bureau has already designed 3
A Tejas Mark-2 is currently under development prototypes and the first test flight took place
due to the inability of the Mark-1 to meet the on January 29, 2010. The flight trials are to be
IAF’s requirements and the Navy’s completed by 2012.
requirements for operations from an aircraft
The aircraft is of the 30 tone category. It will be
carrier. The IAF is still considering an order of
powered by the Saturn AL-41F, which provides
up to 125 aircraft when a re-designed Mark 2 is
17.5 tons of thrust with after-burner. This
developed. The Mark 2 will have a more
enables the aircraft to have a SUPER-CRUISE at
powerful engine, be heavier by 200kgs, have
1.5 Mach. The FGFA will be the first non-
refined aerodynamics and other vital, yet
american aircraft that will truly belong to the
undecided parts to be replaced to reduce
5th generation and also to have Super Cruise.
obsolescence. The Indian Navy’s Mark 2 version
The Radar Cross section of the FGFA is only
of the Tejas will be capable of much shorter
0.5sqm, whereas for the Su30MKI, it is 20sqm.
take off and landing distance from an aircraft
The FGFA will be armed with Indian missiles
carrier. A new engine in collaboration with
such as the ASTRA. The final load is yet to be
Snecma is also under development for the
determined. The FGFA is supposed to have a
Mark-2 LCA.
maximum range in excess of 5000km with in
flight refueling.
HAL will contribute 25% towards the design
and development of the FGFA. The fuselage will
Program: FGFA (Fifth Generation Fighter
be 25% Titanium and 20% composites. India
will contribute its expertise in aircraft
• First designed by SUKHOI DESIGN composites, developed while designing the
BUREAU in 2000 LCA. Hal’s work share will also include the
Mission computer, navigation systems, cockpit
• Development cost: Estimated at
displays, counter measure dispensing systems
approximately US$ 8-10 billion.
and other critical software’s.
• Unit price: US$ 100 million
Program: BASIC TRAINER AIRCRAFT A pre-bidders conference was also held on
Development / Commercial of the Shelf February 2nd, 2010. The RFP states that the
Purchase (COTS) purchase manufacturer will have to deliver the first 12
aircraft within 24 months of the contract. The
• HTT-40 designed by HAL
chosen trainer will remain in the IAF inventory
• RFI floated in October 2009. for at least 30 years and the aircraft should
have been recently certified. The responses to
• RFP floated for 75 units in Jan 2010.
the RFP were submitted on March 17th 2010.

Background: The HAL built Hindustan Piston

Trainer-32 (HPT-32) has been in use since 1984.
The HPT-32 has experienced 90 incidents of the Program: INTERMEDIATE JET TRAINER (IJT)
engine switching off in mid-air, leading to 19 HJT-36, “SITARA”
deaths and the loss of 17 aircrafts. On July 31st
• Development started in 1999 by HAL.
2009, in one such incident, 2 senior instructors
had a fatal crash. A court of enquiry, found that • Initial Budget: US$ 40 million
the engine had run dry and as a consequence
• Initial Delivery: 2006
the entire fleet of HPT-32’s was grounded. The
main reason behind the HPT-32’s engine
suddenly going dry is the fact that the aircraft Background: At present the IAF uses the
looses fuel supply if it does an inverted dive Hindustan Jet Trainer (HJT-16) KIRAN for the
that is greater than 2G in magnitude. The IAF stage-2 training. Induction of the Kiran fleet
has now issued a RFP for Ballistic Parachutes, began in 1968. The aircraft have already
so that the HPT-32 will harmlessly float back to clocked 6000 hours and are almost nearing the
the ground in the event of an engine failure. end of their life. There have also been 13 fatal
However at present, due to the grounding of crashes over the last 10 years. The IAF had
the fleet, it has lead to a situation where the ordered 250 aircraft and its fleet strength has
IAF is left without a basic trainer. had a steady decline at the rate of 2 to 3
Present Situation: In January 2009, HAL aircraft every year.
offered to the IAF the Hindustan Turbo Trainer- Present Situation: The speed of development
40 (HTT-40). It said that it could deliver the of the HJT-36 was very impressive in the initial
basic trainer within 6 years. However the IAF stages; from metal cutting to the first flight it
was not quite sure and also it could not afford took a span of only 20 months. However after
to wait for a basic trainer for 6 years. that there were several delays due to the
The IAF issued a RFP in January 2010 for 75 Russian NPO-SATURN AL-551 engine. After
basic trainer aircrafts. Companies in contention receiving the engine from Russia, it was fitted
and their respective models are: on the first prototype PT1 and sent back to
Russia for flight trials and certifications. This
o Raytheon- T-6 Texan
process was delayed in Russia and also the
o Finmeccanica- M-311 integration of the engine with other aircraft
systems took longer than anticipated. So the
o Pilatus- PC-7 or PC-9
prototypes were now powered by the French
o Grob- G-120TP SNECMA LARZAC 04H20.
o Korea Aerospace- KT-1 The first flight with the NPO SATURN Al-551
o Embraer- Tucano took place on May 09, 2010 in Bangalore. The
flight lasted 30 min and consisted of only basic
o EADS PZL (PZL-130-TC-11 orik) maneuvers. The Initial Operational Clearance is
slated for June 2010 and HAL already has a
confirmed order of 12 limited series aircrafts. Program: LIGHT COMBAT HELICOPTER (LCH)
The total order is expected to be in the region
• HAL given sanction in October 2006.
of 225 aircrafts.
• Initial Budget: US$ 24 million for
building 2 prototypes.
• Initial delivery: 2010
• RFI issued in April 2009 for 57 aircrafts. Detail: The LCH was first unveiled in 2003. It
was expected to be operational within a period
of 4 years. However the operational clearance
Background: After negotiating for over two
was received from the MoD only in October
decades, India in 2004, signed a US$ 1.6 billion
2006. HAL was to provide two prototypes by
contract for 66 HAWK AJT’s with BAE. The IAF
late 2008 and the Initial Operational Clearance
received 24 aircraft in fly-away condition; the
was expected by November 2010.
remaining 42 were to be assembled by HAL. Till
the end of 2009, HAL had managed to deliver The LCH design was frozen in March 2008 and
only 5 aircrafts as against the stipulated 25. The the first prototype TD-1 was to take flight
contract signed with BAE had an option for 40 within 1 year, followed by TD-2 which would be
more aircrafts, however the IAF is not satisfied fitted with all the weapons and electronic
with the service level being offered by BAE and sensors. By the end of 2009, the IAF was slated
hence it is not exercising this option. to conduct flight tests on TD-3.
Present Situation: The IAF does not want to be TD-1 finally took flight on March 29, 2010 at
in a position where it does not have a sufficient HAL’s helicopter complex in Bangalore. The LCH
number of AJT’s. In April 2009, a RFI was issued flew for 20min and provided a low speed, low
to 6 companies for 57 aircrafts. altitude check of all systems onboard. The
Initial Operational clearance is now slated for
The contenders are:
December 2011. HAL at present is trying to
o Alenia- M-346 reduce the LCH’s weight progressively over the
o Korean Aerospace- T-50 first three prototypes. A total of 375 kg would
be reduced over the 3 technology
o Aero Vodochody- L-159 demonstrators. However it means that the LCH
o Yak-130 could enter production 200 kg heavier than
planned. HAL claims that the IAF has accepted
o MiG-AT this extra weight.
o BAE- Hawk-136 The LCH is a 5.5 tone gunship with a narrow
fuselage accommodating a pilot and a
gunner/co-pilot in tandem configuration. It has
HAL is also pushing its twin engine HJT-39 a full glass cockpit; helmet mounted targeting
Combat Aircraft Trainer (CAT), as is DRDO and systems and full day and night operational
ADA with a trainer based on the LCA-TEJAS. The capabilities. The twin-engine helicopter is
LCA-TEJAS derivative is very similar to South powered by SHAKTI engines that develop
Korea’s T-50 Golden Eagle. 1200hp each- giving it a maximum air speed of
275km/h. SHAKTI was jointly developed by HAL
and TURBOMECCA of France.
The armament suite comprises a combination
of free flight 60/68mm rockets, MISTRAL AAM;
a nose mounted NEXTER 20mm canon and
other missiles. It will be fitted with the SAAB has been fast tracked after the Mumbai
aviatronics ECM suite. attacks.
To support operations at high altitudes, the
LCH is designed to take off fully loaded at an
altitude of 10,000feet and operate its weapons
up to 16,300feet.

• First announced in 2006 as a follow up

to the LCA.
• 6 units for the Navy • Estimated cost: US$ 1.2 billion for
development of 5 prototypes.
• 6 units for the Coast Guard
• Estimated delivery: 2020, Total
• RFI issued in Jan 2009. estimated requirement of 250 aircrafts.
• Coast Guard expected to conduct trials in
May-June 2010.
• Estimated price for 6 units for Coast Guard: Details: This aircraft would be India’s first foray
US$ 1 billion. in the 14-15 tonnes category; LCA is in the 10-
11 tonnes category and the FGFA is in the 20
tonnes plus category. The MCA is planned as
Details: The Indian Navy and Coast Guard
the replacement aircraft for the Jaguar and the
issued a RFI for 6 MRMR aircrafts in January
2009. The expected ranges for the MRMR MiG-27. The project is being undertaken with
aircraft was about 500Nautical miles with an the partnership of the ADA, NAL and HAL. At a
endurance of 6 hours. later stage, other DRDO laboratories would also
The Indian Navy wanted its MRMR aircrafts to play a role.
be fitted with an Airborne Early Warning
The MCA is expected to be a twin seater, fifth
system and these aircraft would replace the
Britten-Norman Islander and the Dornier 228. generation fighter aircraft powered by the next
generation KAVERI under co-development with
The possible contenders for the Navy’s MRMR
SNECMA of France, having thrust vectoring and
aircraft are:
Super Cruise capabilities. The MCA is expected
• Modified P8i from Boeing to incorporate an indigenous Active Scan radar
• Falcon 9000 from Dassault, and the ASTRA BVR missile. The composites for
modified by IAI ELTA. building the MCA is under development at the
• P-99MPA from Embraer Pune and Hyderabad DRDO laboratories, which
are pursuing maximum stealth characteristics
• ATR-72ASW from EADS and Alenia
to enable the aircraft to have a very miniscule
• CN-235MP from EADS-CASA. radar cross section. The MCA has now been re-
The Coast Guard will be conducting trials named as the NEXT GENERATION FIGHTER
shortly. The contenders are the Russian Bereiv AIRCARFT (NGFA).
Be-200 and the American Bombardier Q400.
The procurment of these survaillance aircraft
Program: LIGHT UTILITY HELICOPTER (LUH) 187 units and it was decided that either the
Procurement- Commercial Off The Shelf Russians or Eurocopter would partner HAL in
Purchase (COTS) / Design & Development this project. The helicopters would supplement
the 197 helicopters being bought off the shelf.
• Units: 197 COTS purchase & 187 Design However in March 2010, HAL decided to not
& Developed by HAL.
seek any foreign collaboration. The Indigenous
• RFP for procurement issued in June LUH is expected to be of the 3tonnes category
2008; HAL given go-ahead in Feb 2009. and have a range of 500 km. It would be
• Estimated cost: US$ 750 million COTS powered by a single HAL/Turbomeca SHAKTI
purchase. engine and be able to carry a payload of 500
• Offset Clause: 50% kg. The first flight is scheduled for 2015.

Details: The Indian Army and Navy want to Program: ADVANCED ATTACK HELICOPTER
replace their Chetak and Cheetah helicopters. (AAH)
An earlier RFP issued in 2006 was retracted in
• Units: 22
December 2007, when it was found out that
the EUROCOPTER AS550 that was sent for trials • RFP Issued in MAY 2008/May 2009.
was actually the civilian version. This previous
RFP also stated that only 60 units were to be • Estimated cost: US$ 550 million.
supplied in a fly-away condition with the
remaining 137 units to be licensed
manufactured by HAL. Details: Only 3 companies submitted their bids
by the August 2008 deadline. These were,
The fresh RFP stated that all units are to be
supplied in a fly-away condition and the offset Eurocopter, AugustaWestland and Kamov.
has been enhanced to 50%. Out of the 197
helicopters, 133 are for the Army and 64 for Boeing had requested for an eight week
the Navy. The RFP has been issued to: extension to submit its bid, which was denied
by the MoD. Bell withdrew from the
o Augusta Westland
participation, because its model on offer was
o Bell Helicopters no longer in production and was available only
o Eurocopter through the FMS route.
o Kamov
Eventually the government retracted the RFP
o Sikorsky on March 24th, 2009 as none of the 3 bids
BELL has opted out of the competition as it has conformed with the Staff Qualitative
stated its inability to comply with the 50% requirements. The IAF was of the opinion that
offset clause in the RFP. The trials for the LUH they had not received offers from all the best
were slated for August 2009; however the available options.
schedule was yet to be finalized.
HAL has got approval for the design and The IAF wants the twin-engine helicopters to
development of an indigenous LUH in February have a turret gun of 20mm or higher caliber
2009. The approval finally came for building and be able to fire 70mm rockets at a range of
1.2 kilometers. Also required is the ability to
employ air-to-ground, fire-and-forget missiles Details: The original RFP was divided into 3
with a range of at least seven km, fitted with parts. 6 helicopters were required to replace
state-of-the-art electronic warfare protection the existing fleet of Mi-26 helicopters. Another
suite and carry a radar warning receiver 16 heavy utility helicopters were to be supplied
capable of intercepting, identifying and for high-altitude aerial logistics and four of the
prioritizing multiple airborne and ground-based same model will be configured for high-altitude
radio frequency emitters. Other requirements combat search-and-rescue. This RFP was
include all-weather, all-terrain, and day-and- withdrawn in March 2009 and a fresh one for
night operations capabilities. 15 units was issued in May 2009 when UPA-2
came into power. The responses to the RFP
A fresh RFP was released in May 2009. The RFP
were submitted in October 2009. The offset
was issued to: proposals were submitted by January 2010,
o AugustaWestland- AW129 and further details are awaited.

o Bell- AH-1Z Super Cobra

o Boeing- Apache AH64D Block III Program: ANTI SUBMARINE WARFARE

o Eurocopter- Tiger HAD
• Units: 16
o Kamov- Ka-50
• Estimated price: US$ 600 million
o Mil- Mi-28NE
• RFP issued in late 2005
o HAL- Light Combat Helicopter
Details: The Indian Navy wanted to purchase
Submissions were made by October 2009 and 16 ASW helicopters as replacements for its
the first deliveries are expected only by end losses to its AugustaWestland Seaking fleet.
2012. The schedule for trials is yet to be
determined. The Navy’s requirements included a physical
weight of not more than 10-12 tons; ASW and
search-and-rescue capabilities; a winch;
endurance of up to four hours; and an ability to
host state-of-the-art electronic warfare
• Units: 15 systems. Responses were received from
Eurocopter- EC725, NH Industries- NH90,
• RFP issued in MAY 2008/ May 2009 Sikorsky- S-70B and Lockheed Martin- MH-60R.
After receiving the responses, the NAVY was to
• Contenders:
hold trials in late 2006, but no schedule was
o Boeing- CH47F Chinook determined. In April 2007, it seemed that now
the Navy had a change of plans and a fresh RFP
o Sikorsky- CH-53K was on its way. More details are awaited.

o AugustaWestland- AW101

o Mil- Mi-46
Program: MEDIUM LIFT HELICOPTER (MLH) bid, terming the EADS offering as too
• Total Demand: 350 units
A fresh RFI has now been issued in January
• Category: 10-12 tonnes 2010. Further details are awaited.
• Design and developed by HAL

Details: HAL has been trying to develop a MLH

since 2004; however it is still stuck in the
design stage. The Navy, Army and Air force • Units: 6
have now requested the MoD to procure the
helicopters from overseas. HAL did try to tie up • RFI issued in March 2010.
with Eurocopter and Mil to help in the design
Details: To keep an eye on uninhabited islands
and development, but had to retract the RFP in
and carrying out search and rescue missions
July 2009 as the design parameters were
over the country's maritime zone, the IAF is
changed. The production would have extended
planning to induct 6 amphibious aircrafts in to
for a period of 10-15 years.
its fleet.

The aircrafts are planned to be used for inter-

Program: MEDIUM RANGE TANKER island communication and rapid response
TRANSPORT (MRTT) duties during emergencies such as a tsunami or
reaching out to people stranded on islands or
• Units: 6 ships in the sea.

• Estimated cost: US$ 2 billion The IAF wants an aircraft which should have a
short take-off capability with a range of at least
• RFI issued in January 2010. 800 nautical miles so that they can cover a long
range, they added.
• Likely contenders:
Canadian Bombardier and Russian Beriev are
o IL-78MKI
expected to receive the Request for Proposal
o EADS- Airbus A330 (RFP), which is expected to be issued by the IAF
o Boeing- KC-767

Details: The IAF operates a fleet of 6 IL-78MKI

tanker aircrafts. It had wanted 6 more aircrafts Program: HEAVY LIFT AIRCRAFT
and during a previous competitive bidding the
IL-78 had once again emerged as the most • Unit: 10
competitive bidder in June 2009. However the
• Possible contender: Boeing C-17
IAF wanted to purchase the EADS offering
based on the Airbus A330 platform. The
Cabinet Committee on Security over-ruled the • Estimated cost: US$ 2.5 billion
IAF in September 2009and scrapped the entire
Details: The IAF wants to replace and augment Details: This note has been prepared by Religare Capital Markets
(“RCML”) on the basis of publicly available information,
its fleet of Russian-made AN-32 and IL-76 air information provided by the company and promoters, neither
lifters. The C-17 with a payload of around 75-80 which have been independently verified by RCML. RCML or its
employees shall in no circumstances whatsoever be liable or
tonnes can lift around 200 fully geared troops,
responsible for any inaccuracies, omissions, mistakes or errors in
and can be used for carrying armored vehicles, this paper and for any economic or any other loss or damage,
artillery guns and medium-sized helicopters incurred or suffered by the reader/ user or any other person,
arising (whether directly or indirectly) out of or in connection
from one place to another. It can take-off from
with such information. This note has been prepared without
a 3000ft runway and its operating range is 2450 prejudice. Any and all information contained herein is based on
nautical miles. The sale will take place through good faith assumptions and is provided for general information
purposes only. This information does not constitute an offer,
the FMS route. promise, warranty, or guarantee of performance. This document
should not be used or relied upon for any purpose other than as
intended by Religare Capital Markets Limited. Opinions expressed
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• Mi17 V- Concluded


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