You are on page 1of 17

VOC History


The Kingdom of Makassar at time of Portuguese expansion in the Asian seas comprised the two kingdom of Gowa and Tallo.
Portuguese merchants frequented Makassar (Ujung Pandang) intermittently during 16th century, but was only after the Islamization of the Makassar's Kingdom
(1600s.) that their presence growth.
The Portuguese during the 17th century used Makassar as a commercial center for the silk, the cloves, the textiles, the sandalwood and the diamonds. In 1620s.
there were regularly as many as 500 Portuguese merchants that frequented the port of Makassar, they traded here in safety and the Sultans, that were fluent in
Portuguese, gave aid and confort to them. The friendly relations between Makassar and Portugal were strenghtened by their common attempts to stop the Dutch
power in the Moluccas and Sunda islands.
The prosperity of Makassar greatly incresed after the fall of Malacca in Dutch hands (1641), when many Portuguese merchants emigrated to Makassar.
In 1650s. the Dominicans founded a church in Makassar.
In 1660, there were about 2.000 Portuguese residents in the town, they lived in their own residential area called Portuguese quarter.
In June 1660, a strong Dutch fleet comprising 31 ships and 2.600 men attacked Makassar and stormed the fort of Panakkukang in the port, the main Dutch aim
for this attack was to expel the Portuguese from Makassar and they asked so. A treaty, between the Dutch and the Makassars, was signed and finally ratified on
2 December 1660, the terms were: that the Portuguese should be expelled from Makassar within a year.
The Portuguese departure, would be the complete ruins of the Kingdom, for this the Sultan openly attempted to delay their departure.
The terms of the treaty, were not respected and the Portuguese stayed at Makassar for several years, but slowly some of them going to Flores (Larantuka),
Solor, Macao, Timor, Siam and Batavia. And at the end, in 1665, due to the Dutch pressures, the last Portuguese merchants were forced to leave.

In 1600, according to Ioannes De Laet, the Dutch possessed two wooden forts (Fort Nassau and Fort Oranije) on the eastern shore of the Xingu River. These
had been built by colonists from Zeeland.
In 1616, a Zeeland expedition under the command of Pieter Adriaenszoon Ita sailed with 150 men. They arrived on the shore of the Ginipape River where they
built a fort on a peninsula. This colony survived for six years.
Historical information about these settlements is incomplete, but for the first twenty years of the XVII century the Dutch held some forts in this region. Here
they traded with the natives.


After the foundation of the WIC (West Indische Compagnie) in 1621 the Dutch set their eyes on the most important town of Portuguese Brazil: Salvador da
Bahia de Todos os Santos.
The expedition for the conquest of Salvador da Bahia started in December 1623. It totaled 26 sailing ships, 450 guns and 3300 men. The Admiral was Jacob
Willekens, the commander of the troops was Jan Van Dorth. The Admiral arrived off Salvador on 8 May 1624. On the morning of 9 May 1624 the Dutch troops
landed a few miles from Salvador, advanced and entered the town in the morning of 10 May 1624. The Portuguese governor, Diogo de Mendona surrendered.
This conquest turned out to be short lived. Indeed, on Easter Eve 1625, a Portuguese fleet of 52 ships, 1185 guns and 12566 men appeared off Salvador. The
Dutch were demoralized and capitulated on 30 April 1625, the day after the Portuguese entered the town.
This was the end of the first, but not the last, Dutch attempt to capture Portuguese Brazil.
The second and more durable attempt started in the Summer of 1629. This time the objective was Pernambuco, the best sugar colony in Brazil.
The commander of the Dutch fleet was Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncq. He arrived at Pernambuco on February 1630 with a fleet of 67 ships, 1170 guns and
7000 men. They launched their attack on 15 February 1630 and the action was successful. By the evening of 16 February 1630 the Dutch were in possession of
Olinda; by the 3rd of March all Portuguese resistance was over and the Dutch were masters of Recife, Olinda and the island of Antonio Vaz.
From 14 March 1630 the Dutch governed their conquests through a political council.
Meanwhile, the Portuguese governor Mathias de Albuquerque organized the resistance. Some fortified camps were built all around Recife, the most important
(called Arraial do Bom Jesus) only about three miles from Recife.
In May 1631, the Dutch occupied a small island near that of Itamarac where they built a fort called Oranje that was garrisoned by 366 men under the
command of Crestofle d Artischau Arciszewski, a Polish captain.
The Portuguese raids stopped the Dutch in developing theirs forts.
In November 1631 the Dutch abandoned Olinda and tried to conquer the Fort of Cabedello on Paraba, the Rio Grande, the Rio Formoso and Cabo de Santo
Agostinho but all these attempts failed.
On 20 April 1632 a Portuguese Mulatto, Domingo Fernandes Calabar deserted to the Dutch. He was born at Porto Calvo (Alagoas) and he knew the country
very well; his desertion was very useful for the Dutch.
On 1 May 1632 the Dutch occupied the little town of Igarau near the island of Itamarac.
In February 1633, the fort on the Rio Formoso was conquered by the Dutch and in March 1633 the "arraial" of Afogados was also conquered and a fort was
built there. In June 1633 the island of Itamarac was occupied and a settlement was found there; in December 1633 Van Ceulen captured the Fort of Reis
Magos (Dutch Fort Ceulen) at the mouth of the Rio Grande.
In March 1634 the Dutch occupied a foothold at the "Pontal" of Cabo Santo Agostinho.
After a short siege, the Fort Cabedello at Paraba surrendered on 19 December 1634 and the town of Paraba surrendered a few days later.
Now the Dutch controlled the entire coastline from Cabo de Santo Agostinho to Rio Grande.
In March 1635 the Dutch attacked and conquered Porto Calvo.
On 8 June 1635, after a siege of three months, the "arraial do Bom Jesus" was also conquered and, a month later, the Fort of Nazar at Cabo de Santo
The Portuguese Governor with over 7000 persons escaped to the south, but encountered about 500 Dutchmen in the fort at Porto Calvo that barred his way. He
had to attack this place and after a brief siege the Dutch capitulated. In this attack the Portuguese captured Domingo Fernandes Calabar that was put to death as
a traitor. Calabars death was a heavy blow to the Dutch.
On 24 July 1635 the Dutch reoccupied Porto Calvo that had been abandoned by the Portuguese on 22 July.
At the beginning of 1636, reinforced by 2500 men from Portugal, the Portuguese took the initiative. They advanced on Porto Calvo but its Dutch commander,
Von Schoppe, evacuated the town.
The conquest of Porto Calvo gave the Portuguese the possibility to carry out many raids against Pernambuco that became rather unsafe for the Dutch.
At this time the WIC directorate decided to put a Colonial Governor at the head of the Brazilian colony or Nieuw Holland. Johan Maurits, count of Nassau
Siegen was the man selected for this office; this was a good choice.


Johan Maurits left Holland on 25 October 1636 and arrived at Recife on 23 January 1637.
He was resolved to waste no time in capturing Porto Calvo, that he attacked with a force of 3000 Dutch soldiers, 1000 sailors and 1000 Amerindians on 18
February 1637; the Neapolitan commander Bagnuoli was defeated and the Dutch captured the fort after two weeks of siege.
Johan Maurits, sacked the small town of Penedo and built a fort (Fort Maurits) 18 miles from the mouth of the So Francisco River.
With the conquest of their first plantation colony, the Hollanders were in need of slaves. Since 1612 they possessed the small fort at Mouri on the Gold Coast
(presently Ghana), but the Portuguese were the masters of this coast. Indeed, since 1482 they possessed the great fortress of So Jorge da Mina, the most
important center of the slave trade.
For this aim Johan Maurice sent an expedition to attack Elmina (So Jorge de la Mina) the key to the Gold Coast. The fortress capitulated on 28 August 1637.
In November 1637 Colonel Von Schoppe invaded the province of Sergipe del Rey, and the Neapolitan commander Bagnuoli escaped.
In December 1637 also the province of Cear and the city of Fortaleza were conquered.
Now the Dutch controlled half of the then Brazilian provinces.
The Portuguese maintained a tenuous control over Salvador and the southern half of Brazil. However, even Salvador was besieged for a short time in 1638.
On 8 April 1638 a Dutch force of 4600 men (3600 Dutch and 1000 Amerindians) attempted capturing Salvador. The Dutch landed, but the garrison of the city
was superior in number to the assailants. Johan Maurits decided to risk an assault on 17 and 18 May 1638 that came very near to succeeding. However, this
attack turned out as a major defeat for the Dutch and they retreated on 25 26 May.
For as long as the Portuguese held Salvador in their hands, the Hollanders in Brazil would never be secure.
In 1640 Portugal revolted against Spain, restored its independence and the Duke of Bragna was proclaimed King. When Johan Maurits received the news he
celebrated it with festivities.
But in spite of this the war continued. In 1641, the Dutch reoccupied So Cristovo (that had been abandoned in 1637), and in November 1641 also the city of
So Luis do Maranho was taken. An expedition for the conquest of key areas of Portuguese Africa: So Tom, Angola and Benguela was started.
On 23 August 1641, a fleet of 21 ships and 3000 men under the command of Jol and Henderson anchored off Luanda (Angola) and, three days later, the city
was occupied. Also Benguela (in todays Angola) was taken, and in October the islands of So Tom (16 October 1641) and Annobon were captured. Finally, in
February 1642, the Fort of Axim on the Gold Coast, the last in Portuguese hands was also taken. With these conquests the WIC became the ruler of all the
African West coast. The best slave markets at that time were thus under WIC control.
From the beginning, Johan Maurits described Brazil as a beautiful country and he fell in love with it. He was favourably inclined towards the Portuguese
planters (moradores), and tolerated the Roman Catholic priests.
He gave the colony a form of representative local government, through the creation of municipal and rural councils.
He developed the country; built streets, bridges and roads in the city of Recife. On the neighbouring island of Antonio Vaz he founded a new town called
Mauritsstad or Mauricia, where the first astronomic observatory and meteorological station in the Americas were built in two large sites (called Boa Vista and
Vrijburg) that included zoological and botanical gardens.
He was a "Maecenas". In Nieuw Holland arrived from Holland famous artists (like Frans Post and Albert Eckhout), scientists (like Piso, Marcgraf) etc.

The Dutch were, at this time, the masters of the Atlantic Ocean and Recife was, like Batavia in the East, the capital of the WIC (West Indische Compagnie)
In 1642, they were masters of Nieuw Amsterdam (todays New York) and the Nieuw Netherland colony in North American. In the Caribbean they possessed
the islands of Curao (todays Curaao), Aruba, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, Saba, Tobago, St. Croix. In the Wild Coast (todays Guiana and
Suriname) they possessed colonies on Essequibo River, Berbice River; the islands of St. Helena (a VOC possession) and Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic;
the colony of Nieuw Holland or Dutch Brazil. On the West African coast they held the castles of Arguin (Mauritania), Goere (Senegal), Axim, Butri, Shama,
Elmina, Mouree (all on the Gold Coast), the islands of So Tom and Annobon on the Gulf of Guinea; the ports of Luanda and Benguela in Angola.
The Dutch subjects in Brazil were divided into two categories: Those employed by the WIC (soldiers, bureaucrats, Calvinist ministers) called "dienaaren" and
the others (settlers, merchants, artisans, and tavern keepers) called "vrijburghers" or "vrijluiden". Many of these were exsoldiers who had married and settled
down but there were people who had emigrated from the Netherlands to seek a new life in Nieuw Holland. The freeburghers and traders were the economic
pillar of the colony, and most of the trade was under their control. But notwithstanding this, the Burgher community in Brazil was too scant for the WIC
In the colony there was also a flourishing Jewish community of 1450 souls in 1644. The total white civilian population of "vrijburgher" was about 3000.
The Dutch control on Brazil was always tenuous, and the WIC failed in its aim of colonization. The majority of the colonists were Portuguese moradores with a
different religion and language that were always ready to revolt against the "heretics". In October 1642 the province of Maranho revolted and after one year of
fighting the Dutch troops retreated.
In April 1642 the directors of the WIC wrote to Johan Maurits informing him to return to Holland in the spring of 1643. He was not happy for that, and
postponed his departure until May 1644.
Deprived of the leadership of Johan Maurits, the WIC lost the control over the colony.
After his departure, the Portuguese planters revolted against Dutch rule, and after the battle of Tabocas (3 August 1645) ended with a Dutch defeat, the Dutch
were forced on the defensive. The Portuguese gained control of the "vrzea".
The Portuguese forces attacked Serinhaem and the Dutch garrison surrendered on 6 August 1645.
On 13 August 1645 the Dutch fortress of the Pontal de Nazar at Cabo de Santo Agostinho also surrendered.
On 2 September 1645 the "moradores" of Paraib rose against the Dutch and the Fort of Porto Calvo surrendered on 17 September, followed on 18 September
also by Fort Maurits on the So Francisco River. On 22 September Sergipe del Rey in turn rose against the Dutch and at the end of the year 1645 the Dutch
possessed only Recife and, in its vicinity the Forts of Cabedello (Paraib) and Ceulen (Rio Grande do Norte), and the islands of Itamarac and Fernando de
Due to Recifes siege by the Portuguese since August 1645, the Johan Maurits palaces and parks and many other buildings at Mauritsstad were razed to the
ground for a better defense of Recife. In the besieged capital there were about 8000 men but in June, July and August of 1646 relief Dutch fleets reached
In November 1646 Fort Maurits was reoccupied by the Dutch but the following April the place was abandoned.
In February 1647 a Dutch expedition of 26 ships and 2400 men, occupied the island of Itaparica in the Bay of Todos os Santos. This was to be the last "coup de
A new Portuguese fleet of 15 ships and 3800 men left Portugal on 18 October 1647, under the command of Antonio Telles de Menezes, Count of VillaPouca
de Aguiar and governor of Brazil.
On 7 November 1647 another Portuguese fleet of 7 ships and 600 men left Lisbon under the command of Salvador Correia de S e Benavides (although his
final objective was Luanda).
On 13 December 1647 the Dutch evacuated Itaparica.
A new Dutch fleet under Witte de With left Holland on the day after Christmas 1647 and arrived at Recife in March 1648.
On the night of 1718 April 1648 a Dutch squadron of 5000 men under Commander Von Schoppe attacked the Portuguese forces in the "vrzea" and scored a
first success. However, in the morning of 19 April 1648 the Portuguese (only 2200 men) launched an attack at the Guararapes that was an overwhelming
victory. The Dutch left 500 dead and 556 wounded. Short thereafter the Portuguese reoccupied Olinda.
The Dutch at Recife were again besieged.
On 12 May 1648 Salvador Correia de S with 15 ships and 2000 men left Rio for Luanda in an attempt to retake it. He did succeed in retaken Luanda on 24
August 1648.
At the end of the year 1648 the Dutch forces in Brazil totaled about 6000 white men and 600 Amerindians.
On 18 February 1649 a Dutch force of 3500 men occupied the Guararapes. The Portuguese commander Francisco Barreto marched against them with a force of
2600 men and the subsequent battle of 19 February was a overwhelming victory for the Portuguese, and the Dutch left 957 dead.
A Dutch expedition under Mathias Beck landed in April 1649 at Cear (that had been abandoned at the end of 1643) and founded a new fort called
In February 1650, the situation of the Dutch at Recife, closely besieged by land, was very precarious, and the 3000 men garrison demoralized.
There were about 8000 civilians, of which roughly 3400 were vrijburgher, 600 were Jewish and 3000 to 4000 were Amerindians or Negroes. The shortage of
food and provisions was the worst enemy.
The strength of the garrisons of Nieuw Holland was about 4000 men including the garrisons at Paraba and in Rio Grande do Norte.
On 20 December 1653 a Portuguese fleet of 77 ships appeared off Recife. Meanwhile, and unlike the situation during 1650 the depots of the town were full of
provisions, but, at this time, the garrison was quite unprepared to offer resistance.
On 22 January 1654 the Dutch asked for terms of surrender, and on 26 January 1654 the capitulation was signed. Not only Recife but all the places still in
Dutch hands were included (Paraba, Cear, Rio Grande do Norte, Itamarac, Fernando de Noronha).
The Portuguese made their triumphal entry into Recife on 28 January 1654.
And the WIC never recovered from the loss of Nieuw Holland.
The Dutch in Brazil
SALVADOR 10 May 1624 30 Apr. 1625
OLINDA 16 Feb. 1630 Nov. 1631 163? 1648
RECIFE 3 Mar. 1630 26 Jan. 1654
Fort ORANJE May 1631 1654
ITAMARACA Jun. 1633 1654
Fort REIS MAGOS /Fort CEULENDec. 1633 1654
Fort CABEDELLO 19 Dec. 1634 1654
PARAIBA Dec. 1634 1654
PORTO CALVO Mar. 1635 Jul. 163524 Jul. 1635 Jan. 1636 Mar. 1637 17 Sep. 1645
Fort NAZARE Jul. 1635 13 Aug. 1645
PENEDO / Fort MAURITS Mar. 1637 18 Sep. 1645 Nov. 1646 Apr. 1647
SERGIPE DEL REY Nov. 1637 Dec. 1637 1641 Sep. 1645
FORTALEZA / CEARA Dec. 1637 1643 Apr. 1649
S. LUIS DO MARANHAO Nov. 1641 1643
ITAPARICA Feb. 1647 14 Dec. 1647


The first European built fort in Ghana was Fort So Jorge da Mina (Elmina), which was built by the Portuguese in 1482 near an African village, with which
they were in trade, called by them Aldeia das Duas Partes.
The first stone of this Castle was laid on 21 January 1482 under the supervision of the Portuguese Captain Diogo de Azambuja that was at the head of an
expedition of 600 Portuguese.
This fort was the Headquarters of the Portuguese in the Gold Coast from its foundations to the Dutch conquest in 1637.
The government of this castle was esteemed to be, at the beginning of XVI century, one of the most important positions in the Portuguese empire.
During the Portuguese time the garrison of the fortress consisted of a Governor with his staff of ten peoples, a factor or feitor with a staff of four men, two
clerks, an apothecary, a surgeon, a smith, a cooper, an overseer of provisions, some stonemasons, some carpenters, two or four priests and about 20-60 soldiers.
In 1486 to Sao Jorge was granted the status of city, and a wall was built around the African town.
From the first trading contacts the villagers of Aldeia das Duas Partes, developed a kind of Portuguese Creole which made easier the relationship between the
Africans and the Portuguese, this language continued to be used till XVIII century. In the first years of 1500 also the conversions of Black peoples began.
In 1503 on the slopes of an hill near the castle was built a small chapel dedicated to Santiago, this chapel was used till 1596 when the building was dismantled.
Elmina Castle, was very important for trade purpose, the trade goods of Mina trade were gold, ivory, sugar, wax, pepper, hides, slaves. Since the beginning of
the Portuguese installation at Sao Jorge, they established business relations with the adjoining Africans states (Akan, Wassaw, Commany, Efutu) to increase the
trade. The Portuguese power in the Gold Coast, never went beyond the coast line, they built in 1503 the fort of Santo Antonio de Axim, intermittently
maintained a trading post at Shama and in 1576 a short lived fortress at Accra.
In 1596, during the govern of the captain Cristvo de Melo (1596-1607) a Dutch expedition, equipped by the Dutch commercial trading house of Moucheron,
attacked for the first time the castle, the attempt ended in a failure. On 7 September 1606 the Dutch made a second attempt to capture Sao Jorge; about 600
Dutch soldiers disembarked at Moure and later they marched against Sao Jorge, the Portuguese Governor Dom Cristovo de Melo with his troops made a
successful ambush and after two hours of fight the Dutch were in retreat; in the meanwhile a small Dutch detachment had been sent towards Axim, here also,
after a fight the Dutch beat a retreat. The Dutch in December 1606 and January 1607 made repeated assault on So Jorge, but finally in January 1607 they gave
In 1615 a violent earthquake damaged the fortress walls and a bastion collapsed.
The Dutch after got knowledge of this, made three unsuccessful attacks against Elmina.
In 1625 under the command of the Dutch Admiral Jan Dirickszon Lam a big Dutch squadron of 15 ships, 1.200 Dutch soldiers and 150 African allies, anchored
near Elmina with the aim to subdue the Portuguese fort; the fort was garrisoned by only 56 men under the Portuguese Governor Dom Francisco Sotomaior,
they were assisted by a number of African allies.
On 25 October 1625 the Dutch opened the battle bombarding the castle, later the Dutch began to march to Sao Jorge, the African warriors, allies of the
Portuguese ambushed the Dutch, they were took by surprise, confused by the unexpected assault they beat a retreat leaving on the battle-field about 500 men.
Thank to his African allies this was a great victory for Portugal.
In August 1637 a new Dutch squadron, of 9 ships and 800 men, anchored near Cabo Coro (Cape Coast), where they were joined by 1.000-1.400 African allies,
on 26 August 1637 the Dutch landed and, divided in three columns marched toward the fortress.
The first Dutch move in the attack of 1637 was the seizure of the unfortified hill of Santiago, from there they shelled Sao Jorge castle.
By this strategic move the Portuguese after a few days, were forced to surrendered, the Dutch conquered Elmina on 29 August 1637, a Dutch garrison of 175
men was left in the castle.
After more than 150 years a new European power, the Netherlands, ruled on the Gold Coast.
The Dutch after the conquest, fortified the hill of Santiago with an earth-work, later the fort on the hill, called Fort Conradsburg, was improved and enlarged, it
was completed by 1666. In 1645 the Dutch personal at Elmina and Conradsburg was of 83 men, there were also 184 slaves working in the castle.
The fort was in Dutch hands till 1872 when it was sold to the British.
Very little of the early Portuguese castle is now visible, the only portion which has remained intact is the cistern that dated from 1482.
The lay out of the todays Castle is the same, more or less, of the Dutch conquest in 1637. Outside the fort is still well preserved the Dutch Reformed church
built at the end of the Dutch rule.
In the early years of Portuguese trading activity in the Gold Coast the first center which was frequented by them was the village of Shama, East of Cape of
Three Points. Here they for several years maintained a small lodge. In 1558 a wooden palisade and a tower were built and a permanent garrison was
established. During 1600s the garrison of this station was formed by only one official and in 1637 the Dutch, when occupied it, found this fort abandoned, they
garrisoned it with a commander, 4 soldiers and 15 slaves (1645).
In 1664 the fort was captured by the English, but a year later the Dutch regained possession and rebuilt it, near the fort they maintained a cotton plantation in
This fort was in theirs hands till 1872 when was ceded to the English.
In August 1503 a small trading-post was built by the Portuguese, West of Cape of Three Points, it was called Fort Santo Antonio de Axim, in 1515 this fort was
rebuilt stronger.
The fort, during the Portuguese rule, was an important trade center. The fort was garrisoned by only 10-20 Portuguese soldiers, and they, if necessary, were
assisted by a force of 150 Africans allies.
After the Dutch capture of Sao Jorge, Axim remained in Portuguese hands for a few years more, a first Dutch attack was drove back in 1641, but in February
1642, a new attempt was successful and the Dutch occupied the fort.
In 1664 the English captured the fort, but the Dutch soon retook it again. It was in Dutch hands till 1872, when it was sold to the English.
In 1557 the Portuguese built a small fortified lodge in Accra, they in 1576, decided to enlarge the lodge and to build a strong fort, but in 1577-78 the Africans
attacked the half-constructed fort and destroyed it.
Between 1595 and 1600 merchants from the Netherlands founded a small unfortified lodge at Moure for trade in gold.
In 1610 the Portuguese made an attack against the Dutch trading station at Moure, they burnt the African village adjoining the lodge.
In reaction to this attack, the Dutch, in 1612, built theirs first fort in Gold Coast, Fort Nassau, this fort originally, was a small earthwork and wooden fort and
was built on a hill overlooking the sea at Moure. It was rebuilt and enlarged in 1623-24 and in 1633-34.
In 1615 a new Portuguese raid was successful and the African town was newly burnt.
Moure was the Dutch headquarters till to the conquest of Elmina in 1637.
The Dutch garrison in 1645 was composed by 32 men including the commander, there were then a surgeon, a preacher, a coppersmith and 156 slaves working
in the castle.
Moure was occupied by the British in 1664 and recaptured by the Dutch in 1665.
In 1782 it was again in British hands, but the Dutch regained it by treaty in 1785.
In the first decades of 1800, it was abandoned.
A few are now the remains of this fort.

In 1652 the Swedes built a lodge in Accra, in 1660 it was took by the Dutch.
In 1661 the Danes occupied the place and built a fort named Fort Christiansborg, this fort was situated near two others forts: Fort Crvecoeur and Fort James,
the former Dutch and the latter English. The Danish fort was located on a rock cliff near the African town of Osu and his position was the best of the three.
The fort was in Danish hands for nearly two hundred years except for a short Portuguese occupation.
On 2 December 1680 a Portuguese ship arrived at the Danish fort, the Danish Governor, Bolt, sold the fort to the Portuguese commander of the ship, Juliao de
Campos Barreto.
The Portuguese renamed it Fort Sao Francisco Xavier and built a chapel in the fort.
The Portuguese abandoned the fort on 29 August 1682, it was then occupied by the Akwamu tribe until February 1683 when the Danes from nearby Fort
Fredriksborg reoccupied it.
In 1685 the Danes, moved theirs headquarters from Fort Fredriksborg to Fort Christiansborg.
The fort was a square shaped, with four bastions.
In 1693 an African tribe occupied the fort, but in 1694 the Danes retook it.
The Danes made several attempt to established plantations near the fort and they also established, in 1800s an hill-station and a plantation at Kpomkpo
(Frederiksberg), thirtytwo Kilometers inland from Fort Christiansborg.
In 1850 the Danes sold the Castle to the English.
Brandenburg was a historic Electorate (Kurfrstentum) which formed the primary nucleus of the Prussian State.
Under the reign of the Grand Elector Friedrich-Wilhelm von Brandenburg, was created an African Company, this company for about forty years ruled on
several African forts at: Arguin, Takrama, Takoradi, Akwida (Ft. Dorothea), Whydah and Princestown or Poquefoe (Gross-Friedrichsburg).
On New Year's Day 1683 a Brandenburg expedition of two ships arrived on the Gold Coast and started to build a strong fort between Axim and Cape of Three
Points, which was named Gross-Friedrichsburg.
The fort was to be the headquarters of Brandenburg in Africa, it was garrisoned at the beginning by 91 European men and 130 Africans.
The fort was a square shaped with four bastions. In the first 15 years the Brandenburgers developed well the trade with the Africans, but from 1700 trade began
to decline.
The Company was an ally of the African chief John Couny who was waging a war against the Dutch and the English.
In 1720 a treaty was concluded between the King of Prussia and the Dutch, and all the African forts of Brandenburg were sold to the Hollanders, but the
African ally of Prussia/Brandenburg, John Couny, refused to surrender Gross-Friedrichsburg.
In 1725 the Dutch captured Fort Gross-Friedrichsburg and renamed it Fort Hollandia.
The fort was abandoned by the Dutch in 1815.
In 1631 the British had a lodge in Cormantine, in 1645 they built a fort on the summit of an hill.
In 1665 during a struggle the Dutch occupied it and renamed the fort Amsterdam. In 1782 the Dutch surrendered the fort to the English, but in 1785, by a treaty,
was newly in Dutch hands.
In 1811 the African tribe of Anomabu captured the fort, which was later abandoned.

Map of the Dutch, Portuguese, Danish, Swedish and Brandenburg forts in Ghana

Map of the Dutch, Portuguese, Danish, Swedish and Brandenburg forts in Ghana.


Poco dopo l'unione del Portogallo con la Spagna, Filippo II impose il divieto per gli olandesi di commerciare e utilizzare i porti iberici, questo atto conseguenza
della ribellione olandese al sovrano spagnolo, precluse agli olandesi, improvvisamente, l'approvvigionamento dei ricchi beni provenienti dalle colonie di questi
due paesi.
Filippo II cos facendo pensava di dare un duro e definitivo colpo alle ambizioni olandesi, ma il divieto invece sort l'effetto opposto, infatti i commercianti
olandesi furono spronati ad attaccare i possedimenti oltremare della monarchia iberica allo scopo di by-passare il blocco loro imposto e con il rischioso ma
ambizioso obiettivo di controllare loro stessi il mercato commerciale ultramarino al posto del loro acerrimo nemico Filippo II.
In questa ottica sono da ricondurre le prime spedizioni olandesi lungo la costa del Golfo di Guinea. Nel 1596 una spedizione equipaggiata per la casa
commerciale zeelandese Moucheron assalt, senza successo, il castello di So Jorge da Mina nella Costa d'Oro (attuale Ghana), esso era la principale base che i
portoghesi avevano nell'area.
I mercanti olandesi che avevano iniziato a frequentare l'area facendo aspra concorrenza ai mercati portoghesi nel giro di 15 anni riuscirono ad estrometterli dal
commercio di oro, avorio, cera e pepe. Soltanto il commercio degli schiavi rimase per il momento sotto il controllo dei portoghesi, ma solo perch per il
momento non interessava agli olandesi.
Gli olandesi, dopo il fallito attacco alla principale fortezza portoghese di So Jorge da Mina, pensarono che poteva essere utile una base d'appoggio nella zona,
e allo scopo allestirono una spedizione contro l'isola, sotto controllo portoghese, di Principe. Anche questa spedizione fu inviata dalla casa commerciale
zeelandese Moucheron, che vedeva la conquista dell'isola di Principe come una base per una successiva espansione nel Golfo di Guinea e la successiva
possibile conquista della ricca isola zuccherifera di So Tom che era il principale obiettivo. Secondo i piani sull'isola di Principe doveva essere costruita una
fortezza. La spedizione, che era composta da 5 navi sotto il comando di Cornelis van Moucheron, raggiunse Principe nell'agosto 1598 e con un assalto di
sorpresa, gli olandesi, occuparono l'isola. Una volta occupata Principe, fu sbarcato dalle navi il materiale necessario alla costruzione della fortezza, che era stato
appositamente trasportato dall'Olanda, e sotto il comando di Cornelis van Moucheron, che fu nominato governatore dell'isola, furono iniziati i lavori di
costruzione. Purtroppo per gli olandesi, che evidentemente non erano troppo pratici della zona, ebbe inizio la stagione delle piogge che port aria insalubre,
cosicch molti uomini della spedizione si ammalarono e alcuni morirono di febbri malariche. La cattiva stagione e gli attacchi dei portoghesi di So Tom
costrinsero gli olandesi ad abbandonare l'isola di Principe dopo circa tre mesi d'occupazione.
Nonostante questo fiasco, l'anno successivo nell'ottobre del 1599 una nuova pi grande spedizione giunse questa volta nell'isola di So Tom. La nuova armata
era composta da 36/40 navi comandate da Pieter van der Does ed era anche questa, in parte, equipaggiata dai Moucheron. So Tom era difesa da una milizia
formata dagli abitanti e dagli schiavi e da un piccolo forte, il forte So Sebastio che non poteva fornire adeguata protezione alla popolazione e alla citt, esso
era equipaggiato con poca artiglieria, soltanto sei piccoli cannoni e due bombarde, aveva poca polvere da sparo e mancava di una gurnigione di professionisti,
secondo le fonti portoghesi l'unico soldato professionista dell'intera isola era un sergente-maggiore. Il 18 ottobre 1599, di prima mattina, la flotta olandese
giunse in vista di So Tom, nonostante che i portoghesi avessero saputo da alcune settimane dell'arrivo della flotta olandese sembra che poco era stato fatto
per migliorare le difese dell'isola. Giunte in porto le imbarcazioni olandesi iniziarono a cannoneggiare la citt che a met mattinata fu evacuata dai portoghesi
che si nascosero nell'interno dell'isola, un piccolo contingente di circa 20 portoghesi assieme al governatore Fernando de Meneses si era invece rinchiuso nel
forte dove per altre tre ore resistette agli olandesi per poi arrendersi, il forte fu quindi occupato. Nel frattempo i portoghesi fuggiti dalla citt si riorganizzarono
e sotto il comando di Joo Barbosa da Cunha tentarono un controattacco il 20 ottobre, secondo le fonti portoghesi fu questo attacco a costringere gli olandesi a
ritirarsi, mentre secondo le fonti olandesi il motivo del fallimento della spedizione era da ricercare nel clima malsano di So Tom, infatti anche questa volta gli
olandesi avevano scelto la peggiore stagione, era infatti l'inizio della stagione delle piogge (che va da ottobre a giugno) e furono piogge equatoriali incessanti,
che causarono malattie tra le truppe olandesi, in pochi giorni morirono circa 1200 uomini compreso il comandante della spedizione Pieter van der Does. Dopo
due settimane i resti della spedizione abbandonarono So Tom, non prima di aver dato fuoco alla citt, distrutto il forte e aver saccheggiato e bruciato le chiese
e le fattorie dell'isola.
L'assalto olandese fu un duro colpo per l'economia dell'isola, anche perch era stato preceduto da alcuni eventi che avevano gia minato la prosperit dell'isola:
nel 1574 vi fu un assalto degli "Angolares" contro le zona nord dell'isola durante il quale furono distrutte diverse piantagioni di canna da zucchero e molte
fattorie. Nel 1585 un incendio devast la citt e poi nel luglio-agosto 1595 ci fu una grave rivolta di schiavi capeggiata da un certo Amador, che per diverse
settimane mise a ferro e fuoco l'isola.


In 1650 the VOC possessed only the unfortified factories at Kayamkulam and Cannanore. But, at the end of the hostilities with the Portuguese, in 1663, the
Dutch became the new rulers of the Malabar Coast. They possessed military outposts at 11 places: Alleppey, Ayacotta, Cheramangalam, Pappinivattam,
Ponanni, Pallipuram, Cranganore, Chettuwaye, Cannanore, Cochin, and Quilon.
Cochin and Quilon were the most important of all.
- Cochin was the headquarters of the VOC in Malabar and the residence of the Commander. The Dutch reduced the area of the old Portuguese town and put
down most of the public buildings built by the Portuguese. The Kingdom of Cochin was under the influence of the Dutch and the king was a puppet of the
- Quilon was a fortified city.
- Cranganore was a little city with a small fort, but the place was of major strategic importance; it was "the key" to Cochin.
- Cannanore was a city with a good harbour and a strong stone fort called Fort SantAngelo.
The Dutch ruled Malabar for over a period of 130 years, and forced the rulers of Malabar to agree to monopolistic contracts with the VOC for pepper and
Unlike the Portuguese in Malabar, they did not try to convert indigenous peoples to the Dutch Reformed Doctrine. However, they helped the St. Thomas
Christians of Malabar against the Roman Catholic Church.
The Dutch compiled and published a monumental work (12 volumes and nearly 800 illustrations) on the medicinal properties of Malabar plants: the "Hortus
Indicus Malabaricus" that remains unsurpassed even to this day.
In Cochin the Dutch established an Orphanage for the poor children. Only the children of the Europeans were admitted. Also a leper asylum was built on
Vypeen island.
During the Dutch occupation of Cochin they made several changes in the city. In 1697, they reduced the Portuguese fort. They developed the harbour and built
piers. They enlarged the palace built by the Portuguese at Mattancheri for the King of Cochin that, from that time on, became known as the "Dutch Palace". In
Bolghatti island, in 1744, an impressive building, the country house of the Dutch Governors was erected. They also built many merchants houses and
warehouses in Cochin.


Under the command of Admiral Joris Van Spilbergen, on the 31 May 1602, the first Dutch ships that visited Ceylon anchored off the port of Batticaloa.
The Portuguese were from the beginning (Afonso de Albuquerque) the first to experiment a colonisation based on colonies of Portuguese citizens "casados".
Since the Portuguese women were few, mixed marriages were encouraged between the Portuguese and the Asians. Albuquerque tried to create a new
Portuguese nation in Asia to make up for the lack of people from Portugal.
This method of settlement was extremely successful. In fact, after a century of this colonisation, in practically every outpost of the empire, there were colonies
of mixed Portuguese, that spoke Portuguese, were catholic and were better suited to the tropical climates than the European-born Portuguese. Thanks to this
strategy, the Portuguese succeeded in withstanding the siege of the Dutch in Ceylon for nearly 60 years.
After their conquest, the Dutch also attempted to found some colonies of Dutch citizens dubbed "Burgher". This was attempted particularly first under
Maetsuyker (governor from 1646 to 1650), but at the end of his government and later under Van Goens (governor from 1662-1663 and 1665-1675), there were
only 68 married free-Burghers on the island. Such policy was clearly a failure as only a few Dutch families settled on the island. In the first 30 years of Dutch
rule in Ceylon, the Burgher community never exceeded 500 in number and it was mainly composed by sailors, clerks, tavern-keepers and discharged soldiers.
The Dutch East India Company (VOC) to support this emigration facilitated in any case the Burgher:
Burghers alone had the privilege to keep shops, were given liberal grants of land with the right of free trade. Whenever possible they were preferred to natives
for appointment to office. Only Burghers had the right of baking bread, butchering and shoemaking. Most of them were civil servants of the Company.
The marriage between a Burgher and a native woman (often an Indo-Portuguese woman) was permitted only if she professed the Christian religion. However,
the daughters of this union had to be married to a Dutchman. Like Van Goens said: " so that our race may degenerate as little as possible".
The city of Galle, is the best preserved of the VOC fortress in Sri Lanka it has fourteen bastions with fine walls and doorways. Galle was in Dutch hands since
13 March 1640 till January 1796.
In the XVIII century a growing European community (a mixture of Portuguese, Dutch, Sinhalese and Tamil) had developed in Ceylon. They dressed European,
were adherents to the Dutch Reformed Church and spoke Dutch or Portuguese.
With the passing of time, the Burgher community developed into two different communities: Dutch Burghers and Portuguese Burghers.
The Dutch Burghers were those who could demonstrate European ancestry (Dutch or Portuguese) through the male line, were white, Dutch reformed and
Dutch speaking.
The Portuguese Burghers (called later Mechanics) were those who had a supposed (but not sure) European ancestry, had dark skin, were Catholics and spoke
Creole Portuguese.
The European community produced all the priests (Predikants) of the Dutch Reformed Church.
In the last decades of Dutch rule in the island, the Burgher formed a detachment of citizen soldiers. They defended the ramparts of Colombo during the fourth
Anglo-Dutch war.
Although there arent demographic studies available on the Burgher community in Ceylon, during the Dutch period it is clear that the growth of the community
was constant. A small, but steady, influx of newcomers from Europe mixed with the families, which had settled on the island for generations. Thanks to this,
the Burgher community was able to retain its open character and the heterogeneous cultural traditions.
At the time of the British conquest, in 1796, there were about 900 families of Dutch Burghers residing in Ceylon, concentrated in Colombo, Galle, Matara and
During the British times the Burghers were employed in the Colonial administration like clerks, lawyers, soldiers, physicians, and were a privileged class on
the island.
The Dutch Burghers, now under the British, quickly abandoned the use of the Dutch language and adopted English as their own language. By 1860, the use of
Dutch among the Dutch Burghers had disappeared. In 1908, only six or eight Dutch Burghers could make any pretence to knowledge of the Dutch language.
The Creole Portuguese continued to be used amongst the Dutch Burghers families as the colloquial language until the end of XIX century.
In 1899 the Dutch Burgher community formed the "De Hollandsche Vereeninging" and later, in 1907, they founded the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon.
The Dutch Burgher community had its own journal from 31 March 1908 to 1968 (58 numbers), the Journal of the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon. No volumes
were published between 1968 and 1981, mostly due to the exodus of the Dutch Burghers, now the Journal continues to be published annually.
By the end of the British rule the Dutch Burgher community had lost its influence and privileges, and many Burghers emigrated to Australia and to Canada,
especially after the declaration of Sinhala as the official language (1961) of the country by Solomon Bandaranaike.
In spite of this, the Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon is still in existence in Colombo to this day.
The Dutch Reformed Church is now called Presbytery of Ceylon, at present the membership are 5.000, in the whole island are 24 the congregrations and 18 the
ministry workers. During the last 40 years the Church has lost much of her leadership and membership due to the mass emigration of the Dutch Burgher
Willem Jacobsz COSTER 1640
Jan THIJSSEN 1640 1646
Joan MAETSUYCKER 1646 1650
Jacob van KITTENSTEYN 1650 1653
Adriaan van der MEIJDEN 1653 1662
Rijcklof van GOENS 1662 1663
Jacob HUSTAERT 1663 1664
Rijcklof van GOENS 1665 1675
Rijcklof van GOENS junior 1675 1679
Laurens PIJL 1679 1692
Thomas van REE 1692 1697
Gerrit de HEERE 1697 1702
Cornelis Jan SIMONSZ 1703 1707
Hendrik BEKKER 1707 1716
Isaac Augustijn RUMPH 1716 1723
Johannes HERTENBERG 1723 1725
Johan Paul SCHAGEN 1725 1726
Pieter VUYST 1726 1729
Stephanus VERSLUYS 1729 1732
Diederik van DOMBURCH 1733 1736
Gustaaf Willem Baron van IMHOFF 1736 1740
Willelm Maurits BRUININCK 1740 1742
Daniel OVERBEEK 1742 1743
Julius Valentijn Steijn van GOLLONESSE 1743 1751
Gerard Joan VREELANDT 1751 1752
Joan Gideon LOTEN 1752 1757
Jan SCHREUDER 1757 - 1761
Lubbert Jan Baron van ECK 1761 1765
Iman FALCK 1765 1785
Willelm Jacob van de GRAAFF 1785 1794
Johan Gerard van ANGELBEEK 1794 1796

BATTICALOA (0742'N - 8142'E)
P: Forte Nossa Senhora da Penha da Franca (1628)
NL: Fort ?
Baluardi di:
P: Santa Cruz; ......?......; ........?.........;......?.....
NL: Amsterdam; Haarlem; Colombo; Galle.
Portoghese Luglio 1628 - 18 Maggio 1638
Olandese 18 Maggio 1638 - 1640 ?
Re di Kandy 1640 ? - 1668
Olandese 1668 - 18 Settembre 1795
Inglese 18 Settembre 1795 -
La costa orientale dell'isola di Ceylon un continuo susseguirsi di lagune, su un isola vicino allo sbocco della laguna nel mare situata la citt di Batticaloa.
A partire dagli anni attorno al 1565, i Portoghesi, iniziarono a riscuotere tributi sia dalla citt di Trincomalee che da Batticaloa, essi riscutevano anche le tasse
sulla merce esportata dal regno di Kandy attraverso i porti delle due citt.
Il re Senarat, insedi nel 16-- nella zona di Batticaloa una colonia di 4.000 mussulmani sfuggiti alle grinfie dei Portoghesi, tale insediamento alla fonte
dell'alta percentuale di musulmani presenti anche oggi nel distretto di Batticaloa.
Nel Giugno 1602, l'ammiraglio olandese Joris Van Spilbergen sbarc nelle vicinanze di Batticaloa e da qui procedette verso Kandy, nel tentativo di stipulare un
alleanza contro i Portoghesi. Spilbergen riusc ad ottenere protezione e privilegi commerciali per i mercanti Olandesi, e nel Settembre dello stesso anno ripart.
Tre mesi dopo la partenza di Spilbergen, un altra spedizione Olandese raggiunse Batticaloa, alla sua guida c'era il vice ammiraglio Sebald de Weert, egli venne
inizialmente accolto con grande entusiasmo dal Re di Kandy Vimala Dharma Suriya I, poi per nella sua seconda visita al re, a causa del suo comportamento
le cose precipitarono, e de Weert venne ucciso.
Comunque, Batticaloa divenne durante quegli anni il luogo preferito di sbarco delle flottiglie Olandesi in cerca di contatti con il regno di Kandy.
I Portoghesi vennero ben presto a conoscenza di tutti questi contatti tra i Kandyani e gli Olandesi, ma fu solo dopo l'occupazione di Trincomalee che si decisero
a costruire un forte anche a Batticaloa, e ci fu fatto senza dubbio nel tentativo di tagliare definitivamente i contatti tra Kandy e gli Olandesi.
Il forte fu fatto erigere, su ordine di Costantino de Sa e Noronha, a Damiao Botado nel Luglio del 1628 e venne chiamato "Forte da Nossa Senhora da Penha da
Franca", il piccolo forte di Batticaloa, fu costruito su un isola che proteggeva la baia, dove le barche potevano entrare solo con lalta marea, lisola era ed
chiamata isola di Puliyantivu.
Il forte era di forma quadrata, con quattro baluardi armati da 12 cannoni di ferro, al suo interno vi era una chiesa e un magazzino per le merci e le munizioni.
Esso aveva una guarnigione di 40 - 50 soldati, un capitano, un conestabile, un cappellano e 20 casados.
I due forti Portoghesi della costa orientale, Trincomalee e Batticaloa, essendo centri di minor importanza, furono messi sotto la giurisdizione del capitano
maggiore di Jaffna.
Loccupazione di Batticaloa, port di nuovo la guerra tra Kandy e il Portogallo, Senerat tent in tutti i modi di impedire la costruzione del forte, ma i suoi
generali vennero ripetutamente sconfitti dai Portoghesi nei mesi di Luglio, Agosto e Settembre 1628.
Alla fine del 1628, un nuovo assedio del forte venne tentato dai Sinhalesi (Cingalesi), il forte resistette bene, poi a met del 1629 Da Sa arriv con una nuova
spedizione di 200 Portoghesi e 1.000 Lascarins e riusc a liberare dallassedio Batticaloa.
Nel Marzo-Aprile 1630, Batticaloa fu di nuovo attaccata, ma il capitano del forte, Manoel Pessoa de Carvalho riusc a respingere gli attacchi.
Il 3 Aprile 1633, un trattato di pace venne firmato fra i Portoghesi e il re di Kandy, il punto principale del trattato era la definitiva cessione di Batticaloa al
Portogallo, Senerat, si impegnava anche a pagare un tributo di due elefanti allanno, mentre le rendite doganali di Batticaloa erano divise equamente.
Il luogo scelto per la costruzione del forte di Batticaloa, aveva diversi punti deboli, infatti mancava di una fonte di approvvigionamento dellacqua allinterno
delle mura, il canale che separava lisola dalla terraferma era troppo poco profondo e troppo stretto e non impediva il passaggio di truppe in caso di attacco,
infine laccesso al mare era difficoltoso e si trovava a pi di tre miglia dal forte.
Pochi anni dopo la sua costruzione, vennero fatte proposte per la ricostruzione del forte in un luogo migliore, ma la cronica mancanza di fondi da parte di Goa,
imped che ci si tramutasse in realt.
Il 10 Maggio del 1638, una flotta Olandese comandata dallammiraglio Westerwold, arriv in vista di Batticaloa, decisa a conquistare il forte per la Compagnia
delle Indie Orientali (VOC).
Durante lattacco Olandese circa 700 persone si erano rifugiate nel forte, di essi 50 erano Portoghesi e Mestios, il resto era formato dagli abitanti indigeni che
risiedevano nella citt vicina al forte, che fu bruciata poco prima dellattacco degli Olandesi.
Batticaloa cadde nelle mani degli Olandesi il 18 Maggio 1638, dopo una flebile resistenza di quattro ore.
Tutti gli ufficiali e soldati Portoghesi furono deportati nella citt sotto controllo Portoghese di Negapatam, situata sulla costa del Coromandel, mentre ai
Mestios e agli altri abitanti di Batticaloa fu permesso di restare; i loro discendenti, circa 2.000 persone, ancora oggi parlano un dialetto Creolo Portoghese, e
sono cattolici.
Dopo la conquista gli Olandesi, lasciarono una guarnigione di 100 soldati sotto il comando di Willem Jacobsz Coster, che era stato il comandante delle truppe
dassedio Olandesi.
Pi tardi, il forte di Batticaloa, fu ceduto dagli Olandesi al Re di Kandy che sembra nel 1643 lo demol, il porto di Batticaloa, anche se di minor importanza
rispetto a quello di Kottiyar, serviva commercialmente una vasta zona del regno di Kandy, ed in particolar modo le terre di Uva/Badulla.
Nelle vicinanza di Batticaloa, il Re favor linsediamento di comunit di mercanti mussulmane, ci fu fatto per favorire lo sviluppo commerciale della zona,
essendo il commercio marittimo del regno di Kandy nelle mani dei mercanti mussulmani.
Batticaloa fu poi rioccupata dagli Olandesi nel 1668 da una spedizione capitanata dal Comandante Roothas, questa spedizione ricostru nuovamente il forte, i
quattro bastioni vennero nominati Haarlem, Colombo, Galle e Amsterdam.
Nel 1670, Pieter de Graauw al comando di una compagnia di truppe Olandesi, tramite trattati di protezione e vassallaggio con alcuni capi degli insediamenti
costieri, estese il controllo Olandese su buona parte della costa orientale.
Pi a sud nello stesso periodo vennero costruiti avamposti fortificati a Panama, Yala e Magama. A Chinnecallette Delle (circa 4 -5 miglia a sud del fiume di
Batticaloa), gli Olandesi costruirono un trinceramento.
Nel 1670, le forze di Kandy, attaccarono i forti Olandesi di Batticaloa, Kottiyar e Panama. A Panama e a Magama i capi locali che da poco avevano giurato
alleanza alla VOC, si schierarono con le truppe di Kandy, il tenue controllo stabilito nella zona pochi mesi prima venne cos perduto.
Tutta la costa Orientale, durante il dominio Olandese, era sotto la giurisdizione del comandante di Jaffna. Nel 1671, Batticaloa divenne la capitale di un nuovo
"Commandery" comprendente lintera costa orientale. Tale provincia venne abolita pochi anni dopo e lintera costa orientale ritorn di nuovo sotto
lamministrazione di Jaffna.
Nel 1672-1673, i Kandyani assediarono i forti Olandesi di Chinnecalatte e Batticaloa-Pulianthivu.
La presenza Olandese a Batticaloa fu confinata per quasi tutto il periodo di occupazione Olandese ad un area ristretta poco al di l del forte, la citt rimase un
centro commerciale di importanza marginale, dove venivano commerciati elefanti, areca nuts, sale e riso. Durante il dominio olandese, la citt di Batticaloa fu
governata da un Opperhoofd (ufficiale europeo a capo di un piccolo distretto).
Il porto di Batticaloa, fu utilizzato durante i primi cento anni di occupazione olandese come piccolo porto per il commecio di sale, noci di areca, riso ed
Il territorio attorno a Batticaloa, che fu controllato dal regno di Kandy fino al 1763-1766, era di grande importanza per la sussistenza del regno, infatti, le fertili
pianure della provincia di Batticaloa, erano chiamate il granaio di Kandy. La perdita del controllo su queste vaste pianure coltivate, avvenuto definitivamente
con il trattato del 1766, port ad un notevole impoverimento del regno di Kandy.
Nel 1763 i territori sotto controllo Olanedese si estesero verso sud fino a Kalmunai.
Nel 1766, con la definizione del trattato con il Re di Kandy, il controllo Olandese si estese ancora di pi, fino a comprendere lintera pianura costiera, anche
limportanza economica della citt aument, sotto il governo di Jacob Burnard (Opperhoofd di Batticaloa dal 17 al 1794) vennero intrapresi notevoli lavori di
bonifica e irrigazione e vennero costruiti canali e strade rialzate, canali collegavano Batticaloa con Vanderloos Bay verso nord e con Samanthurai verso sud.
La citt di Batticaloa fu sede di tribunale, che gli olandesi chiamavano Landraad, esso era composto sia da rappresentanti della VOC che da capi indigeni.
Con l'allargamento dei territori sotto controllo olandese attorno a Batticaloa, fu istituita nel 1767 una assemblea della provincia o Landsvergadering, ad essa
partecipavano come membri dell'assemblea i capi delle famiglie di Mukkuvan che erano anche i principali proprietari terrieri della regione; a capo
dell'assemblea era posto il Residente Capo o Opperhoofd, egli era il solo europeo facente parta dell'assemblea. L'assemblea aveva potere sia in ambito
giudiziaro che amministrativo ed era preposta alla raccolta delle tasse.
L'ultimo Opperhoofd di Batticaloa, Johannes Phillipus Wambeek, prefer arrendersi, senza combattere, alle truppe britanniche guidate dal maggiore Fraser; ci
avvenne il 18 Settembre 1795.
TRINCOMALE (0835'N - 8115'E)
P: Fortaleza de Triquinimale (1623)
Nl: Pagoodsberg
UK: Fort Frederick
Baluardi di:
P: St. Iago; Santa Cruz; Santo Antonio
Nl: Zeeburg; Amsterdam; Enkhysen o Enkhuizen; Holland; Cat (una piattaforma per cannoni).
NL: Fort Oostenburg (167 ? )
Danese (tentativo di insediamento) Maggio 1620 - 1621
Portoghese Luglio 1623 - 2 Maggio 1639
Olandese 2 Maggio 1639 - 1640 ?
Re di Kandy (distrutto 1643 ? e abbandonato) 1640 ? - Settembre 1665
Olandese Settembre 1665 - 8 Gennaio 1782
Francese (tentativo di insediamento) (Marzo 1672 - Luglio 1672 )
Inglese 8 Gennaio 1782 - 28 Agosto 1782
Francese 28 Agosto 1782 - 1783
Olandese 1783 - 27 Agosto 1795 (fort Oostenburgh: 31 Agosto 1795)
Inglese 27 Agosto 1795 -
La baia dove ha sede la citt di Trincomale, nell'isola di Sri Lanka (Ceylon) da sempre stata considerata uno dei migliori porti del mondo, la sua posizione
altamente strategica nel mezzo delle rotte commerciali dell' Oceano Indiano, avrebbe reso ideale il luogo per lo sviluppo di un grande porto ed emporio
commerciale, ma ci non avvenne.
Diversamente da quello che si potrebbe pensare, visto la bellezza e l'importanza di un tale ancoraggio nel centro dell'Oceano Indiano, Trincomale, non divenne
mai un centro di primaria importanza durante lepoca coloniale Portoghese ed Olandese; infatti i primi due poteri coloniali che occuparono le coste dell'isola di
Ceylon per circa 300 anni (1505-1796), preferirono focalizzare i loro interessi verso la parte sud- occidentale dell'isola (Colombo e Galle), mentre lungo la
costa orientale l'insediamento Portoghese e Olandese fu per gran parte del periodo su citato, limitato alla zona circostante i forti di Trincomale e Batticaloa.
Questa mancanza di interesse per Trincomalee ed in generale per la costa orientale, fu dovuto a diversi fattori: il principale, fu che allepoca dello sbarco dei
Portoghesi a Ceylon, il regno pi importante dellisola e con cui i Portoghesi avevano relazioni commerciali (cannella) era quello di Kotte, situato nella zona
sud occidentale dellisola la cui capitale era a pochi chilometri da Colombo, fu cos che Colombo venne usato dai Portoghesi come base principale per la
successiva espansione nellisola, durante il primo periodo Portoghese, la costa orientale di Ceylon, venne praticamente trascurata, solo dopo che i primi
concorrenti Europei (Danesi e Olandesi), si erano affacciati minacciosamente nei mari Asiatici, i Portoghesi, videro necessaria loccupazione e la fortificazione
di Trincomalee e Batticaloa.
Il porto di Trincomalee, assieme a quelli di Kottiyar e Batticaloa, veniva utilizzato nel cinquecento dal regno di Kandy come porto per lesportazione di elefanti
e noci di areca e per limportazione di beni di prima necessit da altri paesi Asiatici. Esso era sotto il dominio del Vanniyar di Trincomalee e Kottiyar che a sua
volta era tributario del re di Kandy. La presenza del fiume Mahaweli Ganga, che sfocia poco lontano da Trincomalee, facilitava i collegamenti con laltopiano e
con Kandy e grazie a ci un intenso traffico di merci si svolgeva attraverso i porti di Kottiyar e Trincomalee.
Gi nel Febbraio del 1543, una spedizione Portoghese partita da Negapatnam, visit la baia di Trincomalee; ma Trincomalee e la costa orientale, rimasero per
tutto il cinquecento, liberi da insediamenti Portoghesi, che invece si erano impossessati della fascia costiera sud - occidentale dellisola.
A partire dagli anni attorno al 1565, i Portoghesi, iniziarono a riscuotere tributi sia dalla citt di Trincomalee che da Batticaloa. Anche al tempio Ind di
Konesar (Koneswaram) a Trincomalee, fu imposta una tassa di protezione; i Portoghesi poi riscutevano anche le tasse sulle merci che il regno di Kandy
esportava attraverso i due porti principali di Trincomalee e Batticaloa.
Praticamente a partire dalla seconda met del 1500, linflenza Portoghese sulla costa occidentale di Ceylon, divenne considerevole, anche se come gi detto,
mai i Portoghesi ebbero una base stabile su questa costa per tutto il 1500.
L'importanza strategica delle baie e dei porti lungo la costa orientale dell'isola divenne lampante con l'arrivo dei primi concorrenti Europei sui mari asiatici,
infatti il primo contatto tra gli Olandesi e il re di Kandy ebbe luogo nel 1602 nella regione di Batticaloa.
Ma i primi europei a tentare un primo insediamento a Trincomalee, non furono ne i Portoghesi ne gli Olandesi, ma bens i Danesi, che alla fine del 1619,
arrivarono a Ceylon con una prima nave, la "Oeresund", comandata da Roelant Crape, questa piccola spedizione, era lavanguardia di un altra flotta danese, di
quattro vascelli e trecento soldati, capitanati da Ove Giedde che giunse nellisola nel Maggio del 1620.
Tale spedizione, era stata equipaggiata dalla Compagnia Danese delle Indie Orientali, che sull'onda del successo della compagnia olandese (VOC), volle tentare
fortuna nei mari asiatici.
La spedizione Danese, occup il tempio Ind di Trincomalee, (che viene descritto da Queyroz come uno dei templi pi venerati di tutta lIndia), e fu qui che i
Danesi, iniziarono i lavori per la fortificazione della penisola.
Inizialmente il re di Kandy, Senerat fu molto freddo nei confronti dei Danesi, egli, infatti, aveva appena concluso la pace con i Portoghesi, e si rese conto che la
piccola spedizione danese, mai avrebbe potuto distruggere la potenza Portoghese nellisola, inizialmente sugger ai Danesi di allearsi con Mayadunne che era
ancora in guerra con i Portoghesi, poi per egli acconsent alla firma di un trattato e il 21 Agosto 1620, venne firmato un trattato di alleanza tra i Danesi e il re
Senerat in funzione anti-portoghese. Durante la loro permanenza a Trincomalee, i Danesi coniarono anche alcuni "Larins", sui quali era incisa la scritta "Don
Erich Grubbe", di queste monete, oggi non resta traccia, se non nel diario di Ove Giedde.
Nel 1621 i Danesi, decimati dalle malattie, abbandonarono il tentativo.
Dopo questo tentativo Danese, i Portoghesi si resero conto dell'urgenza di stabilire almeno una base fortificata sulla costa orientale di Ceylon.
Nel Luglio 1623, il Capitano Generale di Ceylon, Costantino de Sa e Noronha, arriv a Trincomalee, deciso a fortificare la baia sia per fermare il commercio,
per i Portoghesi illegale, che il regno di Kandy attraverso i mercanti musulmani intratteneva con gli altri regni asiatici, sia, motivo ancor pi importante, per
impedire ad altre nazioni europee di utilizzare Trincomalee come base per la conquista dellisola.
Il luogo che venne scelto da Costantino de Sa e Noronha, per la costruzione del forte era il sito del famoso tempio Konesar (Koneswaram), dove gi si erano
installati i Danesi, nella loro breve occupazione; questa volta il tempio fu distrutto, e le sue pietre furono usate per la costruzione del forte Portoghese.
Il forte era di forma triangolare con tre bastioni ai tre angoli, il bastione pi importante, venne chiamato Santa Cruz, esso era la chiave per la difesa della baia,
inoltre cerano il bastione di S. Iago, che difendeva listmo che congiungeva la penisola alla terraferma e infine il bastione di San Antonio che era situato sulla
punta estrema della penisola.
In accordo con la mappa presente nel "Livro das plantas das fortalezas cidades e povoacois do Estado da India Oriental" un altro bastione isolato era presente
sul promontorio roccioso tra i bastioni di SantAntonio e di Santa Cruz.
Costantino da Sa, lasci una guarnigione di 60/80 Portoghesi e 100/500 Lascarins sotto il comando di Francisco Pinto Pimenta, con lo scopo di terminare i
lavori del forte e di estendere linfluenza Portoghese nei villaggi vicini in modo da aver assicurati viveri e manodopera. Inizialmente vennero montati nel forte
14 pezzi dartiglieria.
I Portoghesi misero sotto loro diretto controllo diversi villaggi circostanti (Tambalagama ecc.) che furono resi tributari, i villaggi dovevano fornire al capitano
del forte riso ed elefanti; ma il re di Kandy, Senerat, organizz diverse spedizioni contro tali villaggi in modo da impedire ogni forma di aiuto ai Portoghesi.
Lanno successivo (1624), i Portoghesi furono costretti ad organizzare una nuova spedizione, ancora una volta Costantino de Sa arriv a Trincomalee e questa
volta port a termine i lavori per la costruzione del forte, nelloccasione venne anche insediata una comunit di 30 Casados, provenienti da Goa.
Nel 1628, il re di Kandy, Senerat, per rappresaglia contro la costruzione del forte di Batticaloa, blocc ogni collegamento terrestre con il forte di Trincomalee,
la guarnigione Portoghese riusc a sopravvivere grazie agli aiuti che giungevano via mare da Jaffna. Come sempre nella storia di Ceylon, il controllo dei mari
fu un vantaggio decisivo che gli Europei (Portoghesi, Olandesi e poi Inglesi) ebbero sempre nei confronti dei Singalesi, e che permise ai primi di dominare
ininterrottamente la fascia costiera dell'isola per circa 450 anni.
Questa la descrizione che ci fa di Trincomalee il capitano Joao Ribeiro:
"Il forte di Trincomalee (Trequimale) era una fortezza triangolare con tre bastioni ad ogni angolo, armati con 10 cannoni di ferro, essa era costruita su una
collina vicina alla "Baia dos Arcos", al suo interno vi era una chiesa e un magazzino per le merci e le munizioni. Un capitano e 50 soldati erano di presidio,
nella fortezza risiedevano poi un conestabile, 16 Casados e un cappellano."
Le dimensioni dei lati minori della fortezza erano di 75 metri, il lato maggiore misurava 150 metri.
Dopo la loro costruzione, i due forti Portoghesi della costa orientale, Trincomalee e Batticaloa, furono messi sotto la giurisdizione del capitano maggiore di
Nei primi anni del 1600, una nuova potenza europea si stava affacciando nei mari asiatici, era lOlanda che per mezzo della sua Compagnia delle Indie
Orientali (VOC), gi nel 1602 prese contatti con il Re di Kandy e poi, nel 1638, dopo alcuni tentativi falliti, gli Olandesi guidati dallammiraglio Westerwold,
riuscirono a far firmare al Re di Kandy Rajasinha II, un trattato di alleanza in funzione anti-Portoghese, in tale trattato gli Olandesi si impegnavano ad aiutare
Rajasinha II nella sua guerra contro i Portoghesi ed in cambio essi ottenevano il monopolio sul ricco commercio dellisola.
Fu cos, in virt del trattato di alleanza con Rajasinha, che gli Olandesi, attaccarono, supportati dalle truppe del regno di Kandy, gli insediamenti Portoghesi
lungo le coste dellisola. Il primo attacco fu diretto verso la costa Orientale di Ceylon, dove i Portoghesi erano meno forti. Prima fu conquistato il forte di
Batticaloa, ci avvenne il 18 maggio 1638.
Il forte di Trincomalee fu il secondo, dopo quello di Batticaloa, a cadere nelle mani degli Olandesi, dopo un breve assedio, durante il quale, in accordo con
quanto narrato da Ribeiro, furono uccisi 23 soldati della guarnigione.
Gli Olandesi sbarcarono nella cosiddetta Dutch Bay alla fine di Aprile 1639, essi erano comandati da Anthony Caen, che il 1 Maggio 1639 attacc il forte,
seguirono alcune ore di violenta battaglia, ma poi il comandante Portoghese Don Antonio Mascarenhas, che comandava la guarnigione, che era composta da 40
Portoghesi e 100 Lascarins, giudic intenibili le sue posizioni e si arrese, le truppe Olandesi si impossessarono di Trincomalee il 2 Maggio 1639.
Nello stesso anno gli Olandesi ricostruirono e rinforzarono il forte, ma lanno seguente fu abbandonato, e poi fu demolito (forse nel 1643) dal Re di Kandy.
I porti della costa Orientale, di Trincomelee, Kottiyar e Batticaloa, vennero usati durante questo periodo in cui furono controllati dal regno di Kandy, come
porti di libero commercio con gli altri potentati asiatici e con gli Europei (Inglesi e Danesi), e ci infastid non poco gli Olandesi.
Il porto di Kottiyar in particolare, fu intensamente usato dai Kandyani, essi avevano a Kottiyar una dogana che mantennero fino al 1668, anno in cui gli
Olandesi rioccuparono la zona, e dopo tale occupazione, la dogana venne trasferita pi nellinterno, a Minneriya.
Una strada, collegava le alte terre di Kandy con Matale e Kottiyar, tale strada seguiva in gran parte il corso del Mahaveli Ganga, tutta questa zona faceva uso
per il commercio con gli altri stati del porto di Kottiyar, un mercato dove avvenivano gli scambi di mercanzia, venne impiantato a Killevetty, a poche miglia
dalla costa. A Kottiyar, si insedi anche una colonia di Chetties.
Durante questi anni sembra che gli Olandesi mantennero soltanto un piccolo avamposto fortificato a Kottiyar Bay, ma anche questo non certo.
Gli Olandesi si interessarono di nuovo a Trincomalee in occasione della ribellione avvenuta alla corte Kandyana nel 1664, in quelloccasione Raja Sinha, per
impedire la fuga dei ribelli che egli temeva potessero ricevere aiuto o scappare da uno dei porti della costa orientale dellisola, chiese aiuto agli Olandesi, essi
oltre a pattugliare la costa orientale come aveva chiesto il Re, approfittando della sua fiacchezza, nel Settembre 1665, decisero di rioccupare Trincomalee, allo
scopo, fu inviata una spedizione capitanata dal Capitano Du Pon, venne quindi ricostruito il forte sul luogo dove erano ancora i resti del vecchio forte, la nuova
fortezza di Trincomalee venne dotata di quattro bastioni principali (Zeeburg, Amsterdam, Enkhuizen e Holland) e di una piattaforma per i cannoni (Cat), i
bastioni Amsterdam e Zeeburg erano protetti da un fossato che tagliava in due la penisola ed isolava il forte dal resto della citt, dei due bastioni Zeeburg era il
pi grande esso era anche il pi a nord dei due, situato lungo la Back Bay; sempre lungo la stessa baia, si trovava la piattaforma per i cannoni chiamata Cat che
una muraglia collegava allo Zeeburg; il bastione Amsterdam, il pi a sud, si affacciava invece sulla Dutch Bay dove si affacciavano anche gli altri due bastioni
Enkhuinzen e Holland. A circa met strada tra i bastioni Amsterdam e Enkhuizen era situata la principale porta dingresso al forte.
Nel 1668, anche le fortificazioni di Kottiyar vennero rioccupate e migliorate, esse vennero attaccate nel 1670 dalle truppe Singalesi, come ritorsione
alloccupazione di Trincomalee e Batticaloa.
Nel 1670, Pieter de Graauw al comando di una compagnia di truppe Olandesi, tramite trattati di protezione e vassallaggio con alcuni capi degli insediamenti
costieri, estese il controllo Olandese su buona parte della costa orientale, tale controllo fu per di breve durata, infatti pochi mesi dopo con il massiccio attacco
del re di Kandy su tutta la costa orientale, gli Olandesi furono costretti alla difensiva nei loro forti di Trincomalee e Batticaloa.
La costa Orientale fu inizialmente posta sotto la giurisdizione del comandante di Jaffna, poi, nel 1671, gli Olandesi istituirono un nuovo "Commandment"
comprendente lintera costa orientale, la cui capitale era Batticaloa e che comprendeva anche Trincomalee. Tale provincia venne abolita pochi anni dopo e
lintera costa orientale ritorn di nuovo sotto lamministrazione di Jaffna. A Trincomalee risiedeva un Opperhoofd (ufficiale europeo a capo di un piccolo
distretto), che coadiuvato da un consiglio governava la citt e le zone circostanti, egli era sotto lautorit del comandante di Jaffna.
Ma una nuova minaccia gravava sui possedimenti Olandesi di Ceylon, essa si materializz nel 1672 sotto la forma di una grande flotta Francese, quella
dellammiraglio De La Haye.
Nel Marzo 1672, allarrivo dalla flotta Francese di De La Haye e Caron, lavamposto di Kottiyar Bay, venne distrutto dalla sua guarnigione, che si rifugi nel
forte di Trincomalee.
La flotta Francese comandata dal luogo-tenente generale delle Indie, Jacob Blaquet de La Haye, il 29 Marzo 1670, alla partenza dal porto francese di
Rochefort, era composta da 9 vascelli, con 2250 uomini a bordo e 251 cannoni; allarrivo nella baia di Trincomalee il 22 Marzo 1672, la flotta francese,
rappresentava un enorme potenza navale per i mari indiani. La guarnigione olandese di Trincomalee fu costretta sulla difensiva e rimase allinterno delle mura
della fortezza ad osservare i movimenti dei Francesi.
I Francesi avevano scelto la stupenda baia di Trincomalee/Kottiyar quale base per le loro future operazioni in Asia; essi occuparono e fortificarono, sotto gli
occhi degli Olandesi chiusi nel loro forte di Pagoodsberg, le due isole allentrata della baia ("Dwars-in-de-weg" o "Isle du Soleil" e "Compagnies Eyland" o
"Caron") e la punta da loro chiamata Fort Breton, costruendovi il Fort Breton ed occuparono anche lavamposto di Koddiyar Bay.
Lufficiale Boisfontaine con 30 soldati, venne presto inviato alla corte di Kandy in qualit di ambasciatore francese, egli fu ben accolto dal re, che sperava cos
di poter scacciare gli Olandesi dallisola.
Il 28 Maggio 1672, i Francesi firmarono un trattato con Raja Sinha in virt del quale, le baie di Trincomalee e Kottiyar venivano cedute dai Singalesi ai
Francesi, nelloccasione vennero innalzati pilastri per delimitare i confini del territorio ceduto.
Poco dopo la firma del trattato con i Singalesi, arriv nella baia la flotta Olandese di Van Goens, il quale riusc a catturare due vascelli che i Francesi avevano
inviato in India alla ricerca di provviste, per le truppe Francesi, la situazione diventava sempre pi drammatica, nonostante laiuto di Raja Sinha, le malattie e la
mancanza di cibo provocarono tra le fila Francesi molti morti.
L8/ 9 Luglio 1672, lammiraglio De La Haye, dopo aver inviato un altro ambasciatore, De La Nerolle, alla corte di Kandy, decise di salpare in cerca di aiuto,
lasciando come presidio del forte sullisola "du Soleil" una guarnigione di 100 uomini e due vascelli.
Gli Olandesi non persero tempo, attaccarono il forte e i Francesi asserragliati nel loro forte nell "Ile du Soleil", furono presto costretti ad arrendersi.
Questo periodo di instabilit, si tradusse con un notevole calo del volume del commercio che transitava da Trincomalee, le cifre di questo calo sono discordanti,
ma sembra che nei primi dieci anni di occupazione olandese il commercio di vestiti fosse calato da 480.000 Fiorini olandesi quando Kottiyar era sotto controllo
kandyano a 5.342 Fiorini olandesi nel 1681; la stima del commercio Kandyano sicuramente esagerata anche secondo S. Arasaratnam, ma comunque il
contrasto tra le due cifre stridente.
Gli Olandesi, per meglio difendere la baia di Trincomalee dopo lepisodio francese, costruirono un altro forte in aggiunta a quello di Pagoodsberg
Esso venne costruito, poco dopo la cacciata dei francesi, su una collina ad est dellingresso della baia interna, per meglio proteggere la baia da eventuali
incursioni; il forte fu chiamato Fort Oostenburg. Il governatore Becker nel 1716 ci descrive nelle sue memorie, il Fort Oostenburg come una piccola fortezza di
pietra, situata su una collina ad Est dellingresso alla baia interna, il cui scopo era la difesa dellaccesso alla baia interna.
Per impedire laccesso alla baia fu poi costruita una diga fortificata (waterpaas) sul lato ovest dellingresso nella baia. Nellisola Dwars-in-de-weg, venne infine
eretta una batteria.
Visto il critico stato del commercio lungo la costa orientale e le vibranti proteste Kandyane, nel 1696, gli olandesi decisero di riaprire al commercio libero i
porti di Kottiyar e Batticaloa, ci port un immediato beneficio nelle relazioni con Kandy e vi f anche un evidentissimo sviluppo nel volume di traffico
passante per i porti su menzionati. Kottiyar e Batticaloa ritornarono ad essere, insieme a Puttalam sulla costa Ovest, le porte di Kandy verso lesterno.
Purtroppo per i Kandyani, lo sviluppo dei loro porti and a forte detrimento di quelli controllati direttamente dalla compagnia olandese e ci non poteva essere
permesso, fu cos che gi nel 1703, la VOC decise di chiudere nuovamente i porti al commercio estero.
Sul finire del XVII secolo e poi nel 1710, Trincomalee viene visitata per due volte dal frate Joao Vaz, detto l'apostolo di Ceylon, egli fond nella zona diverse
cappelle e amministr i sacramenti alla comunit cattolica, egli visit oltre a Trincomalee anche Batticaloa e Kottiyar.
A Mullaitivu, una baia situata a met strada fra Jaffna e Trincomalee, gli Olandesi, costruirono nel 1715, una piccola fortificazione, per impedire ai mercanti
mussulmani e ai Chetties, di usare questa baia, per praticare illegalmente il commercio con Kandy.
Un cattivo sentiero univa, durante il periodo Olandese, Trincomalee a Jaffna, passando per Mullaitivu.
Nel 1749, il posto di guardia Olandese di Tambalagama, venne attaccato e bruciato dai Kandyani.
Nel 1751, i Kandyani tentarono di impedire il commercio verso Koddiyar e Tambalagama, venne impedito lapprovvigionamento di viveri e legname verso
questi avamposti Olandesi, questo atto disturb notevolmente l Opperhoofd di Trincomalee.
In accordo con quanto riferisce Jan Schreuder nelle sue memorie, la baia di Trincomalee era sede di un banco di perle di poca importanza, le rendite erano date
principalmente dall arrack, dai diritti di dogana e dai giardini che la compagnia coltivava.
Durante la guerra con Kandy (1762-1766), gli Olandesi utilizzarono Trincomalee come base per le incursioni verso il territorio Kandyano, nel 1763 e poi con il
trattato del 1766, i territori sotto controllo Olanedese si estesero nellinterno fino a Minneriya e Madavacchiya.
Nel Dicembre 1780, il Regno Unito, dichiar guerra all'Olanda, la notizia raggiunse Ceylon nel Giugno 1781, alcuni preparativi furono fatti dal governo
dell'isola per rinforzarne le difese in vista di un imminente attacco britannico; ma gli Inglesi agirono con rapidit, attaccando Trincomalee.
L 8 Gennaio 1782, Trincomalee fu catturata dagli Inglesi, comandati dallammiraglio Edward Hughes, poi il 29 Agosto dello stesso anno (1782), venne
occupata dai Francesi, comandati dallammiraglio Suffren, che erano alleati degli Olandesi. La flotta francese attacc la citt insieme a un distaccamento di
truppe Olandesi, che da Jaffna per via terra aveva raggiunto Trincomalee. Gli Inglesi si arresero senza combattere.
A seguito degli accordi stipulati nel trattato di Versailles, nel 1783, i Francesi cedettero Trincomalee di nuovo agli Olandesi.
Nella citt di Trincomalee, gli Olandesi nel periodo tra il 1789 e il 1793, aprirono una zecca e coniarono monete.
Il 2 Agosto 1795, gli Inglesi, comandati dal colonnello James Stuart, attaccarono nuovamente Trincomalee, il comandante della guarnigione, Fornbauer,
resistette bene per alcune settimane, ma dopo un intenso bombardamento di quattro giorni, fu costretto alla resa il 27 Agosto 1795, alla guarnigione vennero
concessi gli onori di guerra, e Trincomalee venne cos occupata dagli Inglesi; della guarnigione Olandese facevano parte anche circa 200 uomini del
reggimento di mercenari svizzeri de Meuron, che vennero presi come prigionieri di guerra dai britannici. Il forte Oostenburgh, si arrese dopo un breve
bombardamento pochi giorni dopo, il 31 Agosto 1795.
Il forte di Trincomalee venne rinominato dai nuovi padroni Fort Frederick, e cos tuttora viene chiamato.
Durante loccupazione Inglese, la Baia di Trincomalee venne considerata, quale base della Marina Britannica, di importanza seconda solo a Singapore.


DUTCH MALACCA 1641-1795 1818-1825
On 14 January 1641 the Dutch took possession from the Portuguese of the fortress of Malacca, with the help of their ally the Sultan of Johore.
The Dutch had treaties with the Johore Sultans to get rid of the Portuguese. The Malays were confident of a victory that, with the help of the Dutch, would
regaining the Malacca throne. But this was not the Dutch aim. After the capture, the Dutch set up government. Malacca was too important for the VOC
strategies, as the city was situated on the main trade route to the Far East (Spices islands, China and Japan) and was a formidable strategic outpost.
A short time later the conquest of Malacca, the Dutch made trading agreements with several states of the Malay Peninsula, so as to obtain tin (Kedah 1642,
Ujung Salang 1643, Bangkeri 1645, Perak). For this reason, a Dutch outpost was established at Perak, but, in 1651, the garrison was killed and the outpost
destroyed by the Malay. In 1660, even the factory established at Ujung Salang, was abandoned.
In the 1650s., a great imposing building, the Stadthuys, is built by the Dutch as the administrative centre and home of the Governor of Malacca.
By the 1660s., the trade at Dutch Malacca was in decline and the relations with the Malay states had deteriorated as well.
The Dutch had a factory at Bengkalis (1670s.) at the mouth of the Siak river (Sumatra). From here they controlled the tin trade. The trade at Siak was vital for
Malacca and for the Malacca Freeburghers community, a community of Dutch and Portuguese descendants intermarried with the local peoples. The duty
collected on their Siak trade was an important share of Malacca's revenue.
Perak was the main tin producing kingdom in the whole Peninsula and the VOC was interested in controlling its trade. For this reason a Dutch outpost was
established from 1670 to 1690 at Teluk Gedung in Palau Pangkor. This fort was re-occupied by the Dutch in 1746 and, later in the same year, the fort was
moved upstream to Tanjung Putus.
Malacca trade quickly declined after the Dutch conquest. In fact, the city prosperity was supported by free trade. However, to the contrary, the VOC wanted the
monopoly on all goods.
Malacca's decline was also due to the fact that, while under the Portuguese rule, the city was behind Goa, the main Portuguese base in the east. Under the
Dutch, Batavia was the main Eastern base of the VOC and the company had no interest in developing Malaccas trade to the detriment of that of Batavia.
The Sultanate of Johore (the Dutch ally during the siege of Portuguese Malacca) took advantage of all of this, by opening his seaport of Riau (an Indonesian
island near Singapore) to all ships and to all commerces.
In the 1700s., Johore was a powerful force in the Straits. The trade of Riau (the seaport for the Johore Sultanate) had far surpassed that of Malacca. The VOC
maintained the alliance with Johore, despite the discontent of Malacca, for the Dutch East India Company. The strength of Johore was seen as a safeguard to
the peaceful trade in the Straits.
In those years it was rumored that the Dutch might leave the city. The only importance of Malacca, for the Dutch, was that it was situated in a very strategic
point and they did not want Malacca to fall into any other European hands; this is why the Dutch remained.
During the period of Dutch rule, Malacca had a garrison of usually less than 550 Dutchmen.
In 1710, St. Peter's Church is built. It is still the oldest functioning Christian church in Malaysia.
In the 1720s., a new power came in the scene: the Bugis. They were and are the main ethnic group of the south-western coastal region of Sulawesi (Celebes).
After the Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Makassar, several groups of Bugis emigrated from Makassar (Sulawesi) and settled near Malacca in the 1710s.
In 1722, the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north
of Malacca).
In 1710, the St. Peter's Church is built, it's the oldest functioning Christian church in Malaysia.
In 1720s. a new power came in the scene: the Bugis, they were and are the main ethnic group of the South-Western coastal region of Sulawesi (Celebes).
Several groups of Bugis emigrated from Makassar (Sulawesi) after the Dutch conquest of Makassar Sultanate, and settled near Malacca in 1710s.
In 1722 the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (North
of Malacca).
In 1746, the Sultan of Johore gave the Siak Kingdom, as a gift, to the VOC. That same year, agreements were made with the Peninsular Kingdom of Nanning,
Rembau and Perak. In Perak the Dutch fort was re-occupied.
With these agreements the prosperity of Malacca was improved.
However, the Bugis were a constant threat to the Dutch. Their leader, Daeng Kamboja, made Linggi his base and, from October 1756 till July 1757, besieged
Dutch Malacca. In February 1757, help arrived from Batavia and the Bugis were forced to drop the siege. In that year, the Dutch built a fort on the Linggi River
and named it Philippe (today's Kota Linggi) after the daughter of the Dutch Governor Jacob Mussel (Governor of Batavia 1750-1761). Tin that was transported
from Linggi, Rembau and Kelang Selan. The purpose of the fort was to collect taxes from the tin that was transported from Linggi, Rembau and Kelang
On the 1st of January 1758, this fort was the site where the treaty between the Bugis and the Dutch was signed. This treaty enabled the Dutch to impose their
control in this area: Linggi and Rembau were ceded to the VOC.
In 1758, on Pulau Gontong at the mouth of Siak river the Dutch built a fort to control the tin trade, but later, in 1765, the fort was abandoned because of the
good relations between Siak and the VOC.
In 1759, the fort of Linggi was also abandoned.
Between 1753 and 1760, the Christ Church in Malacca was built.
Malacca trade was flourishing, but a new sea power came on the scene: the English. From the 1750s., they traded tin with Riau and, in 1781, they occupied the
Dutch outpost at Perak. Then, in 1786, an English base at Penang was established.
Malay Peninsula
To prevent an English occupation, the Dutch attacked Riau and, on 29 October 1784, the Bugis were defeated. The resulting treaty ended Johore's
independence, and a Dutch fort was established at Tanjung Pinang (Riau). In the Malay Peninsula, Johore, Selangore, Perak, Trengganu and Pahang became
Dutch territories. The VOC was truly dominant in the Straits.
During the Napoleonic wars, in August 1795, the Dutch Governor surrendered Malacca to the English East India Company.
In 1818, after the Napoleonic Wars, under the Treaty of Vienna, Malacca is restored by the British to the Dutch.
In 1824, the Anglo Dutch Treaty or the Treaty of London was signed between the Dutch and the British. The British give Bencoolen, in Sumatra to the Dutch
and Malacca was given to the English.
On 9 April 1825, the Dutch ceded Malacca.

THE DUTCH IN FORMOSA-TAIWAN 1624-1662 1664-1668

Map of the Dutch settlements in Formosa

After the attempt to conquer Macao in 1622, the Dutch settled in the Pescadores islands (building a fort in Makung) between Formosa and China. In 1624 a
Chinese attack compelled them to move on nearby Formosa.
They founded the castle of Zeelandia in 1624 on an island near the southwest coast of Formosa.
Soon, the Dutch settlements had a vast commercial success.
In response to the Dutch, the Spaniards landed on the north side of the island and built, in 1626, a fort at Keelung called "La Sanctissima Trinidad" or "San
Salvador" and another at Tamsui (Fort San Domingo). In 1629, they were garrisoned by 200 Spaniards and 400 Filipinos.
In the year of 1637 the Dutch took possession of the village Favorolang and enlarged the VOC territory.
The Spaniards evacuated Tamsui in 1635, but Keelung remained in Spanish hands until 1642. In that year, a Dutch expedition totaling 11 ships and 1000 men
attacked the Spanish fort and forced them to surrender. At this time there were in the fort 115 Spaniards and the total population of the settlement was 446.


May 1626 25 Aug. 164
TAMSUI 1628 1635


PESCADORES 1622 1624
Fort ZEELANDIA Aug. 1624 1 Feb. 1662
KEELUNG 25 Aug. 1642 1661 1664 1668
TAMSUI 1642 ?
Fort PROVINTIA 1653 4 May 1661
In 1648, there were 251 villages under the VOC rule totaling 63861 inhabitants. In 1650, the Dutch possessed 351 villages with 68657 inhabitants. At first, the
atempts to propagate the Dutch reformed faith were encouraging.
In 1652, in the village of Saccam, the Chinese revolted against Dutch rule.
After this revolt, a fort called Provintia was built, in 1653, in the village of Saccam.
The Dutch governors in Formosa
Maarten SONCK 1624 1625
Gerard Frederiksz de WITH 1625 1627
Pieter NUYTS 1627 1629
Hans PUTMANS 1629 1636
Johan van de BURGH 1636 1640
Paulus TRAUDENIUS 1640 1643
Maximiliaan LEMAIRE 1643 1644
Franois CARON 1644 1646
Pieter Anthonisz OVERWATER 1646 1649
Nicolaas VERBURCH 1649 1653
Cornelius CAESAR 1653 1656
Frederik COYETT 1656 1662
On 30 April 1661, a large Chinese fleet besieged Fort Zeelandia and Fort Provintia.
Fort Provintia capitulated on 4 May 1661. About a month later, the Dutch evacuated also Keelung and the 170 inhabitants sheltered at Deshima (Japan).
After a hard siege of nine months, on 1 February 1662 Fort Zeelandia surrendered to Cheng Chengkun (Coxinga).
In 16631664, a Dutch fleet under the command of Balthasar Bort attempted to retake Fort Zeelandia but failed. This expedition was, nevertheless, able to
capture the city of Amoy in Fukien.
In 1664, Bort succeeded in retaking Keelung but, after four years, this fort was again abandoned in 1668.


Le isole di Nuova Guinea furono avvistate per la prima volta dallesploratore portoghese A. de Abreu nel 1512 e raggiunte dal Governatore portoghese delle
Molucche Jorge de Meneses nel 1526 dopo che la forza del Monsone dirott la sua nave, diretta a Ternate, verso Waigeo (Mappa 1). Meneses trov un buon
ancoraggio nella costa di Vogelkop ( la penisola Nord-Ovest di Nuova Guinea), probabilmente nella baia di Geelvink (Mappa 1) e battezz le isole appena
scoperte Ilhas dos Papuas (isole dei capelli crespi).
Nel 1528 le isole Schouten (Biak Mappa 1) e l'isola di Manus (Mappa 3) vengono raggiunte dallo spagnolo A. de Saavedra nel tentativo di raggiungere il
Messico dalle Indie.
Nel 1537 Grijalva e Alvarado, due esploratori spagnoli raggiungono le isole visitate da Saavedra precedentemente.
L'isola raggiunta il 20 Giugno 1545 dallo spagnolo Inigo Ortiz de Retes che raggiunge, a bordo della nave San Juan, la foce del fiume Santo Agustin
(Mamberamo Mappa 1), e ne prende possesso in nome del Re spagnolo. Battezza l'isola principale in Nuova Guinea, poich le popolazione locali
rassomigliavano alle popolazioni africane. Nello stesso viaggio la nave giunge fino all'odierna Wewak (Mappa 3) e scopre molte delle limitrofe isole.
Nel 1606 Prado e Torres, sempre spagnoli, scoprono l'odierno approdo di Port Moresby (Mappa 2).
Nel 1605 la costa meridionale della Nuova Guinea viene percorsa per 220 miglia dall' olandese Willem Jansz. Le isole di Nuova Irlanda (Mappa 3) e
dellAmmiragliato vengono scoperte nel 1616 dai navigatori olandesi Corneliz Schouten e Jacques Lemaire.
Nel 1623 Jan Carstensz sbarca nella costa meridionale con l'intento di ricavare informazioni sul commercio locale. Dal 1636 gli interessi olandesi nella parte
nordoccidentale dell'isola si impongono attraverso la Compagnia olandese delle Indie Orientali (VOC), che invia Gerrit Pool, agente della stessa, ad informarsi
sulle potenzialit commerciali della regione.
Nel 1705 una spedizione olandese di tre navi, Geelvink, Kraanvogel e Nova Guinea, capitanata da Jacob Weyland, viene inviata dalla VOC ad esplorare
ulteriormente le coste dell'isola .
Nel 1828 gli olandesi ratificano la presa di possesso della parte dellisola che oggi territorio indonesiano.
Il primo insediamento stabile viene fondato a Triton Bay e chiamato Merkussoord (Mappa 1). Nel centro di questo insediamento viene eretto un forte in pietra,
Fort de Bus. Del suddetto forte abbiamo una dettagliata descrizione: situato direttamente sul mare, era quadrato e costituito da due palizzate; ai quattro angoli
erano situati quattro cannoni e, nel lato che dava sul mare, erano collocati un pezzo da tre libbre e uno da sei libbre, tra i quali era situata la bandiera olandese.
Attorno al forte era una fitta foresta che gli olandesi stavano cercando di abbattere per aumentare l'efficacia dei cannoni. Il forte verr abbandonato nel 1836
dopo che attacchi dei nativi e malattie avevano gi decimato la popolazione consistente in tredici europei e venti soldati indiani con le loro famiglie. Nel 1846 il
capitano inglese Yule, rivendica a Capo Possession (Mappa 2) l'isola di Nuova Guinea come possedimento inglese. La rivendicazione non confermata dalla
corona britannica, ma obbliga l'Olanda a giustificare le sue pretese territoriali sulla Nuova Guinea.
Nel 1849 una spedizione capitanata da D.J. van den Dungen Gronovius ha l'obiettivo di demarcare i possedimenti olandesi in Nuova Guinea ponendo vessilli in
ferro con l'iscrizione "Nederlanden Indische" e lo stemma reale lungo gli approdi della costa nordoccidentale come a Dorei (Manokwari Mappa 1).
Nel 1875 considerato confine interno del possedimento olandese la linea che parte dalla baia di Humboldt e scende verso Sud nel senso del meridiano.
Nel 1878 ad Andai situato uno scalo commerciale.
Nei successivi anni, la penetrazione olandese in Nuova Guinea avr scopi puramente scientifici e il possedimento sull'isola non verr sviluppato ulteriormente.
Lisola di Nuova Britannia (Mappa 3) viene scoperta nel 1700 da William Dampier.
Nel 1775 si segnela il tentativo del commerciante Thomas Forrest di insediare una piantagione a Dorei, nella baia di Geelvink.
Nel 1793 John McCluer, un'ufficiale inglese di stazionamento in India, prende possesso dell'isola di Geb in nome della corona britannica. Nel luglio dello
stesso anno il capitano inglese Bampton prende possesso dell'isola di Darnley (Mappa 2),le isole vicine e l'antistante costa della Nuova Guinea. Il capitano John
Hayes, della marina di Bombay e agente della East India Company, il 25 Ottobre 1793 prende possesso di Restoration Bay (Gi Dorei) e fonda l'insediamento
di New Albion nel luogo in cui era situata una palizzata di travi, chiamata Fort Coronation. L'insediamento conta inizialmente su una popolazione di 40
europei. Il territorio reclamato si estende da Waigeo a Ovest, all'isola di Rossel (Mappa 2) a Est. Nel Maggio 1795 l'insediamento, non godendo dell'interesse
ne della corona britannica ne dell' East India Company inglese, viene abbandonato.
Nel 1872 viene esplorata la baia dove sorge l'odierna Rabaul. L'anno successivo viene esplorata dal Capitano Moresby la baia dove sorger l'omonima
L'isola di Nuova Irlanda dal 16 Gennaio 1880 sede del primo tentativo di insediamento stabile da parte di francesi non appoggiato ma addirittura contrastato
dalla madrepatria. Comandato da Charles du Breuil marchese di Rays, l'insediamento, fondato a Port-Breton (Port Praslin) , verr chiamato colonia della
Nouvelle France. La prima nave di coloni, provenienti da tutta europa, attracca prima sull'isola Laughlan, dove alcuni coloni ne prendono possesso, infine
procede verso Port Breton, dove arriva nel Gennaio 1880. Giudicando inadatto il luogo all'insediamento, la nave si dirige verso Likiliki (Metlik) (Mappa 3).Il
primo comandante della colonia, De la Croix, giudicando inospitale anche questa locazione, torna a Sidney con quasi tutti gli 800 coloni partecipanti
all'impresa. La colonia, forte di 60 uomini decisi ad insediarsi, retta dal secondo in comando McLaughlin dal 16 Gennaio 1880 al 25 Agosto 1880. Nel luglio
1880 solo l'intervento di alcuni missionari stanziati a Port Hunter salva molti dei coloni dalle malattie riscontrate. Nel Marzo 1880 una seconda nave,
comandata da Rabardy con a bordo ufficiali militari e polizia, salpa da Barcellona per costruire a Port-Breton l'insediamento per i coloni che avevano gi
pagato il viaggio. L'ampliamento e la parziale bonifica delle zone prescelte per l'insediamento non bastarono per consolidare la colonia, e le continue epidemie
fecero infine abbandonare il tentativo nel febbraio 1882 con l'evacuazione dell'intero insediamento alla volta di Sidney.
Il 3 Aprile 1883 il territorio del Queensland (Australia) anette la costa sudorientale della Nuova Guinea in nome dell'Inghilterra, per paura di interventi di
potenze europee ostili (Germania) nella sua area di influenza.La bandiera issata a Port Moresby quella inglese ma la corona britannica non ratifica
immediatamente la presa di possesso della regione.
Il 6 Novembre 1884 lInghilterra proclama il protettorato sopra la parte sudorientale dellisola, chiamata New Guinea. Il comando a Port Moresby. I confini
settentrionali con il protettorato tedesco verranno stabiliti a pi riprese e infine definiti sulla costa Est a Mitre Rock (Mappa 2); a occidente rimarr in vigore il
confine stabilito nel 1875 dagli olandesi.


There have been a number of early European based monopoly companies trading in Asia. The combined impact of the Portuguese Estado da India, the first
practitioner of the monopoly product principle, the Muscovy, the Ostend, the Swedish and the English East India Companies, the VOC and the many smaller
enterprises of the vast, old and highly developed intra-Asian trading network is often overstated. The few percentage points of the total Asian economic
turnover that went to Europe and the number of European people living and trading in Asia compared to the Asian population was relatively insignificant in the
two centuries of the VOC.
None of the activities of these companies, however, is as significant as the role the VOC played in Australians early maritime history, because it was the VOC
that made the Southlands existence known to the world. It first placed our continent on the world map enabling better known mariners such as Dampier, Cook
and Flinders to enter the story.
Of the 54 recorded European ships that sailed into Australian waters before 1770, 42 were VOC ships. Sloepie the first ship built here by Europeans, was
built by a shipwrecked VOC crew. Our first European immigrants, Wouter Loos and Jan Pelgrom De Bye, convicted criminals, dropped off on the mainland in
1629, were VOC employees. The first armed conflict on land in our history between two groups of whites was between a VOC crew and its mutineers. The first
recorded white Southland baby was born aboard a VOC ship moored on our coast. The first recorded Europeans to chart part of our coast were Captain
Willem Janszoon and his crew in Duyfken a small vessel bought second hand for 2200, heralding the beginning of our written history in 1606. The first
recorded navigator to circumnavigate our continent and first prove that it is an island, and that it must have an east coast, lead the VOCs exploratory forays.
His name was Abel Tasman. The first pictures drawn by Europeans of our coast and of some of our wildlife were by artists aboard VOC ships.
That is not to suggest that the London based East India Company (EIC) has no connection with early Australian history. Our first European shipwreck, on the
coast of Western Australia in 1622, the Tryall, was an EIC ship skippered by John Brookes. Like the Batavia, it too ended up as a horror story, but less heroic,
less complicated, less well known.
With the exception of Captain Gonzal, who provided enthusiastic reports about this continent and its people, VOC captains invariably reported unfavourably on
the trading potential with Aboriginal peoples. Too poor to dress themselves, most miserable creatures on earth they would write in their logs. The VOC,
having visited, sought trade, searched for their own shipwrecked vessels and tried to chart dangerous coastal features during the 17th century, did not
deliberately return at all, apart from Gonzal in 1756, during the 18th century, arriving when they did only by accident.
Australians on the east coast know little about the VOC. Next year it will be 400 years since it began our written history. But many historians, researchers,
educational bodies and media rely on Britsh sources in telling our story. Our national TV broadcasters usually focus on British history when it comes to our
beginnings, often without even offering an Australian viewpoint. We watch Henry VIII and his wives, Elizabeth I, the Battle of Hastings, discuss the Magna
Carta, as if they are relevant here, etc. but they hardly constitute our own early history. There are ABC programs on such things as the 400th anniversary of Guy
Fawkes Gunpowder Plot, interesting but rather irrelevant to our history. In 1602, no Englishman, including Guy Fawkes, had ever heard of this Southland,
other than perhaps as a legend. Yet in 2002 there was not a single program about the 400th anniversary of the founding of the VOC, the body that revealed
Australia to the world. Why is it so?


The 17th century Dutch colony of Nieuw Holland was sited between the South River (Delaware River) and the Fresh River (Connecticut River) with his center
on the North or Great River (Hudson River) practically in the present USA states of New York, Delaware, Connecticut and New Jersey.
The Dutch connection with North America began in September 1609, when Henry Hudson, an English Captain, in service to the VOC (Vereenigde
OostIndische Compagnie)discovered with his ship "De Halve Maene" (The Half Moon) the river which today bears his name. He was in search of a NW
passage to Asia.
Shortly after the return of the Hudson expedition, Dutch merchants sent out new expeditions, the aim of all these expeditions was fur trade with the Indians.
In 1614, the States General of the United Provinces of the Netherlands granted a charter for three years to the New Netherlands Company of Amsterdam.
The first Dutch settlement in North America was built in late 1614 on Castle island (an island on the Hudson river little below the site of Albany, NY). This
trading-post was called Fort Nassau, but this fort lay frequently under water and for that was abandoned in 1617.
In 1621 the new born West Indische Compagnie (WIC) granted a charter that included the coast and countries of Africa from the tropic of Cancer to the Cape
of Good Hope and also all the coast of America.
In 1624 the first WIC expedition started, a ship whit about thirty families of colonist (most of them were Walloons) reached the Hudson or Great River, they
anchored near the abandoned Fort Nassau, here later in 1624 a new fort called Fort Oranije was built on the west side of the river where Albany now stands. In
the same year the Dutch began to build two forts, one on the South River (Delaware) named Fort Nassau, and the other on the Fresh River (Connecticut) which
was called Fort De Goede Hoop.
In 1626 a fort was built on Manhattan Island at the mouth of the Hudson River, this fort was called Fort Amsterdam and around it the town of Nieuw
Amsterdam developed, it was destined to become the capital of the Dutch colony, in 1628 the population at Nieuw Amsterdam was of 270 souls.
In 1630 three patroonships were founded: on the South River, Swanendael; on the North River at its mouth, Pavonia; and at Fort Oranije, Rensselaerswyck.
The last, Rensselaerswyck, was the only successful patroonship in Nieuw Netherlands.
In 1633 a wooden church was erected in Nieuw Amsterdam, and in 1642 it was replaced by a stone church inside the Fort.
In March 1638 a Swedish expedition arrived in the South River (Delaware) where they founded the colony of Nya Sverige. The Dutch that were at Fort Nassau
strongly protested.
In 1647 the population of Nieuw Holland was of 1.500-2.000 souls.
In 1652 the population of the city of Nieuw Amsterdam was of 800 souls, a Municipal Government was given to it in 1652-53, a Burgomaster was appointed.
In 1664 the population of Nieuw Amsterdam was of 1.600 souls, that of the whole Nieuw Holland was of about 10.000 souls.
On 8 September 1664 (during the Second Anglo-Dutch War) the English took possession of Nieuw Amsterdam and they renamed the city, New York. At the
treaty of Breda (1667) Nieuw Nederland was exchanged with the English for the colony of Suriname which at that time was a more developed and rich colony.
The Dutch in August 1673 (during the third Anglo-Dutch War) retook possession of New York, the fort was renamed Fort Willem Hendrick while New York
became Nieuw Oranje. But at the treaty of Westminster that was signed in February 1674 the colony went back to the English.
In November 1674 the Dutch flag waved for the last time in Nieuw Oranje (New York).
The Dutch in August 1674 with a ship under Captain Jurriaen Aernoutsz attacked the French fort and military headquarters of Pentagouet in Penobscot bay
(Acadia) which surrendered to them after a two hours siege, then they sailed to the Saint John River were they conquered another French fort (Jemseg), this
conquest was short-lived, Aernoutsz claimed all Acadia as a Dutch colony, but when he left the forts in search of reinforcements, the Dutch garrison was routed
by an expedition of New Englanders.
In 1676 the Dutch Government in a "foolish attack" named Cornelis Steenwyck Governor of the Coasts and Countries of Nova Scotia and Acadia, but at that
time he had only the title and not the land.


The French ports of Normandy, especially Rouen and Dieppe, where were, in 16th century, a flourishing textile industry became the principal trading
competing with Portugal in Brazil. Owing to the presence, on the Brazilian coast, of vast forests of "Pau Brasil" (which was used in the process of cloth
colouring), the French soon started to trade with the Indians.
The first voyage took place in 1503-1504, when the ship "Espoir" reached the Brazilian coast.
After this first contact the French expeditions multiplied.
In 1531, two French ships and 120 men under the command of Jean Dupret, landed on the Brazilian coast. In the island of Santo Aleixo (near Recife), named
by the French "Ile Saint-Alexis", they built a fort and a trading centre. This French settlement had a short life. The Portuguese captured the French ships on
their return voyage to Europe and in December 1531 put under siege the French fort which was forced to surrender.
The French made three other attempts of establish settlements in Brazil,. The first attempt was in Rio de Janeiro (1555-1560), the second in Ibiapaba-Cear
(1590-1604), the third in So Luis do Maranho (1612-1615).
In the 1550s, the area from Cabo Frio to Rio de Janeiro was under French rather than Portuguese control.
For about five years, between 1555 and 1560, the French maintained a base on a little island in the Bay of Guanabara (Rio de Janeiro): Fort Coligny.
The Calvinist Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon was sent in Brazil in 1555 in order to materialise the French presence there. On 14 August 1555, with three ships,
600 sailors and colons, he sailed to Brazil.
The French expedition arrived on 10-15 November 1555, in the Bay of Guanabara and landed on a desert island, today Villegagnon island.
Here Fort Coligny was built and good relations were established with an adjoining Indian village.
The members of this first expedition were mainly Bretons and Normans and they were fairly subdivided between Catholics and Protestants.
A short time later, on 7 March 1556, arrived a second expedition of three ships and 190 men.
The colony had good view of development, but the hard and intolerant rule of Villegagnon stopped the promising growth of the colony.
Villegagnon's oppressive rule, obliged a large number of colons to leave the colony. Among others, some Huguenots returned to France, where their reports
caused an expedition of 700-800 colonists to be abandoned.
In 1559, Villegagnon also returned to France, leaving the command of the colony to his nephew Bois-le-Comte.
Portugal not disposed to tolerate the French presence in his possessions, sent an expedition of 120 Portuguese and 1.000 Indians, under the command of Mem
de S, General Governor of Brazil (1558-1570), that on 16 March 1560, after two days and two nights of savage engagement, destroyed the French colony. The
surviving 70 Frenchmen and their 800 Indian allies, demoralised, abandoned the fort and sheltered among other Indians.
Like W.J. Eccles writes in his book "France in America": "For a century, French traders had challenged the Portuguese hold on this vast region, with little or no
aid from the Crown. But for religious dissension at Rio de Janeiro, and the unfortunate character of Villegagnon, France rather than Portugal might well have
established a vast empire in South America."
Map of Rio de Janeiro

IBIAPABA 1590-1604
In 1590, under the command of Adolf Montbille, a French expedition settled in Ibiapaba (Viosa-Cear), here the Frenchmen established a settlement and a
fort, and they traded "pau brazil" with the Indios that were settled in the vicinity of the French trading station. The French stayed here in peace with the natives
for about 14 years, but in 1604 a Portuguese expedition under Pero Coelho attacked the settlement and, after a fierce battle, forced the Frenchmen to surrender.
On 19 March 1612, three French ships left from the French port of Canacale to Maranho. These ships were the "Regent" under the command of Rasilly and La
Ravardire, the "Charlotte" under the command of the Baron de Sancy and the "Sainte-Anne".
On 24 June, the ships arrived in the island of Fernando de Noronha where they stayed until July 8. Here they found one Portuguese and 17 or 18 Indian slaves.
All were removed to Maranho.
On 29 July, the French landed in the island "Pequena do Maranho", which was found deserted. This island was named by the French Ile de Sainte-Anne. From
here the French moved to the island "Grande do Maranho" where they found some ships from Dieppe and Le Havre with 400 Frenchmen that were trading
with the Indians. Here the Capuchins built the convent of Sainte Franoise and near it a fort, named Fort Saint-Louis, was also built.
On 20 December 1612, the missionary chapel was inaugurated.
Here the French lived in peace for nearly two years.
In 1613, the leaders of the settlements resolved to return to France in search of reinforcements. After some attempts at the Court, they succeeded to prepare a
reinforcement expedition. In Easter 1614, the ship "Regent" with 300 Frenchmen left to Maranho. On 14 June, the ship passed in front to the Portuguese fort
of Cear, and on 18 June the expedition arrived at "Buraco das Tartarugas" or Jaracoar where there were another Portuguese fort.
Despite the obstacles, he French reinforcements arrived unharmed in Maranho.
Owing to the continuous presence of French ships in the area, the Portuguese built several forts to control the coast with the purpose to stop the French on their
trading. In 1611 or 1612, the Portuguese had found the fort of Cear, named Nossa Senhora do Amparo; in August 1613, they also found the fort of Jaracoar,
named Nossa Senhora do Rosrio.
On 26 October 1614, a Portuguese force of 500 men (Portuguese and Indians), arrived on terra-firma near the French settlements, with the intent of driving the
French out.
The Portuguese encamped in Guaxenduba and there they built a fortified camp, called Forte de Santa Maria.
The French of Maranho, being superior in number, decided to take the initiative and on 19 November 1614, with 7 ships, 50 guns and strong of 200
Frenchmen and 1.500 Indios attacked the Portuguese fort. The attack was, however, an overwhelming defeat for the French.
On 27 November 1614, a one-year armistice was signed, with the purpose to permit the Kings of France and Spain to settle the issues diplomatically. It was
also decided to sent Portuguese and French emissaries to Europe to explain the question.
So, on 16 December 1614, the ship "Regent", left to Europe with on board the Portuguese and French emissaries. The results of this mission are not well
known. However, reinforcements for Maranho never arrived from France.
Meanwhile, on 1 November 1615, a Portuguese fleet of 9 ships and several hundred men, under the command of Alexandre de Moura, arrived in front of the
French settlements.
The Portuguese landed in the island "Grande do Maranho" and entrenched themselves on the promontory of So Francisco. The fortification was named
"Quartel de So Francisco".

Related Interests